chewing gum

Summary

Summary: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Effect on electroencephalogram of chewing flavored gum
    T Morinushi
    Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Kagoshima University Dental School, Japan
    Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 54:645-51. 2000
  2. ncbi The potential of dental-protective chewing gum in oral health interventions
    Kiet A Ly
    Department of Dental Public Health Sciences, Northwest Alaska Center to Reduce Oral Health Disparities, University of Washington, Seatle, Washington 98195 7475, USA
    J Am Dent Assoc 139:553-63. 2008
  3. ncbi Nicotine delivery and subjective effects of Swedish portion snus compared with 4 mg nicotine polacrilex chewing gum
    Erik Lunell
    CROel AB, Helsingborg, Sweden
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:573-8. 2011
  4. ncbi Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by sugar-free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate
    P Shen
    School of Dental Science, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Dent Res 80:2066-70. 2001
  5. ncbi Caffeinated chewing gum increases repeated sprint performance and augments increases in testosterone in competitive cyclists
    Carl D Paton
    Health and Sport Science, Eastern Institute of Technology, Private Bag 1201, Taradale, Hawkes Bay, Napier, New Zealand
    Eur J Appl Physiol 110:1243-50. 2010
  6. ncbi Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress
    Andrew Scholey
    NICM Collaborative Centre for the Study of Natural Medicines and Neurocognition, Brain Sciences Institute, Swinburne University, Melbourne Vic 3122, Australia
    Physiol Behav 97:304-12. 2009
  7. ncbi A pilot study on antiplaque effects of mastic chewing gum in the oral cavity
    Keiso Takahashi
    Department of Periodontology, Meikai University School of Dentistry, Saitama, Japan
    J Periodontol 74:501-5. 2003
  8. ncbi Acid resistance of enamel subsurface lesions remineralized by a sugar-free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate
    Y Iijima
    Department of Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan
    Caries Res 38:551-6. 2004
  9. ncbi Smoking reduction promotes smoking cessation: results from a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of nicotine gum with 2-year follow-up
    Poul Wennike
    Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Gentofte University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Addiction 98:1395-402. 2003
  10. ncbi Steady-state nicotine plasma levels following use of four different types of Swedish snus compared with 2-mg Nicorette chewing gum: a crossover study
    Erik Lunell
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
    Nicotine Tob Res 7:397-403. 2005

Detail Information

Publications291 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Effect on electroencephalogram of chewing flavored gum
    T Morinushi
    Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Kagoshima University Dental School, Japan
    Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 54:645-51. 2000
    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect on the electroencephalogram (EEG) of a chewing gum with and without our prepared new flavor...
  2. ncbi The potential of dental-protective chewing gum in oral health interventions
    Kiet A Ly
    Department of Dental Public Health Sciences, Northwest Alaska Center to Reduce Oral Health Disparities, University of Washington, Seatle, Washington 98195 7475, USA
    J Am Dent Assoc 139:553-63. 2008
    The authors provide an overview of chewing gum as a delivery vehicle for dental-protective agents, highlighting xylitol and its potential application in caries-prevention programs for children.
  3. ncbi Nicotine delivery and subjective effects of Swedish portion snus compared with 4 mg nicotine polacrilex chewing gum
    Erik Lunell
    CROel AB, Helsingborg, Sweden
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:573-8. 2011
    ..Snus availability has been claimed to have contributed to the low rates of smoking among Swedish men and made possible the transfer to a less harmful form of nicotine dependence...
  4. ncbi Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by sugar-free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate
    P Shen
    School of Dental Science, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Dent Res 80:2066-70. 2001
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the ability of CPP-ACP in sugar-free chewing gum to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in a human in situ model...
  5. ncbi Caffeinated chewing gum increases repeated sprint performance and augments increases in testosterone in competitive cyclists
    Carl D Paton
    Health and Sport Science, Eastern Institute of Technology, Private Bag 1201, Taradale, Hawkes Bay, Napier, New Zealand
    Eur J Appl Physiol 110:1243-50. 2010
    This investigation reports the effects of caffeinated chewing gum on fatigue and hormone response during repeated sprint performance with competitive cyclists. Nine male cyclists (mean ± SD, age 24 ± 7 years, VO(2max) 62.5 ± 5...
  6. ncbi Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress
    Andrew Scholey
    NICM Collaborative Centre for the Study of Natural Medicines and Neurocognition, Brain Sciences Institute, Swinburne University, Melbourne Vic 3122, Australia
    Physiol Behav 97:304-12. 2009
    The notion that chewing gum may relieve stress was investigated in a controlled setting. A multi-tasking framework which reliably evokes stress and also includes performance measures was used to induce acute stress in the laboratory...
  7. ncbi A pilot study on antiplaque effects of mastic chewing gum in the oral cavity
    Keiso Takahashi
    Department of Periodontology, Meikai University School of Dentistry, Saitama, Japan
    J Periodontol 74:501-5. 2003
    ..It has been shown that mastic chewing gum has antibacterial effects on Helicobacter pylori...
  8. ncbi Acid resistance of enamel subsurface lesions remineralized by a sugar-free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate
    Y Iijima
    Department of Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan
    Caries Res 38:551-6. 2004
    ..clinical study was to investigate the acid resistance of enamel lesions remineralized in situ by a sugar-free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplexes (CPP-ACP: Recaldent)...
  9. ncbi Smoking reduction promotes smoking cessation: results from a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of nicotine gum with 2-year follow-up
    Poul Wennike
    Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Gentofte University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Addiction 98:1395-402. 2003
    ..To test the effect of nicotine gum and placebo in smokers not motivated or not able to quit smoking with regard to smoking reduction and smoking cessation...
  10. ncbi Steady-state nicotine plasma levels following use of four different types of Swedish snus compared with 2-mg Nicorette chewing gum: a crossover study
    Erik Lunell
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
    Nicotine Tob Res 7:397-403. 2005
    ..achieved following 1 day's regular use of four commonly used brands of Swedish portion snus and 2-mg Nicorette chewing gum. The study also estimated the amount of sodium chloride extracted from each snus sachet to identify potential ..
  11. ncbi Pharmacologic options to prevent postoperative ileus
    Yu Chen Yeh
    Center for Drug Policy, Partner s Healthcare, Needham, MA 02494, USA
    Ann Pharmacother 43:1474-85. 2009
    ..To summarize the evidence on pharmacologic options in preventing postoperative ileus (POI)...
  12. ncbi Effects of various forms of calcium added to chewing gum on initial enamel carious lesions in situ
    J F Schirrmeister
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University School of Dental Hospital, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Caries Res 41:108-14. 2007
    ..9%), calcium gluconate (1.8%) and calcium lactate (0.45%), 1 chewing gum contained casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplexes (0...
  13. ncbi Effect of salivary phosphate-binding chewing gum on serum phosphate in chronic kidney disease
    Geoffrey A Block
    Denver Nephrologists, PC Denver, Colo, USA
    Nephron Clin Pract 123:93-101. 2013
    Serum phosphate (P) has been linked to adverse events in patients with chronic kidney disease. Salivary phosphate (Psal) has been proposed as a potential target of therapy with a chitosan-containing chewing gum.
  14. ncbi In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of mastic chewing gum against Streptococcus mutans and mutans streptococci
    Alev Aksoy
    Suleyman Demirel Univesity, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics, Isparta, Turkey
    Arch Oral Biol 51:476-81. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of mastic chewing gum against S. mutans and mutans streptococci in vitro and in vivo conditions.
  15. ncbi Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of caffeine administered in chewing gum to normal healthy volunteers
    Shariq A Syed
    Pharmacokinetics Biopharmaceutics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, AHB 540A, 100 Penn Street, 21201, USA
    Biopharm Drug Dispos 26:403-9. 2005
    The purpose of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of three doses of caffeine administered as Stay Alert chewing gum in a multiple dose regimen.
  16. ncbi Chewing gum of antimicrobial decapeptide (KSL) as a sustained antiplaque agent: preformulation study
    Dong Hee Na
    College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan 608 736, South Korea
    J Control Release 107:122-30. 2005
    ..bacterial strains associated with caries development and plaque formation, to act as an antiplaque agent in a chewing gum formulation...
  17. ncbi Can school-based oral health education and a sugar-free chewing gum program improve oral health? Results from a two-year study in PR China
    Bin Peng
    Department of Preventive Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, China
    Acta Odontol Scand 62:328-32. 2004
    The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a ..
  18. ncbi Chewing gum and a saliva substitute alleviate thirst and xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis
    Casper P Bots
    Department of Oral Biochemistry, Academic Center for Dentistry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 20:578-84. 2005
    ..Thus, this may play a role as a stimulus for fluid intake between dialysis sessions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chewing gum or a saliva substitute on xerostomia, thirst and IWG.
  19. ncbi Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory
    Jess R Baker
    School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff, Wales CF10 3YG, UK
    Appetite 43:207-10. 2004
    ..Comparing those participants in Experiment 1 who chewed gum at the learning or the recall phases showed that chewing gum at initial learning was associated with superior recall...
  20. ncbi Effect on dental stain occurrence by chewing gum containing sodium tripolyphosphate--a double-blind six-week trial
    Pier Francesco Porciani
    University of Siena Dental School, Siena, Italy
    J Clin Dent 21:4-7. 2010
    A six-week controlled double-blind clinical study was conducted to assess and to measure the efficacy of a sugar-free chewing gum containing sodium tripolyphosphate (1%) on dental stain occurrence versus a placebo sugar-free chewing gum.
  21. ncbi Role of glucose in chewing gum-related facilitation of cognitive function
    Richard Stephens
    School of Psychology, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
    Appetite 43:211-3. 2004
    This study tests the hypothesis that chewing gum leads to cognitive benefits through improved delivery of glucose to the brain, by comparing the cognitive performance effects of gum and glucose administered separately and together...
  22. ncbi Short-term germ-killing effect of sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum on salivary anaerobes associated with halitosis
    Min Zhu
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
    J Clin Dent 22:23-6. 2011
    The present study investigated the short-term germ-killing effect of sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum on total and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes.
  23. ncbi Cognitive advantages of chewing gum. Now you see them, now you don't
    Serge V Onyper
    Department of Psychology, St Lawrence University, Canton, NY 13617, USA
    Appetite 57:321-8. 2011
    ..b>Chewing gum was associated with performance advantages on multiple measures when gum was chewed for 5 min before, but not ..
  24. ncbi The relative bioavailability of loratadine administered as a chewing gum formulation in healthy volunteers
    Lene Noehr-Jensen
    Institute of Public Health, Clinical Pharmacology, University of Southern Denmark, Winslowparken 19, Denmark
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 62:437-45. 2006
    ..and its active metabolite desloratadine after single-dose administration of loratadine as a conventional tablet, orally disintegrating tablet (smelt tablet) and a chewing gum formulation with and without the collection of saliva.
  25. ncbi The impact of polyol-containing chewing gums on dental caries: a systematic review of original randomized controlled trials and observational studies
    Amol Deshpande
    Comprehensive Pain Program, University Health Network
    J Am Dent Assoc 139:1602-14. 2008
    The authors conducted a systematic review of original studies that was designed to assess the impact of polyol-containing chewing gum on dental caries compared with the effect with no chewing gum.
  26. pmc Salivary phosphate-binding chewing gum reduces hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients
    Vincenzo Savica
    Department of Nephrology, Clinica Medica, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    J Am Soc Nephrol 20:639-44. 2009
    ..0 mg/dl despite treatment with sevelamer hydrochloride chewed 20 mg of chitosan-loaded chewing gum twice daily for 2 wk at fast in addition to their prescribed phosphate-binding regimen...
  27. ncbi Salivary mutans streptococci and dental caries in three-year-old children after maternal exposure to chewing gums containing combinations of xylitol, sorbitol, chlorhexidine, and fluoride
    Ingrid Thorild
    Public Dental Clinic, Varberg, Sweden
    Acta Odontol Scand 62:245-50. 2004
    ..with newborn babies, 173 mothers with high counts of salivary MS were randomly assigned into 3 experimental chewing gum groups containing (A) xylitol (n = 61), (B) chlorhexidine/xylitol/sorbitol (n = 55), and (C) sodium fluoride/..
  28. ncbi Low-dose caffeine administered in chewing gum does not enhance cycling to exhaustion
    Edward J Ryan
    Department of Exercise Physiology, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, USA
    J Strength Cond Res 26:844-50. 2012
    Low-dose caffeine administered in chewing gum does not enhance cycling to exhaustion...
  29. ncbi Acceptance of the xylitol chewing gum regimen by preschool children and teachers in a Head Start program: a pilot study
    J T Autio
    Department of Operative Dentistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    Pediatr Dent 23:71-4. 2001
    This pilot study evaluated the acceptance and compliance of a xylitol chewing gum regimen by both children and classroom teachers in a Head Start program.
  30. ncbi Relation between saliva flow and flavor release from chewing gum
    J X Guinard
    Department of Nutrition, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA
    Physiol Behav 61:591-6. 1997
    ..study was to investigate whether or not parotid saliva flow is a significant determinant of flavor release from chewing gum. Cherry-flavored gum with 3 concentrations of citric acid (0...
  31. ncbi Fluoride kinetics in saliva after the use of a fluoride-containing chewing gum
    Maria Francisca Thereza Borro Bijella
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Orthodontics and Public Health University of São Paulo, Brazil
    Braz Oral Res 19:256-60. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride kinetics in saliva after using the Happydent chewing gum, which contains 3.38 mg of fluoride as monofluorophosphate...
  32. ncbi Does gum chewing reduce postoperative ileus following open colectomy for left-sided colon and rectal cancer? A prospective randomized controlled trial
    H M Quah
    Department of Colorectal and General Surgery, Glan Clwyd Hospital, Rhyl, UK
    Colorectal Dis 8:64-70. 2006
    ..This study aimed to determine whether gum chewing in the immediate postoperative period facilitated recovery from ileus following resection for left-sided colorectal cancer...
  33. ncbi The release of vitamin C from chewing gum and its effects on supragingival calculus formation
    Peter Lingström
    Department of Cariology, Faculty of Odontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    Eur J Oral Sci 113:20-7. 2005
    The aims of this study were to evaluate (i): whether vitamin C in chewing gum, alone or in combination with carbamide, influences calculus formation, and (ii) whether carbamide affects the release, stability and uptake of vitamin C in a ..
  34. ncbi The effect of chlorhexidine acetate/xylitol chewing gum on the plaque and gingival indices of elderly occupants in residential homes
    D Simons
    Dental Caries Research Group, Guy's, King's and St Thomas's Dental Institute, London, UK
    J Clin Periodontol 28:1010-5. 2001
    ..A gum containing xylitol alone (X) and a no gum (N) group was included. Participants' opinions about chewing gum were also investigated. METHODS: Subjects chewed 2 pellets, for 15 min, 2x daily for 12 months...
  35. ncbi A two-colour chewing gum test for masticatory efficiency: development of different assessment methods
    M Schimmel
    Division of Gerodontology and Removable Prosthodontics, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    J Oral Rehabil 34:671-8. 2007
    The aim of this study was to investigate different assessment methods of a two-colour chewing gum test for masticatory efficiency to determine its validity for research and clinical purposes.
  36. ncbi Gum-chewing stimulates bowel motility after surgery for colorectal cancer
    Isao Hirayama
    Gunma Prefectural Cancer Center, Ota, Gunma, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 53:206-8. 2006
    ..The decreased intestinal motility results in many complaints for patients. To resolve this problem, the usefulness of gum-chewing for improving the motility was examined...
  37. ncbi Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain
    S M Mankodi
    Dental Products Testing, Inc, Lake Worth, Florida, Jupiter, Florida, USA
    Compend Contin Educ Dent 22:29-32. 2001
    ..These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth...
  38. ncbi Chewing gum selectively improves aspects of memory in healthy volunteers
    Lucy Wilkinson
    Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Division of Psychology, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK
    Appetite 38:235-6. 2002
  39. ncbi Is gum chewing useful for ileus after elective colorectal surgery? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
    Wenceslao Vásquez
    Department of Surgery, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Dr Esquerdo 46, 28007, Madrid, Spain
    J Gastrointest Surg 13:649-56. 2009
    ..The evaluation of the usefulness of gum chewing for postoperative ileus has given inconclusive results. We evaluated the efficacy of gum chewing in the treatment of ileus after elective colorectal surgery...
  40. ncbi Effect of eucalyptus extract chewing gum on periodontal health: a double-masked, randomized trial
    Hideki Nagata
    Department of Preventive Dentistry, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    J Periodontol 79:1378-85. 2008
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chewing gum containing eucalyptus extract on periodontal health in a double-masked, randomized, controlled trial.
  41. ncbi Association between masticatory performance using a colour-changeable chewing gum and jaw movement
    Y Komagamine
    Complete Denture Prosthodontics, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan
    J Oral Rehabil 38:555-63. 2011
    ..was to investigate the relationship between masticatory performance as determined using a colour-changeable chewing gum and mandibular movements. Subjects comprised 45 fully dentate adults (23 men, 22 women; mean age, 28·1 years)...
  42. ncbi Does gum chewing reduce postoperative ileus after intestinal resection in children? A prospective randomized controlled trial
    Y H Çavuşoğlu
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Dr Sami Ulus Children s Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
    Eur J Pediatr Surg 19:171-3. 2009
    ....
  43. ncbi A clinical investigation to evaluate reduction in dental stain provided by the once-daily use of a breath mint or chewing gum
    P Soparkar
    Department of Clinical Trials, Forsyth Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Compend Contin Educ Dent 22:33-5. 2001
    ..The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda chewing gum or a breath mint placebo once daily after lunch while brushing once daily...
  44. ncbi Multicenter randomized trial of chewing gum for preventing oral mucositis in children receiving chemotherapy
    Virginie Gandemer
    Department of Paediatrics, Teaching Hospitals 35203 Rennes Cedex, France
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 29:86-94. 2007
    ..We conducted a multicenter randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of chewing gum in preventing oral mucositis in 145 children receiving chemotherapy regimens expected to induce WHO grade 3-4 ..
  45. ncbi Adult sudden death caused by aspiration of chewing gum
    S N Njau
    Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
    Forensic Sci Int 139:103-6. 2004
    ..A 24-year-old white male died suddenly. A piece of chewing gum lodged in a pool of frothy fluid was revealed at autopsy...
  46. ncbi Prevalence of OME is reduced in young children using chewing gum
    H B Kouwen
    The Institute of Phoniatrics, ENT Department, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Ear Hear 28:451-5. 2007
    The present study investigates a possible relationship between use of chewing gum and otitis media with effusion (OME) in children...
  47. ncbi Validity and reliability of a Self-Implementable method to evaluate masticatory performance: use of color-changeable chewing gum and a color scale
    Miho Kamiyama
    Complete Denture Prosthodontics, Department of Masticatory Function Rehabilitation, Division of Oral Health Sciences, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1 5 45 Yushima, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8549, Japan
    J Prosthodont Res 54:24-8. 2010
    The objective of this study was to confirm the validity of a Self-Implementable method to evaluate masticatory performance using a newly developed color scale and color-changeable chewing gum.
  48. ncbi Hypothesis: hexitols in chewing gum may play a role in reducing postoperative ileus
    H Tandeter
    Department of Family Medicine, Siaal Family Medicine and Primary Care Research Center, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel
    Med Hypotheses 72:39-40. 2009
    ..Patients chewing gum pass flatus, and have bowel movement, earlier than those having ordinary postoperative treatment, and have a ..
  49. ncbi Cigarette smoking and chewing gum: response to a laboratory-induced stressor
    D M Britt
    Department of Psychology, Oklahoma State University, USA
    Health Psychol 20:361-8. 2001
    The current study examined the anxiolytic effects of cigarette smoking and chewing gum on urge to smoke, withdrawal, and anxiety in response to a public speaking task in 45 undergraduate smokers...
  50. ncbi Evaluations of masticatory performance of complete denture wearers using color-changeable chewing gum and other evaluating methods
    Yasutaka Ishikawa
    Department of Masticatory Function Rehabilitation, Division of Oral Health Sciences, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
    J Med Dent Sci 54:65-70. 2007
    We have been investigating and developing a color-changeable chewing gum, that tends not to adhere to dentures...
  51. ncbi The effect of sugar-free chewing gum on plaque and clinical parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review
    R S Keukenmeester
    Department of Periodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam ACTA, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Int J Dent Hyg 11:2-14. 2013
    The aim of this study was to systematically review the current literature on the clinical effects of sugar-free chewing gum on plaque indices and parameters of gingival inflammation.
  52. ncbi Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions
    Anne Mette Haahr
    Danish Institute for Fisheries Research, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby
    Physiol Behav 82:531-40. 2004
    ..Accordingly, we hypothesised that flavour release from chewing gum is predominantly governed by chewing frequency (CF), although other oral functions, like masseter muscle ..
  53. ncbi Retention in plaque and remineralization of enamel lesions by various forms of calcium in a mouthrinse or sugar-free chewing gum
    E C Reynolds
    School of Dental Science, The University of Melbourne, 711 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000, Australia
    J Dent Res 82:206-11. 2003
    Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) nanocomplexes incorporated into sugar-free chewing gum have been shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ...
  54. ncbi Gum chewing stimulates bowel motility in patients undergoing radical cystectomy with urinary diversion
    Erik J Kouba
    Division of Urologic Surgery, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Urology 70:1053-6. 2007
    ..This study aimed to determine whether gum chewing in the immediate postoperative period facilitates a return to bowel function in patients undergoing cystectomy and urinary diversion...
  55. ncbi Chewing gum and impasse-induced self-reported stress
    Laura K Torney
    Department of Psychology, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
    Appetite 53:414-7. 2009
    ..Physiology and Behaviour, 87, 789-793] was used to investigate the proposition that chewing gum reduces self-rated stress [Scholey, A., Haskell, C., Robertson, B., Kennedy, D., Milne, A., & Wetherell, M...
  56. ncbi A comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum in the management of xerostomia in patients with advanced cancer
    A N Davies
    Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, UK
    Palliat Med 14:197-203. 2000
    ..open, crossover study comparing a mucin-based artificial saliva (Saliva Orthana) with a low-tack, sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent) in the management of xerostomia in patients with advanced cancer...
  57. ncbi Xylitol candies in caries prevention: results of a field study in Estonian children
    P Alanen
    Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Finland
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 28:218-24. 2000
    ..have unequivocally reported significant reductions in dental caries occurrence associated with the use of chewing gum containing xylitol. No other xylitol products besides chewing gum have so far been tested in field trials...
  58. ncbi Gum chewing reduces postoperative ileus? A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Emma J Noble
    Department of Colorectal Surgery, Derriford Hospital, Derriford Road, Plymouth, PL6 8DH, UK
    Int J Surg 7:100-5. 2009
    ..An important cause of delayed recovery from intestinal surgery is postoperative ileus. Gum chewing is a form of sham feeding, which could encourage gastrointestinal motility through cephalic-vagal stimulation...
  59. ncbi Use of chewing gum in reducing postoperative ileus after elective colorectal resection: a systematic review
    Miranda K Y Chan
    Department of Surgery, Caritas Medical Centre, 111, Wing Hong Street, Shum Shui Po, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Dis Colon Rectum 50:2149-57. 2007
    Published studies comparing the addition of chewing gum to standardized postoperative care to shorten postoperative ileus showed controversial results...
  60. ncbi A systematic review of the efficacy of gum chewing for the amelioration of postoperative ileus
    S M M de Castro
    Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Hilversum, The Netherlands
    Dig Surg 25:39-45. 2008
    ..This finding could have a major clinical impact since gum chewing is relatively harmless and cheap while postoperative ileus has a significant impact on healthcare...
  61. ncbi Systematic review and meta-analysis of chewing-gum therapy in the reduction of postoperative paralytic ileus following gastrointestinal surgery
    J Edward F Fitzgerald
    Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    World J Surg 33:2557-66. 2009
    ..Chewing is a form of sham feeding reported to stimulate bowel motility. This analysis examines the value of chewing-gum therapy in treatment of postoperative ileus...
  62. ncbi Gum chewing reduces ileus after elective open sigmoid colectomy
    Rob Schuster
    Department of Surgery, Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital, Santa Barbara, Calif 93102, USA
    Arch Surg 141:174-6. 2006
    ..Gum chewing after elective open colon resection may stimulate bowel motility and decrease duration of postoperative ileus...
  63. ncbi Does gum chewing ameliorate postoperative ileus? Results of a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
    Evan Matros
    Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Am Coll Surg 202:773-8. 2006
    ..A preliminary report has been interpreted to suggest that gum chewing reduces duration of postcolectomy ileus...
  64. ncbi Effects of chewing gum on cognitive function, mood and physiology in stressed and non-stressed volunteers
    Andrew Smith
    Centre for Occupational and Health Psychology, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, 63 Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AS, UK
    Nutr Neurosci 13:7-16. 2010
    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may improve aspects of cognitive function and mood. There is also evidence suggesting that chewing gum reduces stress...
  65. ncbi Salivary concentrations of urea released from a chewing gum containing urea and how these affect the urea content of gel-stabilized plaques and their pH after exposure to sucrose
    C Dawes
    Department of Oral Biology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man, Canada
    Caries Res 35:344-53. 2001
    ..Thus chewing gum is only likely to inhibit caries when it is chewed after consumption of fermentable carbohydrate, rather than ..
  66. ncbi Effect of xylitol chewing gum on salivary Streptococcus mutans in preschool children
    Jaana T Autio
    Department of Operative Dentistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    ASDC J Dent Child 69:81-6, 13. 2002
    ..05). This study supports the suggestion that chewing xylitol gum may reduce salivary S. mutans levels. Xylitol chewing gum may provide a feasible caries prevention method for preschool children.
  67. pmc Persistent use of nicotine replacement therapy: an analysis of actual purchase patterns in a population based sample
    S Shiffman
    Pinney Associates and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Tob Control 12:310-6. 2003
    ..Some expressed concerns that broader availability and lack of physician control might increase persistent use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)-that is, use beyond the period specified by the FDA approved label...
  68. ncbi The use of sorbitol- and xylitol-sweetened chewing gum in caries control
    Brian A Burt
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 109 Observatory St, Ann Arbor, Mich 48109 2029, USA
    J Am Dent Assoc 137:190-6. 2006
    The author compared the caries-inhibitory action of sorbitol- and xylitol-sweetened chewing gum and assessed the role of these products in caries prevention.
  69. ncbi Chlorhexidine-containing chewing gum. Clinical documentation
    Thomas Imfeld
    Klinik für Präventivzahnmedizin, Parodontologie und Kariologie, Zentrum fur Zahn, Mund und Kieferheilkunde, Universitat Zurich
    Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 116:476-83. 2006
    A clinical documentation on chlorhexidine containing chewing gum is presented on the occasion of the launch of CHewX, a chewing gum containing 5 mg of chlorhexidine diacetate in Switzerland...
  70. ncbi Use of nicotine replacement therapy in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers
    Lisa M Klesges
    Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 66 N Pauline, Suite 633, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 157:517-22. 2003
    ....
  71. ncbi Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by xylitol chewing gum containing funoran and calcium hydrogenphosphate
    Sroisiri Thaweboon
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40:345-53. 2009
    The aim of the present study was to determine the remineralization effects of xylitol chewing gum containing funoran and calcium hydrogenphosphate on enamel subsurface lesions in humans...
  72. ncbi Effects of caffeine in chewing gum on mood and attention
    Andrew Smith
    Centre for Occupational and Health Psychology, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Wales, UK
    Hum Psychopharmacol 24:239-47. 2009
    ..In addition, chewing gum has been shown to have behavioural effects and the present study extended our knowledge of this topic.
  73. ncbi Patterns of over-the-counter nicotine gum use: persistent use and concurrent smoking
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Addiction 98:1747-53. 2003
    ..To examine the occurrence of persistent use (i.e. use beyond 12 weeks) and concurrent use of nicotine gum with cigarettes among consumers who purchase nicotine gum over-the-counter (OTC)...
  74. ncbi Smoking reduction treatment with 4-mg nicotine gum: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study
    Anil Batra
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Tubingen, Osianderstrasse 24, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 78:689-96. 2005
    ..Smoking reduction may provide a harm-reduction alternative treatment for smokers who are not ready to quit smoking. This study evaluated the efficacy of nicotine gum in helping smokers reduce or quit smoking...
  75. ncbi Use of xylitol chewing gum in daycare centers: a follow-up study in Savonlinna, Finland
    Helena Kovari
    Savonlinna Health Care Centre, Savonlinna, Finland
    Acta Odontol Scand 61:367-70. 2003
    ..Several field studies have demonstrated a caries-preventive effect of xylitol chewing gum--a measure that could be a practical way of taking care of oral hygiene during daycare hours without brushing...
  76. pmc Mutans streptococci dose response to xylitol chewing gum
    P Milgrom
    Department of Dental Public Health Sciences, Northwest Alaska Center to Reduce Oral Health Disparities, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA
    J Dent Res 85:177-81. 2006
    ..011/0.038). Xylitol at 6.44 g/day and 10.32 g/day reduces mutans streptococci in plaque at 5 wks, and in plaque and unstimulated saliva at 6 mos. A plateau effect is suggested between 6.44 g and 10.32 g xylitol/day...
  77. ncbi Misuse of and dependence on over-the-counter nicotine gum in a volunteer sample
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington, VT, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:79-84. 2004
    ....
  78. ncbi Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects
    Oliver Tucha
    Institute of Experimental Psychology, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany
    Appetite 42:327-9. 2004
    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined...
  79. ncbi Clinical evaluation of the anti-plaque effect of a commercial chewing gum
    Virginia M Barnes
    Colgate Palmolive Technology Center Piscataway, NJ, USA
    J Clin Dent 16:1-5. 2005
    The objective of this research was to evaluate the dental plaque control effect of a chewing gum versus brushing with a dentifrice via four clinical studies.
  80. ncbi Long-term effect of xylitol chewing gum on dental caries
    P Isokangas
    Public Health Center, Ylivieska, Finland
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 17:200-3. 1989
    About 85% (n = 269) of the subjects who participated in the Ylivieska follow-up studies on the effect of xylitol chewing gum on dental caries during 1982-84 or 1982-85 were re-examined in 1987 for the analysis of possible long-term ..
  81. ncbi Dental plaque formation and salivary mutans streptococci in schoolchildren after use of xylitol-containing chewing gum
    Pernilla Lif Holgerson
    Department of Odontology, Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    Int J Paediatr Dent 17:79-85. 2007
    ..A second aim was to explore if the possible effects differed between children with and without caries experience...
  82. ncbi Morphological changes in Streptococcus mutans after chewing gum containing xylitol for twelve months
    Young Eun Lee
    Department of Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, SamDuk Dong, Daegu 700 412, Republic of Korea
    Curr Microbiol 58:332-7. 2009
    ..mutans, which could reduce the size and growth of S. mutans colonies and change their morphology as a result...
  83. ncbi Oral clearance of NaF from chewing gum and tablets in children and adults
    M R Giuca
    Paediatric Dentistry, Department of Neuroscience, University of Pisa, Italy
    Eur J Paediatr Dent 8:19-24. 2007
    ..Aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary clearance of Fluoride following administration of tablets and chewing gums containing 0.50 mg of Fluoride in the form of NaF...
  84. ncbi Sealants and xylitol chewing gum are equal in caries prevention
    P Alanen
    Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Finland
    Acta Odontol Scand 58:279-84. 2000
    ..Regular use of xylitol chewing gum during 2 or 3 school years was compared with application of occlusal sealants in a randomized study...
  85. ncbi Individual differences in preferences for and responses to four nicotine replacement products
    R West
    St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 153:225-30. 2001
    ..With several different forms of nicotine replacement therapy available for smokers, it is useful to know about factors that may influence choice of form...
  86. ncbi Maintaining mutans streptococci suppression with xylitol chewing gum
    G H Hildebrandt
    School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455 0348, USA
    J Am Dent Assoc 131:909-16. 2000
    ..Oral MS levels, however, tend to quickly return to baseline values without further intervention. In this clinical study, the authors evaluated the effect of xylitol chewing gum on MS regrowth.
  87. ncbi The rate of absorption and relative bioavailability of caffeine administered in chewing gum versus capsules to normal healthy volunteers
    Gary H Kamimori
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910 7500, USA
    Int J Pharm 234:159-67. 2002
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of absorption and relative bioavailability of caffeine from a Stay Alert chewing gum and capsule formulation.
  88. ncbi Caries preventive effect of sugar-substituted chewing gum
    V Machiulskiene
    Faculty of Stomatology, Kaunas Medical University, Lithuania
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 29:278-88. 2001
    ..of this 3-year community intervention trial was to determine the caries preventive effect of sugar-substituted chewing gum among Lithuanian school children, and to assess compliance with the instructions for gum use...
  89. ncbi Newly formulated chlorhexidine gluconate chewing gum that gives both anti-plaque effectiveness and an acceptable taste: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
    Jafar Kolahi
    Torabinejad Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
    J Int Acad Periodontol 10:38-44. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study is to introduce a new formulation for CHX gum that gives both anti-plaque effectiveness and an acceptable taste...
  90. ncbi [Utility of color-changeable chewing gum to evaluate masticatory ability in community-dwelling elderly persons]
    Yoshimi Tanimoto
    Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Osaka Medical College
    Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 56:383-90. 2009
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of color-changeable chewing gum to evaluate masticatory ability in community-dwelling elderly persons.
  91. ncbi The effect of adding calcium lactate to xylitol chewing gum on remineralization of enamel lesions
    R Suda
    Department of Periodontology, Showa University Dental School, Tokyo, Japan
    Caries Res 40:43-6. 2006
    The purpose of the study was to determine whether adding calcium lactate to chewing gum containing xylitol enhances remineralization of enamel surfaces using an early caries lesion model...
  92. ncbi Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment
    P Soparkar
    Department of Clinical Trials, Forsyth Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Compend Contin Educ Dent 22:25-8. 2001
    ..Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks...
  93. pmc Nicotine replacement therapy for long-term smoking cessation: a meta-analysis
    Jean Francois Etter
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    Tob Control 15:280-5. 2006
    ..To assess if the effect of a single treatment episode with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) enhances smoking cessation over many years...
  94. ncbi The influence of a hexametaphosphate-containing chewing gum on the wetting ability of salivary conditioning films in vitro and in vivo
    H C van der Mei
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Clin Dent 14:14-8. 2003
    ..This study assessed the effects of hexametaphosphate release from a chewing gum matrix on the wetting ability of salivary conditioning films in vitro and in vivo.
  95. ncbi Gum chewing stimulates early return of bowel motility after caesarean section
    K H I Abd-El-Maeboud
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
    BJOG 116:1334-9. 2009
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of postoperative gum chewing on the recovery of bowel motility after caesarean section...
  96. ncbi Effect of chewing gum containing nicotine and caffeine on energy expenditure and substrate utilization in men
    Anna B Jessen
    Department of Human Nutrition, Centre for Advanced Food Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark
    Am J Clin Nutr 77:1442-7. 2003
    ..Nicotine replacement therapy limits weight gain after smoking cessation. This finding is partly attributable to the thermogenic effect of nicotine, which may be enhanced by caffeine...
  97. ncbi The effect of xylitol chewing gum on mutans streptococci in saliva and dental plaque
    Sroisiri Thaweboon
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35:1024-7. 2004
    ..The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of xylitol chewing gum on mutans streptococci (MS) in saliva and dental plaque...
  98. ncbi Reduction of hyperphosphatemia is related with the reduction of C-reactive protein in dialysis patients. Study in sevelamer-resistant dialysis patients treated with chitosan chewing gum as salivary phosphate binder
    Lorenzo A Calo
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Ren Fail 33:11-4. 2011
    ..studied dialysis patients with sevelamer-"resistant" hyperphosphatemia, who were treated with a chitosan-loaded chewing gum, as salivary phosphate binder, in addition to sevelamer, reduced serum PO(4) to normal, to retrospectively ..
  99. ncbi Effects of smoking cessation and reduction in asthmatics
    Philip Tønnesen
    Department of Pulmonary Medicine Gentofte, University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Nicotine Tob Res 7:139-48. 2005
    ..Subjects used nicotine chewing gum or an oral nicotine inhaler to promote reduction and cessation...
  100. ncbi Comparison of three nicotine treatments: initial reactions and preferences with guided use
    Nina G Schneider
    Veteran Affairs Greater Los Angeles VAGLA Healthcare System, and Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 182:545-50. 2005
    ..Misuse or dislike of nicotine replacement treatments (NRTs) undermines their effectiveness. Brief testing among NRTs could allow tailoring by preference to improve outcome...
  101. pmc Pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Mark J Eisenberg
    Division of Cardiology and Clinical Epidemiology, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital and McGill University, McGill University, Montreal, QC
    CMAJ 179:135-44. 2008
    ..However, few direct or indirect comparisons of such interventions have been conducted. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the treatment effects of 7 approved pharmacologic interventions for smoking cessation...

Research Grants62

  1. Delivery of Polyphenols in Gum for Treatment of Gingivitis
    Craig S Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..high patient compliance and could be incorporated into daily use, we have developed a novel, direct compression chewing gum formulation that contains freeze-dried blackberry powder (FBP) which is anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and ..
  2. PREVENT TRANSMIS OF MUTANS STREPTOC FR MOTHER TO CHILD
    Walter Bretz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..by an intervention program which may include restorative procedures, topical fluorides, the use of xylitol chewing gum, and chlorhexidine varnishes; 2) to determine whether this intervention reduces or delays the acquisition of MS ..
  3. Xylitol syrup for the prevention of acute otitis media in otitis-prone children
    Louis Vernacchio; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Older children consumed xylitol in the form of a chewing gum or lozenge, while children too young to chew gum received xylitol as simple aqueous solution...
  4. Delivery of Polyphenols in Gum for Treatment of Gingivitis
    Craig Miller; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The goal of this Phase I proposal is to further develop a novel chewing gum containing blackberry extract that delivers bioactive phytochemicals to the oral cavity and test its efficacy ..
  5. DENTAL PLAQUE REDUCTION BY GENETIC ENGINEERING
    ROBERT QUIVEY; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The results from studies conducted on humans showed that mutanase, presented in chewing gum, reduced the amount of plaque and gingivitis compared with placebo groups...
  6. XYLITOL FOR ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA PROPHYLAXIS
    Louis Vernacchio; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Older children consumed xylitol in the form of a chewing gum or lozenge, while children too young to chew gum received xylitol as syrup...
  7. PREVENTION OF DENTAL CARIES
    Shozo Takagi; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..2) Calcium and Phosphate Releasing Chewing Gum. Gums containing separate Ca and P sources will be evaluated for their ability to deposit a substantive ..
  8. Improving Varenicline Adherence and Outcome in Homeless Smokers
    Kolawole S Okuyemi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  9. NICOTINE DEPENDENCE--TAILORING AND PREFERENCE RESEARCH
    Nina Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Several new scales will be tested: one which assesses withdrawal via anchored responding and a set of scales for testing preference with an ultimate aim of developing a tool for easily matching smokers to therapy. ..
  10. Addressing Light Smoking in African Americans
    Kolawole Okuyemi; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The research may provide crucial information to advance our understanding of smoking and set the stage for further research in this understudied population of AA cigarette smokers. ..
  11. Effects of Menthol on Bupropion Pharmacokinetics
    Kolawole Okuyemi; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. Gradual vs Abrupt Cessation Treatment for Smoking
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This study will be the first large, systematic test of gradual vs. abrupt cessation. ..
  13. Innovative Interventions for Smoking Cessation
    Dorothy K Hatsukami; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The results of this study will provide useful information on directions to pursue to improve our pharmacotherapies and behavioral treatments and to better understand the various aspects of addiction. ..
  14. Natural History of Attempts to Stop Smoking
    John R Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  15. Biotech & Materials Research to Reduce Caries Disparity
    Peter Milgrom; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The conference will be co-sponsored by the Northwest/Alaska Center to Reduce Oral Health Disparities, the University of Washington UWeb Bioengineering Center, and the Salivary Diagnostics Project. ..
  16. Fluoride Varnish to Prevent Caries in Toddlers - An Expanded Immunization Program
    Peter Milgrom; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Keywords: fluoride varnish, dental caries, oral health, early prevention, multi-center, toddlers. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  17. Internal Barriers to Seeking Smoking Cessation Treatment
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our results will suggest messages for media campaigns and for clinicians to use to motivate smokers to access proven treatments. ..
  18. EVALUATION OF A CIGARETTE SUBSTITUTE
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..We believe it imperative to begin studying these substitutes so that, unlike low-tar/low nicotine cigarettes, we will know whether their introduction is good or bad for public health. ..
  19. Interventions for Tobacco Dependent Adolescents
    Dorothy Hatsukami; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  20. TOBACCO EXPOSURE REDUCTION
    Dorothy Hatsukami; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The results of research from this TTURC will provide the scientific basis for urgent policy, public education, and regulatory efforts to reduce tobacco harm. ..
  21. TREATMENT OF SMOKELESS TOBACCO USERS
    Dorothy Hatsukami; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..PERFORMANCE SITE ========================================Section End=========================================== ..
  22. EXERCISE AND NICOTINE REPLACEMENT FOR FEMALE SMOKERS
    Taru Kinnunen; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..g., BMI, lipids, depression) will be examined. ..
  23. Nicotine Replacement Treatment for Pregnant Smokers
    Cheryl Oncken; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The odds of cigarette abstinence will be increased primarily in subjects who smoke at least 15 cigarettes per day...
  24. Neuromaging of nicotine withdrawal
    Jody Tanabe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..acute nicotine withdrawal in smokers? ii) Does acute nicotine withdrawal involve dopaminergic system or non-dopaminergic regions? iii) Does nicotine replacement reverse the alterations in CBF during nicotine withdrawal? ..
  25. Food Rheology and Feeding in Lean and Obese Humans
    Richard Mattes; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. A Novel Implant-based Approach for Treating Retrognathic Hyperdivergent Patients
    Peter Buschang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. Tobacco Industry Documents on ETS-The Next Front
    Richard Hurt; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. Gender, Social Support, and Stress Reactions in Smokers
    Johann Westmaas; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..g., urges to smoke, negative affect), and (iii) examining the role of gender in the degree to which urges and smoking are attenuated by the provision of support. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. Efficacy of Methylphenidate for treating tobacco dependence
    Richard Hurt; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..If the results from this preliminary study support the performance of a larger clinical trial, then a future grant application will be submitted through the R01 research project grant mechanism. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. CHC Research Network to Address Oral Health Dispartities
    KIET LY; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. HEDONICS AND DIETARY INTAKE OF FAT
    Richard Mattes; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This will be explored through stable isotope tracer studies for Aim 3. The proposed work will hold important public health, clinical, commercial and basic biological implications. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  32. Prize Reinforcement for Smoking Cessation
    David Ledgerwood; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  33. Cholinergic regulation of endothelial cell activation
    Christine N Metz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We propose to investigate how excessive endothelial cell responses can be controlled through the alpha7R to improve survival during infection/sepsis. These studies are expected to lead to a treatment for sepsis in humans. ..
  34. Evaluating Nicotine Lozenges for Treatment of Smokeless Tobacco Addiction
    Jon Ebbert; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..No drug therapies have been shown to be effective for helping smokeless tobacco users quit for good. The purpose of this study is to test drugs that can be used to help smokeless tobacco users quit for good. ..
  35. MOOD MANAGEMENT TRAINING FOR ALCOHOL DEPENDENT SMOKERS
    Christi Patten; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Dependent measures include 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence verified with expired air carbon monoxide and alcohol and drug abstinence verified with breathalyzer, urine drug screen and informant report. ..
  36. Dine College/Mayo Clinic: Developing Cancer Researchers
    Christi Patten; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. LASER EFFECTS ON DENTAL HARD TISSUES
    John Featherstone; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. Longitudinal Psychometric Investigation of the WISDM Tobacco Dependence Measure
    Stevens Smith; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  39. GLYCEMIC INDEX/GLYCEMIC LOAD AND BLOOD LIPIDS IN THE WHI
    James Shikany; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Existing WHI FFQs will then be reanalyzed to calculate each participant's mean dietary GI and GL. Existing blood glucose, insulin, and lipid data for these WHI participants will be used in the data analyses. ..
  40. ANALYZING TOBACCO DOCUMENTS ON CIGARETTE DESIGN
    Lynn Kozlowski; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Collections (with standardized abstracts controlled vocabulary terms) will be made available on the Internet. Reports will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals. ..
  41. Effects of Chronic Exposure to Smoking Stimuli
    ELISABETH HOUTSMULLER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Novel treatment strategies (e.g., extinction or sensorimotor stimulation replacement therapies), that specifically address the sensorimotor effects of smoking, would be warranted. ..
  42. Guided Pocket Recolonization (GPR) in Periodontitis
    Marc Quirynen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Clinical data will be collected after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks. The results should indicate the possible role for commensal organisms in periodontal disease and subgingival biofilm formation. ..
  43. Scientific Advances in CAM by Allied Health and Nursing
    Riva Touger Decker; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Intended outcomes of the annual conferences include electronically published proceedings, new and collaborative research and CAM research agendas and priorities for allied health and nursing that can be shared with the key associations. ..
  44. Health Behaviors Among Smokers in Public Housing Develop
    Jasjit Ahluwalia; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Decreasing the prevalence of smoking among residents in HDs will have a dramatic influence on the morbidity and mortality of this high-risk population. ..
  45. LABORATORY STUDIES ON ETHANOL IN HUMANS
    ELISABETH HOUTSMULLER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..More generally, these studies will enhance our understanding of alcoholism and the factors that influence treatment efficacy. ..
  46. BUPROPION AND BEHAVIORAL TREATMENT FOR YOUNGER SMOKERS
    Richard Hurt; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Primary assessments will be point prevalence smoking abstinence rates at end of treatment (week 12) and at 52 weeks. ..
  47. CARIES MANAGEMENT BY RISK ASSESSMENT
    John Featherstone; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..If successful this study will markedly change the teaching and practice of caries management. ..
  48. INTERNET--HOME BASED TREATMENT FOR ADOLESCENT SMOKERS
    Christi Patten; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Adolescents will be recruited for participation in the study from four geographically and ethnically diverse locations. The study will be conducted by the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN and the University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI. ..
  49. High Dose Nicotine Patch Therapy for Spit Tobacco Users
    Jon Ebbert; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Our goal is to reduce the prevalence of ST use and decrease the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer through the development of effective treatment options for ST users. ..
  50. SCHOOL OF MEDICINE CLINICAL RESEARCH CURRICULUM PROGRAM
    Jasjit Ahluwalia; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Overall, the program is designed to increase the number of clinical scholars who receive funding for patient oriented research at both the career development and individual investigator levels. ..
  51. FRONT-LOADED COUNSELING TO TREAT TOBACCO ADDICTION
    ARTHUR GARVEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..If our central hypothesis concerning the efficacy of "front-loaded" counseling is supported, this finding would seemingly have immediate clinical implications for the treatment of addicted smokers. ..
  52. Development of QLF Handpiece for Early Caries Detection
    George Stookey; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  53. Development of a P.gingivalis vaccine
    Eric Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The recombinant proteins, protein fragments and synthetic peptide multivalent constructs will be tested as defined vaccines against P. gingivalis in murine models of disease. ..
  54. Optically enhanced dental sealants to indicate placement and material condition
    George Stookey; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] 3) An optically doped sealant combines the efficacy advantages of a clear sealant with the visibility advantages of an opaque sealant. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. Predicting Caries Risk in Underserved Toddlers
    Margherita Fontana; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  56. Clinical Models Workshop:Remin-Demin, Precavity, Caries
    George Stookey; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The meeting will be held on July 3-5, 2005 in the Downtown Marriott Hotel in Indianapolis, Indiana, immediately prior to the annual ORCA (European Organization for Caries Research) meeting. ..
  57. Nicotine and Expectancy in Smokers' Cognitive Processes
    WILLIAM KELEMEN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  58. Caries Risk Assessment Instrument for Young Adults
    George Stookey; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Future large-scale investigations will be undertaken to validate the merits of the instrument. ..
  59. Brief Dental Office Intervention with Tobacco Quitline
    Jon Ebbert; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..S. adult population smoking; and 3) 75% of smokers quitting for at least one day or longer because they are trying to quit. ..
  60. NOVEL LAPSE-RESPONSIVE APPROACH TO SMOKING CESSATION
    ELISABETH HOUTSMULLER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Therapeutic procedures that reduce or reverse the detrimental effects of early lapse, or interrupt the course to relapse could be a significant breakthrough in improving smoking cessation rates. ..
  61. MEMORY FUNCTIONS IN HISPANIC SCHIZOPHRENICS
    JOSETTE HARRIS; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....