biological warfare

Summary

Summary: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Toxins as weapons of mass destruction. A comparison and contrast with biological-warfare and chemical-warfare agents
    J M Madsen
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, National Capital Consortium Residency in Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Clin Lab Med 21:593-605. 2001
  2. pmc The history of biological warfare. Human experimentation, modern nightmares and lone madmen in the twentieth century
    Friedrich Frischknecht
    Friedrich Frischknecht is at the Malaria Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Parasitology, Institut Pasteur, 25 28 Rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    EMBO Rep 4:S47-52. 2003
  3. ncbi History of chemical and biological warfare agents
    L Szinicz
    Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuherbergstr 11, D 80937 Munich, Germany
    Toxicology 214:167-81. 2005
  4. ncbi A procedure for differentiating between the intentional release of biological warfare agents and natural outbreaks of disease: its use in analyzing the tularemia outbreak in Kosovo in 1999 and 2000
    R Grunow
    German Armed Forces Medical Academy, Department of Studies and Sciences, Institute of Microbiology, Munich, Germany
    Clin Microbiol Infect 8:510-21. 2002
  5. ncbi Long-lasting T cell responses to biological warfare vaccines in human vaccinees
    Jennifer S Allen
    Department of Immunobiology, School of Medicine, King s College London School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 43:1-7. 2006
  6. ncbi Biological warfare. A historical perspective
    G W Christopher
    Operational Medicine Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    JAMA 278:412-7. 1997
  7. ncbi [Glanders--a potential disease for biological warfare in humans and animals]
    Ofer Lehavi
    Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv Medical Center
    Harefuah 141:88-91, 119. 2002
  8. ncbi Laboratory diagnosis and biosafety issues of biological warfare agents
    E Nulens
    University Medical Center St Radboud, Department of Medical Microbiology 440 MMB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 8:455-66. 2002
  9. ncbi The anti-plague system and the Soviet biological warfare program
    Raymond A Zilinskas
    Monterey Institute of International Studies, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey, California 93940, USA
    Crit Rev Microbiol 32:47-64. 2006
  10. ncbi Isolation and expression of recombinant antibody fragments to the biological warfare pathogen Brucella melitensis
    Andrew Hayhurst
    Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 1095, USA
    J Immunol Methods 276:185-96. 2003

Detail Information

Publications252 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Toxins as weapons of mass destruction. A comparison and contrast with biological-warfare and chemical-warfare agents
    J M Madsen
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, National Capital Consortium Residency in Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Clin Lab Med 21:593-605. 2001
    ....
  2. pmc The history of biological warfare. Human experimentation, modern nightmares and lone madmen in the twentieth century
    Friedrich Frischknecht
    Friedrich Frischknecht is at the Malaria Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Parasitology, Institut Pasteur, 25 28 Rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    EMBO Rep 4:S47-52. 2003
  3. ncbi History of chemical and biological warfare agents
    L Szinicz
    Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuherbergstr 11, D 80937 Munich, Germany
    Toxicology 214:167-81. 2005
    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population...
  4. ncbi A procedure for differentiating between the intentional release of biological warfare agents and natural outbreaks of disease: its use in analyzing the tularemia outbreak in Kosovo in 1999 and 2000
    R Grunow
    German Armed Forces Medical Academy, Department of Studies and Sciences, Institute of Microbiology, Munich, Germany
    Clin Microbiol Infect 8:510-21. 2002
    ..The open or covert use of pathogens and toxins as biological warfare agents can no longer be ruled out...
  5. ncbi Long-lasting T cell responses to biological warfare vaccines in human vaccinees
    Jennifer S Allen
    Department of Immunobiology, School of Medicine, King s College London School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 43:1-7. 2006
    Medical countermeasures against biological warfare include the use of vaccines for anthrax and plague, which require repeated dosing and adjuvant to achieve adequate protection from threats such as inhalational anthrax and pneumonic ..
  6. ncbi Biological warfare. A historical perspective
    G W Christopher
    Operational Medicine Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    JAMA 278:412-7. 1997
    The deliberate use of microorganisms and toxins as weapons has been attempted throughout history. Biological warfare has evolved from the crude use of cadavers to contaminate water supplies to the development of specialized munitions for ..
  7. ncbi [Glanders--a potential disease for biological warfare in humans and animals]
    Ofer Lehavi
    Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv Medical Center
    Harefuah 141:88-91, 119. 2002
    ..mallei was considered a candidate for biological warfare. During World War I, Glanders was believed to have been spread to infect large numbers of Russian horses and ..
  8. ncbi Laboratory diagnosis and biosafety issues of biological warfare agents
    E Nulens
    University Medical Center St Radboud, Department of Medical Microbiology 440 MMB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 8:455-66. 2002
    ..the Laboratory Response Network to provide an organized response system for the detection and diagnosis of biological warfare agents based on laboratory testing abilities and facilities...
  9. ncbi The anti-plague system and the Soviet biological warfare program
    Raymond A Zilinskas
    Monterey Institute of International Studies, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey, California 93940, USA
    Crit Rev Microbiol 32:47-64. 2006
    ..During the 1960s, the anti-plague system became the lead agency of a program to defend against biological warfare, codenamed Project 5...
  10. ncbi Isolation and expression of recombinant antibody fragments to the biological warfare pathogen Brucella melitensis
    Andrew Hayhurst
    Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 1095, USA
    J Immunol Methods 276:185-96. 2003
    ..pathogen able to cause a recurring debilitating disease in humans and is therefore high on the list of biological warfare agents. Immunoglobulin genes from mice immunized with gamma-irradiated B...
  11. ncbi The BARC biosensor applied to the detection of biological warfare agents
    R L Edelstein
    Geo Centers, Inc, Fort Washington, MD 20749 1340, USA
    Biosens Bioelectron 14:805-13. 2000
    ..uses DNA hybridization, magnetic microbeads, and giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors to detect and identify biological warfare agents...
  12. ncbi Hospital preparedness for weapons of mass destruction incidents: an initial assessment
    K N Treat
    Center for Rural Emergency Medicine, The Department of Emergency Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 38:562-5. 2001
    ..Further research is warranted, including a detailed assessment of WMD preparedness using a statistically valid sample representative of hospital emergency personnel at the national level...
  13. ncbi Smallpox as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense
    D A Henderson
    The Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies, School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    JAMA 281:2127-37. 1999
    ..To develop consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals following the use of smallpox as a biological weapon against a civilian population...
  14. ncbi Behavioral and psychological responses to chemical and biological warfare
    C S Fullerton
    Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 4799
    Mil Med 155:54-9. 1990
    ..In addition, reports on psychological responses during chemical warfare training are reanalyzed to identify behavioral and psychological casualties attributed to the unique stressors of the CBW environment...
  15. pmc Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water
    W D Burrows
    U S Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 5403, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 107:975-84. 1999
    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested...
  16. ncbi Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon: medical and public health management
    S S Arnon
    Infant Botulism Treatment and Prevention Program, California Department of Health Services, 2151 Berkeley Way, Room 506, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
    JAMA 285:1059-70. 2001
    ..The Working Group on Civilian Biodefense has developed consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals if botulinum toxin is used as a biological weapon against a civilian population...
  17. ncbi Medical management of biological warfare and bioterrorism: place of the immunoprevention and the immunotherapy
    Patrice Binder
    Direction centrale du Service de Santé des Armées, BP 125, 00459, Armees, France
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 26:401-21. 2003
    ..Passive and active immunoprevention and immuntherapy belong to the approaches discussed in the context of bioterrorism countermeasures. Further researches might be focused on these topics...
  18. ncbi Clinical recognition and management of patients exposed to biological warfare agents
    D R Franz
    US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD, USA
    JAMA 278:399-411. 1997
    ..We provide here a primer on 10 classic biological warfare agents to increase the likelihood of their being considered in a differential diagnosis...
  19. ncbi Rapid identification of biological warfare agents using an instrument employing a light addressable potentiometric sensor and a flow-through immunofiltration-enzyme assay system
    K A Uithoven
    Environmental Technologies Group, Inc, Baltimore, MD 21234, USA
    Biosens Bioelectron 14:761-70. 2000
    ..immunofiltration-enzyme assay system has been developed for the rapid and specific identification of biological warfare (BW) agents...
  20. ncbi Plague as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense
    T V Inglesby
    Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies, Johns Hopkins University Schools of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    JAMA 283:2281-90. 2000
    ..The Working Group on Civilian Biodefense has developed consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals following the use of plague as a biological weapon against a civilian population...
  21. pmc Bioterrorism as a public health threat
    D A Henderson
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 4:488-92. 1998
    ..For longer-term solutions, the medical community must educate both the public and policy makers about bioterrorism and build a global consensus condemning its use...
  22. ncbi Application of protein arraytubes to bacteria, toxin, and biological warfare agent detection
    Ralf Ehricht
    CLONDIAG Chip Technologies, Jena, Germany
    Methods Mol Biol 509:85-105. 2009
    ..g., O-typing of pathogenic Escherichia coli, detection of bacterial toxins and other biological warfare agents (BW agents) from a variety of different samples, screening of complex antibody libraries, and epitope ..
  23. pmc Immunological methods for detection and identification of infectious disease and biological warfare agents
    Anne Harwood Peruski
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Northwest Center, Gary, Indiana 46408, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:506-13. 2003
  24. ncbi Rapid and sensitive detection of biological warfare agents using time-resolved fluorescence assays
    Anne Harwood Peruski
    Biological Defense Research Directorate, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD, USA
    J Immunol Methods 263:35-41. 2002
    ..TRF assays are significantly better in terms of sensitivity, linear range, and run time than standard capture ELISAs and should facilitate early detection of potential biological warfare agents in clinical and environmental samples.
  25. ncbi Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel
    Ellen Raber
    Environment Protection Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, P O Box 808, L 626, Livermore, CA 94551, USA
    J Hazard Mater 93:339-52. 2002
    ..method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents...
  26. ncbi Airborne exposure limits for chemical and biological warfare agents: is everything set and clear?
    Alex Sabelnikov
    Center for Security Studies and Research, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
    Int J Environ Health Res 16:241-53. 2006
    ..For biological warfare (BW) agents, such guidelines do not yet exist...
  27. ncbi Biomaterials for mediation of chemical and biological warfare agents
    Alan J Russell
    Department of Surgery, McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219, USA
    Annu Rev Biomed Eng 5:1-27. 2003
    Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents...
  28. ncbi Multiplexed liquid arrays for simultaneous detection of simulants of biological warfare agents
    Mary T McBride
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, P O Box 808, Livermore, California 94550, USA
    Anal Chem 75:1924-30. 2003
    ..immunoassays designed for rapid, sensitive, specific, and simultaneous detection of multiple simulants of biological warfare agents have been developed...
  29. pmc Biological warfare at the 1346 siege of Caffa
    Mark Wheelis
    Division of Biological Sciences, Section of Microbiology, University of California, Davis, California 95616 8664, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:971-5. 2002
    ..de' Mussi, the Black Death is widely believed to have reached Europe from the Crimea as the result of a biological warfare attack...
  30. ncbi Biological warfare in a historical perspective
    R Roffey
    Swedish Defense Research Agency, Division of NBC Defense, Umea, Sweden
    Clin Microbiol Infect 8:450-4. 2002
    There are some early examples of biological warfare (BW), but in modern times it was used first for sabotage by Germany during WWI...
  31. ncbi Classification of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate statistical techniques
    William F Pearman
    Photonics Research Center, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York 10996, USA
    Appl Spectrosc 60:356-65. 2006
    Initial results demonstrating the ability to classify surface-enhanced Raman (SERS) spectra of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants are presented. The spectra of two endospores (B. subtilis and B...
  32. ncbi National health and medical services response to incidents of chemical and biological terrorism
    J B Tucker
    Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies, Monterey, Calif 93940, USA
    JAMA 278:362-8. 1997
    ..While these national response capabilities are promising, their implementation to date has been problematic and their ultimate effectiveness is uncertain...
  33. ncbi Weapons of mass destruction events with contaminated casualties: effective planning for health care facilities
    A G Macintyre
    Department of Emergency Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
    JAMA 283:242-9. 2000
    ..These and other areas require further investigation to improve response strategies...
  34. ncbi Clostridium botulinum and the clinical laboratorian: a detailed review of botulism, including biological warfare ramifications of botulinum toxin
    James G Caya
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 128:653-62. 2004
    ..Finally, the bioterrorism potential for botulism is discussed, with an emphasis on the clinical laboratory ramifications of this possibility...
  35. ncbi Clinical recognition and management of patients exposed to biological warfare agents
    D R Franz
    Southern Research Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Clin Lab Med 21:435-73. 2001
    ....
  36. ncbi Anthrax as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense
    T V Inglesby
    The Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    JAMA 281:1735-45. 1999
    ..To develop consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals following the use of anthrax as a biological weapon against a civilian population...
  37. ncbi Nucleic acid approaches for detection and identification of biological warfare and infectious disease agents
    Dmitri Ivnitski
    Institute for Engineering Research and Applications, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 901 University Blvd SE, Albuquerque, NM 87106 4339, USA
    Biotechniques 35:862-9. 2003
    b>Biological warfare agents are the most problematic of the weapons of mass destruction and terror...
  38. ncbi Clostridium botulinum and the ophthalmologist: a review of botulism, including biological warfare ramifications of botulinum toxin
    J G Caya
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin Hospital, Madison, WI 53792, USA
    Surv Ophthalmol 46:25-34. 2001
    ..Ophthalmological findings of botulism are tabulated and their frequencies are provided. Finally, the bioterrorism/biologic warfare ramifications of botulinum toxin are briefly discussed...
  39. pmc Detecting biological warfare agents
    Linan Song
    Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1629-32. 2005
    ..microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents...
  40. ncbi An integrated, stacked microlaboratory for biological agent detection with DNA and immunoassays
    Joon Mo Yang
    Nanogen, Inc, 10398 Pacific Center Court, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Biosens Bioelectron 17:605-18. 2002
    ..The integrated microlaboratory can be potentially used in a wide range of applications including detection of bacteria and biowarfare agents, and genetic identification...
  41. pmc Biological warfare and bioterrorism
    Nicholas J Beeching
    Division of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA
    BMJ 324:336-9. 2002
  42. ncbi Decontamination issues for chemical and biological warfare agents: how clean is clean enough?
    E Raber
    Environmental Protection Department, University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA
    Int J Environ Health Res 11:128-48. 2001
    ..A literature review for selected, potential chemical and biological warfare agents shows that dose information is often lacking or controversial...
  43. ncbi Court forces Japan to admit to dark past of bioweapons programme
    Jonathan Watts
    Lancet 360:857. 2002
  44. ncbi [Biological weapons and biological defence in Denmark]
    Erik Deichmann Heegaard
    Statens Serum Institut, Center for Biologisk Beredskab, København S
    Ugeskr Laeger 167:3381-4. 2005
    ..The National Centre for Biological Defence provides a preparedness capability through evidence-based research and practical operational capabilities...
  45. ncbi Advances in detecting and responding to threats from bioterrorism and emerging infectious disease
    Lisa D Rotz
    National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Nat Med 10:S130-6. 2004
    ..We examine some of these developments, discuss potential uses and limitations of these approaches, and identify priorities for the future...
  46. ncbi [New diagnostic methods for bacterial infections after the introduction of increased bioterrorism preparedness]
    Jens Jørgen E Christensen
    Statens Serum Institut, Afdeling for Klinisk Mikrobiologi, København S
    Ugeskr Laeger 167:3416-7. 2005
    ..This survey provides examples of the use of diagnostic methods for those microorganisms, further detailed in relation to establishing a national center for biological preparedness in Denmark...
  47. ncbi Breakthrough of the year. Bioterrorism: the calm after the storm
    Martin Enserink
    Science 298:2300. 2002
  48. ncbi Biological and chemical bioterrorism agents
    Demetrius J Porche
    Louisiana State University Health Science Center School of Nursing, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 13:57-64. 2002
    ..The offending biological or chemical agent is reviewed with the clinical presentation and methods of treatment and prevention...
  49. ncbi Bioterrorism: Preparing for the impossible or the improbable
    Manoj Karwa
    Division of Critical Care Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA
    Crit Care Med 33:S75-95. 2005
    ....
  50. ncbi Symposium introduction: clinical aspects of terrorism
    Ronald A Greenfield
    Infectious Diseases Section 111 c, Oklahoma City VA Medical Center, 921 NE 13th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    J Okla State Med Assoc 95:583-6. 2002
  51. ncbi Biological terrorism: understanding the threat, preparation, and medical response
    David R Franz
    Chemical and Biological Defense Division, Southern Research Institute, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Dis Mon 48:493-564. 2002
    ..Many people believed that biological warfare was only in the military's imagination, perhaps to be faced by soldiers on a far-away battlefield, if at all...
  52. ncbi Bioterrorism and smallpox: policies, practices, and implications for social work
    Romel W Mackelprang
    School of Social Work, Eastern Washington University, Cheney 99004, USA
    Soc Work 50:119-27. 2005
    ..Finally, it provides information essential for social workers to make informed practice decisions, to educate clients and the public, and to advocate for sound public policy...
  53. ncbi The far-reaching impact of bioterrorism. What the European Union is doing regarding deliberate releases of biological/chemical agents based on the events in the United States
    George Gouvras
    IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag 21:112-5. 2002
  54. pmc Weapons of mass destruction--threats and responses
    Christine Gosden
    University of Liverpool, Department of Pathology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool
    BMJ 331:397-400. 2005
  55. ncbi Medical response to a terrorist attack and weapons of mass destruction
    David G E Caldicott
    Emergency Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia
    Emerg Med (Fremantle) 14:230-9. 2002
  56. ncbi Democratic defense spending in an age of bioterrorism
    Michael J Selgelid
    University of Sydney
    Am J Bioeth 5:49-50. 2005
  57. ncbi Responding to the threat of bioterrorism: a microbial ecology perspective--the case of anthrax
    R M Atlas
    Department of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Int Microbiol 5:161-7. 2002
    ..anthracis are widely spread in nature and easy to grow. It is necessary to define the boundary between defensive and offensive biological weapons research. Deterring bioterrorism should not restrict critical scientific research...
  58. ncbi Legal preparedness for bioterrorism
    Gene W Matthews
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Law Med Ethics 30:52-6. 2002
    ..This article covers three aspects of the policy debate: the experience in one state from a legislative perspective, a discussion from an academic viewpoint, and one example of the role of enhanced powers from the response perspective...
  59. ncbi A look behind the scenes: bioterrorism, smallpox, and public health policy
    Jennifer Beane
    Boston University, USA
    J Biolaw Bus 7:40-53. 2004
    ..These efforts serve the dual purpose of deterring future terrorist attacks while greatly improving responses to a number of other health emergencies and disasters...
  60. ncbi The Army chemical/biological SMART (SMART-CB) team: the nurse's role
    Kenny Barajas
    Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Walter Reed Station, Washington, DC 20012, USA
    Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 15:257-64. 2003
    ..Army SMART-CB nurses and their team members are well prepared to provide lifesaving care in highly contaminated areas. It is no longer a question of if but rather when and where the next attack will occur...
  61. ncbi Civilian exposure to toxic agents: emergency medical response
    David Baker
    SAMU de Paris Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, 49 rue de Sèvres, 75574 Paris 15, France
    Prehosp Disaster Med 19:174-8. 2004
    ..Chemical and biological warfare (CBW) and HazMat agents can be viewed as a continuous spectrum...
  62. ncbi Chemical and biological warfare preparing to meet the threat
    S Sophie
    Department of Anesthesiology, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi
    J Pak Med Assoc 54:206-13. 2004
  63. ncbi Bioterrorism: preparing for the unthinkable
    D A Alexander
    Medical School, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen
    J R Army Med Corps 149:125-30. 2003
    ..Therefore, the authorities must identify and rehearse suitable methods of psychoprophylaxis and intervention...
  64. ncbi [Neurological effects of chemical and biological weapons]
    Naohide Inoue
    Rinsho Shinkeigaku 43:880-2. 2003
    ..A high rate of lethality, a staunch resistance to treatments and a rapid onset of severe generalised muscle weakness make botulinum toxin a suitable agent for biological warfare particularly by oral administration.
  65. ncbi Ethical resource distribution after biological, chemical, or radiological terrorism
    Kenneth V Iserson
    Program in Bioethics, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona, USA
    Camb Q Healthc Ethics 12:455-65. 2003
  66. ncbi Issues in chemical and biological terrorism
    Harry Salem
    Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010, USA
    Int J Toxicol 22:465-71. 2003
    ..These are agents that are water soluble, stable, and resistant to water treatment and/or disinfection. The overview concludes with the chronological accomplishments of ECBC since 1917...
  67. ncbi National preparedness for biological warfare and bioterrorism: smallpox and the ophthalmologist
    Dennis G Maki
    Arch Ophthalmol 121:710-1. 2003
  68. ncbi [Germs and toxins in bioterrorism]
    Naohide Inoue
    Department of Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University
    Nihon Rinsho 61:81-91. 2003
  69. ncbi Preparedness on the frontline: what's law got to do with it?
    Maureen Lichtveld
    Public Health Practice Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Law Med Ethics 30:184-8. 2002
    ..Law enforcement and state government representatives must understand the legal powers of their agencies and of public health agencies for coordinated response, mitigation, and recovery efforts in a public health emergency event...
  70. ncbi Chemical, biological, and radiological weapons: implications for optometry and public health
    Gregory G Hom
    Optometry 74:81-98. 2003
    ..Because of growing concerns of terrorist attacks using chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear weapons, appropriate diagnosis and management of ocular and systemic effects are important issues for eye care practitioners...
  71. ncbi Inhalational anthrax due to bioterrorism: would current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines have identified the 11 patients with inhalational anthrax from October through November 2001?
    Thom A Mayer
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Inova Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church, Virginia 22042, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 36:1275-83. 2003
    ..These extensions of the guidelines retrospectively identified 8 of 11 of the patients with IA from October 2001...
  72. ncbi Rapid induction of protective tolerance to potential terrorist agents: a systematic review of low- and ultra-low dose research
    A L Szeto
    Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD, USA
    Homeopathy 93:173-8. 2004
    ..To systematically review the literature on the ability of low-dose (LD) and ultra-low-dose (ULD) toxin exposure to prevent and treat biological and chemical threats...
  73. ncbi New challenges for public health care: biological and chemical weapons awareness, surveillance, and response
    Joseph P Dudley
    Versar, Inc, Springfield, Virginia, USA
    Biol Res Nurs 4:244-50. 2003
    ....
  74. ncbi Bioterrorism: defining a research agenda
    Anthony S Fauci
    National Institute of Allergy and Infections Diseases NIAID, National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Food Drug Law J 57:413-21. 2002
  75. ncbi [Society's planning against smallpox virus attacks. The apprehension should not be overestimated, but the threat exists]
    Ragnar Norrby
    Smittskyddsinstitutet, Solna
    Lakartidningen 100:1114-6. 2003
  76. ncbi Policies in place throughout the world: action by the European Union
    George Gouvras
    General Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission, L 2920, Luxembourg
    Int J Infect Dis 8:S21-30. 2004
  77. ncbi Potential for aerosol dissemination of biological weapons: lessons from biological control of insects
    David B Levin
    Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Biosecur Bioterror 1:37-42. 2003
  78. ncbi [Nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical dangers and risks]
    Stéphane Maillard
    Departement für Verteidigung, Bevölkerungsschutz und Sport VBS, Kompetenzzentrum ABC der Armee, ABC Zentrum, Spiez
    Ther Umsch 65:43-8. 2008
    ..Precautions will only be carried out if they are understood by the public. Objective information and sensiblisation of the public and all concerned by this matter is crucial; without minimization or paranoia...
  79. ncbi Bioterrorism: responding to an emerging threat
    Margaret A Hamburg
    Nuclear Threat Initiative, Washington, DC 20006, USA
    Trends Biotechnol 20:296-8. 2002
    ....
  80. ncbi Chemical and biological warfare: improvisational agents
    Charles E Stewart
    Emerg Med Serv 31:88-90. 2002
  81. ncbi Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management
    Luciana Borio
    Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, Johns Hopkins Schools of Medicine and Public Health, 111 Market Pl, Suite 830, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    JAMA 287:2391-405. 2002
    ..To develop consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals if hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are used as biological weapons against a civilian population...
  82. ncbi Biological weapons: an introduction for surgeons
    W Brian Perry
    Department of Surgery, Wilford Hall Medical Center, 859 MSGS MCSG, 2200 Bergquist Drive, Suite 1, Lackland AFB, TX 78236, USA
    Surg Clin North Am 86:649-63. 2006
    ..This review covers the history of biological weapons,the major agents, and the possible specific roles for surgeons...
  83. ncbi Experts focus on infective agents of bioterrorism
    Joan Stephenson
    JAMA 287:575-6. 2002
  84. pmc Smallpox transmission and control: spatial dynamics in Great Britain
    Steven Riley
    Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People s Republic of China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:12637-42. 2006
    ....
  85. ncbi Public health and bioterrorism: renewed threat of anthrax and smallpox
    Arūne Wallin
    Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Lithuania
    Medicina (Kaunas) 43:278-84. 2007
    ....
  86. ncbi We are all in this together. Terrorism and the physician executive
    Kent Bottles
    Proteomed Capital, LP, 645 Madison Avenue, 12th Floor, New York, NY 10022 1010, USA
    Physician Exec 28:59-62. 2002
    ..It's real. Take a look at how the anthrax-laced letters and future acts of terrorism impact physician executives. Also consider some ways to prepare your physicians for a bioterrorism emergency...
  87. ncbi [Update on biological weapons and bioterrorism. Important that health services pay attention to unusual events]
    R Roffey
    ,
    Lakartidningen 98:5746-8, 5751-2. 2001
    ....
  88. ncbi [Anthrax--the Swedish perspective]
    A Tegnell
    Bakteriologiska avdelningen, Smittskyddsinstitutet, Solna
    Lakartidningen 98:5742-5. 2001
    ..Antibiotics relevant for treatment of B. anthracis infections are already stockpilled in our country. Further actions to strengthen our capability to deal with bioterrorism are ongoing...
  89. ncbi Awareness-level information for veterinarians on weapons of mass destruction and preservation of evidence
    James G W Wenzel
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 230:1816-20. 2007
  90. ncbi The impact of anthrax attacks on the American public
    Robert J Blendon
    Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    MedGenMed 4:1. 2002
    ..Incidents involving anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) through the mail in 4 metropolitan areas have raised concerns about the public's response nationally and locally...
  91. ncbi The USA preparing for bioterrorism: the role of Fort Detrick since 1970
    Richard A Proctor
    University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI, USA
    WMJ 101:20-4. 2002
  92. ncbi Are surgical residents prepared for mass casualty incidents?
    Joseph M Galante
    Department of Surgery, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, 95817, USA
    J Surg Res 132:85-91. 2006
    ..We hypothesized that resident education is inadequate with respect to management of mass casualty incidents that may involve chemical, biological, and nuclear exposures...
  93. ncbi Bioterrorism: what is and what may never be. Part 1
    Wesley Emmons
    Del Med J 74:219-25. 2002
  94. ncbi [Biological security confronting bioterrorism]
    Guillermo Suárez Fernández
    An R Acad Nac Med (Madr) 119:77-89; discussion 89-95. 2002
    ....
  95. ncbi The ethics of biodefense
    Nicholas B King
    Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 4976, USA
    Bioethics 19:432-46. 2005
    ..It concludes with a call for ethicists to study not only the ethical issues raised in biodefense programs, but also the ethics of biodefense more generally...
  96. ncbi Biological weapons and bioterrorism preparedness: importance of public-health awareness and international cooperation
    R Roffey
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of NBC Defense, Umea, Sweden
    Clin Microbiol Infect 8:522-8. 2002
    ..up an epidemiologic task force that can be used in infectious disease emergencies such as the deliberate release of biological warfare agents. International cooperation in this area has to be enhanced, not least in the European Union.
  97. ncbi Introduction--What critical care practitioners should know about terrorism agents
    Robert G Hendrickson
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Oregon Poison Center, 3181 S W Sam Jackson Park Road, CBS 550, Portland, OR 97201 3098, USA
    Crit Care Clin 21:641-52, v. 2005
    ..This article reviews the past military and terrorist uses of these agents and reviews the most likely agents to be used by terrorists against civilian populations...
  98. ncbi Management of anthrax
    John G Bartlett
    Johns Hopkins University Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287 0003, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:851-8. 2002
    ..This article provides clinicians with clinically relevant information about the diagnosis and management of anthrax...
  99. ncbi Emergency department security: a call for reassessment
    Timothy B Bullard
    Orlando Regional Health, Florida, USA
    Health Care Manag (Frederick) 21:65-73. 2002
    ..Successful delineation of the characteristics of bioterrorist weapons is only the first step in dealing with such a scenario, and will set into motion a series of events seen only on small levels in the past...
  100. ncbi [Management of bioterroristic attacks with dangerous infectious agents]
    R Fock
    Informationsstelle des Bundes für Biologische Sicherheit, Robert Koch Institut, Berlin
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 48:1028-37. 2005
    ..Major objectives of the working group are ex change of information, mutual support in cases of emergency and standardisation in staff training...
  101. pmc Vaccinia virus inhibitors as a paradigm for the chemotherapy of poxvirus infections
    E De Clercq
    Division of Virology and Chemotherapy, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Clin Microbiol Rev 14:382-97. 2001
    ..most humans vulnerable to variola virus, the etiologic agent of smallpox, should this virus be used in biological warfare or terrorism...

Research Grants62

  1. Translational Immunology Research and Accelerated [vaccine] Development (TRIAD)
    ANNE SEARLS DEGROOT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..FT has been listed as a Category A biological warfare agent as a result of World War II and Cold War-era biowarfare research...
  2. Epidemic Typhus Pathogenesis
    Sanjeev K Sahni; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..R. prowazekii is classified as a CDC/NIAID Category B biological warfare pathogen, the entire genome for which was the first to be sequenced among all known Rickettsia species...
  3. Development and Testing of Novel Glanders Vaccine Candidates
    Paul J Brett; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..the etiologic agent of glanders, cause severe disease in humans and animals and are a potential agent of biological warfare and terrorism...
  4. Novel Therapeutic Approaches to Pathogen Inactivation
    James A Cowan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and other bacterial pathogens are among the more pronounced threats in the arena of bio- terrorism and biological warfare, while the occurrence of resistant strains of other gram positive pathogens (including Staphylococcus aureus,..
  5. Development of HTS Assays for Inhibitors of Viral-Cell Interactions
    Tione Buranda; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..via the aerosol route have led to their categorization as Category A pathogens, and potential agents of biological warfare. We therefore initiated a program to study Sin Nombre virus (SNV) killed with a calibrated dose of UV ..
  6. The Molecular Basis of VEEV Pathogenesis
    ILYA V FROLOV; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In addition, EEEV, WEEV and, in particular, VEEV have the potential for use by terrorists and as biological warfare agents...
  7. Analysis of a Burkholderia mallei Virulence-Associated Type VI Secretion System
    Paul J Brett; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..the etiologic agent of glanders, causes severe disease in humans and animals and is a potential agent of biological warfare and terrorism. Studies indicate that this select agent expresses several important virulence determinants...
  8. Mucosal Immune Barrier in Infection and Immunity
    Keith E Mostov; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and other sexually transmitted diseases, numerous opportunistic, emerging and re-emerging infections, and biological warfare/terrorist agents. Mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells, usually in a monolayer...
  9. Virulence Factors of Francisella tularensis
    Barbara J Mann; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..isolate that belongs to the virulent subspecies tularensis, and is considered a Category A Select Agent of biological warfare. The library was screened for mutants defective in intracellular survival in the hepatic cell line HepG2...
  10. Immunotherapeutics and vaccines against anthrax, plague and tularemia
    Zheng W Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..research priorities should include development of immunotherapeutics and effective vaccines against biological warfare agents...
  11. Modulation of macrophage function by Francisella tularensis
    Chandra Shekhar Bakshi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Ft) SchuS4 strain, the causative agent of tularemia, is amongst the most deadly potential agents of biological warfare and bioterrorism...
  12. Therapeutic intervention for Brucella
    AMY RAMBOW LARSEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..resistance genes, Brucella was one of the first bacteria to be weaponized by the United States for biological warfare and can be readily made resistant to all commercial antibiotics (http://www.expasy.org/sprot/hamap/BRUSU...
  13. Re-engineering the arylomycins for antibiotic activity
    Floyd E Romesberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  14. Oral Vaccine Platform for Yersinia pestis
    Lloyd F Mayer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Vaccines provide the best defense against infectious diseases and biological warfare agents particularly for many of the pathogens that enter the host through mucosal surfaces...
  15. Determining how adjuvants alter effector and memory T cells during vaccination
    Susan M Kaech; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Vaccines are one of the most successful means to improving human health and protecting against biological warfare attacks, and the success of a vaccine relies on generating long-lived memory T and B cells and plasma cells...
  16. Microfluidics-enabled Immunoassay Array for Multianalyte Detection
    Z Hugh Fan; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..are extensively used in biomedical research, clinical diagnostics, food/water safety testing, and biological warfare defense. Although they can be performed in a microplate (e.g...
  17. Combinatorial vaccines against anthrax and plague
    John Clements; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..in animal husbandry and military planners concerned about the potential use of anthrax spores as an agent of biological warfare. The use of anthrax as an agent of bioterrorism on civilian populations was a theoretical risk, heightened ..
  18. Microfluidics-enabled Immunoassay Array for Multianalyte Detection
    Z Hugh Fan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are extensively used in biomedical research, clinical diagnostics, food/water safety testing, and biological warfare defense. Although they can be performed in a microplate (e.g...
  19. OVERCOMING THE DEGRADING EFFECTS OF NICOTINE ON VACCINE USING TLR AGONISTS
    Mahyar Nouri-Shirazi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Vaccines aid in saving lives from infectious diseases and biological warfare attacks...
  20. Multiplex PCR Detection of CDC 'A' Bioterrorism Agents
    Kelly Henrickson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Anthrax and other agents of biological warfare have recently received intense publicity. These weapons are an increasingly fearsome danger to our civilization...
  21. RUTGERS-UMDNJ BIOTECHNOLOGY TRAINING PROGRAM
    Martin L Yarmush; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..use and industrial enzymes that cut chemical waste and energy consumption in manufacturing;as well as therapeutics, diagnostics, rapid response systems and decontamination enzymes aimed at neutralizing the agents of biological warfare.
  22. TRANSPORT OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS ACROSS EPITHELIAL CELLS
    Keith E Mostov; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..infections, emerging and re-emerging diseases such TB and multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria, and biological warfare/terrorist agents (including inhalational anthrax)...
  23. Regulation of Burkholderia mallei virulence genes
    William Nierman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..It is highly infectious to humans, was weaponized by the Soviet Union and was used as a biological warfare agent by Germany during World War I (and the Japanese in China in World War II - I heard it on the radio ..
  24. Nanoparticle Modified Textiles for Protective Clothing
    RUYA OZER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..activity against a broad spectrum of pathogenic microorganisms, for detoxification of chemical and biological warfare agent surrogates as well as skin cytotoxicity...
  25. MOP/LAS chimeric vaccine against Lassa fever
    Igor Lukashevich; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The sizeable disease burden and the possibility that LAS virus can be used as a biological warfare agent make a strong case for effective vaccine development...
  26. An Inhalation Model of Q Fever in Guinea Pigs
    Kasi Russell; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..conditions, the organism has been included in the list likely agents to be used in bioterrorism and biological warfare. Animal models being used to study this disease include mice and guinea pigs infected through ..
  27. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Clostridium perfringens
    Ian Paulsen; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..C. perfringens has also been tested as a potential biological warfare (BW) agent in World War II and the Iraqi government is suspected of attempting to develop C...
  28. STRATEGIES FOR INACTIVATING BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORES
    Arthur Aronson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Bacillus anthracis is an animal and human pathogen with potential as a biological warfare agent. It is a spore-forming Bacillus with pathogenicity due to plasmid genes encoding three toxin components and a polyglutamic acid capsule...
  29. TARGET-GUIDED BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN INHIBITOR DISCOVERY
    Hartmuth Kolb; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The organism, and the toxin it produces, poses a significant threat as an agent of biological warfare and terrorism...
  30. An Oral Vaccine Against Multiple Biowarfare Agents
    KARL KLOSE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Background: U.S. citizens, particularly military personnel, are vulnerable to the threat of exposure to biological warfare agents...
  31. Development of Therapeutic Inhibitors to Anthrax Toxins
    JOHNNY PETERSON; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, and aerosolization of the dried bacterial spores is a major biological warfare and bioterrorism threat. Two plasmid-encoded anthrax toxins are essential for bacterial virulence...
  32. Development of a Mucosal Vaccine Against Francisella tularensis
    Suzanne Michalek; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Most infectious agents cause disease via our mucosal surfaces, which also applies to biological warfare agents...
  33. Detection of Bacteria using Nanoparticle-Polymer Sensors
    VINCENT ROTELLO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..for combating water contamination, food poisoning and infectious disease, as well for protection against biological warfare agents...
  34. Microwave remediation of hazardous medical wastes
    PRASANNA CHANDRASEKHAR; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..a novel microwave technology for destruction of three types of wastes - Infectious Medical Wastes; Biological Warfare agents; and Chemical Warfare agents...
  35. DNA Minor Groove-binding Drugs and Food-borne Pathogens
    MARK PERRELLA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Dispersion of biological warfare agents has the potential of causing significant morbidity and mortality, and public panic...
  36. A Novel Target for New Anti-Anthrax Drugs
    Wayne Brouillette; Fiscal Year: 2007
    The use of Bacillus anthracis in acts of terrorism and/or biological warfare is a demonstrated threat to U.S. security...
  37. Reactive Materials for Protective Clothing
    WAHEGURU SINGH; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..activity against a broad spectrum of pathogenic microorganisms, for detoxification of chemical and biological warfare agent surrogates as well as skin cytotoxicity...
  38. Recombinant Yellow Fever 17D-Lassa Vaccine
    Igor Lukashevich; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The sizeable disease burden and the possibility that LAS virus can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. There is no vaccine for LF...
  39. Peptide & antibodies as antidotes for superantigens
    Kunwar Shailubhai; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The current scenarios of biological warfare and bioterrorism are more likely to entail the use of the superantigen mixtures, readily available by ..
  40. Mouse model of oral infection with virulent Francisella
    Wangxue Chen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is classified as a Category A biological warfare agent by The Working Group on Civilian Biodefense because of its extreme infectivity, ease of dissemination, and substantial ..
  41. A humanized transgenic mouse model for studying staphylococcal enterotoxin B
    Chella David; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..By virtue of its robust immunostimulatory property, SEB can also be used as agents of bioterrorism or biological warfare. There is, however, a significant knowledge gap in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of SEB, ..
  42. AFM Sensors to Detect Biological Warfare Agents
    Curtis Mosher; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Rapid detection of biological warfare agents is one of the first lines of defense against bioterrorism...
  43. Antibacterial peptidoglycan recognition proteins
    Roman Dziarski; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..B pathogens include at least 18 bacteria that are potential threats to public health in case of their use in biological warfare or bioterrorism attack...
  44. RovA regulon of Yersinia pestis
    VIRGINIA MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Due to the high mortality rates and severe disease caused by Y. pestis, it has emerged as an agent of biological warfare and bioterrorism. A more detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of Y...
  45. Biowarfare applications of a new immunoregulator
    KENNETH WILLEFORD; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..a short-term prophylactic agent for use in high-risk populations such as military personnel entering a biological warfare theater of war. 2...
  46. Comparative Genomics of the Chlamydiaceae
    Garry Myers; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..suis, C. pecorum, and C. psittaci (a potential biological warfare agent). Additionally, we will sequence the koala strain of C...
  47. Adhesins and Invasins of Francisella Tularensis
    Barbara Mann; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..has led the CDC and NIAID to classify this organism as a category A select agent and a potential agent of biological warfare. F...
  48. Identification of T Cell Antigen For Q Fever Vaccination
    James Samuel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This agent has already been weaponized and mass-produced under various biological warfare programs...
  49. Live Attenuated Bacterial Vaccines Against Anthrax
    SIMS KOCHI; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..the high mortality rate of inhalation anthrax, has made Bacillus anthracis one of the most feared agents of biological warfare and terrorism...
  50. A NEW GENERATION OF BOTULINUM TOXIN VACCINES
    Md Elias; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Botulinum toxin is a potential bioweapon that can be used in acts of bioterrorism or biological warfare. Although the toxin is extraordinarily potent, there is little likelihood that there will be universal vaccination of the public...
  51. IN VITRO DELIVERABILITY OF ANTI-ANTHRAX DISCOVERY LEADS
    R Porter; Fiscal Year: 2000
    Anthrax, according to many military and counterterrorism planners, represents the single greatest biological warfare threat...
  52. Hamster Models and Reagents for Biodefense Research
    Lynn Soong; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The potential use of these viruses as biological warfare agents is an increasing concern...
  53. Polymer-Based Yersinia Pestis Point-of-Case Diagnostics
    Jean Clarke; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This infectious bacterial agent is on the NIAID category A priority list as a potential biological warfare (BW) agent...
  54. The Type III Pathway of Yersinia Pestis
    Olaf Schneewind; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Together these studies are also aimed at identifying molecular targets for drug therapies, an important area of research to aid in the defense against biological warfare and bioterrorist deployment of the select agent Y. pestis.
  55. Rapid Identification of Drug Targets in Yersinia pestis
    David Austin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..use of Display Cloning to rapidly identify and isolate the genes of protein-based therapeutic targets from biological warfare agents...
  56. Target and antibiotic discovery in Bacillus anthracis
    ROBERT HASELBECK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..variants of bacterial pathogens, particularly pathogens likely to be utilized as weapons of terrorism or biological warfare. The objective of the proposed work is to discover and develop new therapeutics for treatment of infections ..
  57. Mechanism of action of ricin A chain
    NILGUN TUMER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) have been used as instruments of biological warfare and terrorism. Ricin is a heterodimeric plant toxin that consists of A and B-chains and the prototype of type II RIPs...
  58. Autotransporter proteins and virulence of Y. pestis
    VIRGINIA MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..pestis, Y. pestis has emerged as a potential agent of biological warfare and bioterrorism...
  59. Bacillus anthracis Detection with RNA Microchip
    Zhen Huang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..B. anthracis is indeed a potential biological warfare agent because it is highly pathogenic and easy to cultivate and produce, and because its spore form is ..
  60. Virulence genes identification in Francisella tularensis
    Vincent Escuyer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    F. tularensis, is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen considered as a major biological warfare agent, mainly because it is very infectious and can cause life threatening illness in humans...
  61. Monoclonal Antibody SEB Immunoprotectant
    Kevin Whaley; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..causes classic food poisoning and can cause a nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS), is a potential biological warfare agent...
  62. Rapid Immunoassays for Detecting Pathogenic Bacteria
    Michael Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..for use by first-responders, capable of rapidly identifying samples suspected of exposure to bacterial biological warfare (BW) agents...