punishment

Summary

Summary: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Altruistic punishment in humans
    Ernst Fehr
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 415:137-40. 2002
  2. ncbi Antisocial punishment across societies
    Benedikt Herrmann
    Centre for Decision Research and Experimental Economics, University of Nottingham, School of Economics, Sir Clive Granger Building, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Science 319:1362-7. 2008
  3. pmc Via freedom to coercion: the emergence of costly punishment
    Christoph Hauert
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 316:1905-7. 2007
  4. pmc Winners don't punish
    Anna Dreber
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 452:348-51. 2008
  5. pmc Neuron-type-specific signals for reward and punishment in the ventral tegmental area
    Jeremiah Y Cohen
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 482:85-8. 2012
  6. ncbi Markets, religion, community size, and the evolution of fairness and punishment
    Joseph Henrich
    Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Science 327:1480-4. 2010
  7. ncbi Costly punishment across human societies
    Joseph Henrich
    Department of Anthropology, Emory University, 1557 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Science 312:1767-70. 2006
  8. ncbi The efficient interaction of indirect reciprocity and costly punishment
    Bettina Rockenbach
    Department of Economics, University of Erfurt, Nordhäuser Strasse 63, D 99089 Erfurt, Germany
    Nature 444:718-23. 2006
  9. ncbi Coordinated punishment of defectors sustains cooperation and can proliferate when rare
    Robert Boyd
    Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90064, USA
    Science 328:617-20. 2010
  10. pmc Go and no-go learning in reward and punishment: interactions between affect and effect
    Marc Guitart-Masip
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, W1CN 4AR, UK
    Neuroimage 62:154-66. 2012

Detail Information

Publications288 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Altruistic punishment in humans
    Ernst Fehr
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 415:137-40. 2002
    ..Here we show experimentally that the altruistic punishment of defectors is a key motive for the explanation of cooperation...
  2. ncbi Antisocial punishment across societies
    Benedikt Herrmann
    Centre for Decision Research and Experimental Economics, University of Nottingham, School of Economics, Sir Clive Granger Building, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Science 319:1362-7. 2008
    We document the widespread existence of antisocial punishment, that is, the sanctioning of people who behave prosocially...
  3. pmc Via freedom to coercion: the emergence of costly punishment
    Christoph Hauert
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 316:1905-7. 2007
    ..Theoretical models confirm that social norms prescribing the punishment of uncooperative behavior are stable-once established, they prevent dissident minorities from spreading...
  4. pmc Winners don't punish
    Anna Dreber
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 452:348-51. 2008
    ..Recently there has been much interest in exploring the effect of costly punishment on human cooperation. Costly punishment means paying a cost for another individual to incur a cost...
  5. pmc Neuron-type-specific signals for reward and punishment in the ventral tegmental area
    Jeremiah Y Cohen
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 482:85-8. 2012
    ..These results show that VTA GABAergic neurons signal expected reward, a key variable for dopaminergic neurons to calculate reward prediction error...
  6. ncbi Markets, religion, community size, and the evolution of fairness and punishment
    Joseph Henrich
    Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Science 327:1480-4. 2010
    ..of purchased calories) positively covaries with fairness while community size positively covaries with punishment. Participation in a world religion is associated with fairness, although not across all measures...
  7. ncbi Costly punishment across human societies
    Joseph Henrich
    Department of Anthropology, Emory University, 1557 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Science 312:1767-70. 2006
    ..the evolutionary foundations of human cooperation have suggested that a willingness to engage in costly punishment, even in one-shot situations, may be part of human psychology and a key element in understanding our sociality...
  8. ncbi The efficient interaction of indirect reciprocity and costly punishment
    Bettina Rockenbach
    Department of Economics, University of Erfurt, Nordhäuser Strasse 63, D 99089 Erfurt, Germany
    Nature 444:718-23. 2006
    ..we combine advances in experimental economics and evolutionary biology that separately have shown that costly punishment and reputation formation, respectively, induce cooperation in social dilemmas...
  9. ncbi Coordinated punishment of defectors sustains cooperation and can proliferate when rare
    Robert Boyd
    Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90064, USA
    Science 328:617-20. 2010
    ..In contrast, current models of the evolution of cooperation assume that punishment is uncoordinated and unconditional...
  10. pmc Go and no-go learning in reward and punishment: interactions between affect and effect
    Marc Guitart-Masip
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, W1CN 4AR, UK
    Neuroimage 62:154-66. 2012
    Decision-making invokes two fundamental axes of control: affect or valence, spanning reward and punishment, and effect or action, spanning invigoration and inhibition...
  11. ncbi Social learning promotes institutions for governing the commons
    Karl Sigmund
    Faculty of Mathematics, University of Vienna, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Nature 466:861-3. 2010
    Theoretical and empirical research highlights the role of punishment in promoting collaborative efforts. However, both the emergence and the stability of costly punishment are problematic issues...
  12. ncbi Dorsal striatum responses to reward and punishment: effects of valence and magnitude manipulations
    M R Delgado
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 3:27-38. 2003
    ..after presentation of a monetary reward, in contrast to a decrease in the hemodynamic response after a punishment. In this study, we tested whether the activity of the striatum could be modulated by parametric variations in ..
  13. pmc Positive interactions promote public cooperation
    David G Rand
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 325:1272-5. 2009
    ..Most previous studies have found punishment to be more effective than reward for maintaining cooperation in public goods games...
  14. pmc Reconciling the role of serotonin in behavioral inhibition and aversion: acute tryptophan depletion abolishes punishment-induced inhibition in humans
    Molly J Crockett
    Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 29:11993-9. 2009
    ..Here, we show that serotonin is critical for punishment-induced inhibition but not overall motor response inhibition or reporting aversive outcomes...
  15. pmc The evolution of antisocial punishment in optional public goods games
    David G Rand
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nat Commun 2:434. 2011
    ..It has been suggested that costly punishment can promote the evolution of cooperation, with the threat of punishment deterring free-riders...
  16. pmc Dopamine-dependent prediction errors underpin reward-seeking behaviour in humans
    Mathias Pessiglione
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Nature 442:1042-5. 2006
    ..We conclude that dopamine-dependent modulation of striatal activity can account for how the human brain uses reward prediction errors to improve future decisions...
  17. pmc Emergence of responsible sanctions without second order free riders, antisocial punishment or spite
    Christian Hilbe
    Evolutionary Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, D 24306 Plon, Germany
    Sci Rep 2:458. 2012
    While empirical evidence highlights the importance of punishment for cooperation in collective action, it remains disputed how responsible sanctions targeted predominantly at uncooperative subjects can evolve...
  18. ncbi Indirect reciprocity can stabilize cooperation without the second-order free rider problem
    Karthik Panchanathan
    Center for Behavior, Evolution, and Culture and Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Nature 432:499-502. 2004
    ..suggests that punishing free riders can maintain cooperation, but why individuals should engage in costly punishment is unclear...
  19. ncbi Punish or perish? Retaliation and collaboration among humans
    Karl Sigmund
    Faculty for Mathematics, University of Vienna, Nordbergstrasse 15, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Trends Ecol Evol 22:593-600. 2007
    ....
  20. ncbi Serotonin selectively modulates reward value in human decision-making
    Ben Seymour
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London UCL, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 32:5833-42. 2012
    ..serotonin in human decision-making has proved remarkably difficult because if its complex role in reward and punishment processing...
  21. ncbi The neural basis of altruistic punishment
    Dominique J F de Quervain
    Division of Psychiatry Research, University of Zurich, Lenggstrasse 31, 8029 Zurich, Switzerland
    Science 305:1254-8. 2004
    ..Evolutionary models and empirical evidence indicate that such altruistic punishment has been a decisive force in the evolution of human cooperation...
  22. ncbi A two-dimensional neuropsychology of defense: fear/anxiety and defensive distance
    Neil McNaughton
    Department Psychology and Neuroscience Research Centre, University of Otago, P O Box 56 Dunedin, New Zealand
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:285-305. 2004
    ..Our current development and these proposed future extensions do not change the core concepts originally proposed by Gray and, we argue, demonstrate their enduring value...
  23. ncbi Reward, punishment, and cooperation: a meta-analysis
    Daniel Balliet
    School of Social Sciences, Singapore Management University
    Psychol Bull 137:594-615. 2011
    How effective are rewards (for cooperation) and punishment (for noncooperation) as tools to promote cooperation in social dilemmas or situations when immediate self-interest and longer term collective interest conflict? What variables can ..
  24. ncbi The competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions
    Ozgür Gürerk
    University of Erfurt, Nordhäuser Strasse 63, 99089 Erfurt, Germany
    Science 312:108-11. 2006
    ..The existing empirical evidence for the higher levels of cooperation when altruistic punishment is present versus when it is absent systematically ignores the institutional competition inherent in human ..
  25. pmc Anti-social punishment can prevent the co-evolution of punishment and cooperation
    David G Rand
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    J Theor Biol 265:624-32. 2010
    The evolution of cooperation is one of the great puzzles in evolutionary biology. Punishment has been suggested as one solution to this problem. Here punishment is generally defined as incurring a cost to inflict harm on a wrong-doer...
  26. ncbi Segregated and integrated coding of reward and punishment in the cingulate cortex
    Juri Fujiwara
    Division of Systems Neuroscience, Tohoku University Graduate School of Life Sciences, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8577, Japan
    J Neurophysiol 101:3284-93. 2009
    Reward and punishment have opposite affective value but are both processed by the cingulate cortex...
  27. ncbi Tracking the hemodynamic responses to reward and punishment in the striatum
    M R Delgado
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh and Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Neurophysiol 84:3072-7. 2000
    ..They received reward, punishment, or neutral feedback on different trials...
  28. ncbi Reward and punishment processing in depression
    Neir Eshel
    UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 68:118-24. 2010
    ..Recently, studies exploring how depressed patients process reward and punishment have linked these two facets together...
  29. ncbi Abstract reward and punishment representations in the human orbitofrontal cortex
    M L Kringelbach
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3UD, UK
    Nat Neurosci 4:95-102. 2001
    ..These findings indicate that one emotional involvement of the human orbitofrontal cortex is its representation of the magnitudes of abstract rewards and punishments, such as receiving or losing money...
  30. ncbi Lab experiments for the study of social-ecological systems
    Marco A Janssen
    Arizona State University, Post Office Box 872402, Tempe, AZ 85287 2402, USA
    Science 328:613-7. 2010
    ..Previous behavioral experiments of commons dilemmas have found that people are willing to engage in costly punishment, frequently generating increases in gross benefits, contrary to game-theoretical predictions based on a static ..
  31. ncbi Ventral striatum response during reward and punishment reversal learning in unmedicated major depressive disorder
    Oliver J Robinson
    Section on Neuroimaging in Mood and Anxiety Disorders, NIMH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 169:152-9. 2012
    ..whether this may be because reversal learning tasks conventionally used to study behavior examine reversals only on the basis of unexpected punishment and therefore do not adequately separate reward- and punishment-based behavior.
  32. ncbi Critical roles for anterior insula and dorsal striatum in punishment-based avoidance learning
    Stefano Palminteri
    Motivation, Brain and Behavior MBB Team, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moëlle épinière ICM, Hopital de la Pitie Salpetriere, 75013 Paris, France
    Neuron 76:998-1009. 2012
    The division of human learning systems into reward and punishment opponent modules is still a debated issue...
  33. ncbi Leaving the loners alone: evolution of cooperation in the presence of antisocial punishment
    Julian Garcia
    Evolutionary Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, August Thienemann Strasse 2, 24306 Plön, Germany
    J Theor Biol 307:168-73. 2012
    The idea that voluntary participation may promote the evolution of cooperation and punishment in public good games has been recently called into question based on the study of the complete strategy set in which anyone can punish anyone ..
  34. pmc Subsecond dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens predicts conditioned punishment and its successful avoidance
    Erik B Oleson
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Neurosci 32:14804-8. 2012
    ..While previous studies have also implicated a general role for dopamine in punishment and its avoidance, the precise nature of subsecond dopamine release during these phenomena remains unknown...
  35. pmc Altruistic punishment and the origin of cooperation
    James H Fowler
    Department of Political Science, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:7047-9. 2005
    How did human cooperation evolve? Recent evidence shows that many people are willing to engage in altruistic punishment, voluntarily paying a cost to punish noncooperators...
  36. ncbi Characterization of children's decision making: sensitivity to punishment frequency, not task complexity
    Eveline A Crone
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Child Neuropsychol 11:245-63. 2005
    ..current study set out to characterize developmental changes in decision making by varying task complexity and punishment frequency...
  37. ncbi The neural correlates of third-party punishment
    Joshua W Buckholtz
    Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, USA
    Neuron 60:930-40. 2008
    ..functions performed by impartial "third parties:" assessing responsibility and determining an appropriate punishment. To explore the neural underpinnings of these processes, we scanned subjects with fMRI while they determined the ..
  38. ncbi Punishers benefit from third-party punishment in fish
    Nichola J Raihani
    Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent s Park, London NW1 4RY, UK
    Science 327:171. 2010
    ..b>Punishment promotes female cooperation and thereby yields direct foraging benefits to the male...
  39. ncbi The evolution of strong reciprocity: cooperation in heterogeneous populations
    Samuel Bowles
    Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA
    Theor Popul Biol 65:17-28. 2004
    ..Such altruistic punishment is widely observed to sustain high levels of cooperation in behavioral experiments and in natural settings...
  40. pmc Punishing and abstaining for public goods
    Hannelore Brandt
    Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:495-7. 2006
    ..Current research has highlighted two factors boosting cooperation in public goods interactions, namely, costly punishment of defectors and the option to abstain from the joint enterprise...
  41. ncbi Why people punish defectors. Weak conformist transmission can stabilize costly enforcement of norms in cooperative dilemmas
    J Henrich
    University of Michigan, 701 Tappan Road, D3276, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1234, USA
    J Theor Biol 208:79-89. 2001
    In this paper, we present a cultural evolutionary model in which norms for cooperation and punishment are acquired via two cognitive mechanisms: (1) payoff-biased transmission-a tendency to copy the most successful individual; and (2) ..
  42. ncbi Experimental psychology: event timing turns punishment to reward
    Hiromu Tanimoto
    Lehrstuhl für Genetik und Neurobiologie, Biozentrum, Universitat Wurzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
    Nature 430:983. 2004
    ..These opposing behaviours depend on the relative timing of the shock and odour presentations during training, and indicate that a shock can act as either an aversive reinforcer or an appetitive one...
  43. ncbi Punishment and cooperation in nature
    Nichola J Raihani
    Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Gower St, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Trends Ecol Evol 27:288-95. 2012
    Humans use punishment to promote cooperation in laboratory experiments but evidence that punishment plays a similar role in non-human animals is comparatively rare...
  44. ncbi Reciprocity: weak or strong? What punishment experiments do (and do not) demonstrate
    Francesco Guala
    Department of Economics, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
    Behav Brain Sci 35:1-15. 2012
    ..reciprocity theorists, in contrast, claim that cooperation in social dilemma games can be sustained by costly punishment mechanisms, even in one-shot and finitely repeated games...
  45. ncbi High impulsivity predicts relapse to cocaine-seeking after punishment-induced abstinence
    Daina Economidou
    Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 65:851-6. 2009
    ..Relapse is a hallmark feature of cocaine addiction and a main challenge for treatment strategies. Human studies indicate a link between impulsivity and increased susceptibility to relapse...
  46. pmc Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment
    Hisashi Ohtsuki
    Department of Value and Decision Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152 8552, Japan
    Nature 457:79-82. 2009
    ..Currently there is considerable interest in studying the effect of costly (or altruistic) punishment on human behaviour. Punishment implies a cost for the punished person...
  47. pmc Social stress reactivity alters reward and punishment learning
    James F Cavanagh
    Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
    Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 6:311-20. 2011
    To examine how stress affects cognitive functioning, individual differences in trait vulnerability (punishment sensitivity) and state reactivity (negative affect) to social evaluative threat were examined during concurrent reinforcement ..
  48. ncbi The neurobiology of punishment
    Ben Seymour
    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, UCL, 12 Queen Square, London WC1X 3BG, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 8:300-11. 2007
    ..Here, we review the proximate neurobiological basis of punishment, considering the motivational processes that underlie punishing actions.
  49. pmc Emotion expression in human punishment behavior
    Erte Xiao
    Interdisciplinary Center for Economic Science and Department of Economics, George Mason University, 4400 University Boulevard, MSN 1B2, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:7398-401. 2005
    Evolutionary theory reveals that punishment is effective in promoting cooperation and maintaining social norms...
  50. ncbi Event-related components of the punishment and reward sensitivity
    Vilfredo De Pascalis
    Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
    Clin Neurophysiol 121:60-76. 2010
    ..The association between BIS/BAS function and anterior cortical asymmetry was tested...
  51. pmc Threat of punishment motivates memory encoding via amygdala, not midbrain, interactions with the medial temporal lobe
    Vishnu P Murty
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    J Neurosci 32:8969-76. 2012
    ..encoding and active threat avoidance have both been described, but the relative contribution of these systems to punishment-motivated encoding remains unknown...
  52. ncbi Social science. Cooperation, punishment, and the evolution of human institutions
    Joseph Henrich
    Department of Anthropology, Emory University, 1557 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Science 312:60-1. 2006
  53. ncbi Heart rate and skin conductance analysis of antecendents and consequences of decision making
    Eveline A Crone
    Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychophysiology 41:531-40. 2004
    ..e., somatic markers), rather than a weak somatic response generated by primary inducers of reward and punishment.
  54. pmc Severe physical punishment: risk of mental health problems for poor urban children in Brazil
    Isabel A Bordin
    Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Bull World Health Organ 87:336-44. 2009
    To examine the relationship between specific types of child mental health problems and severe physical punishment, in combination with other important known risk factors.
  55. ncbi The coevolution of altruism and punishment: role of the selfish punisher
    Mayuko Nakamaru
    Department of Value and Decision Science, Graduate School of Decision Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2 12 1, O Okayama, Meguro ku, Tokyo, 152 8552, Japan
    J Theor Biol 240:475-88. 2006
    b>Punishment is an important mechanism promoting the evolution of altruism among non-relatives...
  56. pmc Striatal mechanisms underlying movement, reinforcement, and punishment
    Alexxai V Kravitz
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Physiology (Bethesda) 27:167-77. 2012
    ..In this review, we discuss a hypothetical extension of this framework, in which direct pathway striatal neurons also mediate reinforcement and reward, and indirect pathway neurons mediate punishment and aversion.
  57. ncbi Age, sex and individual differences in punishment sensitivity: factors influencing the feedback-related negativity
    Diane L Santesso
    Department of Psychology, Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario, Canada
    Psychophysiology 48:1481-9. 2011
    ..to examine the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and related ACC activity during a gambling task in relation to punishment and reward sensitivity among 16- to 17-year-old adolescents (n=20) and 18- to 29-year-old adults (n=30)...
  58. pmc Direct reciprocity with costly punishment: generous tit-for-tat prevails
    David G Rand
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138, USA
    J Theor Biol 256:45-57. 2009
    ..Here we extend the standard framework to include costly punishment. Now players have a choice between cooperation, defection and costly punishment...
  59. ncbi BMI predicts emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility in adolescents with excess weight
    Elena Delgado-Rico
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 20:1604-10. 2012
    ..In this study, we aimed to examine the link between personality factors (sensitivity to reward (SR) and punishment (SP), BMI, and outcome measures of impulsivity vs...
  60. doi Human behaviour: punisher pays
    Manfred Milinski
    Nature 452:297-8. 2008
  61. ncbi Severe physical punishment and mental health problems in an economically disadvantaged population of children and adolescents
    Isabel Altenfelder Santos Bordin
    Social Psychiatry Division, Department of Psychiatry, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Rev Bras Psiquiatr 28:290-6. 2006
    To estimate the prevalence of severe physical punishment of children/adolescents in a low-income community, and to examine child mental health problems as a potential correlate.
  62. ncbi Cooperation and evolutionary dynamics in the public goods game with institutional incentives
    Ross Cressman
    Department of Mathematics, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    J Theor Biol 299:144-51. 2012
    The one-shot public goods game is extended to include institutional incentives (i.e. reward and/or punishment) that are meant to promote cooperation...
  63. ncbi Characterization of the decision-making deficit of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions
    A Bechara
    Department of Neurology, Division of Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Brain 123:2189-202. 2000
    ..three possibilities that may account for this behaviour: (i) hypersensitivity to reward; (ii) insensitivity to punishment; and (iii) insensitivity to future consequences, such that behaviour is always guided by immediate prospects...
  64. pmc Reduced prefrontal cortical gray matter volume in young adults exposed to harsh corporal punishment
    Akemi Tomoda
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Neuroimage 47:T66-71. 2009
    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) during childhood is a chronic, developmental stressor associated with depression, aggression and addictive behaviors...
  65. ncbi A neural marker of costly punishment behavior
    Daria Knoch
    Social and Affective Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Basel, Switzerland
    Psychol Sci 21:337-42. 2010
    ..highly specific neural marker--baseline cortical activity in the right prefrontal cortex--predicts individuals' punishment behavior...
  66. ncbi The leading eight: social norms that can maintain cooperation by indirect reciprocity
    Hisashi Ohtsuki
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8581, Japan
    J Theor Biol 239:435-44. 2006
    ..reciprocity are to be nice (maintenance of cooperation among themselves), retaliatory (detection of defectors, punishment, and justification of punishment), apologetic, and forgiving...
  67. ncbi The long-run benefits of punishment
    Simon Gächter
    Centre for Decision Research and Experimental Economics, University of Nottingham, School of Economics, Sir Clive Granger Building, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Science 322:1510. 2008
    Experiments have shown that punishment enhances socially beneficial cooperation but that the costs of punishment outweigh the gains from cooperation...
  68. ncbi Parochial altruism in humans
    Helen Bernhard
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 442:912-5. 2006
    ..We have conducted punishment experiments, which allow 'impartial' observers to punish norm violators, with indigenous groups in Papua New ..
  69. ncbi Different neural systems adjust motor behavior in response to reward and punishment
    Jana Wrase
    Department of Psychiatry, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin Charité Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Neuroimage 36:1253-62. 2007
    ..Our results provide evidence that different but somewhat overlapping circuits mediate the same behavioral adaptation when it is driven by different incentive outcomes...
  70. ncbi The logic of reprobation: assessment and action rules for indirect reciprocation
    Hannelore Brandt
    Fakultät für Mathematik, Nordbergstrasse 15, 1090 Wien, Austria
    J Theor Biol 231:475-86. 2004
    ..This is analogous to the question whether punishment can sustain cooperation even when it is costly...
  71. ncbi Error-related ERP components and individual differences in punishment and reward sensitivity
    Maarten A S Boksem
    Experimental and Work Psychology, University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2 1, 9712 TS Groningen, The Netherlands
    Brain Res 1101:92-101. 2006
    ..Results are discussed in terms of individual differences in reward and punishment sensitivity that are reflected in error related ERP components.
  72. ncbi Acute tryptophan depletion in healthy volunteers enhances punishment prediction but does not affect reward prediction
    Roshan Cools
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:2291-9. 2008
    ..procedure in young healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that central 5-HT is critical for predicting punishment. An observational reversal-learning task was employed that provided separate measures of punishment and reward ..
  73. ncbi Context dependence of the event-related brain potential associated with reward and punishment
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
    Psychophysiology 41:245-53. 2004
    ..This result is discussed in terms of a recent theory that holds that the ERN reflects a reward prediction error signal associated with a neural system for reinforcement learning...
  74. ncbi Reduced orbitofrontal-striatal activity on a reversal learning task in obsessive-compulsive disorder
    Peter L Remijnse
    Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Graduate School of Neurosciences, and Outpatient Academic Clinic for Anxiety Disorders, GGZ Buitenamstel, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:1225-36. 2006
    ..However, the engagement of this neural loop in OCD has not been tested directly in a cognitive activation imaging paradigm so far...
  75. pmc Selfishness as second-order altruism
    Omar Tonsi Eldakar
    Department of Biological Sciences, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902 6000, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:6982-6. 2008
    ..Recent models have explored punishment as an important mechanism favoring the evolution of altruism, but punishment can be costly to the punisher, ..
  76. ncbi Temporal difference models describe higher-order learning in humans
    Ben Seymour
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Nature 429:664-7. 2004
    ..Taken with existing data on reward learning, our results suggest a critical role for the ventral striatum in integrating complex appetitive and aversive predictions to coordinate behaviour...
  77. ncbi Beyond revenge: neural and genetic bases of altruistic punishment
    Alexander Strobel
    Institute of Psychology, Goethe University Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Neuroimage 54:671-80. 2011
    It is still debated how altruistic punishment as one form of strong reciprocity has established during evolution and which motives may underlie such behavior...
  78. ncbi Egalitarian motives in humans
    Christopher T Dawes
    Department of Political Science, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA
    Nature 446:794-6. 2007
    ..What motivates this action is unclear: punishment and reward aimed at promoting cooperation cannot be distinguished from attempts to produce equality...
  79. pmc Reward from punishment does not emerge at all costs
    Jeromos Vukov
    ATP Group, Centro de Matemática e Aplicações Fundamentais, Instituto para a Investigação Interdisciplinar da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
    PLoS Comput Biol 9:e1002868. 2013
    ..In this quest, the role of altruistic punishment has been identified as a mechanism promoting cooperation...
  80. ncbi Sensitivity to reward and punishment in eating disorders
    Amy Harrison
    Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, UK
    Psychiatry Res 177:1-11. 2010
    ..this review was to collate and summarise the self-report data regarding anomalies in sensitivity to reward and punishment in eating disorders (ED) with use of a meta-analysis where possible...
  81. pmc Dissociable responses to punishment in distinct striatal regions during reversal learning
    Oliver J Robinson
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, P O Box 189, Level E4, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ, UK
    Neuroimage 51:1459-67. 2010
    Adaptive behavior depends on the ability to flexibly alter our choices in response to changes in reward and punishment contingencies. One brain region frequently implicated in such behavior is the striatum...
  82. pmc Harsh corporal punishment is associated with increased T2 relaxation time in dopamine-rich regions
    Yi Shin Sheu
    Developmental Biopsychiatry Research Program, McLean Hospital, Belmont MA, USA
    Neuroimage 53:412-9. 2010
    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) was defined as frequent parental administration of corporal punishment (CP) for discipline, with occasional use of objects such as straps, or paddles...
  83. ncbi Punishment and sympathy judgments: is the quality of mercy strained in Asperger's syndrome?
    Shelley Channon
    Department of Cognitive, Perceptual and Brain Sciences, University College London, Bedford Way Building, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 40:1219-26. 2010
    ..The AS group thus appeared to show preserved judgment with respect to compensation and sympathy for the victim and fines for the driver, but expressed less sympathy towards drivers with poor justifications for their actions...
  84. ncbi Performance monitoring and error significance in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder
    Tanja Endrass
    Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Germany
    Biol Psychol 84:257-63. 2010
    ..Therefore, errors in a flanker task were followed by neutral (standard condition) or punishment feedbacks (punishment condition)...
  85. pmc Punishment promotes response control deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence from a motivational go/no-go task
    S Morein-Zamir
    MRC Wellcome Trust Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute BCNI, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Psychol Med 43:391-400. 2013
    ..We examined response inhibition performance in the presence of reward and punishment. We further investigated whether the hypothesized difficulties in flexibly updating behaviour based on external ..
  86. pmc Functional specialization within the striatum along both the dorsal/ventral and anterior/posterior axes during associative learning via reward and punishment
    Aaron T Mattfeld
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA
    Learn Mem 18:703-11. 2011
    The goal of the present study was to elucidate the role of the human striatum in learning via reward and punishment during an associative learning task...
  87. ncbi Waiting to perceive: reward or punishment?
    Cornelis H M Brunia
    Department of Psychology, Tilburg University, The Netherlands
    Clin Neurophysiol 122:858-68. 2011
    ..Special emphasis is given to the pre-feedback SPN and its origin within anterior insular cortex...
  88. ncbi Neural processing of reward and punishment in young people at increased familial risk of depression
    Ciara McCabe
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 72:588-94. 2012
    ..The aim of the present study was to determine whether similar abnormalities might be present in young people at increased familial risk of depression but with no personal history of mood disorder...
  89. pmc Impulsive choice and altruistic punishment are correlated and increase in tandem with serotonin depletion
    Molly J Crockett
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England
    Emotion 10:855-62. 2010
    ..The psychological factors that motivate such 'altruistic punishment' are not fully understood; some have argued that altruistic punishment is a deliberate act of norm enforcement ..
  90. ncbi Runaway selection for cooperation and strict-and-severe punishment
    Mayuko Nakamaru
    Department of Value and Decision Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2 12 1 W9 35, O Okayama, Meguro ku, Tokyo 152 8552, Japan
    J Theor Biol 257:1-8. 2009
    Punishing defectors is an important means of stabilizing cooperation. When levels of cooperation and punishment are continuous, individuals must employ suitable social standards for defining defectors and for determining punishment levels...
  91. ncbi Studying the neurobiology of social interaction with transcranial direct current stimulation--the example of punishing unfairness
    Daria Knoch
    Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, University of Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Cereb Cortex 18:1987-90. 2008
    ..Here we show that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can overcome these limits. We apply right prefrontal cathodal tDCS and show that subjects' propensity to punish unfair behavior is reduced significantly...
  92. ncbi Human behaviour: don't lose your reputation
    Ernst Fehr
    Nature 432:449-50. 2004
  93. pmc Punishment induces risky decision-making in methadone-maintained opiate users but not in heroin users or healthy volunteers
    Karen D Ersche
    Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Medicine, Addenbrooke s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:2115-24. 2005
    ..These findings are discussed with respect to the different mechanisms of action of heroin and methadone. Neuropsychopharmacology (2005) 30, 2115-2124. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300812; published online 6 July 2005...
  94. pmc Exploration dynamics in evolutionary games
    Arne Traulsen
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, D 24306 Plon, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:709-12. 2009
    ..For small mutation rates, cooperation (and punishment) is possible only if interactions are voluntary, whereas moderate mutation rates can lead to high levels of ..
  95. ncbi Attitudes predict the use of physical punishment: a prospective study of the emergence of disciplinary practices
    Brigitte Vittrup
    Department of Psychology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Pediatrics 117:2055-64. 2006
    ..We sought to track the emergence of discipline techniques by mothers of young children and assess the predictive validity of spanking attitudes with subsequent reports of spanking...
  96. ncbi Impaired decision making in oppositional defiant disorder related to altered psychophysiological responses to reinforcement
    Marjolein Luman
    Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Biol Psychiatry 68:337-44. 2010
    ..When making decisions, children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are thought to focus on reward and ignore penalty. This is suggested to be associated with a state of low psychophysiological arousal...
  97. ncbi Compulsive drug seeking by rats under punishment: effects of drug taking history
    Yann Pelloux
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 194:127-37. 2007
    ..Abstinence from drug occurs in human addicts for several reasons, including the avoidance of adverse consequences...
  98. pmc Punishment and spite, the dark side of cooperation
    Keith Jensen
    School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365:2635-50. 2010
    ..However, because selfish individuals will exploit cooperators, functional punishment is an effective mechanism for enforcing cooperation by deterring free-riding...
  99. pmc Correlates and consequences of spanking and verbal punishment for low-income white, african american, and mexican american toddlers
    Lisa J Berlin
    Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
    Child Dev 80:1403-20. 2009
    This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3...
  100. pmc Costly punishment does not always increase cooperation
    Jia Jia Wu
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Centre for Computational Biology and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:17448-51. 2009
    In a pairwise interaction, an individual who uses costly punishment must pay a cost in order that the opponent incurs a cost...
  101. ncbi Response perseveration and sensitivity to reward and punishment in boys with oppositional defiant disorder
    Walter Matthys
    Dept of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, P O Box 85500, 3508, GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13:362-4. 2004
    Response perseveration is the tendency to continue a response set for reward despite punishment. In the present study, response perseveration and sensitivity to reward and punishment were assessed in boys with oppositional defiant ..

Research Grants64

  1. The Neurochemistry of Cognitive Therapy: Predicting Treatment Outcome with PET
    Jeffrey M Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is a process in which subjects must establish and then reverse associations of specific stimuli with either punishment or reward, and is considered a measure of cognitive flexibility...
  2. Fatal Choice - Behavioral Economics of Vulnerability for Late-Life Suicide
    KATALIN NONE SZANTO; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..disadvantageous decisions in other contexts and exhibit impairments in value-based decision-making and reward/punishment-based learning...
  3. Effects of expectation on gustatory cortical activity
    Alfredo Fontanini; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..task, a go/no-go in which one tone cues the availability of a palatable taste (sucrose or NaCl) and the other a punishment (quinine) at a press of a lever, will reveal the effects of expectation of particular tastes having opposite ..
  4. Neurogenetic Model of Social Behavior Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorders
    Michael L Platt; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the extraction of social information from the environment, translation of that information into reward and punishment signals, and ultimate expression of this information in attention to others that promotes or inhibits further ..
  5. NEUROCOGNITIVE PREDICTORS OF SMOKING CESSATION
    Andrey P Anokhin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a key role in inhibitory regulation of behavior including response inhibition, action monitoring, and reward/punishment sensitivity...
  6. Young Children's Self-Regulation in an Urban Context: A Multilevel Analysis
    RACHEL ANNE RAZZA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Mother-child relationship characteristics include corporal punishment, maternal hostility, maternal warmth, and maternal depressive symptoms...
  7. NEUROCOGNITIVE CONSEQUENCES OF UNDERAGE DRINKING
    Andrey P Anokhin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..tap into specific aspects of executive functioning including action monitoring, response inhibition, reward and punishment processing, decision making, and executive attention...
  8. Behavioral disinhibition in early-onset alcoholism
    Peter R Finn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..magnitude is a more powerful approach to identifying the manner in which working memory, reward sensitivity, and punishment sensitivity interact and contribute to AD and EXT...
  9. Endocrine correlates of psychopathic traits in children: a multi-system approach
    ANDREA LORAINE GLENN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..psychopathic traits may result from an imbalance in two overarching hormone systems that regulate sensitivity to punishment and reward, leading to fearlessness, insensitivity to punishment, reward-seeking, and aggression...
  10. Effects of Negative Consequences on Drug Self Administration in Rats
    Jerry B Richards; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies will advance to our understanding of drug abuse by determining if punishment or delays to punishment have similar (or dissimilar) effects on drug (cocaine) and natural (water) reinforcers ..
  11. Adolescent risk-taking, dopamine signaling, and cocaine: a vicious circle
    Marci R Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..rats choose between small "safe" rewards and large "risky" rewards that are accompanied by varying risks of punishment (this task is a model of conditions in which highly rewarding choices are accompanied by risks of adverse ..
  12. Examination of endocannabinoid elevation and extinction learning
    JASON MICHAEL WIEBELHAUS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of a previously expressed behavior following a change in response contingency (removal of reinforcement/punishment)...
  13. Machine learning discovery of patterns of self regulation in drug addiction and I
    Rita Z Goldstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..positive but also negative reinforcement (going beyond the reward principle to study compromised sensitivity to punishment and adversity);using both to predict (3) self- regulation during neuroimaging (going beyond self-report as ..
  14. INTERACTION OF EMOTIONAL PERCEPTION AND VISUAL ATTENTION
    Luiz Pessoa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Affective significance will be manipulated in a number of ways, including aversive conditioning and reward/punishment (via monetary incentives)...
  15. Extending Response Modulation to Children with Callous/Unemotional Traits
    SARAH HAAS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..not related to CP-only) including deficits in identifying fear and sad emotions and deficits in learning from punishment. Perhaps not surprisingly then, antisocial behaviors among children with CP/CU are less strongly associated with ..
  16. Mechanisms of Neuronal Competition During Development
    Christopher D Deppmann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..survival factor (sensitization) while actively secreting a factor that expedites the death of weaker neighbors (punishment)...
  17. Reward Processing in Adolescence
    Beatriz Luna; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We do not yet have a clear understanding of how reward and punishment alter behavior in adolescence...
  18. Gains and Losses: Reward Processing in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder
    KATHERINE ROSE LUKING; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): This proposal explores how the neural and behavioral mechanisms involved in reward/punishment processing may be affected in pre-puberty onset Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)...
  19. Genetic Influences on Dual Processing Modes of Reward and Punishment Learning
    W TODD TODD MADDOX; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Deficiencies in reward and punishment processing are theoretical cornerstones of alcohol and substance dependence, addiction, and other psychopathology...
  20. Risk for Depression:Identifying and Altering Psychobiological Mechanisms
    Ian H Gotlib; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of awakening cortisol, smaller hippocampi, and anomalous neural functioning both in response to reward and punishment and while experiencing and regulating a sad mood...
  21. Cognitive and Behavioral Control in FTD
    Joel H Kramer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..errors, error correction), or whether they reflect a primary underlying deficit in the processing of reward and punishment. We propose to study 50 patients with mild bvFTD, 50 Alzheimer's disease patients matched for demographics ..
  22. Reducing Offenders'HIV Risk: MI Enhanced Case Management with Drug-Free Housing
    Douglas L Polcin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..California must release over 30,000 offenders because the extent of overcrowding constituted cruel and unusual punishment. It is not clear where these offenders will live once they are released or how they will access services they ..
  23. Determining the neurological and behavioral substrates of ethanol and discounting
    Travis M Moschak; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..may expand the examined circuitry to include other measures of impulsivity, as well as other factors (such as punishment contingencies or degree of effort required) that influence whether individuals initiate potentially deleterious ..
  24. Multimodal Neuroimaging of Adolescents and Young Adults with Anorexia Nervosa
    Allan L Reiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..coherence (exaggerated focus on detail to the neglect of the whole), and heightened sensitivity to reward and punishment. These inefficiencies may increase risk for AN given underlying brain abnormalities, and influence response to ..
  25. Functional and Anatomical Diversity in Human VTA and Subtantia Nigra
    Samuel M McClure; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In addition to differentiation on the basis of reward and punishment, this population of DA neurons also project to different target regions than the rest of the DA system...
  26. Identifying cognitive markers of late-life suicide
    Katalin Szanto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary data indicate that deficits in (1) specific aspects of cognitive control that involve reward/punishment processing, and in (2) social cognition distinguish depressed elderly suicide attempters from depressed non- ..
  27. Imaging Individual Differences in Amphetamine Effects
    Tara L White; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..amphetamine-induced increase in the neural activity and regions of activation associated with reward-related and punishment-related signal processing relevant to the drug's effects on mood and behavior...
  28. Substance Dependent Adolescents: Imaging Risk-Taking
    Thomas J Crowley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Failures to desist from risky behavior could result from biological differences in brain processing of reward, punishment, or decision-making...
  29. Imaging Individual Differences in Methamphetamine Effects
    Tara L White; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We expect elevated METH effects on brain responses to reward and punishment due to serotonergic impact of METH, and the modulation of these effects by a personality trait known to relate ..
  30. Modulation of Human Reward Circuitry by Social Factors
    Mauricio R Delgado; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of social interactions are factors that challenge current thinking of how the brain processes reward and punishment feedback and how it uses such information to make decisions...
  31. Auditory-cognitive mapping in the frontal cortex during perceptual interference
    NIKOLAS FRANCIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To explore this topic, we developed an auditory task in which animals learn to receive a reward or avoid punishment by, respectively, continuing or stopping to lick a water spout in response to acoustic cues...
  32. Exploring Factors for Future HIV Prevention in Malaysia
    Tooru Nemoto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transgenderism, and alcohol use are punished among Muslims;and illicit drug use risks severe punishment by law. Through the collaborative efforts among researchers in Malaysia and the U.S...
  33. Cocaine addiction: neuropharmacological mechanisms of compulsive cocaine use
    WenLin Sun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In particular, we will focus on the punishment process that is critically involved in inhibition of cocaine-seeking behavior by negative consequences...
  34. Prevention of child maltreatment: A focus on social norms and corporal punishment
    Catherine A Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..My overarching career goal is to contribute to the well-being of children by reducing the incidence of corporal punishment and child maltreatment...
  35. The development of neural responses to punishment in adolescence
    Russell A Poldrack; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in reward sensitivity across adolescence, very little research has examined the development of sensitivity to punishment. Recent research has demonstrated behaviorally that the ability to learn from punishment continues to develop ..
  36. Temporal Discounting of Punishment of Drug Choice
    William L Woolverton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, no information is available on the effects of delayed punishment on drug taking by non-humans...
  37. Affective Neuroscience of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
    William P Horan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..engagement will be measured with an active motivational gradient task, in which cues signaling reward or punishment appear to loom progressively closer to the viewer...
  38. Economic Evaluation of Recovery Management Checkups for Women Offenders (RMC-WO)
    Kathryn E McCollister; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These systems must balance punishment and rehabilitation while simultaneously dealing with addiction - a chronic, cyclical, and multidimensional ..
  39. Motivated Learning and Memory Neuroimaging Data Repository
    Kevin S LaBar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of medial temporal, striatal, and frontal regions involved in drug addiction, and a core set of reward and punishment-related tasks and manipulations suitable for meta-analysis...
  40. The effects of SAMe on reward circuitry in depression
    Diego Pizzagalli; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..investigate: (1) the effects of SAMe and escitalopram on neural substrates underlying processing of reward- and punishment-related cues; (2) pre-treatment behavioral and neural predictors of treatment response to SAMe and escitalopram; ..
  41. Improving Methadone Maintenance Treatment Compliance and Outcomes in China
    Yih Ing Hser; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..a form of contingency management) applies well-established psychological principles of reinforcement and punishment in order to change target behavior (e.g...
  42. Neural Encoding of Emotion in the Primate Amygdala
    KATALIN GOTHARD; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..positive or negative valence engage the same neuronal processes as neutral objects paired with reward or punishment, (3) whether neural activity in the amygdale predicts the autonomic and somatic expressions of emotion...
  43. Frontal Striatal Activity During Decision Making in Substance Abuse
    Jody Tanabe; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..made by SDI are mediated by reduced orbitofrontal activity during decisions that reflect magnitude of gains or punishment. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE This proposal is relevant to public health because of the considerable costs incurred ..
  44. BEHAVIORAL MECHANISM IN HIGH RISK POPULATIONS
    DON CHEREK; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..lack of sensitivity to aversive stimuli result in CD and ADHD individuals being less sensitive to the effects of punishment, extinction, changes in probability of reward and less likely to change their behavior accordingly, and more ..
  45. ALCOHOL, REGULATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLE MORTALITY
    Michael Grossman; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..estimate price/tax effects differ by age? Are drunken drivers more responsive to an increase in the certainty of punishment for driving while intoxicated than to an increase in the penalty for this offense? Is the recent rise in the ..
  46. COGNITIVE/ENERGETIC INTERACTIONS--CARDIOVASCULAR ASPECTS
    J Jennings; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Finally, we shall determine how a performance contingent punishment alters the cognitive-energetic interaction...
  47. PRESCRIBING PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS TO YOUTH: CULTURAL FACTORS IN PARENTAL ATTITUDES
    David Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..causes of youth disorders, perceived psychiatric medication treatment of youth stigma, acceptability of corporal punishment, and acceptability of psychotropic medication may be such factors...
  48. Emotion-Based Decision Making in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
    LINNEA ELIZABETH VAURIO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a widely used measure of decision making, simulating unpredictable reward and punishment contingencies of complex decision making and has not been used in alcohol-exposed populations...
  49. Neuronal Basis of Vicarious Reinforcement Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Michael L Platt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in ASD will be advanced by discovering and manipulating the neural mechanisms that derive vicarious reward and punishment from what happens to others...
  50. JUSTICE SYSTEM REFERRALS AND ALCOHOLISM TREATMENT IMPACT
    Richard Speiglman; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..collect quantitative data on trends in courts, reliance upon referral to alcoholism treatment in lieu of other punishment options, (c) collect quantitative data on trends in client referral into alcoholism treatment, (d) observe the ..
  51. Conduct Disorder and Depression in Childhood
    Theodore Beauchaine; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..987b), patterns of psychophysiological responding will be assessed in participants during conditions of reward, punishment, and social threat...
  52. Neural Substrates of Goal-Directed Learning in the Human Brain
    JOHN O DOHERTY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..which an animal or human learns to perform an action or sequence of actions in order to obtain reward or avoid punishment. Instrumental conditioning is composed of two distinct components: a goal-directed and a habit-learning ..
  53. Neural Mechanism by which Punishment Modulates Drug-Seeking
    Thomas C Jhou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our second aim is more translational, exploring the role of the RMTg in cocaine-seeking under punishment, as well as its contribution to individual variation in propensity to develop addictive behaviors.
  54. Follow Up of a Randomized Trial for Conduct Disorders (CD)
    John Eddy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..S. For several decades, the most common public policy response to these problems has been punishment, and the U.S. now has the highest incarceration rates in the world...
  55. Reward, Impulsivity and Cocaine Addiction; fMRI Studies
    Godfrey Pearlson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A specific part of this vulnerability is hypothesized to involve problems in the brain circuitry for reward and punishment expectation - a "Reward Deficit Hypothesis...
  56. Self-Regulation in Co-Occurring TBI and Substance Abuse
    Jennifer Bogner; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..show similar performance, while others appear to be extremely sensitive to rewards and under-responsive to punishment. The current project seeks to determine if the Gambling Task can be used to study self-regulation in persons ..
  57. Imaging Individual Differences in Amphetamine Effects
    TARA WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..amphetamine-induced increase in the neural activity and regions of activation associated with reward-related and punishment-related signal processing...
  58. Parenting and Type 1 Diabetes
    Randi Streisand; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..g., coercion, poor supervision, rejection, harsh/inconsistent punishment), underuse of effective parenting behaviors (e.g...
  59. How Stress Alters Neural Systems of Reinforcement: A Model of Depressive Etiology
    James Cavanagh; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Similarly, both stress and MDD may alter an individual's sensitivity to reward and punishment (reinforcement)...
  60. Emotions and Behavioral Outcomes in Neglected Children
    Michael Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..neglect and other forms of maltreatment, observation of negative parental interactions, and attitudes toward punishment will be assessed...
  61. ADULT OUTCOME OF ADHD CHILDREN--MENTAL & MEDICAL HEALTH
    Russell Barkley; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..violations/accidents, as well as direct assessment of intelligence, academic achievement, and response to mild punishment (response cost) contingencies will be used to evaluate all subjects...
  62. OPERANT ANALYSIS OF CHOICE AND SELF CONTROL
    Howard Rachlin; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..probability of outcome (directly experienced or verbally expressed) into operant terms-delay of reinforcement or punishment (as schedules or as discriminative stimuli for schedules)...
  63. Designing a Novel Behavioral Treatment Protocol for Children Characterized by Con
    ERIKA COLES; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..CP/CU may have distinct learning styles in that they over-focus on rewards and are less likely to learn from punishment (e.g., Blair, Mitchell, Budhani, Peschardt, &Newman, 2004;O'Brien &Frick, 1996)...
  64. Affective Dispositions and Attention to Emotion Info.
    RANDALL LARSEN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..these dispositions by posting 2 underlying brain systems (BAS and BIS) that are sensitive to cues of reward and punishment, respectively...