developing countries

Summary

Summary: Countries in the process of change directed toward economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.

Top Publications

  1. doi Maternal mortality for 181 countries, 1980-2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5
    Margaret C Hogan
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
    Lancet 375:1609-23. 2010
  2. ncbi 4 million neonatal deaths: when? Where? Why?
    Joy E Lawn
    Saving Newborn Lives Save the Children USA, and International Perinatal Care Unit, Institute of Child Health, London, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet 365:891-900. 2005
  3. doi Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study
    Karen L Kotloff
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Lancet 382:209-22. 2013
  4. pmc Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030
    Colin D Mathers
    Evidence and Information for Policy Cluster, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Med 3:e442. 2006
  5. ncbi Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: part I: general considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization
    S Yusuf
    Population Health Research Institute and Division of Cardiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Circulation 104:2746-53. 2001
  6. doi Countdown to 2015 decade report (2000-10): taking stock of maternal, newborn, and child survival
    Zulfiqar A Bhutta
    Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Lancet 375:2032-44. 2010
  7. ncbi WHO analysis of causes of maternal death: a systematic review
    Khalid S Khan
    Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Lancet 367:1066-74. 2006
  8. ncbi Maternal mortality: who, when, where, and why
    Carine Ronsmans
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 368:1189-200. 2006
  9. ncbi Achieving child survival goals: potential contribution of community health workers
    Andy Haines
    Director s office, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Lancet 369:2121-31. 2007
  10. doi Neonatal, postneonatal, childhood, and under-5 mortality for 187 countries, 1970-2010: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4
    JULIE KNOLL RAJARATNAM
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
    Lancet 375:1988-2008. 2010

Detail Information

Publications345 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi Maternal mortality for 181 countries, 1980-2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5
    Margaret C Hogan
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
    Lancet 375:1609-23. 2010
    ..We assessed levels and trends in maternal mortality for 181 countries...
  2. ncbi 4 million neonatal deaths: when? Where? Why?
    Joy E Lawn
    Saving Newborn Lives Save the Children USA, and International Perinatal Care Unit, Institute of Child Health, London, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet 365:891-900. 2005
    ..While we neglect these challenges, 450 newborn children die every hour, mainly from preventable causes, which is unconscionable in the 21st century...
  3. doi Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study
    Karen L Kotloff
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Lancet 382:209-22. 2013
    ..We designed the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) to identify the aetiology and population-based burden of paediatric diarrhoeal disease in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia...
  4. pmc Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030
    Colin D Mathers
    Evidence and Information for Policy Cluster, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Med 3:e442. 2006
    ..This paper describes the methods, assumptions, input data, and results...
  5. ncbi Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: part I: general considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization
    S Yusuf
    Population Health Research Institute and Division of Cardiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Circulation 104:2746-53. 2001
    ..and then provides estimates of the burden of cardiovascular (CV) diseases with specific focus on the developing countries. Next, we summarize key information on risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and indicate that ..
  6. doi Countdown to 2015 decade report (2000-10): taking stock of maternal, newborn, and child survival
    Zulfiqar A Bhutta
    Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Lancet 375:2032-44. 2010
    ..However, much more can and should be done to address maternal and newborn health and improve coverage of interventions related to family planning, care around childbirth, and case management of childhood illnesses...
  7. ncbi WHO analysis of causes of maternal death: a systematic review
    Khalid S Khan
    Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Lancet 367:1066-74. 2006
    ..Evidence-based health policies and programmes aiming to reduce maternal deaths need reliable and valid information. We undertook a systematic review to determine the distribution of causes of maternal deaths...
  8. ncbi Maternal mortality: who, when, where, and why
    Carine Ronsmans
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 368:1189-200. 2006
    ..Inequalities in the risk of maternal death exist everywhere. Targeting of interventions to the most vulnerable--rural populations and poor people--is essential if substantial progress is to be achieved by 2015...
  9. ncbi Achieving child survival goals: potential contribution of community health workers
    Andy Haines
    Director s office, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Lancet 369:2121-31. 2007
    ..The introduction of large-scale programmes for community health workers requires evaluation to document the impact on child survival and cost effectiveness and to elucidate factors associated with success and sustainability...
  10. doi Neonatal, postneonatal, childhood, and under-5 mortality for 187 countries, 1970-2010: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4
    JULIE KNOLL RAJARATNAM
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
    Lancet 375:1988-2008. 2010
    ..In view of policy initiatives and investments made since 2000, it is important to see if there is acceleration towards the MDG 4 target. We assessed levels and trends in child mortality for 187 countries from 1970 to 2010...
  11. doi Childhood obesity in developing countries: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention
    Nidhi Gupta
    Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    Endocr Rev 33:48-70. 2012
    ..practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina...
  12. doi Factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries: systematic review of the literature
    Bibha Simkhada
    Public Health Department and Dugald Baird Centre, University of Aberdeen, UK
    J Adv Nurs 61:244-60. 2008
    This paper is a report of a systematic review to identify and analyse the main factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries.
  13. ncbi How many child deaths can we prevent this year?
    Gareth Jones
    Division of Policy and Planning, United Nations Children s Fund, New York, NY 10017, USA
    Lancet 362:65-71. 2003
    ....
  14. ncbi Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys
    Koen Demyttenaere
    JAMA 291:2581-90. 2004
    ..Little is known about the extent or severity of untreated mental disorders, especially in less-developed countries...
  15. ncbi The burden and costs of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries
    Dele O Abegunde
    Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet 370:1929-38. 2007
    ..23 selected countries which account for around 80% of the total burden of chronic disease mortality in developing countries. In these 23 selected low-income and middle-income countries, chronic diseases were responsible for 50% of ..
  16. doi India's Janani Suraksha Yojana, a conditional cash transfer programme to increase births in health facilities: an impact evaluation
    Stephen S Lim
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
    Lancet 375:2009-23. 2010
    ..We independently assessed the effect of JSY on intervention coverage and health outcomes...
  17. pmc Where do poor women in developing countries give birth? A multi-country analysis of demographic and health survey data
    Dominic Montagu
    Global Health Group, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e17155. 2011
    ..To inform this debate, we examined delivery location and attendance and the reasons women report for giving birth at home...
  18. ncbi The emerging epidemic of obesity in developing countries
    Andrew M Prentice
    MRC International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 35:93-9. 2006
    ..WHO warns that the greater future burden of obesity and diabetes will affect developing countries, and the projected numbers of new cases of diabetes run into the hundreds of millions within the next 2 ..
  19. doi Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries
    Anoop Misra
    Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Fortis Flt Lt Rajan Dhall Hospital, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi 110070, India
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:S9-30. 2008
    Prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is rapidly increasing in developing countries, leading to increased morbidity and mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease.
  20. pmc Rates, barriers and outcomes of HIV serostatus disclosure among women in developing countries: implications for prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes
    Amy Medley
    Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of International Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, E5033, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 82:299-307. 2004
    This paper synthesizes the rates, barriers, and outcomes of HIV serostatus disclosure among women in developing countries. We identified 17 studies from peer-reviewed journals and international conference abstracts--15 from sub-Saharan ..
  21. ncbi Overcoming health-systems constraints to achieve the Millennium Development Goals
    Phyllida Travis
    Department of Health System Policies, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet 364:900-6. 2004
    ..The forthcoming Ministerial Summit on Health Research seeks to help define a learning agenda for health systems, so that by 2015, substantial progress will have been made to reducing the system constraints to achieving the MDGs...
  22. pmc Motivation and retention of health workers in developing countries: a systematic review
    Mischa Willis-Shattuck
    Centre for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    BMC Health Serv Res 8:247. 2008
    ..The authors undertook a systematic review to consolidate existing evidence on the impact of financial and non-financial incentives on motivation and retention...
  23. pmc Early loss of HIV-infected patients on potent antiretroviral therapy programmes in lower-income countries
    Martin W G Brinkhof
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Bern, Switzerland
    Bull World Health Organ 86:559-67. 2008
    ..To analyse the early loss of patients to antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in resource-limited settings...
  24. doi Global patterns of mortality in young people: a systematic analysis of population health data
    George C Patton
    Centre for Adolescent Health and Murdoch Children s Research Institute, Royal Children s Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Lancet 374:881-92. 2009
    ..We analysed worldwide rates and patterns of mortality between early adolescence and young adulthood...
  25. doi Effect of a participatory intervention with women's groups on birth outcomes and maternal depression in Jharkhand and Orissa, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial
    Prasanta Tripathy
    Ekjut, Chakradharpur, Jharkhand, India
    Lancet 375:1182-92. 2010
    ..Community mobilisation through participatory women's groups might improve birth outcomes in poor rural communities. We therefore assessed this approach in a largely tribal and rural population in three districts in eastern India...
  26. doi Hypertension in developing countries
    M Mohsen Ibrahim
    Department of Cardiology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Lancet 380:611-9. 2012
    Data from different national and regional surveys show that hypertension is common in developing countries, particularly in urban areas, and that rates of awareness, treatment, and control are low...
  27. ncbi Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries
    Roya Kelishadi
    Department of Preventive Pediatric Cardiology, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center WHO Collaborating Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
    Epidemiol Rev 29:62-76. 2007
    The incidence of chronic disease is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries than in industrialized countries...
  28. pmc Global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease in children
    Umesh D Parashar
    Viral Gastroenteritis Section, Division of Viral and Ricksettial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop G04, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:565-72. 2003
    ..The tremendous incidence of rotavirus disease underscores the urgent need for interventions, such as vaccines, particularly to prevent childhood deaths in developing nations...
  29. ncbi The WHO public-health approach to antiretroviral treatment against HIV in resource-limited settings
    Charles F Gilks
    Department of HIV AIDS, World Health Organization, Geneva 1211, Switzerland
    Lancet 368:505-10. 2006
    ..to antiretroviral therapy (ART) to enable scaling-up access to treatment for HIV-positive people in developing countries, recognising that the western model of specialist physician management and advanced laboratory monitoring ..
  30. ncbi Where and why are 10 million children dying every year?
    Robert E Black
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Lancet 361:2226-34. 2003
    ..A better understanding of child health epidemiology could contribute to more effective approaches to saving children's lives...
  31. ncbi What makes clinical research in developing countries ethical? The benchmarks of ethical research
    Ezekiel J Emanuel
    Department of Clinical Bioethics, Warren G Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1156, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:930-7. 2004
  32. pmc Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review
    Carlos A Monteiro
    Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, and Center for Epidemiological Studies in Health and Nutrition, Avenue Dr Arnaldo 715, São Paulo 01246 904, Brazil
    Bull World Health Organ 82:940-6. 2004
    ..The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity...
  33. pmc Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries
    Sally Grantham-McGregor
    Centre for International Child Health, Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK
    Lancet 369:60-70. 2007
    Many children younger than 5 years in developing countries are exposed to multiple risks, including poverty, malnutrition, poor health, and unstimulating home environments, which detrimentally affect their cognitive, motor, and social-..
  34. doi SMS for disease control in developing countries: a systematic review of mobile health applications
    Carole Deglise
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, PO Box, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    J Telemed Telecare 18:273-81. 2012
    Mobile phones provide a low cost method of addressing certain health system needs in developing countries. We examined SMS-supported interventions for prevention, surveillance, management and treatment compliance of communicable and non-..
  35. ncbi Continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health: from slogan to service delivery
    Kate J Kerber
    Saving Newborn Lives, Save the Children, Washington, DC, USA
    Lancet 370:1358-69. 2007
    ....
  36. doi Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in 36 developing and middle-income countries: a secondary analysis
    A Cameron
    Essential Medicines and Pharmaceutical Policies, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet 373:240-9. 2009
    ..Here, we present a secondary analysis of medicine availability in 45 national and subnational surveys done using the WHO/HAI methodology...
  37. ncbi Maternal health in poor countries: the broader context and a call for action
    Veronique Filippi
    Maternal and Neonatal Health Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Lancet 368:1535-41. 2006
    ..Finally, after examining the political and financial context, we call for action. The need for strategic vision, financial resources, human resources, and information are discussed...
  38. ncbi HIV voluntary counseling and testing and behavioral risk reduction in developing countries: a meta-analysis, 1990--2005
    Julie A Denison
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    AIDS Behav 12:363-73. 2008
    The effectiveness of HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) in reducing HIV risk behaviors in developing countries was assessed using meta-analytic methods...
  39. pmc Trends in mild, moderate, and severe stunting and underweight, and progress towards MDG 1 in 141 developing countries: a systematic analysis of population representative data
    Gretchen A Stevens
    Department of Health Statistics and Information Systems, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet 380:824-34. 2012
    ....
  40. pmc Global estimate of the incidence of clinical pneumonia among children under five years of age
    Igor Rudan
    Department of Medical Stastistics, Epidemiology and Medical Infomatics, School of Public Health Andrija Stampar, Zagreb, Croatia
    Bull World Health Organ 82:895-903. 2004
    ..In this paper we aim to estimate the worldwide incidence of clinical pneumonia in young children...
  41. ncbi The global burden of chronic diseases: overcoming impediments to prevention and control
    Derek Yach
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    JAMA 291:2616-22. 2004
    ..Lack of financial support retards capacity development for prevention, treatment, and research in most developing countries. Reasons for this include that up-to-date evidence related to the nature of the burden of chronic diseases ..
  42. ncbi Family planning: the unfinished agenda
    John Cleland
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, WC1 3DP
    Lancet 368:1810-27. 2006
    ..in raising the prevalence of contraceptive practice from less than 10% to 60% and reducing fertility in developing countries from six to about three births per woman...
  43. ncbi Conditional cash transfers for improving uptake of health interventions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review
    Mylene Lagarde
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Health Policy Unit, London, England
    JAMA 298:1900-10. 2007
    ..on certain behaviors, intended to provide access to social services, have been introduced in several developing countries. The effectiveness of these strategies in different contexts has not previously been the subject of a ..
  44. ncbi Poverty and access to health care in developing countries
    David H Peters
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St, Rm E8132, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1136:161-71. 2008
    ..The challenge remains to find ways to ensure that vulnerable populations have a say in how strategies are developed, implemented, and accounted for in ways that demonstrate improvements in access by the poor...
  45. doi Burden of endemic health-care-associated infection in developing countries: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Benedetta Allegranzi
    First Global Patient Safety Challenge, WHO Patient Safety, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet 377:228-41. 2011
    ..We aimed to assess the epidemiology of endemic health-care-associated infection in developing countries.
  46. doi The role of quality improvement in strengthening health systems in developing countries
    Sheila Leatherman
    School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, USA
    Int J Qual Health Care 22:237-43. 2010
    ..modern approaches to improving quality are increasingly used globally, their adoption remains sporadic in developing countries. Healthcare leaders and improvement experts representing 15 countries met in October 2008 to catalyze the ..
  47. doi Challenges to changing health behaviours in developing countries: a critical overview
    Frances E Aboud
    McGill University, Canada
    Soc Sci Med 75:589-94. 2012
    This overview of recent research on health behaviour change in developing countries shows progress as well as pitfalls...
  48. ncbi Double burden of noncommunicable and infectious diseases in developing countries
    I C Bygbjerg
    Copenhagen School of Global Health, Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 5 Øster Farimagsgade, DK 1014, Copenhagen K, Denmark
    Science 337:1499-501. 2012
    ....
  49. ncbi Mortality of HIV-1-infected patients in the first year of antiretroviral therapy: comparison between low-income and high-income countries
    Paula Braitstein
    Lancet 367:817-24. 2006
    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is being scaled up in developing countries. We compared baseline characteristics and outcomes during the first year of HAART between HIV-1-infected patients in low-income and high-income ..
  50. ncbi Child development: risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries
    Susan P Walker
    Epidemiology Research Unit, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica
    Lancet 369:145-57. 2007
    Poverty and associated health, nutrition, and social factors prevent at least 200 million children in developing countries from attaining their developmental potential...
  51. doi Overview of human papillomavirus-based and other novel options for cervical cancer screening in developed and developing countries
    Jack Cuzick
    Cancer Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, Mathematics and Statistics, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 26:K29-41. 2008
    ..These psychosocial aspects and the need for more information and educational programmes about HPV are also discussed in this article...
  52. pmc Behavioural interventions for HIV positive prevention in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Caitlin E Kennedy
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 1996, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 88:615-23. 2010
    ..prevention interventions among individuals infected and not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developing countries, and to assess the effectiveness of interventions targeted specifically at people living with HIV.
  53. pmc The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) of diarrheal disease in infants and young children in developing countries: epidemiologic and clinical methods of the case/control study
    Karen L Kotloff
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Center for Vaccine Development, 685 W Baltimore St, HSF 480, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 55:S232-45. 2012
    Diarrhea is a leading cause of illness and death among children aged <5 years in developing countries. This paper describes the clinical and epidemiological methods used to conduct the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), a 3-year, ..
  54. pmc Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries
    Saifuddin Ahmed
    Population, Family and Reproductive Health Department, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e11190. 2010
    ..The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries.
  55. ncbi How can we achieve and maintain high-quality performance of health workers in low-resource settings?
    Alexander K Rowe
    Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop F22, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Lancet 366:1026-35. 2005
    ..Furthermore, we recommend that ministries of health and international organisations should actively help translate research findings into action to improve health-worker performance, and thereby improve health...
  56. doi Effect of scaling up women's groups on birth outcomes in three rural districts in Bangladesh: a cluster-randomised controlled trial
    Kishwar Azad
    Perinatal Care Project, Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Shahbagh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Lancet 375:1193-202. 2010
    ..We assessed the effectiveness of a scaled-up development programme with women's groups to address maternal and neonatal care in three rural districts of Bangladesh...
  57. pmc A systematic review of inequalities in the use of maternal health care in developing countries: examining the scale of the problem and the importance of context
    Lale Say
    UNDP UNFPA WHO World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
    Bull World Health Organ 85:812-9. 2007
    ..Key health-care interventions can largely prevent these deaths, but their use is limited in developing countries, and is reported to vary between population groups...
  58. ncbi What are the economic consequences for households of illness and of paying for health care in low- and middle-income country contexts?
    Diane McIntyre
    Health Economics Unit, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Soc Sci Med 62:858-65. 2006
    ....
  59. pmc Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review
    Sydney Rosen
    Center for International Health and Development, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Med 4:e298. 2007
    ..In this paper we present a systematic review of patient retention in ART programs in sub-Saharan Africa...
  60. pmc Estimating child mortality due to diarrhoea in developing countries
    Cynthia Boschi-Pinto
    Child and Adolescent Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Bull World Health Organ 86:710-7. 2008
    ..The major objective of this study is to provide estimates of diarrhoea mortality at country, regional and global level by employing the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) standard...
  61. pmc Non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: context, determinants and health policy
    J J Miranda
    Non communicable Disease Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 13:1225-34. 2008
    ..Finally, the need for health system reform to strengthen primary care is highlighted as a major policy to reduce the toll of this rising epidemic...
  62. doi 3.6 million neonatal deaths--what is progressing and what is not?
    Joy E Lawn
    Saving Newborn Lives Save the Children US, Cape Town, South Africa
    Semin Perinatol 34:371-86. 2010
    ..A critical step is improving the quantity, quality and use of data to select and implement the most effective interventions and strengthen existing programs, especially at district level...
  63. doi Newborn survival: a multi-country analysis of a decade of change
    Joy E Lawn
    Save the Children, Cape Town, South Africa
    Health Policy Plan 27:iii6-28. 2012
    ..Accelerating progress requires data-driven investments and addressing context-specific implementation realities...
  64. pmc Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for changing HIV-related risk behavior in developing countries
    Virginia A Fonner
    Department of International Health, Social and Behavioral Interventions Program, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2012
    ..This review assesses the effects of all VCT types on HIV-related risk behaviors in low- and middle-income countries...
  65. doi Expansion of cancer care and control in countries of low and middle income: a call to action
    Paul Farmer
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Lancet 376:1186-93. 2010
    ..of new cancers by reduction of risk factors, strategies are needed to close the gap between developed and developing countries in cancer survival and the effects of the disease on human suffering...
  66. pmc Newborn-care training and perinatal mortality in developing countries
    Waldemar A Carlo
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
    N Engl J Med 362:614-23. 2010
    Of the 3.7 million neonatal deaths and 3.3 million stillbirths each year, 98% occur in developing countries. An evaluation of community-based interventions designed to reduce the number of these deaths is needed.
  67. doi Alma-Ata: Rebirth and Revision 6 Interventions to address maternal, newborn, and child survival: what difference can integrated primary health care strategies make?
    Zulfiqar A Bhutta
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Lancet 372:972-89. 2008
    ..Strengthening MNCH at the primary health-care level should be a priority for countries to reach their Millennium Development Goal targets for reducing maternal and child mortality...
  68. pmc Estimation of the burden of active and life-time epilepsy: a meta-analytic approach
    Anthony K Ngugi
    The Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, KEMRI, Kilifi, Kenya
    Epilepsia 51:883-90. 2010
    ..To estimate the burden of lifetime epilepsy (LTE) and active epilepsy (AE) and examine the influence of study characteristics on prevalence estimates...
  69. pmc The availability and affordability of selected essential medicines for chronic diseases in six low- and middle-income countries
    Shanti Mendis
    Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Bull World Health Organ 85:279-88. 2007
    ..To assess the availability and affordability of medicines used to treat cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease and glaucoma and to provide palliative cancer care in six low- and middle-income countries...
  70. ncbi Cohort profile: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study
    Cesar G Victora
    Programa de Pós Graduação em Epidemiologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Brasil
    Int J Epidemiol 35:237-42. 2006
  71. pmc Short message service (SMS) applications for disease prevention in developing countries
    Carole Deglise
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    J Med Internet Res 14:e3. 2012
    ..The ubiquity of mobile phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention efforts...
  72. pmc Strengthening public health surveillance and response using the health systems strengthening agenda in developing countries
    Peter Nsubuga
    Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program and Systems Africa Branch, Division of Public Health Systems and Workforce Development, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    BMC Public Health 10:S5. 2010
    There is increased interest in strengthening health systems for developing countries. However, at present, there is common uncertainty about how to accomplish this task...
  73. ncbi Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries. Part I: recent trends and current status
    Iruka N Okeke
    Department of Biology, Haverford College, Haverford, PA, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:481-93. 2005
    The global problem of antimicrobial resistance is particularly pressing in developing countries, where the infectious disease burden is high and cost constraints prevent the widespread application of newer, more expensive agents...
  74. doi Two million intrapartum-related stillbirths and neonatal deaths: where, why, and what can be done?
    Joy E Lawn
    Saving Newborn Lives Save the Children USA, Cape Town 7405, South Africa
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 107:S5-18, S19. 2009
    ....
  75. pmc Maternal health interventions in resource limited countries: a systematic review of packages, impacts and factors for change
    Angelo S Nyamtema
    Tanzanian Training Centre for International Health, Ifakara, Tanzania
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 11:30. 2011
    ..We systematically reviewed the impacts of interventions on maternal health and factors for change in these countries...
  76. ncbi The economic burden of illness for households in developing countries: a review of studies focusing on malaria, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
    Steven Russell
    School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:147-55. 2004
    ..Poor households in developing countries with a member with TB or HIV/AIDS struggled to cope, highlighting the urgent need for a substantial ..
  77. pmc Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge
    N Bruce
    Department of Public Health, University of Liverpool, England
    Bull World Health Organ 78:1078-92. 2000
    Around 50% of people, almost all in developing countries, rely on coal and biomass in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy. These materials are typically burnt in simple stoves with very incomplete combustion...
  78. ncbi Treating water with chlorine at point-of-use to improve water quality and reduce child diarrhea in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Benjamin F Arnold
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 7360, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:354-64. 2007
    ..Future studies with multi-year follow-up are required to assess the long-term acceptability and sustainability of health impacts shown by the shorter trials identified in this review...
  79. ncbi Barriers to improvement of mental health services in low-income and middle-income countries
    Benedetto Saraceno
    Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet 370:1164-74. 2007
    ..Population-wide progress in access to humane mental health care will depend on substantially more attention to politics, leadership, planning, advocacy, and participation...
  80. pmc The neglected epidemic: road traffic injuries in developing countries
    Vinand M Nantulya
    Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    BMJ 324:1139-41. 2002
  81. pmc The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000
    Margaret Kosek
    Division of Geographic and International Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 81:197-204. 2003
    ..There has not been a concurrent decrease in morbidity rates attributable to diarrhoea. As population growth is focused in the poorest areas, the total morbidity component of the disease burden is greater than previously...
  82. doi Approaches to tuberculosis screening and diagnosis in people with HIV in resource-limited settings
    Michael J A Reid
    Department of Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10467, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 9:173-84. 2009
    ..However, until simpler, cheaper, and more sensitive diagnostics for tuberculosis are available in peripheral healthcare settings, a strategy must be developed that uses current evidence to combine available screening tools...
  83. doi Timing of children's vaccinations in 45 low-income and middle-income countries: an analysis of survey data
    Andrew Clark
    Department of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 373:1543-9. 2009
    ..We estimated vaccination coverage at different ages, and delays in administration, in 45 low-income and middle-income countries...
  84. pmc Weight of nations: a socioeconomic analysis of women in low- to middle-income countries
    S V Subramanian
    Department of Society, Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 93:413-21. 2011
    ..The increasing trend in body mass index (BMI) and overweight in rapidly developing economies is well recognized...
  85. ncbi Preventing stroke: saving lives around the world
    Kathleen Strong
    Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet Neurol 6:182-7. 2007
    ..Achieving this goal for stroke would result in 6.4 million fewer deaths from stroke from 2005 to 2015. More of these deaths will be averted in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries...
  86. pmc The effect of case management on childhood pneumonia mortality in developing countries
    Evropi Theodoratou
    Public Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 39:i155-71. 2010
    ....
  87. ncbi Effect of pneumonia case management on mortality in neonates, infants, and preschool children: a meta-analysis of community-based trials
    Sunil Sazawal
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:547-56. 2003
    ..Community-based interventions to identify and treat pneumonia have a substantial effect on neonatal, infant, and child mortality and should be incorporated into primary health care...
  88. pmc 60 Million non-facility births: who can deliver in community settings to reduce intrapartum-related deaths?
    Gary L Darmstadt
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 107:S89-112. 2009
    ..For the world's 60 million non-facility births, addressing who is currently attending these births and what effect they have on birth outcomes is a key starting point toward improving care during childbirth...
  89. doi Research priorities to reduce global mortality from newborn infections by 2015
    Rajiv Bahl
    Department of Child and Adolescent Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:S43-8. 2009
    ..Appropriately targeted research is required to guide investment in effective interventions, especially in low resource settings. Setting global priorities for research to address neonatal infections is essential and urgent...
  90. ncbi Outcomes after two years of providing antiretroviral treatment in Khayelitsha, South Africa
    David Coetzee
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    AIDS 18:887-95. 2004
    ....
  91. doi An assessment of interactions between global health initiatives and country health systems
    Badara Samb
    World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet 373:2137-69. 2009
    ..If adjustments to the interactions between GHIs and country health systems will improve efficiency, equity, value for money, and outcomes in global public health, then these opportunities should not be missed...
  92. pmc Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in developing countries: epidemiology, microbiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention
    Firdausi Qadri
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:465-83. 2005
    ..Increases in antimicrobial resistance will dictate the drugs used for the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. Efforts need to be made to improve our understanding of the worldwide importance of ETEC...
  93. pmc Methods to assess the costs and health effects of interventions for improving health in developing countries
    David B Evans
    Health Systems Financing, Evidence and Information for Policy, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    BMJ 331:1137-40. 2005
  94. doi Infection control as a major World Health Organization priority for developing countries
    D Pittet
    Infection Control Programme, University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
    J Hosp Infect 68:285-92. 2008
    ..It complicates between 5 and 10% of admissions in acute care hospitals in industrialised countries. In developing countries, the risk is two to twenty times higher and the proportion of infected patients frequently exceeds 25%...
  95. pmc Measuring disability across cultures--the psychometric properties of the WHODAS II in older people from seven low- and middle-income countries. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey
    Renata M Sousa
    Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, Health Services and Population Research Department, London, UK
    Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 19:1-17. 2010
    ..More work is needed to assess the generalizability of our findings to different populations...
  96. pmc What you count is what you target: the implications of maternal death classification for tracking progress towards reducing maternal mortality in developing countries
    Suzanne Cross
    Immpact, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, Scotland
    Bull World Health Organ 88:147-53. 2010
    ..It is recommended that the potential effect of maternity services failing to take indirect maternal deaths into account should be modelled...
  97. doi Improvement of perinatal and newborn care in rural Pakistan through community-based strategies: a cluster-randomised effectiveness trial
    Zulfiqar A Bhutta
    Division of Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan zulfi
    Lancet 377:403-12. 2011
    ....
  98. pmc Inequalities in health care use and expenditures: empirical data from eight developing countries and countries in transition
    M Makinen
    Abt Associates Inc, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 78:55-65. 2000
    ..These analyses could be used to measure the impact of health policy changes on inequality...
  99. ncbi Prevalence and trends of overweight among preschool children in developing countries
    M de Onis
    Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, The World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Am J Clin Nutr 72:1032-9. 2000
    Obesity during childhood is a matter of growing concern. Several reports show increasing rates of obesity in developed countries, whereas the extent of the problem in developing countries remains unknown.
  100. pmc Poverty and common mental disorders in developing countries
    Vikram Patel
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, India
    Bull World Health Organ 81:609-15. 2003
    ..Secondary prevention must focus on strengthening the ability of primary care services to provide effective treatment...
  101. ncbi Obstructed labour
    J P Neilson
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Br Med Bull 67:191-204. 2003
    ..The sequelae of obstructed labour can be an enormous source of human misery and the prevention of obstetric fistulas, and skilled treatment if they do occur, are important priorities in regions where obstructed labour is still common...

Research Grants80

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and birth outcomes in Mexico City
    MARIE SYLVIA O'NEILL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Millions of women are exposed to ambient air pollution, and levels can be especially high in developing countries. Reducing infant mortality is one of the Millennium Development Goals, so the public health importance of ..
  2. Craig T Morita; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ....
  3. MOLECULAR BASIS OF INSULIN RESISTANCE
    Maureen J Charron; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Results of these studies may yield new information for setting guidelines for pregnant and lactating women that may protect offspring from enhanced susceptibility to these metabolic diseases. ..
  4. A quantitative proteomics approach to understand viral immune evasion strategies
    Michele E Hardy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..S. In developing countries, approximately 2 million children die of dehydrating diarrhea every year and nearly half of these are due ..
  5. Roy Curtiss Iii; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..In developing countries, bacterial enteropathogens in food animals are major factors that decrease productivity of livestock ..
  6. Biochemistry and Function of a Novel Bacterial Photosensory Two-Component System
    MELISSA MARKS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Waterborne microbial infection is a significant public health concern, particularly in developing countries where sanitation facilities are inadequate...
  7. Role of stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 in TLR5 KO mice colitis and metabolic syndrome
    Matam Vijay Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of obesity and diabetes are increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world, in both developed and developing countries. A link between the intestinal microbiota, low-grade chronic inflammation and metabolic syndrome has been ..
  8. Mechanisms of Heme Transport in Macrophages
    CARINE CARINE WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..iron deficiency one of the top ten risk factors for losing healthy years of life in both developed and developing countries. In the United States, iron deficiency is most prevalent among minority females and young children...
  9. Effect of diet & commensal bacteria on diabetes outcome in NOD mouse
    Li Wen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..lactobacilli which are not pathogenic, or helminths that cause the parasitic infections that are found in developing countries. The idea is that these organisms stimulate regulatory T cells by influencing the maturation of dendritic ..
  10. Vitamin A adjuvant to enhance gut immunity and rotavirus vaccines in neonates
    Linda J Saif; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Their high costs remain obstacles to universal adoption. In developing countries, widespread vitamin A deficiencies (VAD) compromise children's health, gut immune responses and ..
  11. Satish C Kalhan; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..retardation (IUGR), defined as weight <2500gms at term gestation, remains a critical problem in the developing countries and is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality...
  12. Enhanced Membrane Systems for Supplying Quality Drinking Water
    Andrew Feiring; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cholera, typhoid) are now uncommon in the developed world, the continue to be a major cause of disease in developing countries and waterborne disease kills more people worldwide than all forms of violence...
  13. Vijay Sharma; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..S. or other developing countries. Thus, PET tracers demonstrating high myocardial first pass extraction, rapid clearance from the liver, ..
  14. The Role of H6PDH and 11beta-HSD1 in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity
    Yanjun Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes has reached global epidemic prevalence in both the developed and developing countries. Patients with glucocorticoid (GC) excess (Cushing's syndrome) develop reversal obesity and insulin ..
  15. Analysis of the functions of axon guidance genes during vector mosquito developme
    MOLLY DUMAN SCHEEL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Such diseases have resurged in developing countries and are also emerging as clear threats for epidemic outbreaks in developed countries...
  16. Human developmental toxicity of metal mixture exposure from e-waste recycling
    Aimin Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..but inappropriate and unregulated recycling exposes the workers and residents in many towns and villages in developing countries. Public health investigations into the exposure levels and potential toxicity in vulnerable population are ..
  17. Mechanism of Translation Elongation Factor 2 Inhibition by Bacterial Toxins
    Terri Goss Kinzy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Developing countries still experience outbreaks of Diphtheria, concerns regarding re-immunization and continued protection ..
  18. Epidemiological Research on Autism in Jamaica
    Mohammad H Rahbar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In most developing countries, however, the nature and prevalence of factors associated with ASDs are unknown...
  19. Best Management of Sigmoid Volvulus: a Prospective Randomized Trial
    JONATHAN CHARLES SAMUEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Despite sigmoid volvulus being a frequent cause of death in many developing countries, only one prospective randomized trial has ever been conducted and this trial suffered from several ..
  20. Role of Lipoproteins in Chagasic heart disease
    JYOTHI FALGUNI NAGAJYOTHI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..social and economic implications in most Latin American countries and among immigrant populations in developing countries, and is responsible for millions of deaths annually...
  21. Multivalent Vaccine for Opiate Addiction
    Paul R Pentel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the possibility of being combined with existing medications to augment compliance or efficacy, and use in developing countries which lack the infrastructure needed to deliver agonist or partial agonist treatment...
  22. Honggao Yan; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..pneumoniae. The bacterial genes identified in this project can be targeted to treat and prevent S. pneumoniae disease by disarming the immune evasion arsenals of S. pneumoniae through novel anti-bacterial drugs and vaccines. ..
  23. Multiplex Serodiagnostic Protein Microarray
    PHILIP LOUIS FELGNER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..annual changes in the prevalence of infections in endemic regions, and for monitoring the blood supply in developing countries. The chips will also be useful for assessing the spread of exposure in a population following a ..
  24. Vaccines for Sustainable Therapy of Opiate Addiction
    Frank M Orson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  25. ADAM CARL LEVINE; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Nearly two million children in developing countries die each year from severe dehydration due to diarrhea...
  26. The development of probiotic yeast as an inexpensive vaccine delivery platform
    TRACEY JANE LAMB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..currently exist to protect against infection with rotavirus and cholera, uptake of these vaccines in developing countries is poor due to the financial cost...
  27. Pathogenic Mechanisms of Shiga Toxins
    Vernon L Tesh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..coli cause bloody diarrheal diseases which continue to be a major public health concern in developed and developing countries. Patients infected with Stx-producing bacteria are at increased risk for the development of life- ..
  28. Chantel L Martin; Fiscal Year: 2014
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Obesity is a growing public health concern in developed and developing countries. As of 2010, an estimated 43 million children were obese and 92 million were at risk of becoming overweight...
  29. DANIEL S MUCIDA; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..proper protective inflammation is also directly linked to susceptibility to infection, a major concern in developing countries. Nowhere is the balance between protective inflammation against pathogens and tolerance towards innocuous ..
  30. MICHAEL JOHN KIMBER; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..by helminths (nematodes and flatworms) perpetuate socioeconomic instability in profoundly impoverished developing countries, inflicting crippling morbidity and/or significant mortality...
  31. Lab-on-a-chip for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia Screening
    Vijay Srinivasan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Kernicterus manifests as a life-long movement disorder with occulomotor and auditory dysfunction. In developing countries such as India, 5%-12% of all newborns are reported to develop severe hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn ..
  32. Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..endemic in many parts of the world, imposing a significant burden of morbidity and mortality, especially on developing countries. The field of V...
  33. Cookstove Replacement for Prevention of ARI and Low Birthweight in Nepal
    JAMES MACK TIELSCH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..at reducing the burden of mortality and morbidity among women and children in high-risk populations in developing countries. At our field site in southern Nepal, acute respiratory illness (ARI) has been a leading cause of mortality ..
  34. Molecular Imaging Probes for Reporting on Vascular Oxidative Response
    Alexei A Bogdanov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..With cases on the rise in the developing countries as well the associated raising costs in managing the afflicted population will have global implications and ..
  35. Sarosh Rana; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..It is the leading cause of maternal death in developing countries and premature delivery in developed nations...
  36. Effects of Maternal Influenza Immunization: A Field Trial in Guatemala'
    Saad B Omer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..immunization could provide an important tool to combat respiratory disease in early infancy -not only in developing countries but also in many developed and middle income countries as there is no influenza vaccine currently approved ..
  37. Genetic and Cellular Basis of Resistance/Sensitivity to Myocardial Ischemia
    Howard J Jacob; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..5% of deaths in the developing countries. Myocardial infarction remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite anti-atherosclerotic ..
  38. Does ArsenicMitigation in BangladeshRaiseExposure to Bacterial and ViralPathogens
    ALEXANDER FRANS VAN GEEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..proposes to generate new knowledge concerning the ecology of organisms causing diarrheal disease in developing countries, by investigating the potential linkages between hydrogeology, the distribution of microbial pathogens in ..
  39. Planning a clinical trial of Flash-heated breast milk to decrease morbidity, impr
    Caroline J Chantry; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..transmission in HIV-exposed infants The World Health Organization recommends that HIV positive mothers in developing countries exclusively breastfeed for 6 months, and then stop once safe and nutritious foods are available...
  40. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Ultrasound Measures of Fetal Growth
    MICHELLE WILHELM TURNER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Since motor vehicle usage will continue to grow and degrade urban air quality in both developed and developing countries, information on how exposures to traffic pollutants impact fetal development is essential from a public ..
  41. Sanjay Rajagopalan; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..to be true in humans, then it may provide insights into the epidemic of T2DM and cardiovascular disease in developing countries which sit at the confluence of high exposures to such pollutants over a life time and inadequate resources ..
  42. Phase I Study to Evaluate Safety and Toxicity of EGCG in HIV-1-Infected Subjects
    Christina L Nance; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..More than 95% of new infections occur in developing countries where limited resources and cultural factors make containment of the epidemic difficult...
  43. Amberlyn M Wands; Fiscal Year: 2014
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is endemic to developing countries, in which acute infectious diarrhea is the second most common cause of childhood death, and millions of traveler's per ..
  44. Tony Romeo; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Thus, an understanding of the conditions and stimuli affecting SirA and CsrA activities and the mechanisms by which these proteins coordinate virulence and metabolic gene expression may be applicable to a broad range of pathogens. ..
  45. Heterologous abs from llama and chicken egg yolk to prevent rotavirus diarrhea
    Linda J Saif; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will benefit llama livestock production, as well as regional micro-economies for Argentina or other poorer developing countries of South America (Peru, Bolivia, etc) engaged in Camelid production...
  46. Functions of nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerases in Trypanosomes
    Ruslan Aphasizhev; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Trypanosomatids are the causative agents of major parasitic diseases in developing countries around the world. Considering the occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis among U.S...
  47. Philippe Gros; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..worldwide travel are but a few factors that have increased the severity of the problem not only in developing countries, but also for people traveling to these regions, and for individuals with reduced immune functions...
  48. Effect of a sanitation &nutrition intervention on HIV-exposed infant health
    JEAN HAWES HUMPHREY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Early BF cessation is recommended by WHO as one way to minimize MTCT, but several studies in developing countries have observed high rates of associated gastroenteritis, growth faltering, and mortality...
  49. Lactogenic immunity/probiotics: Effect on neonatal gut immunity
    Linda J Saif; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Newly licensed oral RV vaccines have unproven or lower efficacies in developing countries and high costs remain obstacles to universal adoption...
  50. International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health
    NELSON K STEENLAND; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Occupational hazards are also frequently worse in developing countries. In Peru research studies funded by the current Fogarty grant to Emory have demonstrated that pesticide ..
  51. Investigating SloR virulence gene metalloregulation in S. mutans.
    Grace A Spatafora; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Taken together, these studies can facilitate the design of new therapeutic agents that target SloR activity so that caries may be controlled or eliminated. ..
  52. Ralph L Sacco; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..disease comprise two of the top three leading causes of death in the US and are of increasing importance in developing countries. While heart disease is the leading cause of death, stroke is the leading cause of long-term disability...
  53. 16th ISBRA Conference
    Edward P Riley; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It is an international problem, and one that is increasing, particularly in developing countries and countries whose economies are rapidly growing...
  54. Michelle H Larsen; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..effective against both infections would be a major advance in the global war against pediatric diseases in developing countries. We hypothesize that highly attenuated Mtb mc25226, or its derivatives, expressing HIV antigens (rAMtb-HIV) ..
  55. Shruti H Mehta; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..However, little work has been done in developing countries which represent the fastest growing HIV epidemics among IDUs...
  56. Xi Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..NVs) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis, affecting people of all ages, in both developed and developing countries. The wide spread nature of NVs due to the low infection dose and the high stability and resistance to ..
  57. MALCOLM JAMES LOW; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..by applicant): One of the greatest current threats to health and lifespan in both the Western world and developing countries is overweight and obesity due to the predisposition for type-2DM, cardiovascular disease, and other ..
  58. Optimized Adaptation of Simian-tropic R5 HIV Clade C to Pig-tailed Macaques
    RUTH MARGRIT RUPRECHT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are significant because they focus on the development of an NHP model of HIV-C, which predominates in developing countries where the AIDS epidemic continues to escalate and will thus create a new tool for the preclinical ..
  59. A family of novel mitochondrially-encoded peptides and their role in aging
    Pinchas Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to have trebled, with an estimated 700 million people aged 65 years and over of whom 70% will be in developing countries. Of particular significance is the growth of the oldest old in the population whose medical care and other ..
  60. Investigating SloR virulence gene metalloregulation in S. mutans.
    Grace Spatafora; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. Vitamin D Inhibition of HIV and M. Tuberculosis Coinfection in Macrophages
    Stephen A Spector; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that can inhibit Mtb, permit treatment of HIV without complex drug-drug interactions and are affordable in developing countries. Mtb is an intracellular pathogen that persists within macrophage phagosomes through interference with ..
  62. Discovery of Vibrio cholerae factors contributing to virulence in Drosophila.
    ALEXANDRA ELIZABETH PURDY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: V. cholerae causes deadly epidemic disease in developing countries. As of yet, no effective vaccine has been developed. By investigating V...
  63. Investigations of the role of house flies as vectors for bacterial pathogens
    Dana Nayduch; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In rural areas of developing countries, hyperendemicity of gastroenteritis among infants and children is attributed to filth fly presence in ..
  64. MICRONUTRIENTS AND ENTERIC INFECTION IN AFRICAN CHILDREN
    MICHAEL BENNISH; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Enteric infections remain a leading cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. In regions where HIV infection is prevalent, enteric infections and persistent diarrhea have even greater public health importance...
  65. Development of a novel vaccine for protection against gammaherpesvirus infection
    Blossom A Damania; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, this collaborative project integrates the PI's expertise in KSHV and RRV, with Dr. Desrosiers'expertise in vaccine design and development, and the use of primate infection models for RRV. ..
  66. MICRONUTRIENTS AND ENTERIC INFECTION IN AFRICAN CHILDREN
    Sherwood Gorbach; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Enteric infections remain a leading cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. In regions where HIV infection is prevalent, enteric infections and persistent diarrhea have even greater public health importance...
  67. DISSEMINATED TUBERCULOSIS IN HIV INFECTION
    C von Reyn; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Thus, in developing countries dMTB may be a more important cause of HIV-associated mortality than pMTB...
  68. DRW HIV-Ab/HBsAg Duplex Rapid Test submission for FDA-PMA approval
    Helen Lee; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..test in the United States and Europe, and as a pre- and post-donation screening test in blood banks in developing countries especially those that process less than 10,000 donations per year and are located in regions of high ..
  69. Leishmania major nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis and affects 12 million people in 88 countries, of which 72 are considered developing countries. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk to infection by the different species of Leishmania...
  70. A Low-Cost Upper-Extremity Prosthesis for Under-Served Populations
    BRADLEY VEATCH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  71. Solar Water Disinfection: Randomized Intervention Trial
    JOHN COLFORD; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..provided by applicant): More than one third of the population in rural and in peri-urban areas of developing countries have no access to sufficient or clean drinking water free of pathogens...
  72. WORKSHOP ON THE ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF HIV INFECTION
    John Greenspan; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..requests funding to permit attendance and active participation of young scientists, predominantly from developing countries, at the Fourth International Workshop on the Oral Manifestations of HIV Infection to be held in South ..
  73. Behavioral Health Informatics Capacity-Building in China
    Robert Friedman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The long range goal is to spread behavioral informatics research capacity throughout China and in other developing countries. The first step in this process will be to establish a behavioral informatics research laboratory in Hong ..
  74. ETHICAL ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL HEALTH RESEARCH
    Richard Cash; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..public health specialists, lawyers, and anthropologists, many with extensive experience working in developing countries. The course was highly rated by the forty-two participants (from 14 countries)...
  75. SECOND INT1 WORKSHOP-ORAL MANIFESTION OF HIV INFECTION
    John Greenspan; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..requests funding to permit attendance and active participation of young scientists, predominately from developing countries, at the Second International Workshop on the Oral Manifestations of HIV Infection to be held in San ..
  76. INDO-US Collaboration to Develop Rotavirus Vaccines
    Pratima Ray; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..However, morbidity and mortality are most serious in developing countries. Disease burden studies have established rotavirus as an important cause of diarrhea and death in Indian ..
  77. Botswana Research Ethics Network: A Cross-National Approach to Ethics Review
    Jon F Merz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..S. and developing countries to "Increase administrative, scientific, socio-cultural and ethical competencies of IRB members and staff ..
  78. INFECTION, IMMUNIZATION AND HOST POPULATION DYNAMICS
    A John; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Ultimately, the design of optimal immunization programs for developing countries will be considered, and the economic and policy implications of such programs evaluated...