Summary: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
Publications197 found, 100 shown here
- Increasing response rates to postal questionnaires: systematic reviewPhil Edwards
CRASH Trial Co ordinating Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1B 1DP
BMJ 324:1183. 2002..To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires...
- Feasibility of using web-based questionnaires in large population-based epidemiological studiesAlexandra Ekman
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels vag 12a, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
Eur J Epidemiol 21:103-11. 2006..We conclude that web-based questionnaires are a feasible tool for data collection in large population based epidemiological studies in Sweden...
- Internet versus mailed questionnaires: a randomized comparisonPhilip Ritter
Stanford University School of Medicine, Patient Education Research Center, Suite 204, 1000 Welch Rd, Palo Alto, CA, USA
J Med Internet Res 6:e29. 2004..Many self-report instruments have been validated using paper-and-pencil versions, but we cannot assume that the psychometric properties of an Internet-based version will be identical...
- Does non-responder bias have a significant effect on the results in a postal questionnaire study?J T Kotaniemi
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Paijat Hame Central Hospital, Lahti, Finland
Eur J Epidemiol 17:809-17. 2001..The aim of our paper is to assess if the results found in our previous postal questionnaire study in an adult population in Northern Finland were biased by non-response...
- Physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders in New Zealand nurses, postal workers and office workersHelen Harcombe
Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Inj Prev 16:96-100. 2010..To investigate the association of physical and psychosocial risk factors with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in New Zealand nurses, postal workers and office workers...
- A randomized trial of mailed questionnaires versus telephone interviews: response patterns in a surveyHelene Feveile
National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark
BMC Med Res Methodol 7:27. 2007..Mode of data collection can affect the propensity to refuse to respond and result in different patterns of responses. The objective of this paper is to examine and quantify effects of mode of data collection in health surveys...
- Using telephone interviews to reduce nonresponse bias to mail surveys of health plan membersFloyd Jackson Fowler
Center for Survey Research, University of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts 02125, USA
Med Care 40:190-200. 2002..To assess the nonresponse bias associated with mail-survey returns and the potential for telephone interviews with nonrespondents to reduce that bias...
- Cost-effectiveness of a lottery for increasing physicians' responses to a mail surveyG Baron
Eval Health Prof 24:47-52. 2001..In conclusion, a lottery resulted in a small but statistically significant increase in the response rate of physicians to a mail survey. This method may be a cost-effective option when applied to large surveys...
- Response rates in postal surveys of healthcare professionals between 1996 and 2005: an observational studyJulia V Cook
Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, 21 Claremont Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AA, UK
BMC Health Serv Res 9:160. 2009....
- Survey nonresponse is associated with increased mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in a community populationMarkku Kauppi
Rheumatism Foundation Hospital, Heinola, Finland
J Rheumatol 32:807-10. 2005..To determine whether nonresponse to a mailed health survey predicts mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in a community sample in Finland...
- Improving the response rates to questionnairesLiam Smeeth
BMJ 324:1168-9. 2002
- Match rate and positional accuracy of two geocoding methods for epidemiologic researchF Benjamin Zhan
Department of Geography, Texas Center for Geographic Information Science, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA
Ann Epidemiol 16:842-9. 2006..This study compares the match rate and positional accuracy of two geocoding methods: the popular geocoding tool in ArcGIS 9.1 and the Centrus GeoCoder for ArcGIS...
- Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, United States, 2001: epidemiologic findingsDaniel B Jernigan
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 8:1019-28. 2002..Continued vigilance for cases is needed among health-care providers and members of the public health and law enforcement communities...
- Prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal disorders in New Zealand nurses, postal workers and office workersHelen Harcombe
Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, New Zealand
Aust N Z J Public Health 33:437-41. 2009..To describe the prevalence, characteristics and impact of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in New Zealand nurses, postal workers and office workers...
- Equivalence of mail and telephone responses to the CAHPS Hospital SurveyHan de Vries
RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA 90407 2138, USA
Health Serv Res 40:2120-39. 2005..To estimate the effect of survey mode (mail versus telephone) on reports and ratings of hospital care...
- Mailed prescriber feedback in addition to a clinical guideline has no impact: a randomised, controlled trialJens Søndergaard
Research Unit of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C
Scand J Prim Health Care 21:47-51. 2003..To evaluate the impact of feedback on the prescribing of antibiotics supplementary to clinical guidelines in the treatment of respiratory tract infections...
- Web-based and mailed questionnaires: a comparison of response rates and complianceKatarina Augustsson Bälter
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Epidemiology 16:577-9. 2005..We assessed response rates and compliance for a printed questionnaire and a Web questionnaire in a Swedish population-based study and explored the influence of adding personalized feedback to the Web questionnaire...
- Postcard intervention for repeat self-harm: randomised controlled trialAnnette L Beautrais
Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, 464 Congress Avenue, Suite 260, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
Br J Psychiatry 197:55-60. 2010..Self-harm and suicidal behaviour are common reasons for emergency department presentation. Those who present with self-harm have an elevated risk of further suicidal behaviour and death...
- Zip code caveat: bias due to spatiotemporal mismatches between zip codes and US census-defined geographic areas--the Public Health Disparities Geocoding ProjectNancy Krieger
Department of Health and Social Behavior, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Am J Public Health 92:1100-2. 2002
- Epidemiologic investigations of bioterrorism-related anthrax, New Jersey, 2001Carolyn M Greene
Centers for Desease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 8:1048-55. 2002..anthracis-containing letters were processed. Cross-contaminated mail or equipment was the likely source of infection in two other case-patients with cutaneous anthrax...
- Mailborne transmission of anthrax: Modeling and implicationsGlenn F Webb
Department of Mathematics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:7027-32. 2002..The model simulates the recent outbreak in the United States, and provides a general framework to investigate the potential impact of possible future outbreaks...
- Adherence to antimicrobial inhalational anthrax prophylaxis among postal workers, Washington, D.C., 2001Mariaelena D Jefferds
Centers for Desease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 8:1138-44. 2002..C., Processing and Distribution Center of the U.S. Postal Service; inhalational anthrax developed in four workers at this facility...
- Does a monetary incentive improve the response to a postal questionnaire in a randomised controlled trial? The MINT incentive studySimon Gates
Warwick Medical School Clinical Trials Unit, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
Trials 10:44. 2009....
- Mode effects for collecting alcohol and other drug use data: Web and U.S. mailSean Esteban McCabe
University of Michigan Substance Abuse Research Center, 47S Market Place, Suite D, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 1649, USA
J Stud Alcohol 63:755-61. 2002..The present study examined mode effects for collecting alcohol and other drug use data using a Web-based survey mode and a U.S. mail-based survey mode for comparison...
- Effects of survey mode on self-reports of adult alcohol consumption: a comparison of mail, web and telephone approachesMichael W Link
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE Mailstop K 66, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3717, USA
J Stud Alcohol 66:239-45. 2005..The present study examines differences in self-reports of alcohol consumption among adult members of the general public surveyed by mail, Web and telephone...
- Inhalational anthrax outbreak among postal workers, Washington, D.C., 2001Puneet K Dewan
Centers for Desease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 8:1066-72. 2002..Prophylaxis was necessary for all employees. To protect postal workers against bioterrorism, measures to reduce the risk of occupational exposure are necessary...
- Effect of mailed feedback on drug prescribing profiles in general practice: a seven-year longitudinal study in Storstrøm County, DenmarkKeld Vægter
Uppsala University, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, Uppsala, Sweden
Ups J Med Sci 115:238-44. 2010..Most short-term studies showed no effect. However, the issue has not been tested in long-term studies involving the local general practitioner community...
- Maximising response to postal questionnaires--a systematic review of randomised trials in health researchRachel A Nakash
Warwick Emergency Care and Rehabilitation, Warwick Medical School, Gibbet Hill Campus, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL, UK
BMC Med Res Methodol 6:5. 2006..The purpose of this review is to assess the efficacy of methods of increasing response to postal questionnaires in health care studies on patient populations...
- Internet versus mailed questionnaires: a controlled comparison (2)Pam Leece
Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton ON, Canada
J Med Internet Res 6:e39. 2004..Low response rates among surgeons can threaten the validity of surveys. Internet technologies may reduce the time, effort, and financial resources needed to conduct surveys...
- Collecting saliva by mail for genetic and cotinine analyses in participants recruited through the InternetJean Francois Etter
Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Geneva, CMU, 1 rue Michel Servet, Geneva 4, CH 1211, Switzerland
Eur J Epidemiol 20:833-8. 2005..This approach should be valuable for genetic epidemiology and pharmacogenetic research...
- The impact of a worksite migraine intervention program on work productivity, productivity costs, and non-workplace impairment among Spanish postal service employees from an employer perspectiveTeofila Vicente-Herrero
Correos y Telégrafos de España, Valencia, Spain
Curr Med Res Opin 20:1805-14. 2004..Migraine is associated with a significant productivity loss to employers, who may benefit from making a migraine intervention available to their employees...
- Patient satisfaction measurement strategies: a comparison of phone and mail methodsT E Burroughs
BJC Center for Healthcare Quality and Effectiveness, 600 South Taylor Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Jt Comm J Qual Improv 27:349-61. 2001....
- Alternative modes for health surveillance surveys: an experiment with web, mail, and telephoneMichael W Link
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
Epidemiology 16:701-4. 2005..Little is known, however, about how responses obtained in Web surveys compare with those from mail or telephone surveys...
- Comparing web and mail responses in a mixed mode survey in college alcohol use researchSean Esteban McCabe
Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, 2025 Traverwood, Suite C, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 2194, USA
Addict Behav 31:1619-27. 2006..This exploratory study examined potential mode effects (web versus U.S. mail) in a mixed mode design survey of alcohol use at eight U.S. colleges...
- Effect of paper quality on the response rate to a postal survey: a randomised controlled trial. ISRCTN 32032031T J Clark
Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Birmingham Women s Hospital, Birmingham, UK
BMC Med Res Methodol 1:12. 2001..Response rates to surveys are declining and this threatens the validity and generalisability of their findings. We wanted to determine whether paper quality influences the response rate to postal surveys..
- Randomized trial of financial incentives and delivery methods for improving response to a mailed questionnaireMichele Morin Doody
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Am J Epidemiol 157:643-51. 2003..07). A 1.00 US dollar bill, chosen instead of the 2.00 US dollars bill because of substantially lower overall cost and sent by first-class mail to the remaining 42,717 nonresponders, increased response from 64% to 72%...
- Effect of prize draw incentive on the response rate to a postal survey of obstetricians and gynaecologists: a randomised controlled trial. [ISRCTN32823119]Sharon H Moses
Worcestershire Royal Hospital, Worcester WR5 1DD UK
BMC Health Serv Res 4:14. 2004..We wanted to establish whether the incentive of being entered into a prize draw to win a personal digital assistant (PDA) would increase the response rate for a national survey of consultant obstetricians and gynaecologists...
- Differences in mail and telephone responses to self-rated health: use of multiple imputation in correcting for response biasJ R Powers
Research Centre for Gender and Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales
Aust N Z J Public Health 29:149-54. 2005..To estimate differences in self-rated health by mode of administration and to assess the value of multiple imputation to make self-rated health comparable for telephone and mail...
- No increase in response rate by adding a web response option to a postal population survey: a randomized trialJan Brøgger
Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Helse Bergen Health Authority, N 5021 Bergen, Norway
J Med Internet Res 9:e40. 2007..It is unclear whether providing the option to respond via Internet increases the response rate, and to what degree the results will differ...
- Mixing web and mail methods in a survey of physiciansTimothy J Beebe
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Health Serv Res 42:1219-34. 2007..To assess the effects of two different mixed-mode (mail and web survey) combinations on response rates, response times, and nonresponse bias in a sample of primary care and specialty internal medicine physicians...
- Towards socially inclusive research: an evaluation of telephone questionnaire administration in a multilingual populationElizabeth Dormandy
Department of Psychology at Guy s, Health Psychology Section Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, London, UK
BMC Med Res Methodol 8:2. 2008..This study describes the response rate, questionnaire responses and financial costs associated with offering participants from a multilingual population the option to complete questionnaires over the telephone...
- Comparison of web and mail surveys in collecting illicit drug use data: a randomized experimentSean Esteban McCabe
The University of Michigan, USA
J Drug Educ 34:61-72. 2004..Although additional research is needed involving more diverse samples, these findings bode well for using Web surveys in college-based research...
- A randomized controlled trial of postcrisis suicide preventionJ A Motto
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, CA 94143, USA
Psychiatr Serv 52:828-33. 2001..This influence was hypothesized to result from the development of a feeling of connectedness and to be most pertinent to high-risk individuals who refuse to remain in the health care system...
- Response and non-response to postal questionnaire follow-up in a clinical trial--a qualitative study of the patient's perspectiveRachel A Nakash
Warwick Emergency Care adn Rehabilitation, University of Warwick, UK
J Eval Clin Pract 14:226-35. 2008..This qualitative study, nested within an acute injury RCT, examines factors affecting response and non-response from the clinical trial participant's perspective...
- Detection of memory impairment in the general population: screening by questionnaire and telephone compared to subsequent face-to-face assessmentJannique G Z van Uffelen
Research Center Physical Activity, Work and Health, TNO VU University Medical Center, The Netherlands
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 22:203-10. 2007..Development of efficient methods for identifying subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from the general population is warranted, because these subjects represent an important group for (epidemiological) research purposes...
- Anthrax postexposure prophylaxis in postal workers, Connecticut, 2001Jennifer L Williams
Centers for Desease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 8:1133-7. 2002..The influence of these concerns on adherence suggests that communication about risks of acquiring anthrax, education about adverse events, and careful management of adverse events are essential elements in increasing adherence...
- Primer postcard improves postal survey response ratesM Pirotta
Department of General Practice and Public Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria
Aust N Z J Public Health 23:196-7. 1999..This study measures the effect of an intervention to improve mailed survey response rates...
- Study of return rate and return time of undeliverable postal lettersAndrea Schmidt-Pokrzywniak
Institute of Clinical Epidemiology, Medical Faculty, University of Halle Wittenberg, Magdeburgerstr 8, 06097, Halle, Germany
Eur J Epidemiol 25:467-70. 2010..Three hundred and three letters (98.2%) were returned as undeliverable. The return rates only slightly differed by layout of the envelopes, region and deliverer...
- Environmental sampling for spores of Bacillus anthracisEyasu H Teshale
Centers for Desease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 8:1083-7. 2002On November 11, 2001, following the bioterrorism-related anthrax attacks, the U.S. Postal Service collected samples at the Southern Connecticut Processing and Distribution Center; all samples were negative for Bacillus anthracis...
- Effects of incentive size and timing on response rates to a follow-up wave of a longitudinal mailed surveyR L Collins
RAND, Santa Monica, CA 90407, USA
Eval Rev 24:347-63. 2000..The discussion centers on motivations for participating in research and differences in the incentives likely to promote continued response versus initial study enrollment...
- Health surveys in the workplace: comparison of postal, email and World Wide Web methodsR Jones
Department of Public Health, University of Glasgow, UK
Occup Med (Lond) 49:556-8. 1999..The rapid changes in the spread and use of information technology means we have to keep reassessing the methods we use for health surveys in the workplace...
- Questionnaires in clinical trials: guidelines for optimal design and administrationPhil Edwards
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
Trials 11:2. 2010..Theory-based guidelines for style, appearance, and layout of self-administered questionnaires have been proposed but require evaluation...
- Postcards from the EDge project: randomised controlled trial of an intervention using postcards to reduce repetition of hospital treated deliberate self poisoningGregory L Carter
Suicide Prevention Research Unit, Centre for Mental Health Studies, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia
BMJ 331:805. 2005..To determine whether an intervention using postcards (postcards from the EDge project) reduces repetitions of hospital treated deliberate self poisoning...
- Internet versus mailed questionnaires: a randomized comparison (2)Pam Leece
Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
J Med Internet Res 6:e30. 2004..Low response rates among surgeons can threaten the validity of surveys. Internet technologies may reduce the time, effort, and financial resources needed to conduct surveys...
- Post office box addresses: a challenge for geographic information system-based studiesSusan E Hurley
Public Health Institute, Oakland, CA, USA
Epidemiology 14:386-91. 2003..In a study of California women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1997, we needed to locate the residential addresses of 4,537 women with post office boxes (POBs)...
- Comparison of e-mail, fax, and postal surveys of pediatriciansShawn R McMahon
Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Applied Public Health Training, Epidemiology Program Office, assigned to National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Pediatrics 111:e299-303. 2003..To compare 3 communication modes (postal, fax, and e-mail) in a rotavirus vaccine physician survey...
- Incentives increased return rates but did not influence partial nonresponse or treatment outcome in a randomized trialJörg Dirmaier
University Medical Center, Department of Medical Psychology, Martinistrasse 52, Building S35, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
J Clin Epidemiol 60:1263-70. 2007..Additionally, effects on partial nonresponse and the assessment of treatment outcome were examined...
- In a mailed physician survey, questionnaire length had a threshold effect on response rateChristopher Jepson
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 3535 Market Street, Room 4017, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Clin Epidemiol 58:103-5. 2005..To examine the association between questionnaire length and response rate in a mailed survey of generalist physicians randomly selected from the American Medical Association master file...
- Mail surveys resulted in more reports of substance use than telephone surveysTimothy J Beebe
Survey Research Center, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street S W, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
J Clin Epidemiol 58:421-4. 2005..To determine to what extent the substance-use information obtained in surveys is affected by method of data collection...
- Prospective comparison of endoscopy patient satisfaction surveys: e-mail versus standard mail versus telephoneG C Harewood
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
Am J Gastroenterol 96:3312-7. 2001..The satisfaction levels of the responders may underestimate the overall satisfaction of the population being surveyed...
- Mode of delivery, but not questionnaire length, affected response in an epidemiological study of eating-disordered behaviorJ M Mond
Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, 700 First Ave South, Fargo, North Dakota 58103, USA
J Clin Epidemiol 57:1167-71. 2004..The effects of questionnaire length and mode of delivery on response rates were examined in an epidemiological study of eating-disordered behavior...
- Mail order pharmacy--savings or added cost?Thomas Kaye
Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Oklahoma, USA
Manag Care 12:33-5. 2003
- Influence of follow-up methodology and completeness on apparent clinical outcome of fundoplicationRobert Ludemann
University of Adelaide Department of Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, North Terruce, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia
Am J Surg 186:143-7. 2003..Mail-out responses, however, are rarely complete, and patients returning mail-out questionnaires might be different from patients who do not return questionnaires...
- A randomised controlled trial to determine the effect on response of including a lottery incentive in health surveys [ISRCTN32203485]L M Roberts
Dept Primary Care and General Practice, Division of Primary Care, Public and Occupational Health, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
BMC Health Serv Res 4:30. 2004..Three previous papers report on the effectiveness of lottery incentives with contradictory results. This study aimed to determine the effect of including a lottery-style incentive on response rates to a postal health survey...
- Generic dispensing and substitution in mail and retail pharmaciesMarta Wosinska
Harvard Business School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Health Aff (Millwood) . 2004..An alternative measure--one that fully controls for differences in price and indications across molecules within a category--eliminates the discrepancy in dispensing rates...
- Why do people report better health by phone than by mail?Noel T Brewer
Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
Med Care 42:875-83. 2004..Past research shows that fewer health symptoms are reported by phone than by mail...
- Survey postal questionnaire: optimising response and dealing with non-responseElizabeth A Curtis
School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Dublin, Ireland
Nurse Res 16:76-88. 2009..This paper by Elizabeth Curtis and Richard Redmond aims to raise awareness about non-response in survey research and to suggest strategies researchers can use for increasing response rates...
- Questionnaire order significantly increased response to a postal survey sent to primary care physiciansFrances J Drummond
National Cancer Registry, Ireland, Elm Court, Boreenmanna Road, Cork, Ireland
J Clin Epidemiol 61:177-85. 2008..Difficulties in achieving adequate response rates among physicians have been reported. We investigated the effect of two low-cost interventions on response to a primary care physician postal questionnaire...
- Increasing response rates in a survey of Medicaid enrollees: the effect of a prepaid monetary incentive and mixed modes (mail and telephone)Timothy J Beebe
Survey Research Center, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
Med Care 43:411-4. 2005..We sought to evaluate the effect of pairing a mixed-mode mail and telephone methodology with a prepaid US 2.00 dollars cash incentive on response rates in a survey of Medicaid enrollees stratified by race and ethnicity...
- Mail-order prescriptions requiring clarification contact with the prescriber: prevalence, reasons, and implicationsRichard A Feifer
Medco Health Solutions Inc, NJ 07417, USA
J Manag Care Pharm 9:346-52. 2003..While essential to reduce the likelihood of potential patient harm, clarification contacts are time-consuming for pharmacists and prescribers. The scope of the issue and the factors that contribute to it are not well understood...
- The effect of a monetary incentive on return of a postal health and development questionnaire: a randomised trial [ISRCTN53994660]Sara Kenyon
Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
BMC Health Serv Res 5:55. 2005..There was a lack of evidence available relating to use of a monetary incentive to improve the response rate in the healthcare setting...
- Bacillus anthracis aerosolization associated with a contaminated mail sorting machinePeter M Dull
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 8:1044-7. 2002..anthracis-containing particles routinely inhaled by asymptomatic, unvaccinated workers in a goat-hair mill...
- Do postage-stamps increase response rates to postal surveys? A randomized controlled trialR A Harrison
Directorate of Public Health, Wigan and Bolton Health Authority, Wigan, UK
Int J Epidemiol 31:872-4. 2002
- A comparison of cigarette smokers recruited through the Internet or by mailJ F Etter
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland
Int J Epidemiol 30:521-5. 2001..To compare smokers recruited by mail or through the Internet...
- Promoting sun safety among US Postal Service letter carriers: impact of a 2-year interventionJoni A Mayer
Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego 92123, USA
Am J Public Health 97:559-65. 2007We examined whether US Postal Service letter carriers who received a sun safety intervention would wear wide-brim hats and sunscreen significantly more often than those who did not receive the intervention.
- Cost effectiveness of recruitment methods in an obesity prevention trial for young childrenJodie L Robinson
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York, Farber Hall, Buffalo, NY 14214 3000, USA
Prev Med 44:499-503. 2007..Recruitment of participants for clinical trials requires considerable effort and cost. There is no research on the cost effectiveness of recruitment methods for an obesity prevention trial of young children...
- Comparison of telephone and postal survey modes on respiratory symptoms and risk factorsJan Brøgger
Department of Thoracic Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Am J Epidemiol 155:572-6. 2002..The telephone survey mode gave more complete information. Survey mode may have a moderate effect on study results, depending on the specific questions asked...
- A mail survey of United States hematologists and oncologists: a comparison of business reply versus stamped return envelopesM B Streiff
Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
J Clin Epidemiol 54:430-2. 2001..62 for business reply envelopes versus $1.82 for stamped return envelopes. We conclude that stamped return envelopes are a more effective and cost-efficient means of procuring data from physician specialists...
- Mail-order pharmacy. Teaching your patients to use it safelyD F Chant
Kimball Medical Center, Lakewood, New Jersey, USA
Home Healthc Nurse 16:438-42. 1998..This article discusses the advantages and risks of using this service and presents guidelines that can maximize the safety of mail-order pharmacy...
- On the use of ZIP codes and ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTAs) for the spatial analysis of epidemiological dataTony H Grubesic
Department of Geography, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 7100, USA
Int J Health Geogr 5:58. 2006..Problems associated with these units for detecting spatial patterns of disease are explored...
- Response rate, speed, and completeness: a comparison of Internet-based and mail surveysAllen D Truell
College of Business, Department of Business Education and Office Administration, WB 243, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306, USA
Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 34:46-9. 2002..Although Internet-based and mail surveys achieved a similar response rate, Internet-based surveys may be more effective than mail surveys in a setting such as when the target population has both e-mail and Internet access...
- Postal surveys of physicians gave superior response rates over telephone interviews in a randomized trialJane S Hocking
Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health Research, Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health and the School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
J Clin Epidemiol 59:521-4. 2006..To compare general practitioner (GP) response to a telephone interview with response to a postal survey with three reminders in a randomized controlled trial...
- Address-based versus random-digit-dial surveys: comparison of key health and risk indicatorsMichael W Link
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30351, USA
Am J Epidemiol 164:1019-25. 2006..System, the authors administered a mail survey to selected household members sampled from addresses in a US Postal Service database...
- E-mail versus conventional postal mail survey of geriatric chiefsD B Raziano
Department of Medicine, Division of Internal Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
Gerontologist 41:799-804. 2001..The main aim of the survey was to collect descriptive information on the existence of Acute Care for Elders units and their characteristics by surveying geriatric division chiefs...
- Community-based recruitment strategies for a longitudinal interventional study: the VECAT experienceS K Garrett
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Ashley Ricketson Centre, Caulfield General Medical Centre, 260 294 Kooyong Rd, Caulfield, Australia
J Clin Epidemiol 53:541-8. 2000..Although the electoral roll mail-out and newspaper advertising were the most efficient for this study, other methods may be of value for studies with different subject selection criteria...
- Estimates of smoking and related behaviour in an immigrant Lebanese community: does survey method matter?C Rissel
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Sydney, New South Wales
Aust N Z J Public Health 23:534-7. 1999..To estimate the prevalence of smoking, stage-of-change and GP advice to quit in the Sydney Lebanese community and whether these findings varied by survey method...
- Surveying physicians: do components of the "Total Design Approach" to optimizing survey response rates apply to physicians?Terry S Field
Meyers Primary Care Institute, Fallon Healthcare System, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
Med Care 40:596-605. 2002..The impact of this approach on response rates among physicians is uncertain...
- Detailed postal feedback about prescribing to asthma patients combined with a guideline statement showed no impact: a randomised controlled trialJens Søndergaard
Research Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense University, Odense, Denmark
Eur J Clin Pharmacol 58:127-32. 2002..To evaluate the effects of postal feedback with clinically relevant data on general practitioners' prescribing compared with feedback with aggregate data on prescribing patterns of asthma drugs...
- Nonresponse bias and cost-effectiveness in a Norwegian survey of family physiciansOyvind A Bjertnaes
Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Norway
Eval Health Prof 31:65-80. 2008..In addition, the cost-effectiveness of the final reminders was poor...
- Do we need a "virtual" program infrastructure for worksite and population health promotion efforts?Larry S Chapman
Summex Health Management, USA
Am J Health Promot 21:1-7, iii. 2006..A set of eleven interventions are described and recommended technical specifications are presented...
- What do pediatric primary care providers think are important research questions? A perspective from PROS providersAlyna Chien
Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
Ambul Pediatr 6:352-5. 2006..To describe what pediatric primary care providers involved in the Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS) research network think are important yet inadequately addressed questions in pediatric primary care research...
- Comparison of Web and mail surveys for studying secondary consequences associated with substance use: evidence for minimal mode effectsSean Esteban McCabe
Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48105 2194, USA
Addict Behav 31:162-8. 2006..The present study examined the impact of using a Web survey vs. a more traditional mail survey on the reporting of secondary consequences associated with substance use by undergraduate students...
- Effect on survey response rate of hand written versus printed signature on a covering letter: randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN67566265]Kirstie McKenzie-McHarg
National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit University of Oxford Old Road Campus Oxford OX3 LF UK
BMC Health Serv Res 5:52. 2005....
- The effects of survey mode and asking about future intentions on self-reports of colorectal cancer screeningTimothy J Beebe
Department of Health Services Research, Survey Research Center, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17:785-90. 2008..9%; OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.64-2.57). The results suggest that asking about future intentions to get screened before the actual behavior elicits lower, and arguably more truthful reports of CRC screening but mainly in mailed surveys...
- Complementing random-digit-dial telephone surveys with other approaches to collecting sensitive dataMirta Galesic
Joint Program in Survey Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
Am J Prev Med 31:437-43. 2006..The feasibility of several mixed mode designs is discussed; none of them stands out as clearly the right choice for surveys on sensitive issues, which implies increased need for methodologic research...
- Validation of self-reported colorectal cancer screening behavior from a mixed-mode survey of veteransMelissa R Partin
Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17:768-76. 2008..The aim of the study was to validate self-reported colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using the National Cancer Institute Colorectal Cancer Screening questionnaire...
- A pilot study evaluating a minimal contact telephone and mail weight management intervention for primary care patientsK N Boutelle
University of Minnesota, Department of Pediatrics, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Eat Weight Disord 10:e1-5. 2005..This study examined an 8-week telephone and mail weight management intervention for Veterans who are unable to attend frequent clinical visits...
- Use of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis: a national survey of practicing United States rheumatologistsKhalid M Kamal
Department of Clinical, Social and Administrative Sciences, Mylan School of Pharmacy, Bayer Learning Center, 600 Forbes Avenue, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA
Joint Bone Spine 73:718-24. 2006..To determine the prescribing practices, laboratory monitoring protocols, and perceived barriers of United States rheumatologists in prescribing tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
- Identifying churches for community-based mammography promotion: lessons from the LAMP studyNaihua Duan
Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Institute, Center for Community Health, University of California at Los Angeles 90024 6543, USA
Health Educ Behav 32:536-48. 2005..For programs with limited resources and less emphasis on comprehensive coverage, using religious sources alone is recommended...
- Reliability of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure in patients with ankylosing spondylitisIngvild Kjeken
National Resource Center for Rehabilitation in Rheumatology and Department of Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Norway
J Rheumatol 32:1503-9. 2005..The main aim of our study was to examine the test-retest reliability of the Norwegian version of the COPM in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in 3 different retest modes of data collection...
- Predictors of locating women six to eight years after contact: internet resources at recruitment may help to improve response rates in longitudinal researchSuzanne M Cadarette
Osteoporosis Research Program, Women s College Hospital, Toronto, Canada
BMC Med Res Methodol 7:22. 2007..The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of locating women requiring tracing using publicly available methods (primarily Internet searches), and to determine the additional benefit of vital statistics linkages...
- Health Information National Trends Survey -- HINTS 3Susan Crystal Mansour; Fiscal Year: 2009..The second frame is a national listing of addresses available from the United States Postal Service (USPS). This list is relatively comprehensive and includes both telephone and non-telephone households...
- Molecular and Immunologic Analysis of the Pathobiology of Human AnthraxKENNETH MARK COGGESHALL; Fiscal Year: 2013..Indeed, this is exactly what happened after the US Postal Service Center attacks in 2001...
- DIETARY ETIOLOGIES OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND PARKINSONSAlberto Ascherio; Fiscal Year: 2001..Fatal events are identified by next-of-kin, postal service, or the National Death Index and confirmed by hospital records and other additional information...
- Universal Influenza Matrix 2 Subunit VaccineWilliam Ernst; Fiscal Year: 2004..as both military and civilian populations have been targeted for attack with anthrax spores through the US Postal Service. This attack has put the United States on high alert and has been a major impetus to the restructuring of our ..
- Microbial Fingerprinting Chip and Automated AnalysisDON DALY; Fiscal Year: 2003..anthracis released into the U.S. Postal Service highlights the continued need for a rapid, automated, objective, and high-resolution diagnostic system for ..
- Rapid Vaccine Development SystemGary Fujii; Fiscal Year: 2002..The exposure of up to tens of thousands of people to anthrax spores through the US Postal Service this past autumn sparked this fear, and hence, has generated an urgent need to develop new methods to rapidly ..
- A Cost-Effective OPH Multilayer Modified Microcantilever for Detection of OPsKaren Xu; Fiscal Year: 2006..by the company include government agencies such as Homeland Security, Agriculture, EPA, Defense and the Postal Service, as well as similar state agencies...
- Development of a virus vector vaccine against anthraxBaoling Ying; Fiscal Year: 2002..S. postal service. These attacks combined with questions concerning the safety of the current vaccine against B...
- Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among College StudentsSEAN MCCABE; Fiscal Year: 2005..Findings from this research will have important implications for the understanding of the epidemiology, prevention and treatment of prescription drug abuse. ..
- Epidemiology of Prescription Drug Abuse in the United StatesSEAN MCCABE; Fiscal Year: 2007..It will help identify risk factors for substance abuse. Most importantly, the findings will provide guidance for the prevention, assessment, and treatment of prescription drug abuse. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Prescription Drug Abuse Among College StudentsSEAN MCCABE; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Protective Influence of Residential Learning CommunitiesSEAN MCCABE; Fiscal Year: 2006..At each measurement point, participants will complete a set of measures that assess substance use behaviors and constructs addressed by RLCs. ..
- Sexual Orientation, Substance Use and Mental HealthSEAN MCCABE; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Maintenance Tailored Obesity TreatmentRobert Jeffery; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- Environmental Intervention for Weight Gain PreventionRobert Jeffery; Fiscal Year: 2009..It is also anticipated that the effects of the intervention on behavior and weight will be related to degree of exposure to intervention activities. ..
- THEORY-BASED INTERVENTIONS FOR SMOKING AND OBESITYRobert Jeffery; Fiscal Year: 2002..Because unmet expectations are thought to pose a greater problem for weight control, this manipulation is expected to have a greater effect on weight loss than on smoking cessation. ..
- DIETARY INTERVENTION METHODS FOR CLINICAL TRIALSRobert Jeffery; Fiscal Year: 2001..Outcome measures will be obesity reflected in changes in weight, body composition, body fat distribution, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), with the latter assessed only on subjects at the Pittsburgh Center, ..
- OBESITY TREATMENT IN A MANAGED CARE SETTINGRobert Jeffery; Fiscal Year: 2003..It also addresses important issues of cost and population outreach, and would provide a basis for determining whether such weight management systems are economically viable for primary health care providers. ..
- Race & Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status: Impact of Class and Missing DataNancy Krieger; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Enhancing Adherence in Type 2 DiabeticsMARY SEVICK; Fiscal Year: 2008..The intervention participants will be compared to an attention control group exposed to seminars and newsletters. Measurements will occur at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Ectopic Pregnancy: Assessing Long-Term Trends in Rates and Risk FactorsDelia Scholes; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- NORTHWEST CANCER GENETICS NETWORKDeborah Bowen; Fiscal Year: 2006..This mix of disciplines is essential to support the infrastructure required to collect crucial data on individuals seeking genetic testing, as well as those with known family histories. ..
- Race effects in oncologists' end-of-life communicationKathryn Pollak; Fiscal Year: 2007..The public health impact of this study is that we may prevent some suffering by African Americans at the end of life by understanding communication patterns between patients and oncologists. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Colon Cancer Prevention in Low Income Housing SitesKaren Emmons; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Diabetes Care for Korean AmericansMiyong Kim; Fiscal Year: 2007..Insights gained in this pilot investigation should help us to develop effective, culturally sensitive self-help protocols for wider application to KAI with type 2 DM in metropolitan areas throughout the U.S. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Meta-Analysis of Interventions to Increase Exercise/Physical AcivityVicki Conn; Fiscal Year: 2009..The compelling importance and broad scope of this work make funding necessary to achieve these important aims. ..
- Evaluating Alternative Retinopathy Screening ApproachesCHARLES BASCH; Fiscal Year: 2008..These interventions are practical, have potential for widespread dissemination, and can translate basic and clinical research to achieve public health benefits. ..
- Economic Contextual Influences on Population Diet and ObesityLisa Powell; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- Reducing Health Disparities at End of LifeArdith Z Doorenbos; Fiscal Year: 2010..This project will evaluate the effect of the web-based training for primary health clinicians on quality of end of life communication as assessed by patients and with content-based coding of clinician communication with patients. ..
- A Web-Based Smoking Intervention for Cancer SurvivorsKaren Emmons; Fiscal Year: 2009..Additionally, this study will make significant steps toward dissemination of tested smoking cessation interventions among cancer survivors. ..
- Cardiac care in specialty and general hospitalsPeter M Cram; Fiscal Year: 2010..Together these analyses will provide much needed information on the relative quality of care provided by specialty cardiac hospitals to policy makers, payors, providers and patients. ..
- Cost-effectiveness of automated telephone outreach in patients with lung diseaseDavid H Smith; Fiscal Year: 2010..We will carry out an evaluation of the cost-effectiveness (efficiency) of the automated phone calls. (End of Abstract) ..
- Tailored Navigation in CRC ScreeningRonald E Myers; Fiscal Year: 2010..Determining how to increase CRC screening among African Americans will help to reduce disparities in disease incidence and mortality. ..
- Enhancing Cultural Congruence in Hospice CareArdith Doorenbos; Fiscal Year: 2009..The results will be instrumental in improving culturally congruent palliative care. ..
- Improving Treatment of Newly Diagnosed OsteoporosisPeter Cram; Fiscal Year: 2009..Finally, this work will serve as a model for examining the barriers to and improving treatment of other chronic diseases identified through screening. ..
- Obesity as a Barrier to Patient-Physician CommunicationKathryn Pollak; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- Long-term Opioid Management of Chronic Pain: Trends and RisksMichael Von Korff; Fiscal Year: 2009..We will extend these analyses by studying the effects of long-term opioid therapy on other adverse events including: all-cause and opioid-related hospitalization;opioid overdose;and onset of recognized mood disorder. ..
- Informed Decision Making Regarding PSA ScreeningRoshan Bastani; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Community-based Skin Cancer Prevention ResearchJoni Mayer; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Indicated Prevention with At-Risk GamblersMary Larimer; Fiscal Year: 2005..In addition, there is virtually no research evaluating mediators or moderators of gambling intervention efficacy. ..
- COLORECTAL CANCER AND OTHER CANCERS OF THE GI TRACTAlfred Neugut; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- AREA-BASED SOCIOECONOMIC MEASURES FOR HEALTH DATANancy Krieger; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- Increasing Colon Cancer Screening in Primary CareRonald Myers; Fiscal Year: 2004..4) Identify variables associated with screening compliance and decision-making stage. (5) Evaluate intervention cost- effectiveness relative to screening compliance. ..
- SUN SAFETY INTERVENTION FOR POSTAL CARRIERSJoni Mayer; Fiscal Year: 2004..and evaluate an environmentally-based intervention for promoting sun safety behaviors among United States Postal Service (U.S.P.S.) outdoor carriers...
- TAILORED COMMUNICATIONS FOR COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENINGCHARLES BASCH; Fiscal Year: 2003..This proposal addresses the need for research assessing tailored communications to increase CRC screening in minority groups. ..
- Cancer in Older Minority PopulationsAlfred Neugut; Fiscal Year: 2003..Coordination of this P20 will be facilitated by the geographic proximity of the two institutions, their scientific strengths, and their commitment to similar programs. ..
- COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING IN HIGH RISK INDIVIDUALSRoshan Bastani; Fiscal Year: 2001..Secondary analysis will examine the predictive value of our theoretical framework in modeling adherence behavior and psychological distress. Cost effectiveness of the intervention will also be assessed. ..
- Work-Strain, Career Course and Research IntegrityBrian Martinson; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- MOTIVATING DIETARY CHANGES IN CHURCHESDeborah Bowen; Fiscal Year: 2001..The primary outcome will be the difference in change in fat scores between intervention and comparison religious organizations. ..
- Thought, Affect, and Motivation to Quit SmokingKevin McCaul; Fiscal Year: 2005..The data will have implications for constructing risk messages and for how health professionals might encourage quit attempts among the millions of Americans who continue to smoke. ..
- A Four-Year Church-Based Intervention for LatinasAngela Sauaia; Fiscal Year: 2005..A generalized estimating equations analysis will be used to model the effect of the intervention over time and compare the disparity rates of the three insurance coverage groups. ..
- PARTNER ASSISTED INTERVENTIONS FOR PREGNANT SMOKERSKathryn Pollak; Fiscal Year: 2001..The primary outcomes of interest will be rates of smoking cessation among pregnant women and levels of perceived partner support for cessation at all follow-ups. ..
- Cadmium Exposure and Breast Cancer RiskJane McElroy; Fiscal Year: 2005..The study team brings together expertise in breast cancer and environmental epidemiology, laboratory science, and biostatistics to efficiently address the role of cadmium in the etiology of breast cancer. ..
- Geocoding, Census Data & Social Disparities in HealthNancy Krieger; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- TV VIEWING & ADOLESCENTS SEXUAL ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORRebecca Collins; Fiscal Year: 2006..Results will illuminate the nature of the relationship between television sexual content and adolescent sexual behavior, as well as its consequences for sexual health and sexual partnerships. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Social Role Disability and Mental-Physical Co-MorbidityMichael Von Korff; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- A Temporal-Spatial Analysis of Breast Cancer in Upper C*Veronica Vieira; Fiscal Year: 2006..By learning where breast cancer "hot spots" are and if they grow, intensify, or move over time, researchers will have a better understanding of how environmental risk factors may be involved. ..
- Procedural Justice, Identity, and Research IntegrityBrian Martinson; Fiscal Year: 2006....
- Cancer Worry and Health-Protective BehaviorsKevin McCaul; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- Developing a Score of Communicative ParticipationKathryn Yorkston; Fiscal Year: 2006..Finally, the PIs will generate a long-term research plan to continue the validation process. This plan will serve as a proposal for a research project grant (R01) funding by NIH. ..
- Dietary Adherence Enhancement in Peritoneal DialysisMARY SEVICK; Fiscal Year: 2007..Measurements will occur as baseline, 4 months, and 8 months for both groups. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Reducing snack food variety during obesity treatmentHollie Raynor; Fiscal Year: 2009..This will be the first investigation to examine methods of manipulating dietary variety that can be adhered to over time and that influence intake, weight loss, and weight loss maintenance. ..
- SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT: EFFECT ON SUICIDE PREVENTION PROGRAMBradley Stein; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- COHORT STUDY OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS AND CANCER RISKEmily White; Fiscal Year: 2005..If a beneficial effect is found, it could be translated into highly cost effective cancer control measures. ..
- High Blood Pressure Care for Korean AmericansMiyong Kim; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..