sex ratio

Summary

Summary: The number of males per 100 females.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The male disadvantage and the seasonal rhythm of sex ratio at the time of conception
    A Cagnacci
    Department of Obstetrics Gynecology and Pediatric Sciences, Gynecology Unit, Policlinico of Modena, Via del Pozzo 71, 41100, Modena, Italy
    Hum Reprod 18:885-7. 2003
  2. ncbi Sex-ratio adjustment when relatives interact: a test of constraints on adaptation
    Stuart A West
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Evolution 59:1211-28. 2005
  3. pmc DNA methylation of the gonadal aromatase (cyp19a) promoter is involved in temperature-dependent sex ratio shifts in the European sea bass
    Laia Navarro-Martín
    Institut de Ciencies del Mar, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Barcelona, Spain
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002447. 2011
  4. ncbi Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in Canada: a longitudinal study
    Sarah Michelle Orton
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics and Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Lancet Neurol 5:932-6. 2006
  5. pmc A single gene causes both male sterility and segregation distortion in Drosophila hybrids
    Nitin Phadnis
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 0211, USA
    Science 323:376-9. 2009
  6. ncbi Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in the National Swedish MS Register (SMSreg)
    Inger Boström
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience, Linkoping University, Sweden
    Mult Scler 19:46-52. 2013
  7. ncbi The influence of operational sex ratio on the intensity of competition for mates
    Laura K Weir
    Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada
    Am Nat 177:167-76. 2011
  8. pmc Geographical variations in sex ratio trends over time in multiple sclerosis
    Maria Trojano
    Department of Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
    PLoS ONE 7:e48078. 2012
  9. ncbi Experimental evolution exposes female and male responses to sexual selection and conflict in Tribolium castaneum
    Łukasz Michalczyk
    School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom
    Evolution 65:713-24. 2011
  10. ncbi Environment and sex determination in farmed fish
    J F Baroiller
    CIRAD EMVT, Station Commune de Recherches en Ichtyophysiologie, Biodiversité et Environnement, INRA SCRIBE, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France
    Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 130:399-409. 2001

Detail Information

Publications332 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The male disadvantage and the seasonal rhythm of sex ratio at the time of conception
    A Cagnacci
    Department of Obstetrics Gynecology and Pediatric Sciences, Gynecology Unit, Policlinico of Modena, Via del Pozzo 71, 41100, Modena, Italy
    Hum Reprod 18:885-7. 2003
    In accordance with a presumed greater fragility of male versus female pregnancies, we tested whether sex ratio (male/female ratio) of vital pregnancies is higher in seasons more favourable for reproduction.
  2. ncbi Sex-ratio adjustment when relatives interact: a test of constraints on adaptation
    Stuart A West
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Evolution 59:1211-28. 2005
    ..this field concerns the extent to which the ability of individuals to adaptively manipulate their offspring sex ratio is determined by constraints such as the method of sex determination...
  3. pmc DNA methylation of the gonadal aromatase (cyp19a) promoter is involved in temperature-dependent sex ratio shifts in the European sea bass
    Laia Navarro-Martín
    Institut de Ciencies del Mar, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Barcelona, Spain
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002447. 2011
    b>Sex ratio shifts in response to temperature are common in fish and reptiles. However, the mechanism linking temperature during early development and sex ratios has remained elusive...
  4. ncbi Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in Canada: a longitudinal study
    Sarah Michelle Orton
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics and Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Lancet Neurol 5:932-6. 2006
    ..We reasoned that if a sex-specific change in incidence was occurring, the female to male sex ratio would serve as a surrogate of incidence change.
  5. pmc A single gene causes both male sterility and segregation distortion in Drosophila hybrids
    Nitin Phadnis
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 0211, USA
    Science 323:376-9. 2009
    ..This segregation distorter gene is essential for hybrid sterility, a strong reproductive barrier between these young taxa. Our results suggest that genetic conflict may be an important evolutionary force in speciation...
  6. ncbi Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in the National Swedish MS Register (SMSreg)
    Inger Boström
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience, Linkoping University, Sweden
    Mult Scler 19:46-52. 2013
    b>Sex ratio in multiple sclerosis has been reported from several geographical areas. The disease is more common in women. In Europe the female-to-male ratio varies from 1.1 to 3.4...
  7. ncbi The influence of operational sex ratio on the intensity of competition for mates
    Laura K Weir
    Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada
    Am Nat 177:167-76. 2011
    ..The operational sex ratio (OSR) is often used as a predictor of the intensity of competition for mates, as it describes the relative ..
  8. pmc Geographical variations in sex ratio trends over time in multiple sclerosis
    Maria Trojano
    Department of Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
    PLoS ONE 7:e48078. 2012
    ..So far, a direct comparison of sex ratio time-trends among MS populations from different geographical areas was not carried out.
  9. ncbi Experimental evolution exposes female and male responses to sexual selection and conflict in Tribolium castaneum
    Łukasz Michalczyk
    School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom
    Evolution 65:713-24. 2011
    ..Subsequent assays suggest that these differences were not due to postcopulatory sperm competitiveness, but to precopulatory/copulatory competitive male mating behavior...
  10. ncbi Environment and sex determination in farmed fish
    J F Baroiller
    CIRAD EMVT, Station Commune de Recherches en Ichtyophysiologie, Biodiversité et Environnement, INRA SCRIBE, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France
    Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 130:399-409. 2001
    ..demonstration that environmental factors (temperature, pH, density and social interactions) could influence the sex ratio in gonochoristic species has been relatively recent...
  11. ncbi Causes and consequences of animal dispersal strategies: relating individual behaviour to spatial dynamics
    Diana E Bowler
    UUniversity of Aberdeen, School of Biological Sciences, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 80:205-25. 2005
    ..Further studies are necessary to explore the importance of incorporating specific condition-dependent dispersal strategies for evolutionary and population dynamic predictions...
  12. pmc A polygenic hypothesis for sex determination in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax
    Marc Vandeputte
    INRA, UR544 Génétique des Poissons, F 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
    Genetics 176:1049-57. 2007
    ..In the European sea bass, temperature is known to influence the sex ratio. We set up a factorial mating, producing 5...
  13. pmc Family size, fertility preferences, and sex ratio in China in the era of the one child family policy: results from national family planning and reproductive health survey
    Qu Jian Ding
    Institute of Population Studies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310012, PR China
    BMJ 333:371-3. 2006
    To examine the impact of the one child family policy in China on fertility, preferred family size, and sex ratio.
  14. ncbi Maternal diet and other factors affecting offspring sex ratio: a review
    Cheryl S Rosenfeld
    University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Biol Reprod 71:1063-70. 2004
    ..hypothesis of Trivers and Willard has provided a rational evolutionary underpinning to adaptive changes in sex ratio. Here, we review circumstances whereby ruminants and other mammalian species, especially rodents and primates, ..
  15. pmc Sex-ratio segregation distortion associated with reproductive isolation in Drosophila
    Y Tao
    Department of Developmental, Cell, and Molecular Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:13183-8. 2001
    ..even more frequently than direct observations suggest, because the dysgenic population consequences of a biased sex ratio are expected to result in the rapid evolution of suppressors, resulting in suppressed or "cryptic" ..
  16. pmc Trends in selective abortions of girls in India: analysis of nationally representative birth histories from 1990 to 2005 and census data from 1991 to 2011
    Prabhat Jha
    Centre for Global Health Research, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael s Hospital and Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, ON, Canada
    Lancet 377:1921-8. 2011
    ..We aimed to establish the trends in sex ratio by birth order from 1990 to 2005 with three nationally representative surveys and to quantify the totals of ..
  17. ncbi Reproductive biology of albacore Thunnus alalunga
    K S Chen
    Institute of Oceanography, College of Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617 Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Fish Biol 77:119-36. 2010
    ..In the sex ratio examination, males greatly outnumbered females in large adult fish (L(F) > 100 cm)...
  18. ncbi Hypotheses on the stability and variation of human sex ratios at birth
    William H James
    The Galton Laboratory, Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Wolfson House, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, United Kingdom
    J Theor Biol 310:183-6. 2012
    ..A) The causes of the stability are not established. B) There are several hypotheses which purport to explain sex ratio variation. 1. The Trivers–Willard hypothesis has had only limited success...
  19. ncbi Could maternal testosterone levels govern mammalian sex ratio deviations?
    Valerie J Grant
    Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1, New Zealand
    J Theor Biol 246:708-19. 2007
    ....
  20. ncbi Breeding periodicity for male sea turtles, operational sex ratios, and implications in the face of climate change
    Graeme C Hays
    Department of Pure and Applied Ecology, Institute of Environmental Sustainability, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
    Conserv Biol 24:1636-43. 2010
    ..Males returned to breed at least twice as frequently as females. We estimated that the hatchling sex ratio of 70:30 female to male for this rookery will translate into an overall operational sex ratio (OSR) (i.e...
  21. pmc Missing women--revisited
    Amartya Sen
    BMJ 327:1297-8. 2003
  22. ncbi Unifying cornerstones of sexual selection: operational sex ratio, Bateman gradient and the scope for competitive investment
    Hanna Kokko
    Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, Division of Ecology, Evolution and Genetics, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Ecol Lett 15:1340-51. 2012
    ..The Bateman gradient and the operational sex ratio (OSR) are incomplete in complementary ways: the former describes the fitness gain per mating and the latter the ..
  23. pmc Selection and maintenance of androdioecy in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Andrew D Stewart
    Department of Biology, University of Texas, Arlington, Texas 76019 0498, USA
    Genetics 160:975-82. 2002
    ..Factors such as variation in male mating ability and inbreeding depression could potentially lead to the long-term maintenance of males...
  24. ncbi Extreme reversed sexual dichromatism in a bird without sex role reversal
    Robert Heinsohn
    Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 Australia
    Science 309:617-9. 2005
    ..Females are liberated from the need for camouflage but compete for rare nest hollows...
  25. pmc Population dynamics of male-killing and non-male-killing spiroplasmas in Drosophila melanogaster
    Hisashi Anbutsu
    Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba Central 6, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:1428-34. 2003
    ..The extents of the bottleneck in the vertical transmission through host generations were estimated to be 5 x 10(-5) for NSRO and 3 x 10(-4) for NSRO-A...
  26. ncbi Climate effects on offspring sex ratio in a viviparous lizard
    Erik Wapstra
    School of Zoology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
    J Anim Ecol 78:84-90. 2009
    ..This is the first study to demonstrate the effect of local climatic conditions (e.g. temperature) on offspring sex ratio fluctuations in a free-living population of a viviparous ectotherm...
  27. ncbi Evidence for a role of paternal exposures in developmental toxicity
    Sylvaine Cordier
    Inserm U625, University of Rennes, Rennes, France
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 102:176-81. 2008
    ..studies have included paternal exposures as an add-on to existing studies and focused mainly on birth defects, sex ratio, childhood cancers or spontaneous abortions...
  28. ncbi Feminization of genetic males by a symbiotic bacterium in a butterfly, Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)
    Masato Hiroki
    Department of Biology, International Christian University, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan
    Naturwissenschaften 89:167-70. 2002
    ..Breeding experiments showed that this distorted sex ratio is maternally inherited...
  29. pmc The quantitative genetic basis of sex ratio variation in Nasonia vitripennis: a QTL study
    B A Pannebakker
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Evol Biol 24:12-22. 2011
    ..Here, we examine the genetic basis of sex ratio variation in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis, a species well known for its response to local mate ..
  30. ncbi Parental investment, sexual selection and sex ratios
    Hanna Kokko
    Laboratory of Ecological and Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    J Evol Biol 21:919-48. 2008
    ..The second argument takes the reasonable premise that anisogamy produces a male-biased operational sex ratio (OSR) leading to males competing for mates...
  31. ncbi Potential mechanisms of avian sex manipulation
    Thomas W Pike
    Evolution and Behaviour Research Group, School of Biology, Henry Wellcome Building, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4HH, UK
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 78:553-74. 2003
    ..The ideas outlined in this review provide good starting points for testing the hypotheses both experimentally (behaviourally and physiologically) and theoretically...
  32. ncbi In search of determinants: gene expression during gonadal sex differentiation
    K R Siegfried
    Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Department of Genetics, Spemannstrasse 35, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
    J Fish Biol 76:1879-902. 2010
    ..In the future, it will be essential to develop tools to assay the function of genes expressed during gonadal sex differentiation in fish...
  33. ncbi Tilapia sex determination: Where temperature and genetics meet
    J F Baroiller
    Dept Persyst, CIRAD, Upr20, Campus International de Baillarguet, Montpellier, France
    Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 153:30-8. 2009
    ..The coexistence of GSD and TSD is discussed...
  34. ncbi Single-species models of the Allee effect: extinction boundaries, sex ratios and mate encounters
    David S Boukal
    Department of Theoretical Biology, Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
    J Theor Biol 218:375-94. 2002
    ..recognized: (1) one-dimensional heuristic models, (2) one-dimensional models with mating probability and fixed sex ratio, and (3) two-sex models with variable adult sex ratio...
  35. ncbi Female resistance to male harm evolves in response to manipulation of sexual conflict
    Stuart Wigby
    Department of Biology, University College London, Darwin Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Evolution 58:1028-37. 2004
    ..We manipulated the intensity of sexual conflict by experimentally altering adult sex ratio. We created replicated lines of D...
  36. ncbi Population density affects sex ratio variation in red deer
    L E Kruuk
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK
    Nature 399:459-61. 1999
    Many mammal populations show significant deviations from an equal sex ratio at birth, but these effects are notoriously inconsistent...
  37. pmc Outcrossing and the maintenance of males within C. elegans populations
    Jennifer L Anderson
    Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    J Hered 101:S62-74. 2010
    ..Laboratory and field results still await full reconciliation, which may be facilitated by identifying the loci underlying among-strain differences in mating system dynamics...
  38. ncbi Sex-dependent selection on an autosomal melanic female ornament promotes the evolution of sex ratio bias
    Alexandre Roulin
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Biophore 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Ecol Lett 13:616-26. 2010
    ..These sex ratio biases appear adaptive because sons of male-like females and daughters of female-like males had above-average ..
  39. pmc Abnormal sex ratios in human populations: causes and consequences
    Therese Hesketh
    Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guildford Street, London WCI N1EH, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:13271-5. 2006
    In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations...
  40. ncbi Decline in sex ratio at birth after 10-day war in Slovenia: brief communication
    Branko Zorn
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Hum Reprod 17:3173-7. 2002
    We investigated whether the psychological stress related to a short war (26 June-7 July, 1991) in Slovenia induced changes in fertility, sex ratio at birth and semen quality characteristics.
  41. ncbi Maternally derived carotenoid pigments affect offspring survival, sex ratio, and sexual attractiveness in a colorful songbird
    K J McGraw
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA
    Naturwissenschaften 92:375-80. 2005
    ..female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) deposit into egg yolks influence embryonic and nestling survival, the sex ratio of fledged offspring, and the eventual ornamental coloration displayed by their offspring as adults...
  42. pmc Temperature-related birth sex ratio bias in historical Sami: warm years bring more sons
    Samuli Helle
    Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
    Biol Lett 4:60-2. 2008
    The birth sex ratio of vertebrates with chromosomal sex determination has been shown to respond to environmental variability, such as temperature...
  43. ncbi Gingival recession, gingival bleeding, and dental calculus in adults 30 years of age and older in the United States, 1988-1994
    J M Albandar
    National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Periodontol 70:30-43. 1999
    ....
  44. pmc Sex ratio bias, male aggression, and population collapse in lizards
    Jean François Le Galliard
    Laboratoire Fonctionnement et Evolution des Systemes Ecologiques, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite Mixte de Recherche 7625, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18231-6. 2005
    The adult sex ratio (ASR) is a key parameter of the demography of human and other animal populations, yet the causes of variation in ASR, how individuals respond to this variation, and how their response feeds back into population ..
  45. ncbi Estrogenic exposure affects metamorphosis and alters sex ratios in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens): identifying critically vulnerable periods of development
    Natacha S Hogan
    Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont, Canada
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 156:515-23. 2008
    ..Tadpoles exposed early in development displayed a strong female-biased sex ratio compared to the controls...
  46. ncbi Variations in sex ratio, feeding, and fecundity of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) among habitats in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
    V Payet
    Laboratorio de Parasitologia, Centro de Investigaciones Regionales Dr Hideyo Noguchi, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Merida, Mexico
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 9:243-51. 2009
    ..Dispersal was highly seasonal and correlated with temperature, pressure, and wind speed. Analysis of sex ratio, feeding status, and fecundity of sylvatic populations of T...
  47. pmc Different sex ratios of children born to Indian and Pakistani immigrants in Norway
    Narpinder Singh
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 10:40. 2010
    ....
  48. ncbi Fitness effects of X chromosome drive in the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni
    G S Wilkinson
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    J Evol Biol 19:1851-60. 2006
    ..By screening male stalk-eyed flies, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni, for brood sex ratio we found unique SR alleles at three X-linked microsatellite loci and used them to determine if SR persists as a ..
  49. ncbi Persistent unequal sex ratio in a population of grayling (Salmonidae) and possible role of temperature increase
    Claus Wedekind
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, Biophore, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Conserv Biol 27:229-34. 2013
    ..of a strong genetic bottleneck that would explain the apparent lack of evolutionary response to the unequal sex ratio. Results of other studies show no evidence of endocrine disruptors in the study area...
  50. ncbi Sexual shape and size dimorphism in carabid beetles of the genus Ceroglossus: is geometric body size similar between sexes due to sex ratio?
    Hugo A Benítez
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    Zoolog Sci 30:289-95. 2013
    ..occurrence of sexual shape dimorphism and the correlation between geometric body size in males and females and sex ratio in the genus Ceroglossus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) using geometric morphometrics and randomization analysis...
  51. ncbi Is there a sex ratio difference in the familial aggregation of specific language impairment? A meta-analysis
    Andrew J O Whitehouse
    Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, University of Western Australia, 100 Roberts Road, Subiaco 6008, Western Australia
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 53:1015-25. 2010
    ..This meta-analysis examined whether there is a sex ratio difference in the risk for impairment among family members of an SLI proband and whether this is mediated by ..
  52. ncbi Effect of energy source during culture on in vitro embryo development, resistance to cryopreservation and sex ratio
    Marcello Rubessa
    DISCIZIA, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Federico II University, Napoli, Italy
    Theriogenology 76:1347-55. 2011
    ..and/or embryotrophic compounds would affect the in vitro development, the resistance to cryopreservation and the sex ratio of bovine embryos...
  53. pmc Insecticidal juvenile hormone analogs stimulate the production of male offspring in the crustacean Daphnia magna
    Allen W Olmstead
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 7633, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 111:919-24. 2003
    ..The occurrence of such an effect in the environment could have dire consequences on susceptible crustacean populations...
  54. ncbi Sex ratio and associated risk factors for 50 congenital anomaly types: clues for causal heterogeneity
    Monica Rittler
    Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Prevention of Birth Defects ECLAMC at Hospital Materno Infantil Ramón Sardá, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 70:13-9. 2004
    b>Sex ratio (SR) deviations have been reported for many congenital anomalies, but so far no satisfactory explanation for these deviations has been found...
  55. ncbi Budding dispersal and the sex ratio
    A Gardner
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK
    J Evol Biol 22:1036-45. 2009
    ..Here, we consider the impact of rate and pattern of dispersal upon a classic social evolutionary trait--the sex ratio. We recover existing analytical results for individual dispersal, and we extend these to allow for budding ..
  56. pmc Sex ratio at birth in India, its relation to birth order, sex of previous children and use of indigenous medicine
    Samiksha Manchanda
    Department of Neonatology and Pediatrics, St Stephen Hospital, Delhi, India
    PLoS ONE 6:e20097. 2011
    ..Our aim was to prospectively study in a large maternal and child unit sex-ratio against previous birth sex and use of traditional medicines for sex selection...
  57. ncbi Infection by a vertically-transmitted microsporidian parasite is associated with a female-biased sex ratio and survival advantage in the amphipod Gammarus roeseli
    E R Haine
    Equipe Ecologie Evolutive, UMR CNRS 5561 Biogeosciences, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon, France
    Parasitology 134:1363-7. 2007
    ..We investigated these predictions in a study on the survival and sex ratio of offspring of the amphipod Gammarus roeseli from females infected by the vertically transmitted microsporidia ..
  58. ncbi Adverse effects in wild fish living downstream from pharmaceutical manufacture discharges
    Wilfried Sanchez
    Institut National de l Environnement Industriel et des Risques INERIS, Unité d Ecotoxicologie in vitro et in vivo, Verneuil en Halatte, France
    Environ Int 37:1342-8. 2011
    ..Overall, this study gives argument for the utilisation of an effect-based monitoring approach to assess impacts of pharmaceutical manufacture discharges on wild fish populations...
  59. ncbi Scrotal heat stress effects on sperm viability, sperm DNA integrity, and the offspring sex ratio in mice
    M Perez-Crespo
    Dpto de Reproducción Animal y Conservación de Recursos Zoogenéticos, INIA, Madrid, Spain
    Mol Reprod Dev 75:40-7. 2008
    ..and progressive motility, sperm DNA integrity as established by the TUNEL method, embryo implantation rate, and sex ratio of the fetuses conceived using the heat-exposed spermatozoa...
  60. ncbi Environmentally relevant concentrations of ethynylestradiol cause female-biased sex ratios in Xenopus tropicalis and Rana temporaria
    Irina Pettersson
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala CRU, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18 A, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Environ Toxicol Chem 26:1005-9. 2007
    ..The susceptibility of the two frog species to EE2 was comparable, supporting the use of X. tropicalis as a model organism for research on developmental reproductive toxicity of estrogenic pollutants...
  61. pmc Partnership status and the human sex ratio at birth
    Karen Norberg
    National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 271:2403-10. 2004
    ..for the reproductive success of sons and daughters, then natural selection may favour adjustment of the sex ratio at birth according to circumstances that forecast later family structure...
  62. ncbi The human sex ratio: effects of maternal age
    Janne Rueness
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical Faculty Division, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Lørenskog, Norway
    Hum Reprod 27:283-7. 2012
    ..Low or high maternal age may represent stress for the fetus. Our aim was therefore to study whether the sex ratio differs by maternal age in all pregnancies, and in separate analyses, to assess the sex ratio in pregnancies ..
  63. ncbi Offspring sex and pregnancy outcome by length of gestation
    Lars J Vatten
    Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO 7489 Trondheim, Norway
    Early Hum Dev 76:47-54. 2004
    ..The unbalanced pregnancy survival by offspring sex may also be reflected in higher proportion of preterm male births, and in unbalanced sex distribution in certain pregnancy conditions, such as preeclampsia...
  64. ncbi Estrogenic potency of chemicals detected in sewage treatment plant effluents as determined by in vivo assays with Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)
    C D Metcalfe
    Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8, Canada
    Environ Toxicol Chem 20:297-308. 2001
    ....
  65. ncbi The sex ratio of singleton offspring in assisted-conception pregnancies
    Barbara Luke
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology and Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Fertil Steril 92:1579-85. 2009
    To evaluate the effect of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and male factor infertility on the sex ratio in births from assisted reproductive technology.
  66. ncbi Experimental evolution of reduced sex ratio adjustment under local mate competition
    Emilie Macke
    Institut des Sciences de l Evolution, UMR 5554, Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier Cedex 05, France
    Science 334:1127-9. 2011
    ..indirect and comes from comparative studies or from studies showing that individuals can adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to varying LMC intensities...
  67. ncbi Mating behavior, population growth, and the operational sex ratio: a periodic two-sex model approach
    Stephanie Jenouvrier
    Biology Department, MS 34, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA
    Am Nat 175:739-52. 2010
    ..g., operational sex ratio). The periodic formulation permits inclusion of highly seasonal behavioral events...
  68. pmc Site-specific selfish genes as tools for the control and genetic engineering of natural populations
    Austin Burt
    Department of Biological Sciences and Centre for Population Biology, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 270:921-8. 2003
    ..By targeting sex-linked loci just prior to meiosis one may skew the population sex ratio, and by changing the promoter one may limit the spread of the gene to neighbouring populations...
  69. ncbi The effect of glucosamine concentration on the development and sex ratio of bovine embryos
    Koji Kimura
    National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, 768 Nasushiobara, Tochigi 329 2793, Japan
    Anim Reprod Sci 103:228-38. 2008
    ..Moreover, the inactivation of the second X chromosome in female embryos is influential in producing the sex ratio bias observed in vitro when embryos are cultured in the presence of glucose above 2.5mM...
  70. ncbi Effects of antifolates--co-trimoxazole and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine--on gametocytes in children with acute, symptomatic, uncomplicated, Plasmodium falciparum malaria
    A Sowunmi
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Institute for Medical Research and Training, Ibadan, Nigeria
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 100:451-5. 2005
    ..35, df = 1, P = 0.02). Gametocyte sex ratio changes were similar following treatment with both drugs...
  71. pmc Son-biased sex ratios in the 2000 United States Census
    Douglas Almond
    Department of Economics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10025, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5681-2. 2008
    ..We interpret the found deviation in favor of sons to be evidence of sex selection, most likely at the prenatal stage...
  72. ncbi Genetic manipulation of sex ratio for the large-scale breeding of YY super-male and XY all-male yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Richardson))
    Hanqin Liu
    Key Laboratory of Ecological Impacts of Hydraulic projects and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystem of Ministry of Water Resources, Institute of Hydroecology, Ministry of Water Resources and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430079, People s Republic of China
    Mar Biotechnol (NY) 15:321-8. 2013
    ..We conclude that the mono-sex breeding technique by YY super-male yellow catfish is stable and reliable, which has great potential for application in yellow catfish aquaculture...
  73. ncbi Spatial and temporal demographic variation drives within-season fluctuations in sexual selection
    Michael M Kasumovic
    Integrative Behaviour and Neuroscience Group, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Toronto, ON, M1C 1A4, Canada
    Evolution 62:2316-25. 2008
    ..We demonstrate that there is within-season variation in sex ratio and density at multiple spatial and temporal scales...
  74. pmc The rise and fall of excess male infant mortality
    Greg L Drevenstedt
    Davis School of Gerontology, College of Letter Arts and Sciences, University of Southern California, 3715 McClintock Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089 0191, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5016-21. 2008
    ..This analysis provides evidence of marked changes in the sex ratio of mortality at an age when behavioral differences should be minimal.
  75. pmc Extreme sex ratio variation in relation to change in condition around conception
    Elissa Z Cameron
    Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
    Biol Lett 3:395-7. 2007
    Adaptive theory predicts that mothers would be advantaged by adjusting the sex ratio of their offspring in relation to their offspring's future reproductive success...
  76. ncbi Sex ratios under asymmetrical local mate competition: theory and a test with parasitoid wasps
    David M Shuker
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Am Nat 166:301-16. 2005
    b>Sex ratio theory allows unparalleled opportunities for testing how well animal behavior can be predicted by evolutionary theory...
  77. ncbi Faithful without care: the evolution of monogyny
    Lutz Fromhage
    Department of Evolutionary Biology and Ecology, University of Bonn, D 53121, Germany
    Evolution 59:1400-5. 2005
    ..Using a mathematical model, we show that monogyny as a means of increasing paternity is favored when the sex ratio is male biased, but not necessarily by high search costs...
  78. ncbi Intralocus sexual conflict and offspring sex ratio
    Masako Katsuki
    Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, Tsushima naka 1 1 1, Okayama, Japan
    Ecol Lett 15:193-7. 2012
    ..Thus, these beetles are able to adaptively bias sex ratio and recoup indirect fitness benefits of mate choice.
  79. pmc Declining sex ratio in a first nation community
    Constanze A Mackenzie
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Environ Health Perspect 113:1295-8. 2005
    ..In response to these concerns, we assessed the sex ratio (proportion of male births) of the Aamjiwnaang First Nation over the period 1984-2003 as part of a community-..
  80. ncbi The mismeasurement of sexual selection
    H Klug
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Helsinki, Finland
    J Evol Biol 23:447-62. 2010
    ..e. the operational sex ratio, OSR) and (ii) can be generally estimated by calculating intra-sexual variation in mating success (e.g...
  81. ncbi A model for the evolutionary maintenance of monogyny in spiders
    Lutz Fromhage
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK
    J Theor Biol 250:524-31. 2008
    ..Our results suggest that, regardless of the mechanism of paternity enhancement involved, a male-biased sex ratio is generally required for the evolution and maintenance of monogyny...
  82. pmc Association between sex ratio distortion and sexually antagonistic fitness consequences of female choice
    Tim Connallon
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
    Evolution 63:2179-83. 2009
    ..fitness consequences have been predicted to influence the evolution of female mating biases and the offspring sex ratio. Females might evolve to prefer mates that provide good genes for daughters or might adjust offspring sex ratios ..
  83. ncbi H-Y antigen and homosexuality in men
    R Blanchard
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Theor Biol 185:373-8. 1997
    ....
  84. pmc A Trivers-Willard effect in contemporary humans: male-biased sex ratios among billionaires
    Elissa Z Cameron
    Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 4:e4195. 2009
    Natural selection should favour the ability of mothers to adjust the sex ratio of offspring in relation to the offspring's potential reproductive success...
  85. pmc Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam
    Christophe Z Guilmoto
    CEPED Université Paris Descartes Ined IRD, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 4:e4624. 2009
    Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births) has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam...
  86. ncbi Social environment affects juvenile dispersal in great tits (Parus major)
    Marion Nicolaus
    Animal Ecology Group Behavioural Ecology and Social Organization, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Anim Ecol 81:827-37. 2012
    ..can be formulated regarding social effects on juvenile dispersal as follows: (i) High fledgling density and sex ratio may enhance the intensity of local (kin) competition and, therefore, reduce individual survival chance, enhance ..
  87. ncbi Can mammalian mothers influence the sex of their offspring peri-conceptually?
    Valerie J Grant
    Department of Psychological Medicine Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
    Reproduction 140:425-33. 2010
    ..Research on high-fat diets and the sex ratio in polytocous species may indicate important differences in proximate mechanisms for sex allocation between ..
  88. ncbi Offspring sex ratios in tree swallows: females in better condition produce more sons
    L A Whittingham
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 53201, USA
    Mol Ecol 9:1123-9. 2000
    Organisms are expected to adjust the sex ratio of their offspring in relation to the relative fitness benefits of sons and daughters...
  89. ncbi Sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): a critical consideration of models and evidence
    Leo W Beukeboom
    Evolutionary Genetics, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, Biological Centre, University of Groningen, P O Box 14, NL 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 18:371-8. 2007
    ..Research is now focused on the molecular details of sex determination in Nasonia...
  90. pmc Multiple interacting loci control sex determination in lake Malawi cichlid fish
    Jennifer R Ser
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Evolution 64:486-501. 2010
    ....
  91. pmc Male fetal loss in the U.S. following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001
    Tim A Bruckner
    Public Health and Planning, Policy and Design, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA
    BMC Public Health 10:273. 2010
    The secondary sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a male birth) reportedly declines following natural disasters, pollution events, and economic collapse...
  92. ncbi Demographic stochasticity, allee effects, and extinction: the influence of mating system and sex ratio
    Aline Magdalena Lee
    Department of Biology, Centre for Conservation Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Realfagsbygget, Trondheim, Norway
    Am Nat 177:301-13. 2011
    ..We use a stochastic pair-formation model to investigate the combined effects of mating system, sex ratio, and population size on demographic stochasticity and thus on extinction risk...
  93. pmc Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth
    Kathreen E Ruckstuhl
    University of Calgary, Department of Biological Sciences, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada
    BMC Public Health 10:269. 2010
    ....
  94. pmc Experimental evidence that corticosterone affects offspring sex ratios in quail
    Thomas W Pike
    Evolution and Behaviour Research Group, School of Biology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 273:1093-8. 2006
    Recent studies have shown that some species of birds have a remarkable degree of control over the sex ratio of offspring they produce. However, the mechanism by which they achieve this feat is unknown...
  95. pmc Sex allocation and population structure in apicomplexan (protozoa) parasites
    S A West
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 267:257-63. 2000
    ..Local mate competition (LMC) theory predicts that the optimal sex ratio (r*; defined as proportion males) is related to the selfing rate (s) by the equation r* = (1-s)/2...
  96. ncbi Effects of 17-beta-estradiol treatment of female zebra finches on offspring sex ratio and survival
    Nikolaus von Engelhardt
    Research Group Animal Behaviour, University of Groningen, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands
    Horm Behav 45:306-13. 2004
    Treatment of female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with 17-beta-estradiol leads to a female-biased sex ratio in their offspring at the age of independence [Horm. Behav. 35 (1999) 135]...
  97. pmc High progesterone during avian meiosis biases sex ratios toward females
    Stephanie M Correa
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Biol Lett 1:215-8. 2005
    ..We propose that variation in maternal progesterone during the critical time for genetic sex determination is the mechanism for primary sex ratio manipulation in birds.
  98. ncbi Experimentally increased testosterone affects social rank and primary sex ratio in the spotless starling
    José P Veiga
    Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain
    Horm Behav 46:47-53. 2004
    ..an indirect hormonal effect mediated by the interdependence among maternal hormones, female social rank, and sex ratio. Here, we report the results of a field experiment in which we manipulated the circulating levels of ..
  99. ncbi Fetal death sex ratios: a test of the economic stress hypothesis
    Ralph Catalano
    School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 34:944-8. 2005
    The ratio of male to female live births (i.e. the sex ratio) reportedly falls when populations suffer rare and extreme ambient stressors such as the collapse of national economies...
  100. ncbi Two male-killing Wolbachia strains coexist within a population of the butterfly Acraea encedon
    F M Jiggins
    Department of Genetics, Cambridge University, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EH, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 86:161-6. 2001
    ..Whether this polymorphism is stable, and what forces may be maintaining it, are unknown...
  101. ncbi Epidemiological aspects of rheumatoid arthritis: the sex ratio
    Tore K Kvien
    Department of Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Box 23 Vinderen, N 0319 Oslo, Norway
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1069:212-22. 2006
    ..More research is needed to fully describe the differences between males and females regarding epidemiological data...

Research Grants62

  1. Three-generation Human Study of Reproductive Effects of Marine Food Contaminants
    PHILIPPE ADAM GRANDJEAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will include measures of semen quality, ratio of X/Y chromosome-bearing sperm, chromatin stability of the sperm, sex ratio of births, and waiting time to pregnancy...
  2. Investigation of sex differences associated with autism candidate gene, Cyfip1
    DONNA MARIE WERLING; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of genes associated with ASDs has advanced our understanding of the role of genetics in ASDs, but the skewed sex ratio in prevalence remains unexplained...
  3. Family and Health Consequences of Imbalanced Sex Ratios in India
    Scott J South; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): India has long experienced a numerical shortage of females, and this sex ratio imbalance is likely to grow with the widespread adoption of sex-selective abortion technologies...
  4. Role of fleas in transmission of rickettsiae: ecology of flea-borne spotted fever
    KEVIN MACALUSO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..through adult tissues and immature stages of life cycle);c) flea fitness (fecundity and eclosion rates);and d) sex ratio distortion (comparative analysis of male:female ratios) will be measured in a controlled laboratory R. felis/C...
  5. Evolution of sex chromosome meiotic drive in stalk eyed fly populations
    Kimberly A Paczolt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Sex chromosome meiotic drive is caused by a selfish genetic element that produces a highly skewed offspring sex ratio, often by killing all Y-bearing spermatids during spermatogenesis...
  6. The Genetics and Genomics of Sex-Ratio Meiotic Drive in Drosophila Affinis
    Robert L Unckless; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The biological insight obtaine from our analysis may shed light on the genetics of sex-ratio meiotic drive and sex chromosome evolution, both of which have implications for fertility. ..
  7. Computer-based Female Condom Education and Training for African American Women
    Samantha L Leaf; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, high incarceration rates and mortality among Black men creates a sex ratio imbalance that exacerbates power differentials...
  8. Behavioral management of deleterious aggression in rhesus macaques
    Brenda McCowan; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..strong evidence that individual, family and group characteristics such as temperament, family structure and sex ratio interact to influence network structures such as patterns of submission, reconciliation, grooming and conflict ..
  9. A forward genetic screen to identify determinants of malaria stage conversion
    Matthias Marti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., conversion rate) and the ratio of female and male gametocytes (i.e., sex ratio) vary between strains, both in vivo and in in vitro models...
  10. Behavioral management of deleterious aggression in rhesus macaques
    Brenda McCowan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..strong evidence that individual, family and group characteristics such as temperament, family structure and sex ratio interact to influence network structures such as patterns of submission, reconciliation, grooming and conflict ..
  11. Kava extract, Flavokawains and Bladder Cancer Prevention
    Xiaolin Zi; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..aqueous kava preparation without major side effects for centuries correlates with lower and uncustomary sex ratio (more cancer in women than men) of, cancer incidences in kava-drinking countries such as Fiji, Vatu and Western ..
  12. CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN LOS ANGELES HISPANICS
    M Spence; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The sex ratio and bilateral vs. unilateral frequencies match those predicted from observations in other populations...
  13. Molecular Genetics of Speciation Driven by Intragenomic Conflicts
    Yun Tao; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We propose to determine the molecular and evolutionary link between meiotic drive, a form of genetic conflicts within a genome, and speciation. ..
  14. Male Incarceration, the Health Care Service Environment and Sexual Health
    Emily Russell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..women from two Atlanta, GA census tracts, one that has a high male incarceration rate and a low male: female sex ratio, and the other that has a low male incarceration rate and a male: female sex ratio close to 1.00...
  15. ABNORMALITIES IN CALVES FROM EMBRYO TRANSFER
    George Seidel; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..twinning, abortion, stillbirth, neonatal death, and congenital abnormalities; birth weight; length of gestation; sex ratio; and viability...
  16. DELINEATION OF CAUSATIVE MUTATIONS IN HEMOPHILIA
    Steve Sommer; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..In the present application, the following questions will be addressed: (i) How does the sex ratio of recent germline mutation depend on the type of mutation and the age of the parent?; (ii) How frequent is ..
  17. PHEROMONES, BEHAVIOR AND THE REGULATION OF FERTILITY
    Martha McClintock; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..We will test the effects of four correlates of birth-cycle synchrony that could produce a female-biased sex ratio, potentially identifying the first known physiological mechanism for a facultative sex ratio bias in mammals...
  18. SEX DIFFERENCES IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Gretchen Haas; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..criteria for schizophrenia will be cross-classified on more narrow-band (RDC and DSM-III) criteria and the sex ratio will be compared across diagnostic systems to determine the extent of differential exclusion by sex. Study 2...
  19. The demographic trajectory of the sex ratio in human pregnancy
    STEVEN ORZACK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of speculation and well over a century of focused research, an integrated description and understanding of the sex ratio in humans remains elusive...
  20. Molecular Evolution of X-Y Meiotic Drive in Drosophila
    Andrew Clark; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The resulting female-biased sex ratio can be driven to the point of population extinction...
  21. GENETICS OF THE PATERNAL SEX RATIO CHROMOSOME
    John Werren; Fiscal Year: 1992
    Psr (paternal sex ratio) is a supernumerary (of B) chromosome in the parasitic wasp...
  22. Reproductive Outcomes due to Past Exposure to Dioxins
    Irina Dardynskaia; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..While lowered sex ratio appears to be a reproductive outcome among groups with heavy occupational or environmental exposure to these ..
  23. Sex Ratios and Family Life in China
    SCOTT SOUTH; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Growing imbalances in China's sex ratio have the potential to alter substantially multiple dimensions of family life and, through this, the physical and ..
  24. Exposure to Bisphenol A & Reproductive Effect in Humans
    De Kun Li; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..sexual intercourse? (3) Among the children of exposed workers, is there a relationship of parental exposure with sex ratio, birth weight, age at development of secondary sex features, menstrual characteristics, and sex hormone profile? ..
  25. PESTICIDES--HEALTH FERTILITY AND REPRODUCTIVE RISK
    VINCENT GARRY; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The region is a well defined area of the Red River Valley. The male/female sex ratio of anomalies was significantly increased in appliers residing in the region...
  26. BIOLOGICAL CAUSES OF MORTALITY PLATEAUS IN DROSOPHILA
    Kimberly Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..heterogeneity within populations ('demographic selection') b) changes in reproductive status and population sex ratio. c) changes in population density and environmental quality...
  27. Environmental Gender Balance and HIV Risk for African-American Women
    Enrique Pouget; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..S. The relative availability of heterosexual partners is reflected in the male-female sex ratio among nonincarcerated adults...
  28. Cognitive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric-SLE
    Michael Lockshin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Successful completion of this research will redefine the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction and suggest therapeutic targets for intervention...
  29. Genetics of Wing and Cell-Size Evolution in Nasonia
    John Werren; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  30. TRAINING PROGRAM IN NEUROBIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..All of the laboratories comply with NIH requirements. ..
  31. Epigenetic Influences on Brain and Behavior
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Specific Aim III. To establish if the different behavioral profiles exhibited in such animals in adulthood are reflected in different patterns of activity in a network of interconnected limbic nuclei. ..
  32. EVOLUTION OF BRAIN-BEHAVIOR CONTROLLING MECHANISMS
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  33. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON BRAIN PLASTICITY
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The final category of experiments is particularly important as it will discern whether the incubation temperature effects are direct or indirect. ..
  34. ESTROGEN INDUCED RESPONSES VIA ER/SPL COMPLEXES
    Stephen Safe; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These results will ultimately facilitate design of chemotherapeutic approaches which target specific genes. ..
  35. Spatial Dynamics of Neighborhood Effects
    SCOTT SOUTH; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Consequently, understanding more about the nature and operation of these effects is an important scientific and public health objective. ..
  36. ALKYL PCDFS--INHIBITION OF MAMMARY CANCER
    Stephen Safe; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Thus the proposed studies will define a new mechanism-based class of antiestrogens that can be used alone or in combination with tamoxifen for treatment of breast and endometrial cancer. ..
  37. Interferon and Raloxifene Effects on Cancer Cells
    CHERYL ROSENFELD; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The University is in the process of developing a Comparative Oncology Program. The campus provides a rich mix of disciplines and a collaborative environment, in which Dr. Rosenfeld is expected to continue to thrive. ..
  38. Racial and Ethnic Patterns of Residential Mobility
    SCOTT SOUTH; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. Colon Cancer Inhibition by a Class of PPARgamma Agonists
    Stephen Safe; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The proposed studies will provide mechanistic insights on PPARy-dependent inhibition of colon cancer and identify compounds for future clinical studies. ..
  40. Resources and Opportunities for Neighborhood Attainment
    Scott J South; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Therefore, learning more about the migration behaviors that lead to residence in different types of neighborhoods is an important scientific objective. ..
  41. Mechanisms of Growth Factor-Estrogen Receptor Crosstalk
    Stephen Safe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  42. Comparative Genomics of Sex Determination in Amniotes
    Turk Rhen; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This approach promises to speed the rate of discovery of sex-determining genes in humans, which to date has been slow and haphazard. ..
  43. Coactivation of Estrogen Receptor alpha/Sp1
    Stephen Safe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  44. 2,3,7,8,--TCDD Effects on the Estrogenic Responses
    Stephen Safe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The proposed Aims will address important mechanistic considerations on IDRE-independent inhibitory AhR-ERa crosstalk and pathways critical for inhibition of mammary tumor growth by SAhRMs. ..
  45. Inhibition of Pancreatic Cancer by New PPARgamma Agonis*
    Stephen Safe; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..PPAR? -active C-substituted DIMs that inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo, and these will serve as lead compounds for development of new drugs for clinical treatment of this devastating disease ..
  46. TOXICOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINANTS
    Stephen Safe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed training program will continue to provide trainees with a challenging academic and research environment that will prepare them for future careers in academic, industry and government. ..
  47. PHI-443: Novel Non-Spermicidal Anti-HIV Microbicide
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Specific Aims 1 and 2 may provide the foundation for the clinical development of PHI-443 in Phase II studies as a safe, effective broad-spectrum anti-HIV microbicide without conception-inhibiting functions. ..
  48. NOVEL CONTRACEPTIVES WITH ANTI-HIV ACTIVITY
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The preclinical data on in vivo efficacies of WHI-05 and WHI-07 will be essential to further explore the utility of these novel drugs for clinical studies in human patients. ..
  49. GENE EXPRESSION BASED CLASSIFICATION OF GLIAL TUMORS
    Stanley Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..3)To develop a set of genes with prognostic importance in low grade astrocytomas. 4)To validate the importance of the genes from specific aims 2 and 3 in the prognosis of low grade astrocytomas. ..
  50. MECHANISMS OF REPRODUCTIVE NEUROENDOCRINE TOXICITY
    Peter Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The proposed study will investigate a novel mechanism of PCB neurotoxicity and neuroendocrine toxicity which may also have significance for other neural functions such as those associated with mental health. ..
  51. PHI 346: A Novel Dual-Function Microbicide
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Following successful completion of the Phase I in vivo efficacy studies, gel formulation of PHI-346 will be further explored as a vaginal dual-function microbicide in Phase II. ..
  52. AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE AND NEONATAL TOLERANCE
    Cory Teuscher; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. Sperm DNA damage in fertilization
    MONIKA WARD; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  54. Gender,Migration,and HIV Risk among Hispanics:A Tri-National Study
    EMILIO PARRADO; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Findings from the study will provide culturally grounded and reliable information on gender, migration, and sexual behavior vital for the development of successful HIV interventions targeting Hispanic groups. ..
  55. HIV/STI Prevention for Drug-Involved Couples
    Louisa Gilbert; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Sharp from St. Luke's Hospital in New York City, and Dr. Fals-Stewart from the Research Institute on Addictions at the University of Buffalo. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. SNP studies in ADHD linked regions
    Stanley F Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Additionally, identification of genes with clear relationships to behavior will provide an improved understanding of basic processes of learning. ..
  57. Identifying Mechanisms for Chromosome 21 Nondisjunction
    Tiffany Oliver; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will use a modified tetrad analysis to infer the exchange pattern from the observed recombination data. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  58. Characterizing a genetic history of African populations
    FLOYD REED; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  59. Sex Chromosomes in Fetal Programming and Susceptibility to EAE
    Cory Teuscher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  60. GENETIC BASIS OF SPECIES DIFFERENCES IN DROSOPHILA
    Jerry Coyne; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We will perform laboratory studies of tolerance and preference to understand these anomalies. Our results may be relevant to understanding the origin of species in other animal groups, including humans. ..
  61. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Networks and STDs in China
    GIOVANNA MERLI; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  62. GPing: Informatics for Personal Control of Genomic Data
    Isaac S Kohane; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..3: Design and evaluate a user interface to communicate disclosure. In concert with appropriate non-discrimination legislation, G-PING lays the groundwork for large-scale genomic cohort studies. ..