bioterrorism

Summary

Summary: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management
    Luciana Borio
    Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, Johns Hopkins Schools of Medicine and Public Health, 111 Market Pl, Suite 830, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    JAMA 287:2391-405. 2002
  2. ncbi Tularaemia: bioterrorism defence renews interest in Francisella tularensis
    Petra C F Oyston
    Dstl Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP4 0JQ, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:967-78. 2004
  3. pmc Public health assessment of potential biological terrorism agents
    Lisa D Rotz
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:225-30. 2002
  4. pmc Reliable detection of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis by using multiplex qPCR including internal controls for nucleic acid extraction and amplification
    Ingmar Janse
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    BMC Microbiol 10:314. 2010
  5. ncbi Tularemia as a biological weapon: medical and public health management
    D T Dennis
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    JAMA 285:2763-73. 2001
  6. pmc Current and developing technologies for monitoring agents of bioterrorism and biowarfare
    Daniel V Lim
    Department of Biology, Center for Biological Defense, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 5200, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:583-607. 2005
  7. ncbi Systematic review: surveillance systems for early detection of bioterrorism-related diseases
    Dena M Bravata
    University of California, San Francisco Stanford Evidence based Practice Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Ann Intern Med 140:910-22. 2004
  8. pmc A systems overview of the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics (ESSENCE II)
    Joseph Lombardo
    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723, USA
    J Urban Health 80:i32-42. 2003
  9. pmc Evaluation and validation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis
    Alex R Hoffmaster
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1178-82. 2002
  10. ncbi Antitoxins: novel strategies to target agents of bioterrorism
    G Jonah A Rainey
    Infectious Disease Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 1099, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:721-6. 2004

Detail Information

Publications358 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management
    Luciana Borio
    Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, Johns Hopkins Schools of Medicine and Public Health, 111 Market Pl, Suite 830, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    JAMA 287:2391-405. 2002
    ..To develop consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals if hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are used as biological weapons against a civilian population...
  2. ncbi Tularaemia: bioterrorism defence renews interest in Francisella tularensis
    Petra C F Oyston
    Dstl Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP4 0JQ, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:967-78. 2004
    ..be used as a biological threat agent, and it has received renewed attention recently owing to concerns about bioterrorism. The International Conference on Tularaemia in 2003 attracted more than 200 delegates, twice the number of ..
  3. pmc Public health assessment of potential biological terrorism agents
    Lisa D Rotz
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:225-30. 2002
  4. pmc Reliable detection of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis by using multiplex qPCR including internal controls for nucleic acid extraction and amplification
    Ingmar Janse
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    BMC Microbiol 10:314. 2010
    ..To reduce the impact of such highly pathogenic micro-organisms, rapid and accurate diagnostic tools are needed for their detection in various samples, including environmental samples...
  5. ncbi Tularemia as a biological weapon: medical and public health management
    D T Dennis
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    JAMA 285:2763-73. 2001
    ..The Working Group on Civilian Biodefense has developed consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals if tularemia is used as a biological weapon against a civilian population...
  6. pmc Current and developing technologies for monitoring agents of bioterrorism and biowarfare
    Daniel V Lim
    Department of Biology, Center for Biological Defense, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 5200, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:583-607. 2005
    ..have made public health officials acutely aware of the importance of rapidly and accurately detecting acts of bioterrorism. Because bioterrorism is difficult to predict or prevent, reliable platforms to rapidly detect and identify ..
  7. ncbi Systematic review: surveillance systems for early detection of bioterrorism-related diseases
    Dena M Bravata
    University of California, San Francisco Stanford Evidence based Practice Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Ann Intern Med 140:910-22. 2004
    Given the threat of bioterrorism and the increasing availability of electronic data for surveillance, surveillance systems for the early detection of illnesses and syndromes potentially related to bioterrorism have proliferated.
  8. pmc A systems overview of the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics (ESSENCE II)
    Joseph Lombardo
    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723, USA
    J Urban Health 80:i32-42. 2003
    ..Integration of nonuniform data is needed to increase sensitivity and thus enable the earliest notification possible. The performance of various detection techniques was compared using results obtained from the ESSENCE II system...
  9. pmc Evaluation and validation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis
    Alex R Hoffmaster
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1178-82. 2002
  10. ncbi Antitoxins: novel strategies to target agents of bioterrorism
    G Jonah A Rainey
    Infectious Disease Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 1099, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:721-6. 2004
    ....
  11. ncbi Fatal inhalational anthrax in a 94-year-old Connecticut woman
    Lydia A Barakat
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Griffin Hospital, 130 Division St, Derby, CT 06418, USA
    JAMA 287:863-8. 2002
    We describe the 11th case of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax reported in the United States. The presenting clinical features of this 94-year-old woman were subtle and nondistinctive...
  12. ncbi The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases
    David M Morens
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2520, USA
    Nature 430:242-9. 2004
    ..Studies of these emerging infections reveal the evolutionary properties of pathogenic microorganisms and the dynamic relationships between microorganisms, their hosts and the environment...
  13. pmc Development and comparison of two assay formats for parallel detection of four biothreat pathogens by using suspension microarrays
    Ingmar Janse
    Laboratory for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 7:e31958. 2012
    ..The microarrays detected DNA from different pathogens mixed in different ratios and from spiked or naturally contaminated samples. The assays that were developed have a potential for application in surveillance and diagnostics...
  14. pmc Syndromic surveillance and bioterrorism-related epidemics
    James W Buehler
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1197-204. 2003
  15. pmc Implementing syndromic surveillance: a practical guide informed by the early experience
    Kenneth D Mandl
    Children s Hospital Informatics Program, Division of Emergency Medicine, Center for Biopreparedness, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Am Med Inform Assoc 11:141-50. 2004
    ....
  16. pmc Pathology and pathogenesis of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax
    Jeannette Guarner
    Infectious Diseases Pathology Activity, Division of Viral Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Pathol 163:701-9. 2003
    ..and November 2001, public health authorities investigated 11 patients with inhalational anthrax related to a bioterrorism attack in the United States...
  17. ncbi Individual-based computational modeling of smallpox epidemic control strategies
    Donald S Burke
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room E5527, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 13:1142-9. 2006
    In response to concerns about possible bioterrorism, the authors developed an individual-based (or "agent-based") computational model of smallpox epidemic transmission and control...
  18. ncbi Algorithms for rapid outbreak detection: a research synthesis
    David L Buckeridge
    Palo Alto VA Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA
    J Biomed Inform 38:99-113. 2005
    The threat of bioterrorism has stimulated interest in enhancing public health surveillance to detect disease outbreaks more rapidly than is currently possible...
  19. ncbi Use of the early aberration reporting system (EARS) for detection of bioterrorism agent attacks
    Lori Hutwagner
    Aviat Space Environ Med 76:1001-2. 2005
  20. ncbi Analyzing bioterror response logistics: the case of smallpox
    Edward H Kaplan
    Yale School of Management, and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, Box 208200, New Haven, CT 06520 8200, USA
    Math Biosci 185:33-72. 2003
    ..We also derive approximate thresholds for initially controlling the epidemic for more general interventions that include imperfect vaccination and quarantine...
  21. ncbi Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: updated recommendations for management
    Thomas V Inglesby
    Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    JAMA 287:2236-52. 2002
    ..To review and update consensus-based recommendations for medical and public health professionals following a Bacillus anthracis attack against a civilian population...
  22. ncbi A new model of bioterrorism risk assessment
    Vladan Radosavljevic
    Military Institute of Preventive Medicine in Belgrade, Serbia
    Biosecur Bioterror 7:443-51. 2009
    ..We present a framework for bioterrorism risk assessment that we believe would be useful for policymakers and understandable without needing to be an ..
  23. pmc Clinical evaluation of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) ambulance dispatch-based syndromic surveillance system, New York City
    Jane Greenko
    Bureau of Communicable Disease, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, NY 10013, USA
    J Urban Health 80:i50-6. 2003
    ..data to monitor for a communitywide rise in influenzalike illness (ILI) as an early detection system for bioterrorism. A clinical validation study was conducted during peak influenza season at six New York City emergency ..
  24. pmc Molecular subtyping of Bacillus anthracis and the 2001 bioterrorism-associated anthrax outbreak, United States
    Alex R Hoffmaster
    Centers for Desease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1111-6. 2002
    ..of Bacillus anthracis played an important role in differentiating and identifying strains during the 2001 bioterrorism-associated outbreak. Because B...
  25. ncbi The past and present threat of rickettsial diseases to military medicine and international public health
    Daryl J Kelly
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 34:S145-69. 2002
    ..discovery of drug-refractory strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the increased threat of their use in acts of bioterrorism, frequent deployment of troops to regions of endemicity, and exposures due to increased humanitarian missions, ..
  26. ncbi A model for a smallpox-vaccination policy
    Samuel A Bozzette
    RAND Center for Domestic and International Health Security, Santa Monica, Calif, USA
    N Engl J Med 348:416-25. 2003
    ..The new reality of biologic terrorism and warfare has ignited a debate about whether to reintroduce smallpox vaccination...
  27. ncbi Smallpox vaccination and bioterrorism with pox viruses
    Anton Mayr
    Institute of Microbiology, Infectious and Epidemic Diseases of the Veterinary, Faculty of the Ludwig Maximilian, University of Munich, Weiheimer Strasse 1, 823 19, Starnberg, Germany
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 26:423-30. 2003
    ..One solution to the dilemma of the smallpox vaccine stocks is the MVA strain. It is harmless, protects humans and animals equally well against smallpox and can be applied parenterally...
  28. pmc Role of the hospital-based microbiology laboratory in preparation for and response to a bioterrorism event
    James W Snyder
    Department of Pathology, Division of Laboratory Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine and Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1-4. 2003
  29. ncbi Cutaneous anthrax associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and coagulopathy in a 7-month-old infant
    Abigail Freedman
    Department of Pediatrics, New York University Medical Center, 550 First Ave, New York, NY 10016, USA
    JAMA 287:869-74. 2002
    ..The systemic manifestations of the disease persisted for nearly a month despite corticosteroid therapy, but resolved...
  30. ncbi Infectious diseases: considerations for the 21st century
    A S Fauci
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:675-85. 2001
    ..Increasingly, infectious disease research will be linked to the development of the medical infrastructure and training needed in developing countries to translate scientific advances into operational reality...
  31. pmc Modeling potential responses to smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon
    M I Meltzer
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atalnta, Georgia 30333
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:959-69. 2001
    ..Historical data indicate that a median of 2,155 smallpox vaccine doses per case were given to stop outbreaks, implying that a stockpile of 40 million doses should be adequate...
  32. ncbi Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons
    Peter D Anderson
    Forensic Pharmacologist Private Practice, Randolph, MA 02368, USA
    J Pharm Pract 25:521-9. 2012
    ..Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area...
  33. ncbi Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents
    Mitali Sarkar-Tyson
    Biomedical Sciences Department, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ, UK
    Future Microbiol 6:667-76. 2011
    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate ..
  34. ncbi Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a potential agent of bioterrorism, has a short distribution and a long elimination half-life, and induces kidney and thymus lesions in rats
    Yue nan Liu
    Department of Microbiological Omics and Bioinformatics, State Key Laboratory of Pathogens and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, No 20 Dongdajie, Fengtai District, 100071, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    Arch Toxicol 85:1133-40. 2011
    ..a major virulence factor produced by the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, is a potential toxin agent of bioterrorism. In this study, iodine-125 (125I) was used as an indicator to describe the in vivo Stx2 biodistribution profile...
  35. ncbi Fatal inhalational anthrax with unknown source of exposure in a 61-year-old woman in New York City
    Bushra Mina
    Section of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Lenox Hill Hospital, 100 E 77th St, New York, NY 10021, USA
    JAMA 287:858-62. 2002
    ..The cause of death was inhalational anthrax. Despite epidemiologic investigation, including environmental samples from the patient's residence and workplace, no mechanism for anthrax exposure has been identified...
  36. pmc Forecasting the geographical spread of smallpox cases by air travel
    R F Grais
    Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Epidemiol Infect 131:849-57. 2003
    ....
  37. ncbi The impact of anthrax attacks on the American public
    Robert J Blendon
    Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    MedGenMed 4:1. 2002
    ..Incidents involving anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) through the mail in 4 metropolitan areas have raised concerns about the public's response nationally and locally...
  38. ncbi Vaccinia immune globulin: current policies, preparedness, and product safety and efficacy
    Riccardo Wittek
    Institut de Biotechnologie, University of Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Int J Infect Dis 10:193-201. 2006
    ....
  39. ncbi Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons
    Peter D Anderson
    Forensic Pharmacologist, Private Practice, Adjunct Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice, University of Rhode Island, Randolph, MA, USA
    J Pharm Pract 25:121-9. 2012
    ..Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, ..
  40. ncbi Multiplex diagnostic platforms for detection of biothreat agents
    Nick M Cirino
    New York State Department of Health, Biodefense Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, 120 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 4:841-57. 2004
    ..e., multiplex assays). The maturity, benefits and limitations of each platform will be described and a prospective view, from current to future state of the art, will be proposed...
  41. pmc First case of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax, Florida, 2001: North Carolina investigation
    Jean Marie Maillard
    North Carolina Department of Health and Human Service, Rleigh, North Carolina, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1035-8. 2002
    ..intensive-care units, microbiology laboratories, medical examiners, and veterinarians, and site investigations at locations visited by the index patient to identify the naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related source of his exposure.
  42. ncbi Guidelines to implement medical examiner/coroner-based surveillance for fatal infectious diseases and bioterrorism ("Med-X")
    Kurt B Nolte
    Office of the Medical Investigator, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Am J Forensic Med Pathol 31:308-12. 2010
    ..Additionally, because deaths from bioterrorism are homicides, they fall under the jurisdiction of medical examiners and coroners...
  43. ncbi Arenaviruses other than Lassa virus
    Remi N Charrel
    Unite des Virus Emergents, EA 3292, IRD UR 034, IFR 48, Faculte de Medecine, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, Marseille 13005, France
    Antiviral Res 57:89-100. 2003
    ....
  44. ncbi A review of sentinel laboratory performance: identification and notification of bioterrorism agents
    Elizabeth A Wagar
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 134:1490-503. 2010
    ....
  45. ncbi "Med-X": a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality
    Kurt B Nolte
    Office of the Medical Investigator, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Hum Pathol 38:718-25. 2007
    ..medical examiners and coroners to recognize fatal infections of public health importance and deaths due to bioterrorism. All individuals who died in New Mexico and fell under medical examiner jurisdiction between November 23, 2000, ..
  46. pmc Effects of the USA PATRIOT Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on select agent research in the United States
    M Beatrice Dias
    Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:9556-61. 2010
    ..by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism" (USA PATRIOT) Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on US select agent research could be discerned...
  47. pmc Antimicrobial postexposure prophylaxis for anthrax: adverse events and adherence
    Colin W Shepard
    Centers for Desease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1124-32. 2002
    ..Adherence of <60 days was not consistently associated with adverse events...
  48. ncbi Can postexposure vaccination against smallpox succeed?
    Philip P Mortimer
    Virus Reference Division, Central Public Health Laboratory, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 36:622-9. 2003
    ....
  49. pmc Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, United States, 2001: epidemiologic findings
    Daniel B Jernigan
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1019-28. 2002
    ..Continued vigilance for cases is needed among health-care providers and members of the public health and law enforcement communities...
  50. ncbi Role of data aggregation in biosurveillance detection strategies with applications from ESSENCE
    Howard S Burkom
    Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Mailstop 8 224, Laurel, MD 20723, USA
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53:67-73. 2004
    ..Basic data-aggregation decisions for these systems include determining which records to count and how to group them in space and time...
  51. ncbi LAMP using a disposable pocket warmer for anthrax detection, a highly mobile and reliable method for anti-bioterrorism
    Ben Hatano
    Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Jpn J Infect Dis 63:36-40. 2010
    A quick, reliable detection system is necessary to deal with bioterrorism. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a DNA amplification method that can amplify specific DNA fragments in isothermal conditions...
  52. ncbi If syndromic surveillance is the answer, what is the question?
    Arthur Reingold
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, USA
    Biosecur Bioterror 1:77-81. 2003
  53. pmc PATRIC: the VBI PathoSystems Resource Integration Center
    E E Snyder
    Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:D401-6. 2007
    ..The PATRIC website (https://patric.vbi.vt.edu) will continually grow with the addition of data, analysis and functionality over the course of the project...
  54. ncbi Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei as bioterrorism agents: national aspects of emergency preparedness
    Jacob Gilad
    CBRN Medicine Branch, Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps, Tel Hashomer, Israel
    Isr Med Assoc J 9:499-503. 2007
  55. pmc Bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: the first 10 cases reported in the United States
    J A Jernigan
    NCID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:933-44. 2001
    ..We describe the clinical presentation and course of these cases of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax...
  56. ncbi Immune responses to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in patients with bioterrorism-related cutaneous or inhalation anthrax
    Conrad P Quinn
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    J Infect Dis 190:1228-36. 2004
    ..Ig) G, toxin neutralization, and PA-specific IgG memory B cell responses were studied in patients with bioterrorism-related cutaneous or inhalation anthrax and in a patient with laboratory-acquired cutaneous anthrax...
  57. pmc Specific, sensitive, and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human immunoglobulin G antibodies to anthrax toxin protective antigen
    Conrad P Quinn
    Centers for Desease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1103-10. 2002
    The bioterrorism-associated human anthrax epidemic in the fall of 2001 highlighted the need for a sensitive, reproducible, and specific laboratory test for the confirmatory diagnosis of human anthrax...
  58. pmc The critical role of pathology in the investigation of bioterrorism-related cutaneous anthrax
    Wun Ju Shieh
    Infectious Disease Pathology Activity, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Am J Pathol 163:1901-10. 2003
    ..However, these methods often yield negative results when patients have received antibiotics. During the bioterrorism event of 2001, we applied two novel immunohistochemical assays that can detect Bacillus anthracis antigens in ..
  59. ncbi Medical countermeasures to protect humans from anthrax bioterrorism
    Dimitrios G Bouzianas
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Department of Medical Laboratories, Laboratory of Immunology and Microbiology, PO Box 145 61, Thessaloniki 541 01, Macedonia, Greece
    Trends Microbiol 17:522-8. 2009
    ..the need for specific medical countermeasures to enable the authorities to protect individuals from a future bioterrorism attack...
  60. ncbi Death due to bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: report of 2 patients
    L Borio
    Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies, Johns Hopkins University, Candler Bldg, Suite 850, 111 Market Pl, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    JAMA 286:2554-9. 2001
    ..Rapid diagnostic assays to distinguish more common infectious processes from agents of bioterrorism also could improve management strategies.
  61. ncbi Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of brucellosis and bioterrorism-related brucellosis
    Philippe Bossi
    Task Force on Biological and Chemical Agent Threats, Public Health Directorate, European Commission, Luxembourg
    Euro Surveill 9:E15-6. 2004
    ..The combination of ofloxacin plus rifampicin is associated with good results. Even if there is little evidence to support its utility for post-exposure prophylaxis, doxycycline plus rifampicin is recommended for 3 to 6 weeks...
  62. ncbi Clinical presentation of inhalational anthrax following bioterrorism exposure: report of 2 surviving patients
    T A Mayer
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Inova Fairfax Hospital, 3300 Gallows Rd, Falls Church, VA 22042 3300, USA
    JAMA 286:2549-53. 2001
    ..Treatment with antibiotics, including intravenous ciprofloxacin, rifampin, and clindamycin, and supportive therapy appears to have slowed the progression of inhalational anthrax and has resulted to date in survival...
  63. ncbi Environmental monitoring for biological threat agents using the autonomous pathogen detection system with multiplexed polymerase chain reaction
    John F Regan
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550, USA
    Anal Chem 80:7422-9. 2008
    ..This sophisticated field-deployed surveillance capability now generates actionable data in one-tenth the time of manual filter collection and analysis...
  64. ncbi Recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in a pre-event vaccination program. Supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)
    Melinda Wharton
    Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, National Center for Infectious Diseases, USA
    MMWR Recomm Rep 52:1-16. 2003
    ..Revised recommendations will be developed as needed...
  65. ncbi Bioterrorism knowledge and educational participation of nurses in Missouri
    Terri Rebmann
    Institute for Biosecurity, Division of Environmental and Occupational Health, Saint Louis University School of Public Health, 3545 Lafayette Avenue, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    J Contin Educ Nurs 41:67-76. 2010
    Nurses are integral to bioterrorism preparedness, but nurses' bioterrorism preparedness knowledge has not been evaluated well.
  66. ncbi Preventing second-generation infections in a smallpox bioterror attack
    Edward H Kaplan
    Yale School of Management and the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8200, USA
    Epidemiology 15:264-70. 2004
    ..The analysis highlights the importance of vaccination logistics in addition to beliefs and assumptions regarding smallpox epidemiology in evaluating alternative responses to a smallpox bioterror attack...
  67. pmc Adherence to antimicrobial inhalational anthrax prophylaxis among postal workers, Washington, D.C., 2001
    Mariaelena D Jefferds
    Centers for Desease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1138-44. 2002
    ..Interventions, especially frequent visits by public health staff, proved effective in supporting adherence...
  68. ncbi Smallpox: a disease and a weapon
    Ken Alibek
    George Mason University, National Center for Biodefense, 10900 University Blvd MSN 4E3, Manassas, Virginia 20110, USA
    Int J Infect Dis 8:S3-8. 2004
  69. ncbi Detection limit of negative staining electron microscopy for the diagnosis of bioterrorism-related micro-organisms
    M Laue
    Centre for Biological Safety 4, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany
    J Appl Microbiol 109:1159-68. 2010
    To determine the detection limit of diagnostic negative staining electron microscopy for the diagnosis of pathogens that could be used for bioterrorism.
  70. ncbi Q fever
    Jennifer H McQuiston
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 221:796-9. 2002
  71. ncbi The threat of smallpox and bioterrorism
    P Berche
    INSERM U411, , 156 rue de Vaugirard, 75015 Paris, France
    Trends Microbiol 9:15-8. 2001
    ..Smallpox virus represents a potential biological weapon that could be used by terrorists, and the destruction of stocks raises political, social, scientific and ethical issues...
  72. ncbi Smallpox transmission risks: how bad?
    Laura H Kahn
    Science 297:50-1. 2002
  73. ncbi Clonal vaccinia virus grown in cell culture as a new smallpox vaccine
    Richard Weltzin
    Acambis Inc, 38 Sidney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nat Med 9:1125-30. 2003
    Although the smallpox virus was eradicated over 20 years ago, its potential release through bioterrorism has generated renewed interest in vaccination...
  74. ncbi Bioterrorism: management of major biological agents
    P Bossi
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Pitie Salpetriere Hospital, 47 83 Bd de l Hopital, 75013, Paris, France
    Cell Mol Life Sci 63:2196-212. 2006
    b>Bioterrorism is defined by the intentional or threatened of microorganisms or toxins derived from living organisms to cause death or diseases in humans, animals or plants on which we depend...
  75. ncbi Development of a risk-priority score for category A bioterrorism agents as an aid for public health policy
    C Raina MacIntyre
    National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases, The Children s Hospital at Westmead and the University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Mil Med 171:589-94. 2006
    ..an evidence-based, systematic, multifactorial method for prioritizing the level of risk of each category A bioterrorism agent. Using 10 criterion, anthrax scored the highest, followed by smallpox...
  76. ncbi Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of botulism and bioterrorism-related botulism
    Philippe Bossi
    Task Force on Biological and Chemical Agent Threats, Public Health Directorate, European Commission, Luxembourg
    Euro Surveill 9:E13-4. 2004
    ..Trivalent equine antitoxins (A,B,E) must be given to patients as soon as possible after clinical diagnosis. Heptavalent human antitoxins (A-G) are available in certain countries...
  77. ncbi Laboratory aspects of bioterrorism-related anthrax--from identification to molecular subtyping to microbial forensics
    Tanja Popovic
    Epidemiologic Investigations Laboratory, Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch, DBMD NCID CDC, Mailstop G34, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Croat Med J 44:336-41. 2003
    During the bioterrorism-associated anthrax investigation of 2001 in the United States, 11 patients were diagnosed with inhalational anthrax and 11 more with the cutaneous forms of the disease...
  78. ncbi The toxicology of bioregulators as potential agents of bioterrorism
    Slavko Bokan
    Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Croatia, Croatian Military Academy, Laboratory for NBC Protection, Zagreb, Croatia
    Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 56:205-11. 2005
    ..Together with increased research into toxins, the bioregulators have also been studied and synthesized. This paper presents a review of bioregulators that could be used in terrorist or other hostile activities...
  79. pmc The bioterrorism preparedness and response Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS)
    Lori Hutwagner
    Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333
    J Urban Health 80:i89-96. 2003
    ..Finally, EARS allows end users to select validated aberration detection methods and modify sensitivity and specificity thresholds to values considered to be of public health importance by local and state health departments...
  80. ncbi Tabletop scenarios for realism in bioterrorism and threat preparedness
    Rachel T Abraham
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, WVU School of Public Health, WV, USA
    W V Med J 108:12-7. 2012
    ..Attendees with previous blended-learning courses on bioterrorism and threat preparedness enhanced performance in the tabletop exercises...
  81. ncbi Detection of vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, and Bacillus anthracis DNA by LightCycler polymerase chain reaction after autoclaving: implications for biosafety of bioterrorism agents
    Mark J Espy
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Mayo Clin Proc 77:624-8. 2002
    ....
  82. ncbi Secondary aerosolization of viable Bacillus anthracis spores in a contaminated US Senate Office
    Christopher P Weis
    US Environmental Protection Agency National Enforcement Investigations Center, Denver Federal Center, Bldg 53, PO Box 25227, Denver, CO 80225, USA
    JAMA 288:2853-8. 2002
    ..Bioterrorist attacks involving letters and mail-handling systems in Washington, DC, resulted in Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) spore contamination in the Hart Senate Office Building and other facilities in the US Capitol's vicinity...
  83. pmc Educating health professionals to respond to bioterrorism
    W Paul McKinney
    School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Public Health Rep 120:42-7. 2005
    In September 2003, a consortium of bioterrorism and health education experts from the University of Louisville, the University of Kentucky, the Kentucky Department for Public Health, and the Louisville Metro Health Department received ..
  84. ncbi Nurses' intentions to respond to bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies
    Deanna E Grimes
    University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, School of Nursing, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Nurs Outlook 58:10-6. 2010
    ..historically have responded to natural disasters, little is known about nurses' intentions to respond during bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies where they and their families may be at risk...
  85. ncbi Bioterrorism. How devastating would a smallpox attack really be?
    Martin Enserink
    Science 296:1592-5. 2002
  86. ncbi Self-study: an effective method for bioterrorism training in the OR
    Janet Roberta Thomas
    Ansell Healthcare, Red Bank, NJ, USA
    AORN J 87:915-24. 2008
    ..be prepared to respond appropriately, but many perioperative nurses do not receive adequate education about bioterrorism. One perioperative nurse led a survey project to determine how prepared perioperative nurses were to respond ..
  87. ncbi [Tularemia, a potential bioterrorism weapon]
    Philippe Bossi
    Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hopital Pitie Salpetriere, 47 83, Boulevard de l Hopital, 75651 Paris
    Presse Med 32:1126-30. 2003
    ..IN GENERAL PRACTICE: Tularemia is a disease that requires official notification. Many guidelines exist for the treatment and prophylaxis of patients having been exposed to F. tularensis...
  88. ncbi Genetic diversity-independent neutralization of pandemic viruses (e.g. HIV), potentially pandemic (e.g. H5N1 strain of influenza) and carcinogenic (e.g. HBV and HCV) viruses and possible agents of bioterrorism (variola) by enveloped virus neutralizing com
    Girish J Kotwal
    Department of Medicine, University of Massachusettes, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Vaccine 26:3055-8. 2008
    ..How EVNCs will be used in developing a vaccine achieving sterilizing immunity or prophylaxis needs to be researched...
  89. ncbi Defining bioterrorism preparedness for nurses: concept analysis
    Terri Rebmann
    Institute for Biosecurity, St Louis University, School of Public Health, Missouri 63104, USA
    J Adv Nurs 54:623-32. 2006
    This paper reports a concept analysis to define the concept of nursing bioterrorism preparedness.
  90. ncbi Current therapy and the development of therapeutic options for the treatment of diseases due to bacterial agents of potential biowarfare and bioterrorism
    Ronald A Greenfield
    Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 920 Stanton Young Blvd, Oklahoma City, OK 73190, USA
    Curr Opin Investig Drugs 5:135-40. 2004
    ..Novel vaccine strategies for plague, tularemia and botulism are also reviewed...
  91. ncbi Managing bioterrorism mass casualties in an emergency department: lessons learned from a rural community hospital disaster drill
    Eric Vinson
    Saint Vincent Health Center, Erie, Pennsylvania 16502, USA
    Disaster Manag Response 5:18-21. 2007
    b>Bioterrorism represents a threat for which most emergency departments (EDs) are ill prepared...
  92. ncbi Botulism: the many faces of botulinum toxin and its potential for bioterrorism
    Rodrigo G Villar
    Department of Pediatrics and Steele Children s Research Center, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, 1501 N Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 20:313-27, ix. 2006
  93. ncbi Modeling the public health response to bioterrorism: using discrete event simulation to design antibiotic distribution centers
    Nathaniel Hupert
    Departments of Public Health and Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York City, USA
    Med Decis Making 22:S17-25. 2002
    Post-exposure prophylaxis is a critical component of the public health response to bioterrorism. Computer simulation modeling may assist in designing antibiotic distribution centers for this task.
  94. pmc Inhalational anthrax outbreak among postal workers, Washington, D.C., 2001
    Puneet K Dewan
    Centers for Desease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1066-72. 2002
    ..Prophylaxis was necessary for all employees. To protect postal workers against bioterrorism, measures to reduce the risk of occupational exposure are necessary.
  95. pmc Planning against biological terrorism: lessons from outbreak investigations
    David A Ashford
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop C09, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:515-9. 2003
    ..In 44 (4.0%) of 1,099 investigations, identified causative agents had bioterrorism potential. In six investigations, intentional use of infectious agents was considered...
  96. pmc Risk communication, the West Nile virus epidemic, and bioterrorism: responding to the communication challenges posed by the intentional or unintentional release of a pathogen in an urban setting
    V T Covello
    Center for Risk Communication, New York, New York 10011, USA
    J Urban Health 78:382-91. 2001
    ..The purpose is to provide practical information on how perceptions of the risks associated with a disease outbreak might be perceived and how communications would be best managed...
  97. pmc Smallpox and bioterrorism
    Hugh Pennington
    Department of Medical Biology, University of Aberdeen, Medical School Building, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom
    Bull World Health Organ 81:762-7. 2003
    ..However, concerns about the possible use of the virus as a weapon of bioterrorism have increased in recent years...
  98. ncbi The potential use of influenza virus as an agent for bioterrorism
    Robert M Krug
    Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, 2500 Speedway, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Antiviral Res 57:147-50. 2003
    ..Consequently, new antiviral drugs need to be developed, and the few currently available antiviral drugs should be stockpiled...
  99. ncbi Hospital bioterrorism preparedness linkages with the community: improvements over time
    Barbara I Braun
    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization, Division of Research, Oakbrook Terrace, IL 60181, USA
    Am J Infect Control 32:317-26. 2004
    ..These pre-established relationships enable an integrated community response during an emergency...
  100. ncbi Bioterrorism for the respiratory physician
    Grant W Waterer
    Centre for Asthma, Allergy and Respiratory Research and Lung Institute of Western Australia, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
    Respirology 14:5-11. 2009
    ..As many of the most likely bioterrorism agents present with pulmonary disease, respiratory physicians may be crucial in the initial recognition and ..
  101. ncbi Reclassifying bioterrorism risk: are we preparing for the proper pathogens?
    Georgios Pappas
    Institute for Continuing Medical Education of Ioannina, Greece
    J Infect Public Health 2:55-61. 2009
    ..Recognition of intervening factors and proper assessment of the actual risk might augment in proper distribution of interest and funds on relevant medical research...

Research Grants76

  1. CFI Pathogen Inactivation Technology
    Trevor P Castor; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a number of emerging viruses such as West Nile and the breaking Mexican swine flu, and a number of potential bioterrorism pathogens such as smallpox that are of concern to the safety of the human plasma supply chain...
  2. Mucosal Immunity, Vaccines and Microbiota Interplay in Humans and Animal
    Marcelo B Sztein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Given the shortcomings of available measures to successfully control this infection, and its bioterrorism potential, to develop a S. dysenteriae type 1 vaccine is of great importance.
  3. Novel DNA-Launched Attenuated Vaccine for VEE Virus
    PETER M PUSHKO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a dangerous, NIH/NIAID category B human pathogen and a potential bioterrorism threat. Outbreaks of VEEV occur in Central America and have previously spread into the United States...
  4. Robust Peptide-Based Diagnostics of Botulinum Toxins
    John E Mueller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and potential dissemination into air, water, and food supply, the BoNTs are considered among the preeminent bioterrorism threats. As such, the NIAID and CDC have categorized them as Class A threat agents...
  5. Novel Therapeutics for Neurotropic Alphaviruses
    David J Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..infections in humans, and are considered NIAID Category B Priority Pathogens due to their potential misuse as bioterrorism agents...
  6. Rapid point-of-care diagnostic for bioterrorism "A" agents and Pandemic influenza
    Kelly J Henrickson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..methods to detect all antigenic variants of Flu A/B (pandemic Flu assay) and the majority of category "A" bioterrorism agents (BioT assay) in an open platform mode (separate equipment for each function);2) Feasibility, to ..
  7. Nikkomycin Z treatment of early coccidioidal pneumonia: Phase II clinical trial
    DAVID LARWOOD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The fungi that cause Valley Fever are potential agents of bioterrorism. Currently available medical treatments are only partially effective and do not cure infections...
  8. Protective orthopox immunization in normals and patients with cancer or eczema
    Ellis Reinherz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of smallpox represents a major accomplishment of medicine in the 20th century, use of this virus as a bioterrorism agent against our largely disease-susceptible civilian population could result in unprecedented mortality...
  9. Multiplex Serodiagnostic Protein Microarray
    PHILIP LOUIS FELGNER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The chips will also be useful for assessing the spread of exposure in a population following a bioterrorism attack.
  10. Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors As Broad Spectrum Anti-Flaviviral Therapeutics
    Glenn Randall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Dengue virus (DENV) is the most clinically important arbovirus and a Category A bioterrorism agent...
  11. Regional Biocontainment Laboratory
    Charles Bailey; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In the event of a national bioterrorism emergency, the proposed RBL will offer surge laboratory capacity, trained laboratory personnel, and expert ..
  12. Peptide inhbitors of influenza entry-FAST TRACK
    Russell B Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..RELEVANCE: Because of the threat posed by influenza virus both to public health and as a potential agent of bioterrorism, developing therapeutics to control seasonal influenza and the increasing threat of pandemic influenza is one ..
  13. Determining Molecular Mechanisms of Chikungunya Virulence and Attenuation
    KATHERINE D RYMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These determinants will provide targets for therapeutic intervention during acute infection, whether acquired from natural arthropod transmission or a biowarfare/bioterrorism attack.
  14. IMMUNITY AND VIRUS DISEASE
    Raymond M Welsh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the re-emergence of a 1918-1ike strain of influenza virus or the release of variola (small pox) virus by bioterrorism. There are few effective antiviral drugs to combat these viruses, and protection from these agents mainly rests ..
  15. Development of Site-Specific Mutagenesis in Coxiella burnetti
    JAMES EVANS SAMUEL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Infections of humans with Coxiella burnetii, a potential bioterrorism agent, manifest as acute, flu-like illness or as chronic inflammation of the heart or liver...
  16. Role of the ribosomal stalk in the activity of Shiga toxins
    Nilgun E Tumer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..They are classified as category B bioterrorism select agents. A recent outbreak of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) producing E...
  17. A Novel Colon-specific Bi-functional Amebicidal Therapeutics: Gal-Dextran-MM
    Jeoung Soo Lee; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Due to the ease of transmission and infection, aomeba are also considered potential bioterrorism agents. Therefore, there is a continued need for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies for E...
  18. 6th Orthomyxovirus Research Conference
    STACEY L SCHULTZ-CHERRY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the concern of an incipient pandemic, continuous economic loss from avian influenza, and the threat of bioterrorism and dual-use issues make this an important topic for present and future study...
  19. Molecular Basis of Bacterial Quorum Sensing Gene Regulation
    MAIR E CHURCHILL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..modulation by QscR and QscR homologs will aid in the future development of virulence attenuating drugs, which may be used in the treatment of persistent, multi-drug resistant, and bioterrorism-related infections.
  20. CFI Inactivation of Human Plasma
    TREVOR CASTOR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..There are also a number of emerging viruses such as West Nile and a number of potential bioterrorism pathogens such as smallpox that are of concern to the safety of the human plasma supply...
  21. Phenotype MicroArray Analysis of Fastidious Pathogens
    Barry Bochner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It will be applied in hospital diagnostic work, environmental diagnostic work, bioterrorism monitoring, new drug development, toxicology studies, and in many areas of basic biology research.
  22. Regulation of Pore Formation by Type III Secretion System
    Gloria I Viboud; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Interestingly, Y. pestis, the etiological agent of plague, and a currently considered a class A bioterrorism agent, is closely related to Y...
  23. NLR Family Proteins: Mechanisms and Regulation
    John C Reed; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..inflammation, vaccines, and infectious diseases, while also aiding in development of counter measures for bioterrorism. PROJECT NARRATIVE NLR proteins constitute a large group of molecules involved in host-defense, protecting our ..
  24. Influenza Immunity: Protective Mechanisms Against Pandemic Respiratory Virus
    MARK MORRIS DAVIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..death that it causes but also in its potential for much greater harm in the form of a pandemic or a weapon of bioterrorism. In this renewal application, we seek to better understand how our current influenza vaccines work in terms of ..
  25. Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane protein vaccine
    Stuart Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..S., and has been classified by the NIH as a Category B Bioterrorism Agent due to its ability to cause food-borne and water-borne outbreaks. There are at least 2...
  26. Novel Screen to Identify Arenavirus Inhibitors
    Juan Lama; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transmissibility and elevated morbidity and mortality, LASV and pathogenic strains of Junin virus (JUNV) pose a bioterrorism risk and are in the list of high priority Category A agents from the department of Health and Human Services (..
  27. Reverse genetics to develop a second generation Rift Valley fever vaccine
    Tetsuro Ikegami; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..other countries are preparing for potential introductions of RVFV due to climate change, air transport, and/or bioterrorism. The only truly effective countermeasure is vaccination...
  28. Functional analysis of the Francisella capBCA gene locus
    Jing Ren Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..tularensis is considered as a category A potential agent of bioterrorism. The virulence mechanisms of F...
  29. Targeting the processing of the arenavirus glycoprotein for anti-viral therapy.
    Juan C de la Torre; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In addition, weaponized forms of arenaviruses pose a serious threat as agents of bioterrorism. No licensed anti-arenavirus vaccines are available, and current anti-arenavirus therapies are limited to the ..
  30. Direct Regulation of CD8 T Cells by Interferon gamma
    Marulasiddappa Suresh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..rates of mortality and morbidity associated with these infections, and the potential of being used as agents of bioterrorism, are arenaviruses are classified under category A pathogens...
  31. miRNA HD Array Platform
    Bruce E Seligmann; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..An area of special interest to NIAID for SBIR/STTR applications is "Biomarkers of Host Immune Defense to Bioterrorism Pathogens"...
  32. Development of a Novel Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine
    Shinji Makino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..family Bunyaviridae, and belongs to the NIAID Category A list pathogens and the CDC list of potential bioterrorism agents...
  33. Design of New Antimicrobials
    Robert S Hodges; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..S. Therefore, there is an economic incentive to adopt novel antibiotics. In addition, the threat of bioterrorism, that is the ability to easily engineer new strains of bacteria with deadly consequences to humans, must be ..
  34. New Strategies to Prevent Death from Influenza
    Kendall A Smith; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..introduction of new strains of influenza virus into the population, either through a natural pandemic or via bioterrorism. Two strategies are described;one to treat the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) by blocking ..
  35. Structure and Function of the B. anthracis Exosporium
    Charles L Turnbough; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..causative agent of anthrax, is a highly pathogenic bacterium considered to be a serious threat as an agent of bioterrorism. The recent use of this bacterium as a terrorist weapon in the United States exposed the need for a more ..
  36. Giardia drug targets: Structure, function and inhibitors
    Osnat Herzberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The CDC classified Giardia a bioterrorism category B organism because water and food supplies could be easily compromised...
  37. Dermatotropic cellular immune responses induced by a novel smallpox vaccine
    Stephen R Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..proposal is to develop a patient-oriented research program investigating vaccine-elicited host immunity to bioterrorism-associated viral infections, while becoming a successful independent clinician-researcher...
  38. Mechanisms of IVIG Protection in Viral Encephalitis
    EDOUARD M CANTIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Results from these studies will be important for making the case for IVIG as a treatment for neuroinflammatory diseases including encephalitis caused by HSV and other viruses like West Nile virus that are potential bioterrorism agents.
  39. Protection of Mice From Lethal Alphavirus Encephalitis
    David N Irani; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..S. Public Health Service given their potential use as bioterrorism agents. One alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SV), has been extensively studied in a murine model...
  40. BIOSENSOR ARRAYS BASED ON SINGLE WALL CARBON NANOTUBES
    James F Rusling; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..arrays are increasingly important in light of emerging areas of biomedical science and intensified world bioterrorism. Sensitive, rapid, specific, multiple detection of proteins, bacteria and toxins in biological and ..
  41. A forward genetics screen for genes regulating phagocytosis and signaling in Enta
    Lesly A Temesvari; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Since this pathogen is categorized as a Class B bioterrorism agent, there is elevated priority to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate its ..
  42. MOUSE MODELS FOR UNDERSTANDING HOST RESPONES TO INTRACELLULAR PATHOGENS
    Ellen A Robey; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..insights into how the immune system responds to pathogenic infection but should also aid in the design of effective vaccines and drugs for prevention and treatment of bioterrorism agents and emerging infectious diseases.
  43. Evaluation of Ail as a protective immunogen for plague
    Eric S Krukonis; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Y. pestis is the etiological agent of plague, a rapidly fatal disease and potential bioterrorism threat. There is currently no licensed plague vaccine in the U.S...
  44. Pathogenic mechanisms of non-01/non-0139 V. cholerae
    Michelle Dziejman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to individuals traveling to endemic areas, and the United States CDC considers some strains a Category B level BioTerrorism threat because of the potential for spread via contaminated food or water...
  45. PEROMYSCUS LABORATORY MODELS FOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
    Gabor Szalai; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Hanta virus causes a disease with 40 percent mortality and is a potential bioterrorism agent...
  46. Collectins and Innate Defense against Inhaled Pathogens
    Barbara A Seaton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and rapid spread of more lethal respiratory viruses;and potential use of inhaled pathogens in acts of bioterrorism. Effective pulmonary host defense requires early recognition of microorganisms...
  47. Single-cycle Infectious Candid#1 to Study Hemorrhagic Fever New World Arenavirus
    Luis Martinez-Sobrido; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Moreover, weaponized forms of arenaviruses pose a serious threat as agents of bioterrorism. Public health concerns posed by arenaviruses are aggravated by the lack of licensed vaccines and by current ..
  48. Antidote for botulism
    DAVID OWEN BEENHOUWER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Background. The CDC category A bioterrorism agent, Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), is a zinc protease that cleaves proteins involved in presynaptic acetylcholine release thereby causing paralysis...
  49. Host Factors for Hemorrhagic Fever
    JOHN NICHOLAS MISASI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..causes of hemorrhagic fever can be rapidly fatal to humans and, while rare, are considered potential agents for bioterrorism. This research will identify the cellular determinants of how one of these viruses, EboV, enters cells...
  50. Global Health Partnership at UCSD and SDSU
    Steffanie Strathdee; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of disciplines in Global Health, including epidemiology, public health, health promotion, behavioral science, bioterrorism, anthropology, economics, political science, geography, sociology, toxicology, virology, parasitology and ..
  51. Role of lipid rafts and phosphoinositides in E. histolytica virulence
    Lesly A Temesvari; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It ranks third as a worldwide cause of morbidity and has been classified as a Category B bioterrorism agent...
  52. Opening a New Lassa Fever Ward in Kenema Sierra Leone
    Robert F Garry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Because of the importance of LF as a bioterrorism and public health threat, KGH has developed an advanced clinical and laboratory research capacity...
  53. Treatment of bacterial pneumonia after influenza
    Jonathan A McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..before the next highly pathogenic influenza virus enters the population from avian sources or as a result of bioterrorism. We hypothesize that alternative treatment regimens, that do not lead to a robust host inflammatory response, ..
  54. Development of Aptamer-Based Therapy Against HUS
    SAUL R TZIPORI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..They represent an important global emerging infection with relevance to foodborne illness and potential bioterrorism. The virulence of STEC is underscored by the very low infectious dose required to produce clinical disease...
  55. Development and Testing of Human Brucellosis Diagnostics in an Endemic Country
    Joseph M Vinetz; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with the potential to be exploited as a bioterrorism disease. The agents of brucellosis, Brucella spp...
  56. A Novel Therapy for Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Poisoning
    Kenneth J Piller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..fact, it has been suggested that SEB is one of the "two most important toxin threats on the battlefield or in bioterrorism"...
  57. Interactions of Ebola virus glycoproteins with host cells
    Paul Bates; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..They are also a potential bioterrorism agent...
  58. Contact Dependent Growth Inhibition in Burkholderia pseudomallei
    Peggy A Cotter; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..pseudomallei is a serious emerging global infectious disease problem. It is also a potential bioterrorism agent that has been classified as an NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen...
  59. Characterization of a novel AB5 cytotoxin
    Adrienne W Paton; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Apart from its possible role in severe human disease, it is a potential bioterrorism agent which could have global impact...
  60. Exposporium determinants of Bacillus anthracis
    George C Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is of significant concern as a potential bioterrorism agent. The spore is the infective form of this pathogen...
  61. Infection and Immunity K-12 Science Program: Exploring Knowns/Unknowns via VCRC/Q
    Marlys Hearst Witte; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..diseases from worms and insect vectors;1 and 2 immune disorders, organ transplantation;vaccines;and bioterrorism;3) provide K-12 teacher training and support through serial interactive multimedia teacher workshops, year ..
  62. Biosynthesis & Function of a Bacillus anthracis-specific cell wall polysaccharide
    Russell W Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The bacterium Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax in humans;as a bioterrorism agent the bacteria are a threat to public health...
  63. Lung Injury and Shock Pathogenesis in Y. pestis Sepsis
    ANDREW LECHNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..pestis as a weapon of bioterrorism. To identify the molecular pathogenesis of Y...
  64. Multiplex PCR Detection of CDC 'A' Bioterrorism Agents
    Kelly Henrickson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..S. to counter future bioterrorism attacks. Available older techniques have proven unreliable...
  65. Antigenic Relationships of SARS and Animal Coronaviruses
    Linda Saif; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerged global disease of significant economic impact and bioterrorism potential...
  66. Combinatorial vaccines against anthrax and plague
    John Clements; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The use of anthrax as an agent of bioterrorism on civilian populations was a theoretical risk, heightened by the discovery that certain rogue nations (notably ..
  67. Inhaled Aminoglycoside Formulafor Plague and Tularemia
    James Talton; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..aminoglycosides, streptomycin and gentamicin, for post-exposure treatment of aerosol exposure of the Category A bioterrorism agents pneumonic Yersina pestis (plague) and Francisella tularensis (tularemia)...
  68. PRIMATE MODEL AND PATHOGENESIS OF ANTHRAX SEPSIS
    Shinichiro Kurosawa; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The threat of bioterrorism has become a reality since the attacks with Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in the fall of 2001. The virulence of B.anthracis depends on a tripartite exotoxin and an anti-phagocytic bacterial capsule...
  69. Vaccinia Proteome Affinity Reagents From Phage Display
    Philip Felgner; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The need for nimble technology platforms to counter bioterrorism threats motivates the research proposed here...
  70. Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus as a SARS Model
    Linda Saif; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerging global disease of humans with a major economic impact and significant bioterrorism potential caused by a new strain of coronavirus (CoV)...
  71. Pheresis Treatment of Bioterrorism-Induced Sepsis
    Stephen Ash; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Victims of bacterial bioterrorism agents such as anthrax, plague, and tularemia die very often because of septicemia and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)...
  72. Center of Predictive Medicine for Biodefense
    MANUAL MARTINEZ; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..we will assemble in the facility as well as be prepared to bring those technologies to bear in the event of a bioterrorism emergency...
  73. Intervention against anthrax edema factor (EF)
    Wei Jen Tang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The bioterrorism-related anthrax in 2001 has shown that anthrax spores can be an effective bioterrorism agent to cause massive disruption and causalities...
  74. Regulation of Sindbis Virus Subgenomic RNA Synthesis
    Victor Stollar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Several may also be considered possible bioterrorism agents. An essential step in the replication of Sindbis virus is the synthesis of a subgenomic (SG) RNA...
  75. Development of a genetically tractable nematode model of alphavirus infection
    Margaret R Macdonald; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The genus includes NIAID Category B priority pathogens of concern for possible bioterrorism use. Currently there is no specific therapy available...
  76. Identification of the ribosomal target of Shiga-like toxins
    NILGUN TUMER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..coli is a major threat as an agent of bioterrorism and has been classified as NIAID Category B Priority for biodefense...