fossils

Summary

Summary: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The delayed rise of present-day mammals
    Olaf R P Bininda-Emonds
    Lehrstuhl für Tierzucht, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany
    Nature 446:507-12. 2007
  2. ncbi Paleontological evidence to date the tree of life
    Michael J Benton
    Department of Earth Sciences, Wills Memorial Building, Queen s Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK
    Mol Biol Evol 24:26-53. 2007
  3. pmc Extreme cranial ontogeny in the upper cretaceous dinosaur pachycephalosaurus
    John R Horner
    Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e7626. 2009
  4. pmc An uncorrelated relaxed-clock analysis suggests an earlier origin for flowering plants
    Stephen A Smith
    National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5897-902. 2010
  5. ncbi The origins of C4 grasslands: integrating evolutionary and ecosystem science
    Erika J Edwards
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Science 328:587-91. 2010
  6. pmc Direct multiplex sequencing (DMPS)--a novel method for targeted high-throughput sequencing of ancient and highly degraded DNA
    Mathias Stiller
    Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
    Genome Res 19:1843-8. 2009
  7. ncbi An Archaeopteryx-like theropod from China and the origin of Avialae
    Xing Xu
    College of Life Science, Linyi University, Shuangling Road, Linyi City, Shandong 276005, China
    Nature 475:465-70. 2011
  8. ncbi A new scenario for the quaternary history of European beech populations: palaeobotanical evidence and genetic consequences
    Donatella Magri
    Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita La Sapienza, P le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
    New Phytol 171:199-221. 2006
  9. ncbi Faunal histories from Holocene ancient DNA
    Mark de Bruyn
    Molecular Ecology and Fisheries Genetics Laboratory, Environment Centre for Wales, School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, UK, LL57 2UW
    Trends Ecol Evol 26:405-13. 2011
  10. ncbi An exceptionally preserved Lower Cretaceous ecosystem
    Zhonghe Zhou
    Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 643, Beijing 100044, China
    Nature 421:807-14. 2003

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications321 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The delayed rise of present-day mammals
    Olaf R P Bininda-Emonds
    Lehrstuhl für Tierzucht, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany
    Nature 446:507-12. 2007
    ....
  2. ncbi Paleontological evidence to date the tree of life
    Michael J Benton
    Department of Earth Sciences, Wills Memorial Building, Queen s Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK
    Mol Biol Evol 24:26-53. 2007
    The role of fossils in dating the tree of life has been misunderstood. Fossils can provide good "minimum" age estimates for branches in the tree, but "maximum" constraints on those ages are poorer...
  3. pmc Extreme cranial ontogeny in the upper cretaceous dinosaur pachycephalosaurus
    John R Horner
    Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e7626. 2009
    ..Marginocephalians (pachycephalosaurids + ceratopsids) undergo comparable and extreme cranial morphological change during ontogeny...
  4. pmc An uncorrelated relaxed-clock analysis suggests an earlier origin for flowering plants
    Stephen A Smith
    National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5897-902. 2010
    ..g., the early radiation of herbaceous clades within angiosperms) may still be biasing our inferences...
  5. ncbi The origins of C4 grasslands: integrating evolutionary and ecosystem science
    Erika J Edwards
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Science 328:587-91. 2010
    ....
  6. pmc Direct multiplex sequencing (DMPS)--a novel method for targeted high-throughput sequencing of ancient and highly degraded DNA
    Mathias Stiller
    Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
    Genome Res 19:1843-8. 2009
    ..Embedded in our approach, we present a new protocol for the construction of barcoded sequencing libraries, which is compatible with all current high-throughput technologies and can be performed entirely in plate setup...
  7. ncbi An Archaeopteryx-like theropod from China and the origin of Avialae
    Xing Xu
    College of Life Science, Linyi University, Shuangling Road, Linyi City, Shandong 276005, China
    Nature 475:465-70. 2011
    ..If this new phylogenetic hypothesis can be confirmed by further investigation, current assumptions regarding the avialan ancestral condition will need to be re-evaluated...
  8. ncbi A new scenario for the quaternary history of European beech populations: palaeobotanical evidence and genetic consequences
    Donatella Magri
    Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita La Sapienza, P le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
    New Phytol 171:199-221. 2006
    ....
  9. ncbi Faunal histories from Holocene ancient DNA
    Mark de Bruyn
    Molecular Ecology and Fisheries Genetics Laboratory, Environment Centre for Wales, School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, UK, LL57 2UW
    Trends Ecol Evol 26:405-13. 2011
    ....
  10. ncbi An exceptionally preserved Lower Cretaceous ecosystem
    Zhonghe Zhou
    Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 643, Beijing 100044, China
    Nature 421:807-14. 2003
    ..in the Early Cretaceous Jehol Group, northeastern China has revealed a plethora of extraordinarily well-preserved fossils that are shaping some of the most contentious debates in palaeontology and evolutionary biology...
  11. ncbi A basal dromaeosaurid and size evolution preceding avian flight
    Alan H Turner
    Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 5192, USA
    Science 317:1378-81. 2007
    ..Thus, change in theropod body size leading to flight's origin was not unidirectional...
  12. ncbi Transformation and diversification in early mammal evolution
    Zhe Xi Luo
    Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Nature 450:1011-9. 2007
    ..an orderly acquisition of key evolutionary innovations leading to adaptive diversification, but newly discovered fossils show that evolution of such key characters as the middle ear and the tribosphenic teeth is far more labile among ..
  13. pmc Targeted investigation of the Neandertal genome by array-based sequence capture
    Hernán A Burbano
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Science 328:723-5. 2010
    ..By generating the sequence of one Neandertal and 50 present-day humans at these positions, we have identified 88 amino acid substitutions that have become fixed in humans since our divergence from the Neandertals...
  14. ncbi A pre-Archaeopteryx troodontid theropod from China with long feathers on the metatarsus
    Dongyu Hu
    Paleontological Institute, Shenyang Normal University, 253 North Huanghe Street, Shenyang 110034, China
    Nature 461:640-3. 2009
    ....
  15. ncbi The braincase and jaws of a Devonian 'acanthodian' and modern gnathostome origins
    Martin D Brazeau
    Subdepartment of Evolutionary Organismal Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18A, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Nature 457:305-8. 2009
    ..These new data alter earlier conceptions of basal gnathostome phylogeny and thus help to provide a more detailed picture of the acquisition of early gnathostome characters...
  16. pmc Mitochondrial and nuclear genes suggest that stony corals are monophyletic but most families of stony corals are not (Order Scleractinia, Class Anthozoa, Phylum Cnidaria)
    Hironobu Fukami
    Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, Field Science Education and Research Center, Kyoto University, Shirahama, Wakayama, Japan
    PLoS ONE 3:e3222. 2008
    ..of molecular characters and more carefully examined morphological characters suggests a future of greater taxonomic stability, as well as the potential to trace the evolutionary history of this ecologically important group using fossils.
  17. ncbi Genetic analyses from ancient DNA
    Svante Paabo
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D 04013 Leipzig, Germany
    Annu Rev Genet 38:645-79. 2004
    ..We also highlight some significant results and areas of promising future research...
  18. pmc Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils
    Per G P Ericson
    Department of Vertebrate Zoology and Molecular Systematics Laboratory, Swedish Museum of Natural History, PO Box 50007, 10405 Stockholm, Sweden
    Biol Lett 2:543-7. 2006
    ..time estimates calibrated with a large number of stratigraphically and phylogenetically well-documented fossils. Our study defines several well-supported clades within Neoaves...
  19. pmc Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary
    Johannes Krause
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    BMC Evol Biol 8:220. 2008
    ..Widely divergent topologies have been suggested based on various data sets and methods...
  20. ncbi The shifting balance of diversity among major marine animal groups
    J Alroy
    Paleobiology Database, University of California, 735 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, USA
    Science 329:1191-4. 2010
    ..The current global crisis may therefore permanently alter the biosphere's taxonomic composition by changing the rules of evolution...
  21. pmc Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism
    P Martin Sander
    Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn, Germany
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 86:117-55. 2011
    ..Mammals are limited by their extensive mastication and their vivipary, while ornithsichian dinosaurs were only limited by their extensive mastication, having greater average body sizes than mammals...
  22. ncbi New light shed on the oldest insect
    Michael S Engel
    Division of Entomology, Natural History Museum, and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Snow Hall, 1460 Jayhawk Blvd, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 7523, USA
    Nature 427:627-30. 2004
    ..However, how and when this immense radiation of animals originated is unclear. Only a few fossils provide insight into the earliest stages of insect evolution, and among them are specimens in chert from Rhynie, ..
  23. ncbi Neuroanatomy of flying reptiles and implications for flight, posture and behaviour
    Lawrence M Witmer
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA
    Nature 425:950-3. 2003
    ..Their enormous cerebellar floccular lobes may suggest neural integration of extensive sensory information from the wing, further enhancing eye- and neck-based reflex mechanisms for stabilizing gaze...
  24. ncbi Fossil jawless fish from China foreshadows early jawed vertebrate anatomy
    Zhikun Gai
    School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK
    Nature 476:324-7. 2011
    ....
  25. ncbi Developmental plasticity in the life history of a prosauropod dinosaur
    P Martin Sander
    Institut für Paläontologie, Universitat Bonn, Nussallee 8, D 53115 Bonn, Germany
    Science 310:1800-2. 2005
    ..Individual life histories of P. engelhardti were influenced by environmental factors, as in modern ectothermic reptiles, but not in mammals, birds, or other dinosaurs...
  26. pmc Contrasted patterns of hyperdiversification in Mediterranean hotspots
    Hervé Sauquet
    Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond TW9 3DS, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:221-5. 2009
    ..Our results highlight key differences between Mediterranean hotspots and indicate that Southwest Australian biota are the most phylogenetically diverse but include numerous lineages with low diversification rates...
  27. ncbi Divergence time estimation using fossils as terminal taxa and the origins of Lissamphibia
    R Alexander Pyron
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 5245, USA
    Syst Biol 60:466-81. 2011
    ..This research illustrates potential pitfalls for the use of fossils as post hoc age constraints on internal nodes and highlights the importance of explicit phylogenetic analysis of ..
  28. pmc Ancient DNA reveals Holocene loss of genetic diversity in a South American rodent
    Yvonne L Chan
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, 371 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Biol Lett 1:423-6. 2005
    ..Our results highlight the importance of non-anthropogenic factors in loss of diversity, including reductions in smaller mammals such as rodents...
  29. pmc True single-molecule DNA sequencing of a pleistocene horse bone
    Ludovic Orlando
    Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen DK 1350, Denmark
    Genome Res 21:1705-19. 2011
    ..Our results suggest that paleogenomes could be sequenced in an unprecedented manner by combining current second- and third-generation sequencing approaches...
  30. pmc Ancient biomolecules from deep ice cores reveal a forested southern Greenland
    Eske Willerslev
    Centre for Ancient Genetics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Science 317:111-4. 2007
    ..The results provide direct evidence in support of a forested southern Greenland and suggest that many deep ice cores may contain genetic records of paleoenvironments in their basal sections...
  31. ncbi Molecular phylogenetics of mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex
    Chris L Organ
    Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 320:499. 2008
    ..rex. Our findings suggest that molecular data from long-extinct organisms may have the potential for resolving relationships at critical areas in the vertebrate evolutionary tree that have, so far, been phylogenetically intractable...
  32. ncbi Biomolecular characterization and protein sequences of the Campanian hadrosaur B. canadensis
    Mary H Schweitzer
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
    Science 324:626-31. 2009
    ..These data complement earlier results from Tyrannosaurus rex (MOR 1125) and confirm that molecular preservation in Cretaceous dinosaurs is not a unique event...
  33. ncbi Gigantism and comparative life-history parameters of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs
    Gregory M Erickson
    Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 1100, USA
    Nature 430:772-5. 2004
    ..T. rex had a maximal growth rate of 2.1 kg d(-1), reached skeletal maturity in two decades and lived for up to 28 years. T. rex's great stature was primarily attained by accelerating growth rates beyond that of its closest relatives...
  34. ncbi A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China
    Xing Xu
    Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing 100044, China
    Nature 439:715-8. 2006
    ....
  35. pmc Anatomy and taxonomic status of the chasmosaurine ceratopsid Nedoceratops hatcheri from the upper Cretaceous Lance Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A
    Andrew A Farke
    Raymond M Alf Museum of Paleontology, Claremont, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e16196. 2011
    ..hatcheri represents an intermediate ontogenetic stage between "young adult" and "old adult" forms of a single taxon previously split into Triceratops and Torosaurus...
  36. ncbi Gondwanan break-up: legacies of a lost world?
    Paul Upchurch
    Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, London, UK
    Trends Ecol Evol 23:229-36. 2008
    ..This perspective suggests that it is more difficult to detect vicariance than trans-oceanic dispersal and that specialized methods must be applied if an unbiased understanding of southern hemisphere biogeography is to be achieved...
  37. ncbi The evolution of arthropod heads: reconciling morphological, developmental and palaeontological evidence
    Gerhard Scholtz
    Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Institut für Biologie Vergleichende Zoologie, Philippstrasse 13, 10115 Berlin, Germany
    Dev Genes Evol 216:395-415. 2006
    ..recent results from comparative molecular developmental studies, improved morphological investigations, and new fossils. Current data indicate that the anterior arthropod head comprises three elements: the protocerebral/ocular region,..
  38. ncbi Widespread origins of domestic horse lineages
    C Vila
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, S 75236 Uppsala, Sweden
    Science 291:474-7. 2001
    ..However, genetic variation at nuclear markers is partitioned among horse breeds and may reflect sex-biased dispersal and breeding...
  39. ncbi Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator
    Santiago R Ramírez
    Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford St, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 448:1042-5. 2007
    ..These results further support the hypothesis of an ancient origin for Orchidaceae...
  40. pmc Cranial growth and variation in edmontosaurs (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae): implications for latest Cretaceous megaherbivore diversity in North America
    Nicolás E Campione
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 6:e25186. 2011
    ..A decline in the disparity of dominant megaherbivores in the latest Maastrichtian interval supports the hypothesis that dinosaur diversity decreased immediately preceding the end Cretaceous extinction event...
  41. ncbi Avian paternal care had dinosaur origin
    David J Varricchio
    Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
    Science 322:1826-8. 2008
    ..In extant birds and over most adult sizes, paternal and biparental care correspond to the largest and smallest relative clutch volumes, respectively...
  42. ncbi The Burgess Shale anomalocaridid Hurdia and its significance for early euarthropod evolution
    Allison C Daley
    Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, Uppsala SE 752 36, Sweden
    Science 323:1597-600. 2009
    ..These features amplify and clarify the diversity of known anomalocaridid morphology and provide insight into the origins of important arthropod features, such as the head shield and respiratory exites...
  43. ncbi A basal alvarezsauroid theropod from the early Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China
    Jonah N Choiniere
    Department of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA
    Science 327:571-4. 2010
    ..The new taxon confirms extreme morphological convergence between birds and derived alvarezsauroids and illuminates incipient stages of the highly modified alvarezsaurid forelimb...
  44. ncbi Combining phylogenomics and fossils in higher-level squamate reptile phylogeny: molecular data change the placement of fossil taxa
    John J Wiens
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 5245, USA
    Syst Biol 59:674-88. 2010
    ..Overall, our results suggest promise for an integrated and comprehensive Tree of Life by combining molecular and morphological data for living and fossil taxa...
  45. pmc Evidence for avian intrathoracic air sacs in a new predatory dinosaur from Argentina
    Paul C Sereno
    Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e3303. 2008
    ....
  46. pmc Robust time estimation reconciles views of the antiquity of placental mammals
    Yasuhiro Kitazoe
    Center of Medical Information Science, Kochi Medical School, Nankoku, Kochi, Japan
    PLoS ONE 2:e384. 2007
    ..However, this discrepancy may not be real, but rather appear because of the violation of implicit assumptions in the estimation procedures, such as non-gradual change of evolutionary rate and failure to correct for convergent evolution...
  47. ncbi Primitive soft-bodied cephalopods from the Cambrian
    Martin R Smith
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Harbord Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G5, Canada
    Nature 465:469-72. 2010
    ..The presence of a funnel suggests that jet propulsion evolved in cephalopods before the acquisition of a shell. The explosive diversification of mineralized cephalopods in the Ordovician may have an understated Cambrian 'fuse'...
  48. ncbi Global interrelationships of Plesiosauria (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) and the pivotal role of taxon sampling in determining the outcome of phylogenetic analyses
    Hilary F Ketchum
    Department of Palaeontology, Natural History Museum, London, UK
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 85:361-92. 2010
    ..These were problematic as they were nested within the superfamily Plesiosauroidea. The incongruence length difference test indicates no significant difference in levels of homoplasy between cranial and postcranial characters...
  49. pmc Transitional fossils and the origin of turtles
    Tyler R Lyson
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    Biol Lett 6:830-3. 2010
    ..This result reflects the importance of transitional fossils when long branches separate crown clades, and highlights unexplored issues such as the role of topological ..
  50. ncbi Banksia born to burn
    Tianhua He
    Centre for Ecosystem Diversity and Dynamics, Department of Environment and Agriculture, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
    New Phytol 191:184-96. 2011
    ....
  51. ncbi Estimating divergence times in large phylogenetic trees
    Tom Britton
    Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
    Syst Biol 56:741-52. 2007
    ..PATHd8 is implemented in freely available software...
  52. ncbi The female reproductive unit of ephedra (Gnetales): comparative morphology and evolutionary perspectives
    Catarina Rydin
    Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Bot J Linn Soc 163:387-430. 2010
    ..variation patterns in the female reproductive unit and test the hypothesis that some Early Cretaceous fossils, which share synapomorphies with Ephedra, are members of the extant clade...
  53. ncbi The aftermath of megafaunal extinction: ecosystem transformation in Pleistocene Australia
    Susan Rule
    School of Culture, History and Language, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia
    Science 335:1483-6. 2012
    ..This ecosystem shift was as large as any effect of climate change over the last glacial cycle, and indicates the magnitude of changes that may have followed megafaunal extinction elsewhere in the world...
  54. ncbi Paleogenomics of echinoderms
    David J Bottjer
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 0740, USA
    Science 314:956-60. 2006
    ..purpuratus genome and are likely to be the same genes that were involved with stereom formation in the earliest echinoderms some 520 million years ago...
  55. pmc Shape and mechanics in thalattosuchian (Crocodylomorpha) skulls: implications for feeding behaviour and niche partitioning
    S E Pierce
    University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Anat 215:555-76. 2009
    ....
  56. ncbi Cephalopod origin and evolution: A congruent picture emerging from fossils, development and molecules: Extant cephalopods are younger than previously realised and were under major selection to become agile, shell-less predators
    Björn Kröger
    Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Bioessays 33:602-13. 2011
    ..In contrast, the loss of a mineralised shell has occurred several times in distinct coleoid lineages. The general tendency of shell reduction reflects a trend towards active modes of life and much more complex behaviour...
  57. ncbi An unusual long-tailed pterosaur with elongated neck from western Liaoning of China
    Xiaolin Wang
    Laboratory of Evolutionary Systematics of Vertebrates, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing, China, 100044
    An Acad Bras Cienc 81:793-812. 2009
    ..This analysis differs from previous studies and indicates that more work is needed before a stable picture of non-pterodactyloid pterosaur relationships is achieved...
  58. ncbi Mass extinction, gradual cooling, or rapid radiation? Reconstructing the spatiotemporal evolution of the ancient angiosperm genus Hedyosmum (Chloranthaceae) using empirical and simulated approaches
    Alexandre Antonelli
    Gothenburg Botanical Garden, Carl Skottsbergs gata 22A, 41319 Göteborg, Sweden
    Syst Biol 60:596-615. 2011
    ..It also shows the difficulties of inferring patterns of lineage diversification when incomplete taxon sampling is combined with high extinction rates...
  59. pmc The integumentary skeleton of tetrapods: origin, evolution, and development
    Matthew K Vickaryous
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Canada
    J Anat 214:441-64. 2009
    ..Although not homologous as organs, all elements of the integumentary skeleton share a basic and essential relationship with the integument, connecting them with the ancestral rhombic scale...
  60. ncbi Comparing ungulate dietary proxies using discriminant function analysis
    Danielle Fraser
    Department of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1S 5B6
    J Morphol 272:1513-26. 2011
    ..These results are important for future paleoecological studies and should be used as a guide for determining which dietary proxies are appropriate to the research question...
  61. ncbi Dental occlusion in a 260-million-year-old therapsid with saber canines from the Permian of Brazil
    Juan Carlos Cisneros
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, Centro de Ciências da Natureza, Ininga, Teresina, Piaui, Brazil
    Science 331:1603-5. 2011
    ..This discovery provides new insight into the evolution of heterogeneous dentition in therapsids and broadens our understanding of ecological interactions at the end of the Paleozoic...
  62. pmc A radiation of arboreal basal eutherian mammals beginning in the Late Cretaceous of India
    Anjali Goswami
    Department of Genetics, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:16333-8. 2011
    ....
  63. ncbi The thermal history of human fossils and the likelihood of successful DNA amplification
    Colin I Smith
    Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry, NRG, Drummond Building, University of Newcastle, NE1 7RU Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    J Hum Evol 45:203-17. 2003
    ..The claims of aDNA amplification from material found at Lake Mungo, Australia, are also considered in the light of the thermal history of this site...
  64. ncbi The evolution of cranial form and function in theropod dinosaurs: insights from geometric morphometrics
    S L Brusatte
    Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, USA
    J Evol Biol 25:365-77. 2012
    ..These results imply that phylogeny, not biting function, was the major determinant of theropod skull shape...
  65. ncbi Evolutionary diversification of reef corals: a comparison of the molecular and fossil records
    Carl Simpson
    Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute at the Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Evolution 65:3274-84. 2011
    ..For example, both agree that the end-Triassic coral extinction was a catastrophic bottleneck in scleractinian evolution...
  66. pmc New basal iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain formation of Utah and the evolution of thumb-spiked dinosaurs
    Andrew T McDonald
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e14075. 2010
    ..In contrast to Europe and Asia, the North American record of Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts has until recently been limited largely to skulls and skeletons of Tenontosaurus tilletti...
  67. ncbi Using the fossil record to estimate the age of the last common ancestor of extant primates
    Simon Tavare
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 1340, USA
    Nature 416:726-9. 2002
    ..The common ancestor of primates should be earlier than the oldest known fossils, but adequate quantification is needed to interpret possible discrepancies between molecular and palaeontological ..
  68. ncbi Phanerozoic trends in the global diversity of marine invertebrates
    John Alroy
    National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California Santa Barbara, 735 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, USA
    Science 321:97-100. 2008
    ..The ratio of global to local richness has changed little, and a latitudinal diversity gradient was present in the early Paleozoic...
  69. pmc A complete skull of an early cretaceous sauropod and the evolution of advanced titanosaurians
    Hussam Zaher
    Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    PLoS ONE 6:e16663. 2011
    ..The new taxon also preserves the most complete skull among titanosaurians, further revealing that their low and elongated diplodocid-like skull morphology appeared much earlier than previously thought...
  70. ncbi Evaluation of Bayesian models of substitution rate evolution--parental guidance versus mutual independence
    Martin Linder
    Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, Box 480, SE 751 06 Uppsala, Sweden
    Syst Biol 60:329-42. 2011
    ....
  71. ncbi An ecomorphological model of the initial hominid dispersal from Africa
    S C Anton
    Center for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    J Hum Evol 43:773-85. 2002
    ..erectus facilitated by changes in ecosystem structure during the Plio-Pleistocene...
  72. pmc Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment
    Erik Trinkaus
    Department of Anthropology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:1267-71. 2011
    ..They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans...
  73. ncbi Large Cretaceous sphenodontian from Patagonia provides insight into lepidosaur evolution in Gondwana
    Sebastian Apesteguia
    Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia, Av Angel Gallardo 470, Buenos Aires 1405, Argentina
    Nature 425:609-12. 2003
    ..The new discovery helps to bridge the considerable gap in the fossil record (around 120 million years) that separates the Early Cretaceous sphenodontians from their living relatives (Sphenodon)...
  74. ncbi The evolution of maximum body size of terrestrial mammals
    Felisa A Smith
    Department of Biology, MSC03 2020, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Science 330:1216-9. 2010
    ..Our analysis suggests that although the primary driver for the evolution of giant mammals was diversification to fill ecological niches, environmental temperature and land area may have ultimately constrained the maximum size achieved...
  75. ncbi Cranial design and function in a large theropod dinosaur
    E J Rayfield
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, UK
    Nature 409:1033-7. 2001
    ..These results demonstrate simply the inherent potential of FEA for testing mechanical behaviour in fossils in ways that, until now, have been impossible.
  76. ncbi The giant crocodyliform Sarcosuchus from the Cretaceous of Africa
    P C Sereno
    Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Science 294:1516-9. 2001
    New fossils of the giant African crocodyliform Sarcosuchus imperator clarify its skeletal anatomy, growth patterns, size, longevity, and phylogenetic position...
  77. ncbi Preservation of species abundance in marine death assemblages
    S M Kidwell
    Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
    Science 294:1091-4. 2001
    ....
  78. pmc The oldest Asian record of Anthropoidea
    Sunil Bajpai
    Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247 667, India
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11093-8. 2008
    ..Eosimiids bear little adaptive resemblance to later Eocene-early Oligocene African Anthropoidea...
  79. ncbi The earliest dromaeosaurid theropod from South America
    Peter J Makovicky
    Department of Geology, The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605, USA
    Nature 437:1007-11. 2005
    ....
  80. ncbi A nearly modern amphibious bird from the Early Cretaceous of northwestern China
    Hai Lu You
    Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, 26 Baiwanzhuang Road, Beijing 100037, People s Republic of China
    Science 312:1640-3. 2006
    ..The anatomy of Gansus, like that of other non-neornithean (nonmodern) ornithuran birds, indicates specialization for an amphibious life-style, supporting the hypothesis that modern birds originated in aquatic or littoral niches...
  81. ncbi Bayesian estimation of sequence damage in ancient DNA
    Simon Y W Ho
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Evol 24:1416-22. 2007
    ....
  82. ncbi Biodiversity baselines, thresholds and resilience: testing predictions and assumptions using palaeoecological data
    K J Willis
    University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Trends Ecol Evol 25:583-91. 2010
    ..We stress the importance of long-term palaeoecological data in fully understanding contemporary and future biotic responses...
  83. ncbi Calibrating the chelicerate clock: a paleontological reply to Jeyaprakash and Hoy
    Jason A Dunlop
    Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity, Humboldt University Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115, Berlin, Germany
    Exp Appl Acarol 48:183-97. 2009
    ..Through these, we hope to provide a robust framework and reference points for future molecular systematic studies of this nature...
  84. ncbi A basal dinosaur from the dawn of the dinosaur era in southwestern Pangaea
    Ricardo N Martinez
    Instituto y Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan 5400, Argentina
    Science 331:206-10. 2011
    ..The extinction of nondinosaurian herbivores is sequential and is not linked to an increase in dinosaurian diversity, which weakens the predominant scenario for dinosaurian ascendancy as opportunistic replacement...
  85. ncbi Tyrannosaur paleobiology: new research on ancient exemplar organisms
    Stephen L Brusatte
    Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, USA
    Science 329:1481-5. 2010
    ..The biology and evolutionary history of tyrannosaurs provide a foundation for comparison with other dinosaurs and living organisms...
  86. pmc New horned dinosaurs from Utah provide evidence for intracontinental dinosaur endemism
    Scott D Sampson
    Utah Museum of Natural History and Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e12292. 2010
    ..Remarkably, previous studies have postulated the occurrence of latitudinally arrayed dinosaur "provinces," or "biomes," on Laramidia. Yet this hypothesis has been challenged on multiple fronts and has remained poorly tested...
  87. pmc The extent of the preserved feathers on the four-winged dinosaur Microraptor gui under ultraviolet light
    David W E Hone
    Key Laboratory of Evolutionary Systematics of Vertebrates, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 5:e9223. 2010
    ..This taxon has important implications for the origin of flight in birds and the possibility of a four-winged gliding phase...
  88. pmc Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia
    Wu Liu
    Key Laboratory of Evolutionary Systematics of Vertebrates, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19201-6. 2010
    ..As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in East Asia and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region...
  89. pmc A supermatrix analysis of genomic, morphological, and paleontological data from crown Cetacea
    Jonathan H Geisler
    Department of Anatomy, New York College of Osteopathic Medicine, New York Institute of Technology, Northern Boulevard, Old Westbury, NY 11568, USA
    BMC Evol Biol 11:112. 2011
    ....
  90. ncbi Can extinction rates be estimated without fossils?
    Emmanuel Paradis
    Laboratoire de Paléontologie, Paléobiologie and Phylogénie, Institut des Sciences de l Evolution, Universite Montpellier II, F 34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France
    J Theor Biol 229:19-30. 2004
    ..The estimators obtained with fossils performed better than those without fossils. In the absence of fossils (e.g...
  91. pmc Genomic fossils calibrate the long-term evolution of hepadnaviruses
    Clément Gilbert
    Department of Biology, University of Texas, Arlington, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 8:. 2010
    ....
  92. pmc Sexual maturity in growing dinosaurs does not fit reptilian growth models
    Andrew H Lee
    Department of Integrative Biology and Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:582-7. 2008
    ..The origin of the modern avian reproductive strategy in ornithuran birds likely coincided with their extreme elevations in growth rate and truncations to growth duration...
  93. pmc Seven new dolphin mitochondrial genomes and a time-calibrated phylogeny of whales
    Ye Xiong
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, PR China
    BMC Evol Biol 9:20. 2009
    ..Moreover, we incorporate a newly-developed "relaxed" molecular clock to model heterogenous rates of evolution among cetacean lineages...
  94. ncbi The morphological basis of hallucal orientation in extant birds
    K M Middleton
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
    J Morphol 250:51-60. 2001
    ..This method also avoids potential misinterpretations of hallucal orientation in fossil birds that could result from preserved appearance alone...
  95. ncbi Pattern and timing of diversification of the mammalian order Carnivora inferred from multiple nuclear gene sequences
    Eduardo Eizirik
    Faculdade de Biociencias, PUCRS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 56:49-63. 2010
    ..Analysis of this data set led to consistent and robust resolution of all supra-familial nodes in the carnivoran tree, and allowed the construction of a molecular timescale for the evolution of this mammalian order...
  96. ncbi Large colonial organisms with coordinated growth in oxygenated environments 2.1 Gyr ago
    Abderrazak El Albani
    Laboratoire HydrASA, UMR 6269 CNRS INSU, Universite de Poitiers, 86022 Poitiers, France
    Nature 466:100-4. 2010
    ..The Gabon fossils, occurring after the 2.45-2...
  97. ncbi Bonitasaura salgadoi gen. et sp. nov.: a beaked sauropod from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia
    Sebastian Apesteguia
    Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia, Av Angel Gallardo 470, 1405 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Naturwissenschaften 91:493-7. 2004
    ..A high sauropod morphological diversity seems to be in agreement with the poorly represented ornithischian clades of the southern hemisphere...
  98. pmc Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar
    C B Stringer
    Department of Paleontology, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:14319-24. 2008
    ..This evidence suggests that such use of marine resources was not a rare behavior and represents focused visits to the coast and estuaries...
  99. ncbi Is Homo heidelbergensis a distinct species? New insight on the Mauer mandible
    Aurélien Mounier
    Unité d Anthropologie Adaptabilité Bioculturelle, UMR 6578, CNRS, Universite de la Mediterranee, EFS, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, Marseille, France
    J Hum Evol 56:219-46. 2009
    The discovery of new fossils in Africa, Asia, and Europe, and the recognition of a greater diversity in the middle Pleistocene fossil record, has led to a reconsideration of the species Homo heidelbergensis...
  100. ncbi Isotopic evidence for diet and subsistence pattern of the Saint-Césaire I Neanderthal: review and use of a multi-source mixing model
    Herve Bocherens
    Institut des Sciences de l Evolution, UMR 5554, Universite Montpellier 2, Place E Bataillon, F 34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France
    J Hum Evol 49:71-87. 2005
    ..They probably had to hunt for proboscideans and rhinoceros. Such a prey selection could result from a long lasting dietary tradition in Europe...
  101. ncbi The smallest known non-avian theropod dinosaur
    X Xu
    The Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    Nature 408:705-8. 2000
    ..The discovery of these in non-avian theropods provides new insights for studying the palaeoecology of some bird-like theropod dinosaurs...

Research Grants9

  1. Microcomputed Tomography Device (Scanco UCT40)
    Mary Bouxsein; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..e., neonatal mouse), as well as specimens with high mineral content (i.e., fossils). Third, the increased gantry size will allow high-resolution scanning of larger specimens...
  2. Molecular Archeology of HIV
    Michael Worobey; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..viral genetic sequences retrieved from just a few decades before present are effectively molecular [unreadable]fossils[unreadable]...
  3. The Emergence of HIV: A Molecular Archeology Approach
    Michael Worobey; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..rapidly, viral genetic sequences retrieved from just a few decades before present are effectively molecular 'fossils'...
  4. Models of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex that Function by PCET
    Jonathan Melnick; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Due to the increased emission of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossils fuels, global warming has become an increasing threat to the long-term inhabitation of the planet...
  5. Evolution of BMP Genes 2 and 4 in Archosaurs
    CHRIS ORGAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Aim three is to elucidate the evolution of bmp2 and bmp4 coding regions. This project will be the first large scale examination of non-avian reptile genome structure and evolution. ..
  6. Simulation algorithms for genome-wide data and application to admixed data
    Jeffrey Wall; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This work will also help us determine the marker density and sample size needed for future association studies. ..
  7. Regulatory Genomics: BAC-GFP Library of Control Genes
    Eric Davidson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Numerous letters from outside investigators attesting interest in this facility are included as an Appendix to this application. ..