Summary: A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Randomized controlled trial of peer-led recovery education using Building Recovery of Individual Dreams and Goals through Education and Support (BRIDGES)
    Judith A Cook
    University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Psychiatry, Chicago, IL 60612, United States
    Schizophr Res 136:36-42. 2012
  2. ncbi Early maternal separation, nightmares, and bad dreams: results from the Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel
    Szilvia Csoka
    Institute of Behavioural Sciences, Semmelweis University Budapest, Hungary
    Attach Hum Dev 13:125-40. 2011
  3. ncbi Dreaming and episodic memory: a functional dissociation?
    Magdalena J Fosse
    Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Mental Health Center, Boston 02115, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 15:1-9. 2003
  4. ncbi Temporal references in dreams and autobiographical memory
    Jean Grenier
    University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Mem Cognit 33:280-8. 2005
  5. ncbi Burnt into memory
    Thomas Elbert
    Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
    Nature 419:883. 2002
  6. ncbi Patients' dreams and unreal experiences following intensive care unit admission
    Brigit Roberts
    Department of Intensive Care, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
    Nurs Crit Care 9:173-80. 2004
  7. pmc Cognitive replay of visuomotor learning at sleep onset: temporal dynamics and relationship to task performance
    Erin J Wamsley
    The Center for Sleep and Cognition, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Harvard Medical School Department of Psychiatry, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Sleep 33:59-68. 2010
  8. ncbi The phantom limb in dreams
    Peter Brugger
    Neuropsychology Unit, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Frauenklinikstrasses 26, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Conscious Cogn 17:1272-8; discussion 1279-80. 2008
  9. ncbi Dreams and exposure therapy in PTSD
    B O Rothbaum
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Trauma Stress 14:481-90. 2001
  10. ncbi Born to adapt, but not in your dreams
    Theo Mulder
    Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, P O Box 19121, 1000 GC Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Conscious Cogn 17:1266-71. 2008

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications254 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Randomized controlled trial of peer-led recovery education using Building Recovery of Individual Dreams and Goals through Education and Support (BRIDGES)
    Judith A Cook
    University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Psychiatry, Chicago, IL 60612, United States
    Schizophr Res 136:36-42. 2012
    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a peer-led, mental illness education intervention called Building Recovery of Individual Dreams and Goals through Education and Support (BRIDGES).
  2. ncbi Early maternal separation, nightmares, and bad dreams: results from the Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel
    Szilvia Csoka
    Institute of Behavioural Sciences, Semmelweis University Budapest, Hungary
    Attach Hum Dev 13:125-40. 2011
    ..before one year of age and lasting at least one month) report more frequent nightmare experiences and bad dreams as adults. In the frame of the Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel, 5020 subjects were interviewed...
  3. ncbi Dreaming and episodic memory: a functional dissociation?
    Magdalena J Fosse
    Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Mental Health Center, Boston 02115, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 15:1-9. 2003
    ..a period of 14 days, 29 subjects kept a log of daytime activities, events, and concerns, wrote down any recalled dreams, and scored the dreams for incorporation of any waking experiences...
  4. ncbi Temporal references in dreams and autobiographical memory
    Jean Grenier
    University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Mem Cognit 33:280-8. 2005
    In an attempt to determine whether temporal references identified in dreams follow the same temporal distributions as those documented for autobiographical memories, 28 younger women (18-35 years of age) and 30 older women (60-77 years of ..
  5. ncbi Burnt into memory
    Thomas Elbert
    Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
    Nature 419:883. 2002
  6. ncbi Patients' dreams and unreal experiences following intensive care unit admission
    Brigit Roberts
    Department of Intensive Care, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
    Nurs Crit Care 9:173-80. 2004
    b>Dreams and unreal experiences occur commonly in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care unit...
  7. pmc Cognitive replay of visuomotor learning at sleep onset: temporal dynamics and relationship to task performance
    Erin J Wamsley
    The Center for Sleep and Cognition, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Harvard Medical School Department of Psychiatry, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Sleep 33:59-68. 2010
    ..Here, we examine whether memory reactivation in sleeping humans might also be evident within reports of concomitant subjective experience (i.e., dreaming)...
  8. ncbi The phantom limb in dreams
    Peter Brugger
    Neuropsychology Unit, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Frauenklinikstrasses 26, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Conscious Cogn 17:1272-8; discussion 1279-80. 2008
    ..Hochstenbach, J., Dijkstra, P. U., Geertzen, J. H. B. (2008). Born to adapt, but not in your dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1266-1271...
  9. ncbi Dreams and exposure therapy in PTSD
    B O Rothbaum
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Trauma Stress 14:481-90. 2001
    ..the context of the relationship between therapeutic exposure and exposure to trauma-related stimuli that occurs in dreams. It is concluded that nightmares that replay the trauma and disrupt sleep do not meet requirements for therapeutic ..
  10. ncbi Born to adapt, but not in your dreams
    Theo Mulder
    Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, P O Box 19121, 1000 GC Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Conscious Cogn 17:1266-71. 2008
    ..The results show that the majority of the dreamers reported dreams about their intact body although the mean time that elapsed since the amputation was twelve years...
  11. ncbi Characteristics and contents of dreams
    Michael Schredl
    Sleep Laboratory, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Int Rev Neurobiol 92:135-54. 2010
    b>Dreams have been studied from different perspectives: psychoanalysis, academic psychology, and neurosciences...
  12. ncbi Pain in dreams
    T A Nielsen
    Laboratoire du Sommeil, , , Canada
    Sleep 16:490-8. 1993
    Little is known about pain in dreams. Some studies indicate that it is rare and that it may be beyond the representational capability of dreaming...
  13. ncbi Self-reported effects of dreams on waking-life creativity: an empirical study
    Michael Schredl
    Sleep Laboratory, Central Institute of Mental Health, PO Box 12 21 20, 68072 Mannheim, Germany
    J Psychol 141:35-46. 2007
    The authors studied the self-rated effect of dreams on creativity in participants who were not selected for creative abilities. Students (N = 444) and online respondents (N = 636) answered a questionnaire about dreams and creative dreams...
  14. ncbi Sleep, learning, and dreams: off-line memory reprocessing
    R Stickgold
    Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 294:1052-7. 2001
  15. ncbi Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall
    Cristina Marzano
    Department of Psychology, University of Rome Sapienza, 00185 Rome, Italy
    J Neurosci 31:6674-83. 2011
  16. pmc Sleep, dreams, and memory consolidation: the role of the stress hormone cortisol
    Jessica D Payne
    The University of Arizona, Department of Psychology, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Learn Mem 11:671-8. 2004
    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep...
  17. ncbi Replaying the game: hypnagogic images in normals and amnesics
    R Stickgold
    Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, 74 Fenwood Road, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 290:350-3. 2000
    ..In addition, control participants reported images from previously played versions of the game, demonstrating that remote memories can influence the images from recent waking experience...
  18. ncbi Dreaming and waking consciousness: a character recognition study
    D Kahn
    Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Sleep Res 9:317-25. 2000
    ..Subjects were queried by questionnaire about dream characters immediately after recording their dreams upon awakening in their normal home setting...
  19. pmc Dreaming of a learning task is associated with enhanced sleep-dependent memory consolidation
    Erin J Wamsley
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Department of Psychiatry, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Curr Biol 20:850-5. 2010
    ..That similar effects were not observed during wakefulness suggests that these mnemonic processes are specific to the sleep state...
  20. ncbi The incidence of unpleasant dreams after sub-anaesthetic ketamine
    Mark Blagrove
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 203:109-20. 2009
    ..is an N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with psychotogenic effects and for which there are diverse reports of whether pleasant or unpleasant dreams result during anaesthesia, post-operatively or after sub-anaesthetic use.
  21. ncbi Immediate and delayed incorporations of events into dreams: further replication and implications for dream function
    Tore A Nielsen
    Sleep Research Center, Sacre Coeur Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Sleep Res 13:327-36. 2004
    The incorporation of memories into dreams is characterized by two types of temporal effects: the day-residue effect, involving immediate incorporations of events from the preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, involving incorporations ..
  22. ncbi What are the memory sources of dreaming?
    Tore A Nielsen
    Dream and Nightmare Laboratory, Hopital du Sacre Coeur de Montreal, 5400 Blvd Gouin Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H4J 1C5
    Nature 437:1286-9. 2005
    ..Freud have appreciated that memories of the people, places, activities and emotions of daily life are reflected in dreams but are typically so fragmented that their predictability is nil...
  23. ncbi Dream rebound: the return of suppressed thoughts in dreams
    Daniel M Wegner
    Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Psychol Sci 15:232-6. 2004
    ..have this influence, increasing dreaming about the person as measured both by participants' self-ratings of their dreams and by raters' coding of mentions of the person in written dream reports...
  24. ncbi Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia
    Marie Thérèse Saurat
    Sleep Disorders Unit, Pitie Salpetriere Hospital, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, France
    Conscious Cogn 20:1425-32. 2011
    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects...
  25. ncbi A review of mentation in REM and NREM sleep: "covert" REM sleep as a possible reconciliation of two opposing models
    T A Nielsen
    Sleep Research Center, Hopital du Sacre Coeur de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada and Psychiatry Department, Universite de Montreal, Quebec H4J 1C5, Canada
    Behav Brain Sci 23:851-66; discussion 904-1121. 2000
    ..Such covert activity may be responsible for much of the dreamlike cognitive activity occurring in NREM sleep...
  26. ncbi Patients' dreams in ICU: recall at two years post discharge and comparison to delirium status during ICU admission. A multicentre cohort study
    Brigit L Roberts
    Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia
    Intensive Crit Care Nurs 22:264-73. 2006
    Discharged intensive care unit (ICU) patients often recall experience vivid dreams, hallucinations or delusions. These may be persecutory in nature and are sometimes very frightening...
  27. ncbi Threat in dreams: an adaptation?
    Susan Malcolm-Smith
    ACSENT laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa
    Conscious Cogn 17:1281-91. 2008
    ..influential Threat Simulation Theory (TST) predicts that people exposed to survival threats will have more threat dreams, and evince enhanced responses to dream threats, compared to those living in relatively safe conditions...
  28. ncbi Intrinsic dreams are not produced without REM sleep mechanisms: evidence through elicitation of sleep onset REM periods
    T Takeuchi
    Department of Psychology, Brock University, Ontario, Canada
    J Sleep Res 10:43-52. 2001
    The hypothesis that there is a strict relationship between dreams and a specific rapid eye movement (REM) sleep mechanism is controversial...
  29. ncbi A "Jekyll and Hyde" within: aggressive versus friendly interactions in REM and non-REM dreams
    Patrick McNamara
    Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, and Veterans Administration Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA
    Psychol Sci 16:130-6. 2005
    We hypothesized that representations of social interactions in REM and non-REM (NREM) dreams would reflect differing regional brain activation patterns associated with the two sleep states, and that levels of aggressive interactions would ..
  30. ncbi Drug dreams: a neuropsychoanalytic hypothesis
    B Johnson
    Harvard Medical School, Boston Psychoanalytic Society and Institute, USA
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 49:75-96. 2001
    ..Of 240 dreams reported by the patient,58 had manifest content involving the seeking or using of drugs...
  31. ncbi Brain-mind states: I. Longitudinal field study of sleep/wake factors influencing mentation report length
    R Stickgold
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, USA
    Sleep 24:171-9. 2001
    ..To collect and analyze reports of mental activity across sleep/wake states...
  32. ncbi Sleep and sleep disturbance: from genes to dreams
    R E Tractenberg
    Departments of Neurology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Cell Mol Life Sci 64:1171-3. 2007
  33. ncbi Music in dreams
    Valeria Uga
    Sleep Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Via S Niccolò 93, 50125 Florence, Italy
    Conscious Cogn 15:351-7. 2006
    Music in dreams is rarely reported in scientific literature, while the presence of musical themes in dreams of famous musicians is anecdotally reported...
  34. ncbi A replication of the 5-7 day dream-lag effect with comparison of dreams to future events as control for baseline matching
    Mark Blagrove
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, UK
    Conscious Cogn 20:384-91. 2011
    ..effect refers to there being, after the frequent incorporation of memory elements from the previous day into dreams (the day-residue), a lower incorporation of memory elements from 2 to 4 days before the dream, but then an ..
  35. ncbi Incorporation of pain in dreams of hospitalized burn victims
    Isabelle Raymond
    Burn Center Hĵtel Dieu du Centre hospitalier de l Université de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Sleep 25:765-70. 2002
    It has been shown that realistic, localized painful sensations can be experienced in dreams either through direct incorporation or from past memories of pain. Nevertheless, the frequency of pain dreams in healthy subjects is low...
  36. ncbi Scopolamine prevents dreams during general anesthesia
    Adelchi Toscano
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
    Anesthesiology 106:952-5. 2007
    ..Anticholinergic drugs are used in anesthesia as premedication, but their use to decrease the incidence of dreams and psychological adverse reactions after anesthesia is not well established...
  37. ncbi Fears, worries, and scary dreams in 4- to 12-year-old children: their content, developmental pattern, and origins
    P Muris
    Department of Psychology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
    J Clin Child Psychol 29:43-52. 2000
    ..The percentages of children reporting fears, worries, and scary dreams were 75.8, 67.4, and 80.5%, respectively, indicating that these anxiety symptoms are quite common among children...
  38. ncbi [Dreams in normal and pathological aging]
    Fabian Guénolé
    Service de Psychiatrie de l Enfant et de l Adolescent, CHU de Caen, Paris
    Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 8:87-96. 2010
    ..This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in ..
  39. ncbi Rapid eye movement sleep, non-rapid eye movement sleep, dreams, and hallucinations
    Raffaele Manni
    Istituto Neurologico C Mondino Via Mondino 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 7:196-200. 2005
    ..The role of these processes has been most extensively documented in visual hallucinations occurring in the context of delirium tremens and Parkinson's disease...
  40. ncbi If waking and dreaming consciousness became de-differentiated, would schizophrenia result?
    Sue Llewellyn
    Faculty of Humanities, The University of Manchester, Booth Street West, Manchester M15 6PB, UK
    Conscious Cogn 20:1059-83. 2011
    ..As a consequence of progressive de-differentiation, certain identifiable psychiatric disorders may emerge. Ultimately, schizophrenia, a disorganized-fragmented self, may result...
  41. ncbi Asklepian dreams: the ethos of the wounded-healer in the clinical encounter
    Laurence J Kirmayer
    Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University
    Transcult Psychiatry 40:248-77. 2003
    ..changes in the relationship of the healer to his wounds during psychiatric training are illustrated by a series of dreams. The ethos of the wounded-healer has implications for the training of clinicians, as well as for the ethics and ..
  42. ncbi Perception of sleep and dreams in alcohol-dependent patients during detoxication and abstinence
    Jana Steinig
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Klinikum Bremen Ost University of Göttingen, Züricher St 40, 28325 Bremen, Germany
    Alcohol Alcohol 46:143-7. 2011
    ..This study aims to investigate sleep quality and the subjective dream experience in alcohol-dependent patients during withdrawal and abstinence compared with healthy controls...
  43. ncbi Relation of dreams to waking concerns
    Rosalind Cartwright
    Department of Psychology, Sleep Disorder Service, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Psychiatry Res 141:261-70. 2006
    To test that dreams are influenced by the pre-sleep waking emotional concerns of the sleeper and have an effect on waking adaptation, 20 depressed and 10 control subjects, who were all going through a divorce, were enrolled in a repeated ..
  44. ncbi Development of disturbing dreams during adolescence and their relation to anxiety symptoms
    T A Nielsen
    , , , Quebec, Canada
    Sleep 23:727-36. 2000
    STUDY OBJECTIVES: This work assesses the prevalence and development of disturbing dreams among adolescents and the association of these dreams with anxiety. DESIGN: Sex differences in prevalence were analyzed with chi-square analyses...
  45. ncbi Anxiety and hostility in the manifest dreams of schizophrenic patients
    Thomas Stompe
    University Clinic of Psychiatry Vienna, General Hospital Vienna, Austria
    J Nerv Ment Dis 191:806-12. 2003
    ..We compared 96 dreams of 19 patients with schizophrenia and an equal number of dreams of 19 healthy controls collected over an 8-week ..
  46. ncbi The reinterpretation of dreams: an evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming
    A Revonsuo
    Department of Philosophy, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, FIN 20014, Finland
    Behav Brain Sci 23:877-901; discussion 904-1121. 2000
    ..Phenomenal dream content, however, is not as disorganized as such views imply. The form and content of dreams is not random but organized and selective: during dreaming, the brain constructs a complex model of the world in ..
  47. ncbi The threat simulation theory of the evolutionary function of dreaming: Evidence from dreams of traumatized children
    Katja Valli
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, FIN 20014, Finland
    Conscious Cogn 14:188-218. 2005
    ..a threat simulation response, and therefore, to an increased frequency and severity of threatening events in dreams. Consequently, children who live in an environment in which their physical and psychological well-being is ..
  48. ncbi When dreams become a royal road to confusion: realistic dreams, dissociation, and fantasy proneness
    E Rassin
    Department of Law (Metajuridica, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
    J Nerv Ment Dis 189:478-81. 2001
    ..For example, difficulties in distinguishing between dreams and reality may lead to false memories...
  49. ncbi Typical dreams: stability and gender differences
    Michael Schredl
    Sleep Laboratory, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    J Psychol 138:485-94. 2004
    ..investigation of the stability of the rank order of the dream themes and of gender differences in the content of dreams. The authors administered A. L. Zadra and T. A. Nielsen's (1997) Typical Dream Questionnaire to 444 participants...
  50. ncbi Dreams and age
    Marco Zanasi
    Unità Operativa di Psichiatria, Universita Tor Vergata, Roma, Italy
    Percept Mot Skills 100:925-38. 2005
    This work evaluated the association of age and dream reports. The verbal reports of 148 dreams of elderly people (M age=75.8 yr.) were compared with 151 dreams of a group of young people (M age=22.0)...
  51. pmc Patients' recollections of experiences in the intensive care unit may affect their quality of life
    Cristina Granja
    Medical Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos, Portugal
    Crit Care 9:R96-109. 2005
    ..We wished to obtain the experiences felt by patients during their ICU stay using an original questionnaire and to correlate the memories of those experiences with health-related quality of life (HR-QOL)...
  52. ncbi Destruction and guilt: splitting and reintegration in the analysis of a traumatised patient
    Franziska Henningsen
    Int J Psychoanal 86:353-73. 2005
    ..During his analysis, the patient discovered he was the child of Nazi criminals: on his mother's side they were the third generation; on his father's side, the second...
  53. ncbi The many faces of lying
    Alessandra Lemma
    Tavistock Clinic, 120 Belsize Lane, London, NW3 5BA, UK
    Int J Psychoanal 86:737-53. 2005
    ..In the third configuration, the object is felt to be intrusive, and the dyadic relationship is overpowering. Here the lie can represent an attempt to insert a third into the relationship...
  54. ncbi The controversial discussions and après-coup
    Rosine Jozef Perelberg
    London, UK
    Int J Psychoanal 87:1199-220. 2006
    ..Dynamic après-coup establishes a link between trauma, castration, repetition compulsion, sexuality and temporality in the context of the transference...
  55. ncbi Experiences in K and -K
    John A Schneider
    2340 Ward St, Suite 106, Berkeley, CA 94705, USA
    Int J Psychoanal 86:826-39. 2005
    ..Her need not to know reached a point where she psychically obliterated the analyst through the use of negative hallucination...
  56. ncbi Why perversion?: 'False love' and the perverse pact
    Ruth Stein
    355 E 72nd St, Suite 3AB, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Int J Psychoanal 86:776-99. 2005
    ..The notion of the perverse pact is foregrounded in Alice's analysis, where first the resurrection and then the dismantling of such a pact were effected through various analytic means...
  57. ncbi Early trauma and narcissism-autism bipolarity
    Anna Oliva de Cesarei
    Via B Varisco 33 A, I 25123 Brescia, Italy
    Int J Psychoanal 86:657-75. 2005
    ..Subsequently, the patient was able to give shape, through visual images, to deep states of being and start the process of metabolising and symbolising the trauma...
  58. ncbi Variations on the concept of traumatism: traumatism, traumatic, trauma
    Thierry Bokanowski
    Int J Psychoanal 86:251-65. 2005
    ..The author illustrates his hypotheses with a clinical example...
  59. ncbi Elements of analytic style: Bion's clinical seminars
    Thomas H Ogden
    306 Laurel Street, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Int J Psychoanal 88:1185-200. 2007
  60. ncbi Performance as annihilation or integration?
    Joachim F Danckwardt
    Im Buckenloh 2, D 72070 Tubingen, Germany
    Int J Psychoanal 88:1117-33. 2007
    ..The evidence from a detailed clinical example shows that many treatments can fail at this point and demonstrates how an understanding of performance in this sense offers a chance for integrating processes that otherwise impede treatment...
  61. ncbi On holding and containing, being and dreaming
    Thomas H Ogden
    Int J Psychoanal 85:1349-64. 2004
    ..The idea of the container-contained addresses the dynamic interaction of predominantly unconscious thoughts (the contained) and the capacity for dreaming and thinking those thoughts (the container)...
  62. ncbi The intersubjective links in perversion
    Alberto Eiguer
    154 rue d Alesia, F 75014 Paris France
    Int J Psychoanal 88:1135-52. 2007
    ..The desire of the transference would be marked by the figure of the witness rather than by that of the analyst as accomplice...
  63. ncbi On: the case against neuropsychoanalysis
    Mauro Mancia
    Int J Psychoanal 88:1065-7; author reply 1068-70. 2007
  64. ncbi Theoretical and technical approaches to the clinical case: advantages and disadvantages of present-day pluralism
    Alan D Felix
    Int J Psychoanal 85:1497-500. 2004
  65. ncbi On: Where are you, my beloved? On absence, loss and the enigma of telepathic dreams
    Moran Shoham
    Int J Psychoanal 88:1061-2; author reply 1062-3. 2007
  66. ncbi Art, dreams and active imagination: a post-Jungian approach to transference and the image
    Joy Schaverien
    J Anal Psychol 50:127-53. 2005
    ..In this article investigation of visualized mental imagery, dreams and art reveals three distinct forms of image-based psychological activity...
  67. ncbi The analyst's equilibrium, countertransferential management, and the action of psychoanalysis
    Dennis G Shulman
    Bergen County, NJ 07627, USA
    Psychoanal Rev 92:469-78. 2005
  68. ncbi The possibility of multiple models for Oedipal development
    Howard H Covitz
    Tyler School of Art, Temple University, USA
    Am J Psychoanal 67:162-80. 2007
  69. ncbi Subversive redemption in psychoanalysis
    Sharon Hymer
    New York University, New York State Psychological Association and American Psychological Association, 330 West 58th Street, Suite 607, New York, NY, 10019, USA
    Am J Psychoanal 65:207-17. 2005
    ..Patients then feel more confident about undertaking the process of subversive redemption in the wider world...
  70. ncbi Relational knowing, memory, symbolization, and language: commentary on the Boston Change Process Study Group
    Jonathan House
    Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research, USA
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 53:731-44; discussion 761-9. 2005
  71. ncbi Something is different but what or why is unclear: commentary on the Boston Change Process Study Group
    Linda C Mayes
    Yale Child Study Center, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 53:745-50; discussion 761-9. 2005
  72. ncbi The stranger
    Carmen C Mion
    Int J Psychoanal 87:126-43. 2006
    ..This article is a theoretical exercise based on this clinical experience, using concepts developed by Bion, Ferro and Winnicott...
  73. ncbi The case against neuropsychoanalysis. On fallacies underlying psychoanalysis' latest scientific trend and its negative impact on psychoanalytic discourse
    Rachel B Blass
    Psychology Department, Hebrew University, Mt Scopus, IL 91905 Jerusalem, Israel
    Int J Psychoanal 88:19-40. 2007
  74. ncbi Falling forever: the price of chronic shock
    Kathleen A Adams
    Int J Group Psychother 56:127-72. 2006
    ..The ability to recognize subtle dissociative states is a valuable tool in the repertoire of the group psychotherapist...
  75. ncbi The idiot's dreams: rêverie in child psychotherapy
    Patrizia Arfelli
    Division of Child Neuropsychiatry, Turin University, Italy
    Am J Psychoanal 68:33-42. 2008
    ..For many months, I have been trying to lend my voice to this world, by agreeing to narrate "my own" dreams within the play that was taking place in the sessions: in other words, I have tried to make use of my rêverie and ..
  76. ncbi Ethics and the sexual countertransference
    Hugh Gee
    London, UK
    J Anal Psychol 52:71-88. 2007
    ..I use examples of ethical problems, including a personal experience, to illustrate the kinds that occur and lastly I discuss how mourning plays an important part in the resolution and avoidance of these problems...
  77. ncbi E uno plurus: psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the age of pluralism
    James Peter Frosch
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Harv Rev Psychiatry 15:270-7. 2007
    ..A pluralistic perspective is advantageous in promoting a therapeutic alliance, since it lends itself to a collaborative therapeutic process with patients. A brief clinical vignette is presented to illustrate these ideas...
  78. ncbi Further thoughts on: Julie's museum: the evolution of thinking, dreaming and historicization in the treatment of traumatized patients
    Robert Withers
    Int J Psychoanal 88:1551-2; author reply 1552-3. 2007
  79. ncbi A plea for a broader concept of Nachträglichkeit
    Haydée Faimberg
    Société Psychanalytique de Paris
    Psychoanal Q 76:1221-40. 2007
    ..A clinical example is presented (Kardiner 1977) to illustrate why the author believes that her proposal remains true to Freud's (1937) conception of psychic temporality and construction...
  80. ncbi Dreams that mirror the session
    Giuseppe Civitarese
    Int J Psychoanal 87:703-23. 2006
    b>Dreams in which the analyst appears undisguised almost always depict violations of the setting...
  81. ncbi Panic as a form of foreclosed experience
    John A Schneider
    Psychoanalytic Institute of Northern California, San Francisco, USA
    Psychoanal Q 76:1293-316. 2007
  82. ncbi Psychoanalytic transformations
    Fernando Riolo
    Società Psicoanalitica Italiana, Italy
    Int J Psychoanal 88:1375-89. 2007
    The author describes how Bion took Freud's conception of dreams as a form of thought and used it as the basis of his theory of transformations...
  83. ncbi On the psychodynamics of collecting
    Peter Subkowski
    Int J Psychoanal 87:383-401. 2006
    ..The paper concludes with a case study showing how collecting develops from a pre-oedipal to a more integrated oedipal mode during the course of the analysis, which is reflected in changes in the transference...
  84. ncbi On knowing oneself directly and through others
    Lucy La Farge
    Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, USA
    Psychoanal Q 77:167-97. 2008
    ..Detailed clinical material from the analysis of a woman who came to analysis feeling shadowy and insubstantial illustrates the value of attention to both storylines and to the changing relationship between them...
  85. ncbi When "something more" is less: commentary on the Boston Change Process Study Group
    Bonnie E Litowitz
    Faculty, Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis, USA
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 53:751-9; discussion 761-9. 2005
  86. ncbi Psychoanalytic controversies contextualized
    Dale Boesky
    Michigan Psychoanalytic Institute, USA
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 53:835-63. 2005
    ..The term contextual horizon is introduced to facilitate an understanding of how the psychoanalyst makes inferences from the patient's associations...
  87. ncbi Primary mental expression: freud, klein, and beyond
    Michael Robbins
    Boston Psychoanalytic Society, USA
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 56:177-202. 2008
    ..Findings from neuroimaging studies of dreaming and of schizophrenia support the proposition that primary mental activity is a qualitatively distinctive form of mental expression...
  88. ncbi The indissociable unity of psyche and soma: a view from the Paris Psychosomatic School
    Marilia Aisenstein
    Paris Psychosomatic School, 72 rue d Assas, F 75006 Paris, France
    Int J Psychoanal 87:667-80. 2006
    ..He provides a starting point for the Paris Psychosomatic School's psychoanalytical approach to patients afflicted with somatic illnesses. To illustrate the technical implications of this theory the author relates two clinical cases...
  89. ncbi Exploring the role of children's dreams in psychoanalytic practice today: a pilot study
    Olivia Lempen
    Service Universitaire de Psychiatrie de l Enfant et l Adolescent, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Psychoanal Study Child 61:228-53. 2006
    The aim of this research study was to investigate the role of children's dreams in the practice of child psychoanalysis today, and to explore contemporary psychoanalytic understanding of children's dreams.
  90. doi Three pregnancies and psychoanalysis: a thin line between fusion and separateness
    Galit Atlas-Koch
    80 East 11th Street, Suite 301C, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Psychoanal Rev 95:259-83. 2008
  91. ncbi Touched by Grace during the psychoanalytic hour: the transformation of a religious resistance
    Moshe Halevi Spero
    School of Social Work, Bar Ilan University, Israel
    Psychoanal Q 77:283-325. 2008
  92. ncbi The analytic pair in action--finding the missing mental life: an intersubjective approach
    Jill C Herbert
    New York Frudian Society, USA
    Psychoanal Study Child 61:20-55. 2006
    ..Reflections on parallels to child/adolescent developmental necessities enabled the evolution of a viable technique...
  93. ncbi Shame and guilt: self-reflexive affects from the perspective of relationship and reciprocity
    Günter H Seidler
    University of Heidelberg, Psychotraumatology Section, Hospital for Psychosomatic and General Clinical Medicine, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, Thibautstrasse 2, D 69115 Heidelberg, Germany
    Am J Psychother 61:37-49. 2007
    ..First, it precipitates a disruption between subject and object. Second, it is used to restore oneness by regression...
  94. ncbi Id analysis and technical approaches
    Cecilio Paniagua
    Department of Psychiatry, Madrid University
    Psychoanal Q 77:219-50. 2008
    ..It is recognized that clarifications, defense interpretations, and Gray's close-process interventions may need to be adapted to different cultural milieus...
  95. ncbi A variant of joking in dreams
    Sander M Abend
    New York Psychoanalytic Institute, USA
    Psychoanal Q 76:1361-6. 2007
  96. ncbi On not being able to dream
    Thomas H Ogden
    Int J Psychoanal 84:17-30. 2003
    ..the author explores the phenomenon of not being able to dream (as opposed to not being able to remember one's dreams) from three different vantage points...
  97. ncbi A royal road from homelessness--the clinical use of dreams
    Joseph P Merlino
    Bellevue Hospital Center, USA
    J Am Acad Psychoanal 30:583-94. 2002
    ..Given the short amount of time clinically available in working with this population, discussing the patient's dreams was found to quickly get to the most pressing here-and-now issues...
  98. ncbi Dreams and creativity--collaborative psychoanalytic work
    Cesar A Alfonso
    New York State Psychiatric Institute, Hispanic Treatment Program, USA
    J Am Acad Psychoanal 30:573-82. 2002
    Walter Bonime's contributions to the understanding and interpretation of dreams highlight collaboration and creative effort as essential to achieve appropriate attunement and effective emotional growth...
  99. ncbi A clinical focus on feeling in dreams
    Walter Bonime
    J Am Acad Psychoanal 30:557-72. 2002
    ..thinkers of psychoanalysis of the 20th century, gives us a clear picture of a step-by-step use of feelings in dreams to facilitate the working through process in psychoanalysis...
  100. ncbi Mental activity during sleep
    Igino Fagioli
    Dipartimento di Psicologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Via S Niccolò, 93, 50125 Florence, Italy
    Sleep Med Rev 6:307-20. 2002
    ..The psychophysiological approach to mental sleep activity in clinical contexts has enabled the exploration of adaptation processes and contributed to neuropsychological studies on focal and systemic brain pathology...
  101. ncbi The changing place of the dream in psychoanalytic history, Part II: other perspectives, sociocultural influences and the challenges of neuroscience
    Max Harris
    Center for Psychological Studies, Nova Southeastern University, 3301 College Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 7796, USA
    Psychoanal Rev 90:101-23. 2003

Research Grants63

  1. Death in the PICU/NICU: Parent and Family Functioning
    JoAnne M Youngblut; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..All hopes and dreams for the child's future are gone forever. Parents may feel that a part of them has died...
  2. Developing Treatments for Hyperarousal in a Model System
    Bernard G Schreurs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There are many people exposed to trauma who suffer flashbacks, bad dreams, numbing, fear, anxiety, sleeplessness, hyper-vigilance, hyperarousal, and an inability to cope...
  3. Opportunities for Graduate Studies in Quantitative Biomedical Research
    Kathryn Chaloner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..applicant): This is a proposal for a pre-conference workshop in conjunction with the "2010 Mathematical Field of Dreams Conference"...
  4. EEG Signatures of Offline Memory Reactivation and Consolidation
    Erin J Wamsley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..memories of recent experiences contribute to the images, thoughts, and narratives that we commonly call "dreams"...
    Guangming Zhong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..those from minority and disadvantaged families who are inspired to pursue a life science career to realize their dreams. This training grant-supported effort will help supply the nation with top quality researchers in combating ..
  6. Quantitative Analysis of PEM for REMBD Identification
    ..by applicant): Rapid Eye Movement Behavior Disorder (RBD) refers to a condition in which patients act out their dreams and engage in potentially disruptive, injurious and even dangerous behavior while asleep[1-3]...
    Rosalind Cartwright; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..have high affect arousal (depression) will have more repetitive, past oriented, masochistic, non problem solving dreams and those who are traditional in feminine role will have dreams involving the former husband and denial of loss ..
    Barry Krakow; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..insomnia and PTSD and have resulted in decreases in PTSD symptom severity subsequent to reductions in disturbing dreams and insomnia complaints...
  9. Doctors, Nurses and the South African AIDS Epidemic
    Ronald Bayer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We cannot afford to allow the AIDS epidemic to ruin the realization of our dreams." Just ten years later, the South African Medical Research Council documented the extent to which AIDS had begun ..
    LARRY SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..REM may also be disturbed in posttraumatic stress disorder, which is characterized by hypervigilance to unfamiliar stimuli and stereotypical anxiety dreams.
  11. The "New Man" in Soviet Biology and Medicine
    NIKOLAY KREMENTSOV; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..was there genuine overlapping between scientists' "visionary biology" and their patrons' "revolutionary dreams"? The search for answers to these questions forms the core of this project...
  12. Experimental manipulation of sleep mentation and memory
    Robert Stickgold; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Carried over into sleep, we hypothesize that what reaches conscious awareness during sleep (e.g., in dreams) is a reflection of underlying functional brain processes...
    DAVID FOULKES; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..As analyzed by Scoring System for Latent Structure (Foulkes, A Grammar of Dreams, 1978), the associative and dream data will permit: modelling of the associative sources of nocturnal mentation; ..
  14. End-of-Life Experience of Parents and Nurses in the NICU
    Elizabeth Epstein; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Neonatal loss represents an abrupt end to the hopes and dreams of expectant parents...
  15. Sex Differences in Mood Disorders
    Rosalind Cartwright; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..frequent REM episodes, and reduced REM latency), and if they demonstrate higher proportions of negative affect dreams in the first half of the night than in the last (a 'working through' of affect within the night)...
  16. REM and NREM Processing Specializations
    Patrick McNamara; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  17. Pragmatic language skills in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD)
    Patrick McNamara; Fiscal Year: 2009
  18. Phylogeny of Sleep
    Patrick McNamara; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. Psychopathology of Alzheimer's: APOE and the HPA Axis
    Murray Raskind; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Specific Aim 3. To determine the effect of CSF cortisol concentrations on cognitive decline and on incidence of mild cognitive impairment and probable AD among nondemented older persons with the APOE-E4 allele followed longitudinally. ..
  20. Prazosin for Noncombat Trauma PTSD
    Murray Raskind; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Primary outcome measures will be the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) Recurrent Distressing Dreams item, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Clinical Global Impression of Change...
    SUSAN PICKETT SCHENK; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..MANOVA and hierarchical regression analyses will be used to explore whether significant differences occur between the two conditions on the measures, and whether any gains maintained over time. ..
  22. REVAMP Follow-up Study Renewal
    Barbara Rothbaum; Fiscal Year: 2008
  23. Pharmacological fMRI to Identify New Anxiolytics: A Human Bioassay
    Murray Stein; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Enhancing the development of new treatments for anxiety is a public health priority. The projects proposed in this application have the potential to achieve this important aim. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  24. Sleep Deprivation and Brain Function in Older Adults
    SEAN DRUMMOND; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Additionally, this study will provide valuable information about the general plasticity and compensatory capabilities of the brain and may inform theories of brain aging. ..
  25. Anti-inflammatory Natural Product Mode of Action Studies
    CRAIG CREWS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. Behavioral state development in infants
    Mark Blumberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. Cognitive Enhancer May Facilitate Behavioral Exposure
    Barbara O Rothbaum; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. Treating Insomnia & Nightmares After Trauma: Impact on Symptoms & Quality of Life
    Sean P A Drummond; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This study will examine whether treatments specifically targeted at those sleep disorders can improve clinical outcomes and increase health- related quality of life in individuals recently exposed to war-related trauma. ..
  29. Cocaine Withdrawal and Pharmacotherapy Response
    Mehmet Sofuoglu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal, by testing the efficacy of carvedilol and investigating the influence of withdrawal severity on carvedilol's efficacy, may result in development of more effective treatments for cocaine addiction. ..
  30. Development and Formation of Reality-Status Judgments
    Jacqueline D Woolley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The findings of the proposed studies will potentially have important implications for preschool and elementary education, parenting, and clinical practice with young children. ..
  31. fMRI Measures of Central Sensitization in Migraine
    David Borsook; Fiscal Year: 2010
  32. The Psychoneuroimmunology of Insomnia: Response to a Vaccine Challenge
    WILFRED PIGEON; Fiscal Year: 2009
  33. GABA Medications for Tobacco Addiction
    Mehmet Sofuoglu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The findings of this study will provide valuable information to develop new pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation. ..
  34. Contributions of sleep/rhythms/fatigue to "chemobrain"
    Sonia Ancoli Israel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The reported phenomena of chemobrain will be examined to see if it is related to the complaint of fatigue or sleep disruptions, both of which are known to contribute to decreases in cognitive functioning. ..
  35. Neurocognitive Development of Children Living in Poverty
    Linda Mayes; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Natural Product Model of Action Studies
    CRAIG CREWS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  37. Stigma & Behavioral Health in Urban Employers from China & US
    Patrick Corrigan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Data from this study will be especially important for the development of future stigma-change programs. ..
  38. Nanoparticle delivery system for antiturberculosis drug
    Leonid Heifets; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. CNS Reward/Aversion Circuitry Activated by Pain/Opioids
    David Borsook; Fiscal Year: 2001
    Linda Mayes; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Early disruption of the developmental ontogeny of arousal and attentional regulatory capacities may have effects that extend well into the school-aged years and alter the normal trajectory of cognitive and social-emotional development. ..
  41. Pancreatic Stem Cell Induction by Small Molecules
    CRAIG CREWS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..g., identification of additional pancreatic stem cell marker proteins via differential gene analysis). ..
    David Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In addition to their potential use as anti-neoplastic agents, these "death switches" should also have broad applications for developmental studies for increasing the safety of gene therapy vectors. ..
  43. Virtuality Reality Cue Exposure for Crack Cocaine
    Barbara Rothbaum; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The long-term objectives to be achieved in Phase II include the development and testing of the treatment of crack cocaine dependence using VR cue exposure therapy in a controlled design. ..
    ROBERT VERTES; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This work may have important implications for conditions such as Alzheimer's that involve a loss of cholinergic neurons of the MS/DBv. ..
    Sonia Ancoli Israel; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Results will provide a scientific basis for future intervention studies, particularly studies with light therapy which can re-synchronize rhythms. ..
    Mircea Steriade; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The potential impact of this study for the modeling community is therefore broad, from models of information processing to the simulations of pathological states, such as epilepsy. ..
  47. Translational Research on Extinction and PTSD
    Barbara Rothbaum; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Currently, no such interventions with proven efficacy exist. ..
  48. Anti-Selectin Blocker for Liver Ischemic Injury
    LUIS TOLEDO PEREYRA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Treatment with TCB-1269 will enhance the quality of life of millions of patients suffering from the large number of maladies associated with ischemia/reperfusion ischemic maladies. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  49. Experience of Mental Control
    Daniel Wegner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
    JONATHAN LINDSEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
  51. Analysis of Tumorigenic Signaling Pathways with PROTACS
    CRAIG CREWS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This panel will be tested for use as a diagnostic tool for determining the best course of drug treatment. ..
  52. Brainstem-Diencephalic Modulation of the Hippocampus
    ROBERT VERTES; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This work may have important implications for disorders of memory including Korsakoff's syndrome, diencephalic amnesia and Alzheimer's disease. ..
  53. Treatment of Insomnia Secondary to Chronic Pain
    WILFRED PIGEON; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, it is anticipated that studies of this kind will provide the evidence required to make CBT-I a standard of practice for the management of chronic pain. ..
  54. Progestrone and the Effects of Nicotine
    Mehmet Sofuoglu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..By characterizing the progesterone effects on nicotine dependence, this study may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms which mediate the sex and menstrual cycle phase effects on nicotine dependence. ..
  55. Sleep and neural plasticity in developing neocortex
    Marcos Frank; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We will then investigate the role of sleep in the cortical plasticity elicited by reverse-MD. ..
    Murray Stein; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  57. Preventing Psychiatric Sequelae of Traumatic Injury
    Murray Stein; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Findings will provide justification for and information about optimal parameters (e.g., subject selection; sample size; dose and duration) for a future randomized controlled trial (RCT). ..
  58. Enhancement of Dendritic Cells for Improved Immunotherapy
    David Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These three aims should ultimately lead to improved clinical applications of DCs for not only treating malignancy but numerous pathogens, as well. ..
  59. Cocaine-Exposed Children & ERP Studies of Neurocognition
    Linda Mayes; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Such information may then lead to better definition and treatment of these developmental problems. ..
  60. Balancing Hope & Truth-Telling for Patients with Ca/COPD
    J Curtis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These strategies will be described and translated into interventions targeting nurses, physicians, and teams who provide care for patients with cancer, COPD, and other life-limiting diseases. ..
  61. 256 Channel Geodesic EEG System
    Linda Mayes; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Thus, the capacity for high-density mapping as offered by the EGI system makes possible the ability to create a dynamic neural profile of how an individual processes a given event. ..