Genomes and Genes
Summary: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Publications333 found, 100 shown here
- The time course of binocular rivalry reveals a fundamental role of noiseJan W Brascamp
Functional Neurobiology and Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
J Vis 6:1244-56. 2006..These features indicate that noise is a crucial force in rivalry, frequently dominating the deterministic forces...
- Voluntary control and the dynamics of perceptual bi-stabilityR van Ee
Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584CC Utrecht, The Netherlands
Vision Res 45:41-55. 2005..We advocate that these aspects, alongside with its metrical (quantitative) aspects, potentially make slant rivalry an interesting tool in studying the neural underpinnings of visual awareness...
- A spiking neuron model for binocular rivalryCarlo R Laing
Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
J Comput Neurosci 12:39-53. 2002..We also use this reduced model to derive an expression for the distribution of dominance durations seen within an individual...
- Minimal physiological conditions for binocular rivalry and rivalry memoryHugh R Wilson
Centre for Vision Research, York University, Toronto, Ont, Canada
Vision Res 47:2741-50. 2007..Finally, addition of brief, recurrent synaptic facilitation to the model generates properties of rivalry memory...
- Early interactions between neuronal adaptation and voluntary control determine perceptual choices in bistable visionP C Klink
Functional Neurobiology and Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
J Vis 8:16.1-18. 2008....
- Object-based attention determines dominance in binocular rivalryJude F Mitchell
Systems Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
Nature 429:410-3. 2004..These results raise the question of how object representations compete during these two forms of perceptual selection, even as the features of those objects change unpredictably over time...
- On the origin of the functional architecture of the cortexDario L Ringach
Department of Psychology and Neurobiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
PLoS ONE 2:e251. 2007..The theory's simplicity, explanatory and predictive power makes it a serious candidate for the origin of the functional architecture of primary visual cortex...
- Determinants of visual awareness following interruptions during rivalryJoel Pearson
Color, Form and Motion Lab, Visual Perception Unit, School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
J Vis 4:196-202. 2004..If this is the case, the use of intermittent stimulation in rivalry might permit the investigation of aspects of the mechanisms underlying visual competition that remain hidden during continuous presentation...
- Depth of interocular suppression associated with continuous flash suppression, flash suppression, and binocular rivalryNaotsugu Tsuchiya
Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
J Vis 6:1068-78. 2006..Our results support the view that CFS is not a stronger version of BR but is due to the accumulated suppressive effects of multiple flashes...
- Ten_m3 regulates eye-specific patterning in the mammalian visual pathway and is required for binocular visionCatherine A Leamey
Department of Physiology, Bosch Institute and School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
PLoS Biol 5:e241. 2007b>Binocular vision requires an exquisite matching of projections from each eye to form a cohesive representation of the visual world...
- A neural basis for percept stabilization in binocular rivalryPhilipp Sterzer
Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, UK
J Cogn Neurosci 20:389-99. 2008....
- Brief daily periods of binocular vision prevent deprivation-induced acuity lossDonald E Mitchell
Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1, Canada
Curr Biol 13:1704-8. 2003..This result is not what would be expected if all visual input had equal influence on visual development...
- Mechanisms selectively engaged in rivalry: normal vision habituates, rivalrous vision primesJoel Pearson
Colour, Form and Motion Lab, Visual Perception Unit, School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Vision Res 45:707-14. 2005..This suggests that visual rivalry might recruit mechanisms that are not engaged in 'normal' non-rivalrous vision but perhaps dedicated to the resolution of competing sensory information...
- Voxel-based analysis of MRI detects abnormal visual cortex in children and adults with amblyopiaJanine D Mendola
Department of Radiology and Center for Advanced Imaging, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA
Hum Brain Mapp 25:222-36. 2005..These data are the first to provide possible neuroanatomic bases for the loss of binocularity and visual sensitivity in children and adults with amblyopia...
- Slant from texture and disparity cues: optimal cue combinationJames M Hillis
Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
J Vis 4:967-92. 2004..Thus, there is a growing empirical consensus that MLE provides a good quantitative account of cue combination and that sensory information is used in a manner that maximizes the precision of perceptual estimates...
- Experience-driven plasticity in binocular visionP Christiaan Klink
Functional Neurobiology, Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
Curr Biol 20:1464-9. 2010..Our results implicate experience-driven plasticity as one governing principle in the neuronal organization of binocular vision.
- Strabismic suppression is mediated by inhibitory interactions in the primary visual cortexFrank Sengpiel
Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff, UK
Cereb Cortex 16:1750-8. 2006..Furthermore, strabismic suppression is greatly reduced when GABAergic inhibition is locally blocked by the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline...
- No evidence for widespread synchronized networks in binocular rivalry: MEG frequency tagging entrains primarily early visual cortexAllard Kamphuisen
Department of Physics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
J Vis 8:4.1-8. 2008..We conclude that the claims about widespread synchronized networks to consciously perceive flicker stimuli are currently unconvincing...
- Gecko vision--retinal organization, foveae and implications for binocular visionB Roll
Lehrstuhl fur Tierphysiologie, Fakultat fur Biologie, Ruhr Universitat Bochum, D 44780, Bochum, Germany
Vision Res 41:2043-56. 2001..Diurnal species have retained binocular vision. Most diurnal species have developed new foveae, which are consequently located not in the central but in the ..
- The Mallett Fixation Disparity Test: influence of test instructions and relationship with symptomsRajula Karania
Department of Optometry and Visual Science, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, UK
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 26:507-22. 2006..More research is needed to investigate the significance of precise test instructions in other optometric and orthoptic tests...
- Development of cytochrome oxidase blobs in visual cortex of normal and visually deprived catsK M Murphy
Department of Psychology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada
Cereb Cortex 11:122-35. 2001..CO blobs appear in kitten V1 very early in post-natal development and their expression is independent of visual experience, suggesting that they may be an intrinsic feature of V1 organization...
- Reliability of binocular vision measurements used in the classification of convergence insufficiencyMichael W Rouse
Southern California College of Optometry, Fullerton 92831, USA
Optom Vis Sci 79:254-64. 2002To evaluate the reliability of binocular vision measurements used in the classification of convergence insufficiency.
- A role for Nr-CAM in the patterning of binocular visual pathwaysScott E Williams
Center for Neurobiology and Behavior and Department of Pathology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
Neuron 50:535-47. 2006..Finally, we demonstrate that EphB1/ephrin-B2-mediated repulsion and Nr-CAM-mediated attraction comprise distinct molecular programs that each contributes to the proper formation of binocular visual pathways...
- Magnitude of binocular vision controlled by islet-2 repression of a genetic program that specifies laterality of retinal axon pathfindingWinnie Pak
Molecular Neurobiology Lab, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Cell 119:567-78. 2004..chiasm determines whether RGCs project to ipsilateral or contralateral brain visual centers, critical for binocular vision. Using Isl2tau-lacZ knockin mice, we show that the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Isl2 marks only ..
- Accommodation and induced myopia in marmosetsDavid Troilo
The New England College of Optometry, 424 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Vision Res 47:1228-44. 2007..The alternative hypothesis-that low S-R slope increases susceptibility to the development of myopia--is not supported by the weak correlation between the pre-manipulation S-R slopes and the magnitude of the myopic shift...
- Assessment of central and peripheral fusion and near and distance stereoacuity in intermittent exotropic patients before and after strabismus surgeryC Yildirim
University of Pamukkale, Denizli, Turkey
Am J Ophthalmol 128:222-30. 1999..To determine whether central fusion and distance stereoacuity are useful as objective measures in assessing the need for and success of surgery for intermittent exotropia (X[T])...
- Risk factors for abnormal binocular vision after successful alignment of accommodative esotropiaSherry L Fawcett
Retina Foundation of the Southwest, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, USA
J AAPOS 7:256-62. 2003The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors associated with abnormal binocular vision outcomes among children with accommodative esotropia (ET) whose eyes were successfully realigned with spectacles only or with spectacles ..
- Short periods of concordant binocular vision prevent the development of deprivation amblyopiaDonald E Mitchell
Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, Halifax NS B3H J1, Canada
Eur J Neurosci 23:2458-66. 2006..e. what it actually does). We examined the possibility that certain visual input, i.e. normal concordant binocular vision, may be more efficacious than others with respect to its effects on the developing visual system and on ..
- Discrete stochastic process underlying perceptual rivalryTsutomu Murata
Kansai Advanced Research Center, Communications Research Laboratory, Iwaoka, Kobe shi, Hyogo 651 2492, Japan
Neuroreport 14:1347-52. 2003....
- Center-surround inhibition deepens binocular rivalry suppressionChris L E Paffen
Universiteit Utrecht, Helmholtz Research Institute, Psychonomics Division, Heidelberglaan 2, NL 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands
Vision Res 45:2642-9. 2005..These results implicate a higher-level, fully binocular area whose surround inhibition provides an additional source of suppression which sums with rivalry suppression to effectively deepen suppression of an unseen rival target...
- Dichoptic visual masking reveals that early binocular neurons exhibit weak interocular suppression: implications for binocular vision and visual awarenessStephen L Macknik
Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ 85013, USA
J Cogn Neurosci 16:1049-59. 2004....
- Early computational processing in binocular vision and depth perceptionJenny Read
NIH, 49 2A50 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 4435, USA
Prog Biophys Mol Biol 87:77-108. 2005..This is important in itself--for instance, it may enable improved stereopsis in computer vision--and paves the way for a full understanding of how depth perception arises...
- Brief daily binocular vision prevents monocular deprivation effects in visual cortexD Samuel Schwarzkopf
Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3US, UK
Eur J Neurosci 25:270-80. 2007..deprivation effects on vision can be prevented entirely if the animal receives a brief period of concordant binocular vision each day...
- Binocular vision: an orientation to disparity codingTakanori Uka
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Box 8108, 660 S Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
Curr Biol 12:R764-6. 2002..These results challenge the established 'energy' model of disparity processing...
- An integrative model of binocular vision: a stereo model utilizing interocularly unpaired points produces both depth and binocular rivalryRyusuke Hayashi
Department of Mathematical Engineering and Information Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7 3 1, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8656, Japan
Vision Res 44:2367-80. 2004..integrates stereopsis and binocular rivalry, which are usually treated separately, into a single framework of binocular vision. There are two general theories for what the "rivals" are during binocular rivalry: the two eyes, or ..
- Monocular versus binocular vision in postural controlElina Isotalo
LPPA, Collège de France CNRS, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 4 F 75005 Paris, France
Auris Nasus Larynx 31:11-7. 2004In previous studies about the control of posture there have been controversial findings. Our aim was to examine the role of monocular and binocular vision in controlling posture in quiet stance.
- Impairment of binocular vision in the adult cat induces plastic changes in the callosal cortical mapL Watroba
Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l'Action, UMR CNRS 9950, , 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris, France
Eur J Neurosci 14:1021-9. 2001..We conclude that manipulation of binocular vision in the adult modifies neither the location of the primary callosal cortical map nor its retinotopy...
- Binocular vision with primary microstrabismusRonald S Harwerth
College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204, USA
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44:4293-306. 2003..The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether microstrabismic subjects have sensory abnormalities that could give rise to a small angle of strabismus...
- Three- to eight-month-old infants' catching under monocular and binocular visionPaulion van Hof
Institute for Fundamental and Clinical Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Hum Mov Sci 25:18-36. 2006..However, interceptive arm movements entail the formation of multiple on-line couplings between optic and movement variables, each of which appears to develop at its own pace...
- Randomized trial of treatment of amblyopia in children aged 7 to 17 yearsMitchell M Scheiman
Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, FL 33647, USA
Arch Ophthalmol 123:437-47. 2005..To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment of amblyopia in children aged 7 to 17 years...
- Noise-induced alternations in an attractor network model of perceptual bistabilityRubén Moreno-Bote
Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Room 1102, New York, NY 10003, USA
J Neurophysiol 98:1125-39. 2007..The neural architecture derived from the energy-based model readily generalizes to several competing populations, providing a natural extension for multistability phenomena...
- Local factors determine the stabilization of monocular ambiguous and binocular rivalry stimuliXiangchuan Chen
School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui
Curr Biol 14:1013-7. 2004..For binocular rivalry, preservation of the direction of interocular suppression rather than memory of the stimulus identity accounts for the stabilization effect...
- Neural correlates of perceptual rivalry in the human brainE D Lumer
Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
Science 280:1930-4. 1998..These results suggest that frontoparietal areas play a central role in conscious perception, biasing the content of visual awareness toward abstract internal representations of visual scenes, rather than simply toward space...
- Dynamical characteristics common to neuronal competition modelsAsya Shpiro
Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA
J Neurophysiol 97:462-73. 2007..The nonmonotonic dependency of duration on stimulus strength is common to both deterministic and stochastic models. We conclude that additional experimental tests of Levelt's Proposition IV are needed to reconcile models and perception...
- The role of saccades in exerting voluntary control in perceptual and binocular rivalryLoes C J van Dam
Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands
Vision Res 46:787-99. 2006....
- Shape-selective stereo processing in human object-related visual areasSharon Gilaie-Dotan
Department of Computer Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Hum Brain Mapp 15:67-79. 2002..Furthermore, they show a significant correlation between recognition and fMRI signal in the object-related occipito-temporal cortex (lateral occipital complex)...
- Independent binocular rivalry processes for motion and formDavid Alais
Department of Physiology, School of Medical Science, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Neuron 52:911-20. 2006..Sensibly, this would leave visual processes not involved in rivalry free to function normally...
- A common oscillator for perceptual rivalries?Olivia L Carter
Vision, Touch and Hearing Research Centre, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
Perception 32:295-305. 2003..We conclude that (i) MIB is a form of perceptual rivalry, and (ii) there may be a common oscillator responsible for timing aspects of all forms of perceptual rivalry...
- Endogenous attention prolongs dominance durations in binocular rivalrySang Chul Chong
Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
J Vis 5:1004-12. 2005..Overall, our results indicate that dominance durations in rivalry can be prolonged when observers are performing an attentionally demanding task on the rival stimulus...
- Binocularity following surgical correction of strabismus in adultsMarilyn B Mets
Division of Ophthalmology, Children s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Ill, USA
Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 101:201-5; discussion 205-7. 2003..This is a retrospective study to determine the preoperative and postoperative binocular status of adults who have undergone surgical correction of strabismus...
- Binocular vision and motion-in-depthJulie M Harris
Vision Laboratory, School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9JP, Scotland, UK
Spat Vis 21:531-47. 2008..We discuss the evidence obtained in recent years on the extent to which each of them is used in human vision. We also highlight outstanding questions and issues in the field that have yet to be addressed...
- The management of strabismus in adults--I. Clinical characteristics and treatmentGeorge R Beauchamp
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, USA
J AAPOS 7:233-40. 2003..Here we present clinical characteristics, complexity of surgery, treatment success, and resolved complaints in a group of adult patients who underwent strabismus surgery...
- Increasing depth of binocular rivalry suppression along two visual pathwaysVincent A Nguyen
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sydney, P O Box 170, NSW 1825, Lidcombe, Australia
Vision Res 43:2003-8. 2003..We conclude that binocular rivalry suppression is present at a number of stages along two visual cortical pathways, and that suppression deepens as the visual signal progresses along these pathways...
- Bi-stability in perceived slant when binocular disparity and monocular perspective specify different slantsRaymond van Ee
Utrecht University, Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands
J Vis 2:597-607. 2002..More interestingly, when the monocular--and binocular-specified orientations were rather different, observers experienced perceptual bi-stability (they were able to select either a perspective--or a disparity-dominated percept)...
- Multistage model for binocular rivalryAlan W Freeman
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia
J Neurophysiol 94:4412-20. 2005..The model is potentially applicable to issues of visual processing more general than binocular rivalry...
- Exogenous attention and endogenous attention influence initial dominance in binocular rivalrySang Chul Chong
Graduate Program in Cognitive Science, Department of Psychology, Yonsei University, Republic of Korea
Vision Res 46:1794-803. 2006..Evidently both exogenous and endogenous attention can influence initial dominance of binocular rivalry, effectively boosting the stimulus strength of the attended rival stimulus...
- A randomized clinical trial of treatments for convergence insufficiency in childrenMitchell Scheiman
Eye Institute, Pennsylvania College of Optometry, Philadelphia 19141, USA
Arch Ophthalmol 123:14-24. 2005..To compare vision therapy/orthoptics, pencil push-ups, and placebo vision therapy/orthoptics as treatments for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children 9 to 18 years of age...
- Interocular rivalry revealed in the human cortical blind-spot representationF Tong
Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
Nature 411:195-9. 2001..Our findings provide the first physiological evidence, to our knowledge, that interocular competition mediates binocular rivalry, and indicate that V1 may be important in the selection and expression of conscious visual information...
- Integration of motion information during binocular rivalryTimothy J Andrews
Department of Psychology, University of Durham, Stockton Campus, Durham TS17 6BH, UK
Vision Res 42:301-9. 2002..This phenomenon clearly demonstrates an independent binocular interaction for form and motion...
- Maximizing binocular vision outcomes in strabismus patientsH Sprague Eustis
Am J Ophthalmol 138:1044-5. 2004
- Traveling waves of activity in primary visual cortex during binocular rivalrySang Hun Lee
Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, 6 Washington Place, 8th Floor, New York, New York 10003, USA
Nat Neurosci 8:22-3. 2005..Here we combine psychophysics with functional magnetic resonance imaging to show tight linkage between dynamics of perceptual waves during rivalry and neural events in human primary visual cortex (V1)...
- Interhemisphere connections of eye dominance columns in the cat visual cortex in conditions of impaired binocular visionS V Alekseenko
I P Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 6 Makarov Bank, 199034, St Petersburg, Russia
Neurosci Behav Physiol 39:489-95. 2009Data from studies of interhemisphere connections in fields 17 and 18 of cats reared in conditions of impaired binocular vision (monocular deprivation, uni- and bilateral strabismus) are presented...
- Ecomorphology of orbit orientation and the adaptive significance of binocular vision in primates and other mammalsChristopher P Heesy
Department of Anatomy, Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ 85308, USA
Brain Behav Evol 71:54-67. 2008..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that mammalian predators evolved higher orbit convergence, binocular vision, and stereopsis to counter camouflage in prey inhabiting a nocturnal environment...
- Neural correlates of binocular rivalry in the human lateral geniculate nucleusKlaus Wunderlich
Department of Psychology, Center for the Study of Brain, Mind, and Behavior, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
Nat Neurosci 8:1595-602. 2005..Our results provide evidence for a functional role of the LGN in binocular rivalry and suggest that the LGN, traditionally viewed as the gateway to the visual cortex, may be an early gatekeeper of visual awareness...
- Onset rivalry: brief presentation isolates an early independent phase of perceptual competitionOlivia Carter
Vision Sciences Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS ONE 2:e343. 2007..However, brief presentations are ideal for investigating early stages of perceptual competition...
- Single units and conscious visionN K Logothetis
Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tubingen, Germany
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 353:1801-18. 1998..The mechanisms of rivalry are probably the same as, or very similar to, those underlying multistable perception in general, and further physiological studies might reveal much about the neural mechanisms of our perceptual organization...
- A neural model of binocular integration and rivalry based on the coordination of action-potential timing in primary visual cortexE D Lumer
Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK
Cereb Cortex 8:553-61. 1998....
- Binocular rivalry and motion perceptionR Blake
Vanderbilt University, Department of Psychology, Nashville TN 37240, USA
J Cogn Neurosci 10:46-60. 1998..Taken together, these results bear on the process responsible for rivalry and its neural locus relative to the analysis of different types of motion...
- Advantages of binocular vision for the control of reaching and graspingDean R Melmoth
Department of Optometry and Visual Science, The Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Visual Sciences, City University, Northampton Square, EC1V 0HB, London, UK
Exp Brain Res 171:371-88. 2006..lifted isolated cylindrical household objects (two sizes, four locations) in a well-lit environment, using binocular vision or with one eye occluded...
- The role of binocular vision in walkingMary Hayhoe
Center for Perceptual Systems, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
Vis Neurosci 26:73-80. 2009..In this paper, we explored the role of binocular vision when walking over and around obstacles...
- Temporal dynamics of ocular aberrations: monocular vs binocular visionA Mira-Agudelo
Laboratorio de Optica, Centro de Investigación en Óptica y Nanofísica CiOyN, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo Murcia, Murcia 30100, Spain
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 29:256-63. 2009..We did find differences in pupil size with mono- and binocular vision but the pupil size temporal dynamics did not behave in the same way as the aberrations' dynamics.
- Predictive factors underlying the restoration of macular binocular vision in adults with acquired strabismusSherry L Fawcett
Retina Foundation of the Southwest, Dallas, TX 75231, USA
J AAPOS 8:439-44. 2004To investigate whether macular binocular vision can be permanently lost following acquired strabismus and to identify predictive factors underlying its restoration.
- Quantitative analysis of the responses of V1 neurons to horizontal disparity in dynamic random-dot stereogramsS J D Prince
University Laboratory of Physiology, Oxford OX1 3PT, United Kingdom
J Neurophysiol 87:191-208. 2002..This is compatible with a degree of local clustering for disparity sensitivity in V1, although this is much weaker than that reported in area MT...
- Can attention selectively bias bistable perception? Differences between binocular rivalry and ambiguous figuresMing Meng
Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
J Vis 4:539-51. 2004..Our results support the notion that binocular rivalry involves a more automatic, stimulus-driven form of visual competition than Necker cube reversal, and as a consequence, is less easily biased by selective attention...
- Effect of refractive surgery on binocular vision and ocular alignment in patients with manifest or intermittent strabismusD Godts
Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2560 Edegem, Belgium
Br J Ophthalmol 90:1410-3. 2006To evaluate the effect of refractive surgery on binocular vision and ocular alignment in patients with manifest or intermittent strabismus, with or without vertical component.
- A map for horizontal disparity in monkey V2Gang Chen
Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
Neuron 58:442-50. 2008..Our findings suggest that maps for visual disparity are calculated in V2, and demonstrate parallels in functional organization between the thin, pale, and thick stripes of V2...
- The role of (micro)saccades and blinks in perceptual bi-stability from slant rivalryLoes C J van Dam
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands
Vision Res 45:2417-35. 2005..The reduced probability of saccades mainly occurred for larger voluntary saccades, rather than for involuntary microsaccades. We suggest that the reduced probability of voluntary saccades reflects a reset of saccade planning...
- Eye-specific effects of binocular rivalry in the human lateral geniculate nucleusJohn Dylan Haynes
Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
Nature 438:496-9. 2005..The human LGN is thus the earliest stage of visual processing that reflects eye-specific dominance and suppression...
- Continuous flash suppression reduces negative afterimagesNaotsugu Tsuchiya
Computation and Neural Systems Program, California Institute of Technology, M s 139 74, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
Nat Neurosci 8:1096-101. 2005..Our results imply that formation of afterimages involves neuronal structures that access input from both eyes but that do not correspond directly to the neuronal correlates of perceptual awareness...
- Binocular switch suppression: a new method for persistently rendering the visible 'invisible'Derek H Arnold
School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
Vision Res 48:994-1001. 2008..BSS should therefore prove to be a useful tool for the large number of researchers interested in exploring the neural correlates and functional consequences of conscious visual awareness...
- Binocular vision impairment after refractive surgeryDaisy Godts
Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem, Belgium
J Cataract Refract Surg 30:101-9. 2004To illustrate the need for an accurate preoperative orthoptic examination to prevent postoperative changes in binocular vision.
- Early binocular vision in human infants: limitations on the generality of the Superposition HypothesisAngela M Brown
The Ohio State University, College of Optometry, 320 W 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 1240, USA
Vision Res 43:1563-74. 2003The Superposition Hypothesis states that the binocular vision of newborn infants blends together the monocular visual responses of the two eyes, even when the visual stimulus evokes binocular rivalry in adults...
- Identification of binocular vision dysfunction (vertical heterophoria) in traumatic brain injury patients and effects of individualized prismatic spectacle lenses in the treatment of postconcussive symptoms: a retrospective analysisJennifer E Doble
St Joseph Mercy Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
PM R 2:244-53. 2010To identify a form of binocular vision dysfunction (vertical heterophoria) in a traumatic brain injury (TBI) population and to assess the effect of individualized prismatic spectacle lenses on postconcussive symptoms.
- Binocular rivalry and visual awareness in human extrastriate cortexF Tong
Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
Neuron 21:753-9. 1998....
- What is binocular vision for? A birds' eye viewGraham R Martin
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
J Vis 9:14.1-19. 2009..In birds that do not need such control of their bill, binocular field widths are very small, suggesting that binocular vision plays only a minor role in the control of locomotion...
- Lateral neural model of binocular rivalryLars Stollenwerk
WWU Munster, Institute of Applied Physics, 48149 Munster, Germany
Neural Comput 15:2863-82. 2003....
- A binocular rivalry study of motion perception in the human brainK Moutoussis
Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Spemannstrasse 38, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
Vision Res 45:2231-43. 2005....
- Correlation of the binocular visual field with patient assessment of visionHenry D Jampel
Department of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:1059-67. 2002..To determine which measures of the binocular visual field correlate best with the patient's assessment of vision...
- Voluntarily controlled bi-stable slant perception of real and photographed surfacesRaymond van Ee
Utrecht University, Helmholtz Institute, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands
Proc Biol Sci 272:141-8. 2005..Second, when subjects chose to perceive the rectangle their estimates for real surfaces were similar to those for photographed surfaces, as if they selected a representation of slant governed by perspective foreshortening...
- Slant perception, and its voluntary control, do not govern the slant aftereffect: multiple slant signals adapt independentlyTomas Knapen
Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584CC Utrecht, The Netherlands
Vision Res 46:3381-92. 2006..Journal of Vision 5 (1), 71-80), using that disparity scales with distance], but before other slant signals are integrated for the resulting awareness of the presented slant stimulus...
- Eye preference within the context of binocular functionsWalter H Ehrenstein
Leibniz Research Center for Working Environment and Human Factors, University of Dortmund, Ardeystrasse 67, 44139 Dortmund, Germany
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 243:926-32. 2005..are useful as a first screening, but do not allow for graded quantification of the manifested asymmetry in binocular vision. Moreover, they often concern only a rather selective range of binocular functions...
- The value of adult strabismus correction to the patientJohn D Baker
Department of Ophthalmology, Children s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit 48201, USA
J AAPOS 6:136-40. 2002..To look at the value of adult strabismus correction to the patient, to consider what is known, and to define the challenges and opportunities for helping these patients...
- Plaid motion rivalry: correlates with binocular rivalry and positive mood stateBonita M Sheppard
Vision Touch and Hearing Research Center, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Australia
Perception 35:157-69. 2006....
- Aniso-accommodation as a possible factor in myopia developmentW N Charman
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 24:471-9. 2004....
- Some recent studies on the extraretinal contribution to distance perceptionM Mon-Williams
School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, Fife, Scotland, UK
Perception 28:167-81. 1999..A simple heuristic model which can produce the observed distortions is outlined...
- Effect of age on adult stereoacuity as measured by different types of stereotestL Garnham
Moorfields Eye Hospital, London EC1V 2PD, UK
Br J Ophthalmol 90:91-5. 2006..To examine how stereoacuity changes with age as measured by a variety of stereotests...
- Dynamics of perceptual bi-stability for stereoscopic slant rivalry and a comparison with grating, house-face, and Necker cube rivalryRaymond van Ee
Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584CC Utrecht, The Netherlands
Vision Res 45:29-40. 2005..van Dam, L. C. J., Brouwer, G. J. (2005). Voluntary control and the dynamics of perceptual bi-stability. Vision Research,] we focused on the role of voluntary control in the dynamics of perceptual reversals...
- Competition in bistable vision is attribute-specificJon K Grossmann
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vision Science Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
Vision Res 46:285-92. 2006..Specifically, we show that whether perceptual selection during binocular rivalry is early and eye-based or late and percept-based depends on the particular ambiguous attributes of the rivalrous stimulus...
- Motion direction, speed and orientation in binocular matchingR van Ee
MIT Deparment of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
Nature 410:690-4. 2001..These results indicate that cells that multiplex orientation, motion direction, speed and binocular disparity may help to solve the binocular matching problem...
- Fixation disparity and accommodation for stimuli closer and more distant than oculomotor tonic positionsW Jaschinski
Institut fur Arbeitsphysiologie, Ardeystr 67, D 44139, Dortmund, Germany
Vision Res 41:923-33. 2001....
- Increased gamma-band synchrony precedes switching of conscious perceptual objects in binocular rivalrySam M Doesburg
Psychophysics and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada BC V6T1Z4
Neuroreport 16:1139-42. 2005..This suggests that global gamma synchrony is associated with the emergence of a coherent conscious percept...
- Genetic Etiologies of Horizontal StrabismusElizabeth C Engle; Fiscal Year: 2013..by applicant): Congenital strabismus is the pathological misalignment of the eyes associated with loss of binocular vision. It affects up to 4% of the population worldwide and 6-12 million people in the United States, and can reduce ..
- REM mechanisms in neocortical developmentMarcos G Frank; Fiscal Year: 2013..Ocular dominance plasticity is a canonical form of synaptic plasticity in vivo triggered by changes in binocular vision. It has provided crucial insights into how cortical circuits develop and remodel in early life...
- LIMITING FACTORS IN NORMAL AND AMBLYOPIC SPATIAL VISIONDENNIS MICHAEL LEVI; Fiscal Year: 2012..Aim 3. Binocular Combination and recovery of binocular vision and stereopsis in amblyopia...
- Preschool Vision Screening by Parental Risk Factor QuestionnaireRuth E Manny; Fiscal Year: 2013..The long-term sequelae of these conditions that degrade visual acuity (VA) and/or binocular vision can be minimized by early detection and treatment...
- CORE GRANT FOR VISION RESEARCHChristopher W Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2011..Their main topics of study are oculomotor processing, binocular vision and its dynamics, cortical organization and development of the visual pathways, vision in the aging eye, ..
- Binocular Summation in StrabismusStacy Pineles; Fiscal Year: 2013..component of this proposal is to evaluate binocular summation, which is defined as the improvement in binocular vision compared to monocular vision, in patients with strabismus using a comprehensive battery of functional ..
- Binocular Approaches to Perceptual Learning in Adult AmblyopiaCRISTINA LLERENA LAW; Fiscal Year: 2013..for measuring inter-ocular contrast ratios (ICR) that provide balanced inputs, between the two eyes, during binocular vision (Mansouri et al, 2008;Huang et al, 2009)...
- Clinical Vision Scientist Training ProgramKARLA S ZADNIK; Fiscal Year: 2011..They will emerge with knowledge and experience in vision science (optics, binocular vision, monocular sensory processes, ocular anatomy and physiology), molecular biology (cell biology, immunology, ..
- Disparity Processing in Human Visual CortexAnthony M Norcia; Fiscal Year: 2013..The proposed studies will provide a detailed understanding of both normal and abnormal binocular vision and its development, both by testing of novel hypotheses about sensory processing and motor control, but also ..
- A New Approach to Vision Therapy Based on Naturalistic 3-D Computer GamingB Eugene Parker; Fiscal Year: 2013..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Convergence insuciency is one of the most common binocular vision disorders, and refractive amblyopia a vision disorder for which a very-high percentage of patients seek ..
- A Zebrafish model of extraocular muscle regeneration.Alon Kahana; Fiscal Year: 2013DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Binocular vision requires intricate control of eye movement by 6 pairs of extraocular muscles (EOMs)...
- Psychophysical Correlates of Neurodegeneration in GlaucomaPETER JOHN BEX; Fiscal Year: 2012..We examine binocular vision, filling-in and compensatory eye movements that may obscure detection of progressive visual impairment and ..
- Accomodation influences in strabismusAnand C Joshi; Fiscal Year: 2013..convergence and miosis are three motor responses known to play an important role in clear and single binocular vision. There is a known cross-link between accommodation and convergence system and this interdependency has been ..
- Relation of GABA Levels in Visual Cortex to Strength of Interocular SuppressionROBERT RANDOLPH BLAKE; Fiscal Year: 2013..Being an expert on binocular vision, the PI chose to explore this untested application within the context of interocular suppression...
- Binocular Vision, Amblyopia, and Refractive Development in EsotropiaEILEEN ELIZABETH BIRCH; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Cortical Control of a Dextrous Prosthetic HandAndrew B Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2012..Hands are an example of an advanced evolutionary specialization, which along with binocular vision and bipedal locomotion, led to tool use- a major determinant of human brain development and behavior...
- SHORT TERM TRAINING IN HEALTH PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLSLaura J Frishman; Fiscal Year: 2013..eyes and visual pathways;5) visual cell and molecular biology 6) clinical optometry;7) spatial vision, 8) binocular vision. 17 optometry students will be recruited during each of the next 5 years for NEI fellowships, another 2-3 ..
- Neural correlates of 3D visual orientationDora Angelaki; Fiscal Year: 2013..Previous studies have described loss of 3D binocular vision and constructional apraxia after parietal lesions, although the neurophysiology of this effect remains poorly ..
- Efficient Assessment of Visual Deficits and Rehabilitation Methods in AmblyopiaZhong lin Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013..Current treatment for amblyopia is unsuccessful in 25-50% of cases and rarely restores normal binocular vision. The broad range of deficits observed in amblyopia, its different etiologies, and the individual differences ..
- Neural Adaptation to Strabismus SurgeryVallabh E Das; Fiscal Year: 2013..Studies from our laboratory have shown that specially rearing infant monkeys under conditions that disrupted binocular vision reproduced a sensory strabismus syndrome with large horizontal misalignment, A/V patterns, Dissociated ..
- GROWTH OF OPTIC NERVE FIBERSRobert Williams; Fiscal Year: 1999..of these connections are associated with poor foveal development, severe deficits in visual acuity, loss of binocular vision, strabismus, and eye movement disorders...
- OPTICAL AND RETINAL LIMITS TO HUMAN VISUAL PERFORMANCELarry N Thibos; Fiscal Year: 2010..Project 4. Expand wavefront aberrometry into the domain of binocular vision by simulating binocular integration of dissimilar retinal images and evaluating outcome with metrics of ..
- COMPUTER-DRIVEN PHASE-DIFFERENCE CRT HAPLOSCOPESTEVEN PANISH; Fiscal Year: 1990..This will be a programmable, flexible, steroscopic display system useful for: 1. research in binocular vision, strabismus, and amblyopia; 2. clinical screening and measurement of strabismus and amblyopia; and 3...
- DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF ADULT VISUAL CORTEX--ROLE OF NOMichael Friedlander; Fiscal Year: 2003..Thus, various types of peripheral insult such as unequal binocular vision due to ptosis, congenital cataracts, unequal ammetropia or strabismus in addition to traumatic injury or eye ..
- THINNER AND OPTICALLY SUPERIOR DEVICES FOR LOW VISIONRANJANA PANDYA; Fiscal Year: 2001..For such patients, composite prisms can be used to reduce eye strain and improve the chances of attaining binocular vision. They could also be useful for conditions such as torticollis and synostosis where visual image relocation ..
- EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF STRABISMUSNancy Berman; Fiscal Year: 1980..which result from strabismus, and they will increase our understanding of the mechanisms which underlie binocular vision. Anatomical methods will be used to determine the relation between the degree and direction of aquint and the ..
- MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF DOPACHROME OXIDOREDUCTASEWilliam Oetting; Fiscal Year: 1993..is associated with life-long nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia with reduced visual acuity, and abnormal binocular vision. Diagnosis of OCA is based on imprecise clinical features and hairbulb tyrosinase activity...
- CONVERGENCE INSUFFICIENCY TREATMENT TRIALSusan Cotter; Fiscal Year: 2006..treatment modalities for patients with convergence insufficiency (CI), a distinct disorder of [unreadable] binocular vision affecting approximately 5% of children and young adults in the United States...
- Eph-Ephrin Bidirectional Signaling in Visual DevelopmentMARK J HENKEMEYER; Fiscal Year: 2010..at the optic chiasm as RGC fibers make the choice to project contralaterally or ipsilaterally to bring about binocular vision, and 3) within the superior colliculus as RGC fibers topographically map to mirror the ventral/dorsal axis of ..
- NEURAL MECHANISMS OF VERGENCE EYE MOVEMENTSLAWRENCE MAYS; Fiscal Year: 2000..and near targets and are believed to be responsible for the precise alignment of the visual axes required for binocular vision. Shifts in gaze between objects at different distances from the observer usually involve a combination of ..
- Sensory and Motor Fusion in Abnormal Binocular VisionPATRICIA FREDENBURG; Fiscal Year: 2005..While I enjoy clinical instruction, I hope to do research into basic mechanisms in binocular vision, since teaching at the graduate school level is my goal, and topics in this area are particularly difficult ..
- CONVERGENCE INSUFFICIENCY TREATMENT TRIALMitchell Scheiman; Fiscal Year: 2000..CI is a very common and distinct binocular vision disorder...
- THERAPEUTIC CORRECTION OF ASTIGMATISM WITH EXCIMER PRKCHARLES MUNNERLYN; Fiscal Year: 1991..amounts of astigmatism for which treatment with glasses and contact lenses is problematic because of induced binocular vision problems due to poor lens orientation...
- Molecular and functional mechanisms underlying binocular visionMriganka Sur; Fiscal Year: 2010..understand the functional consequences of a binocular mismatch, but to probe the mechanisms which underlie binocular vision itself. We will determine the mechanism by which Ten_m3 regulates axon guidance...
- Ocular Motor Maldevelopment & Repair in Cerebral PalsyFatema Ghasia; Fiscal Year: 2006..impairment (b) it will provide guidelines for the number of surgical interventions necessary to restore binocular vision in CP patients...
- EARLY VISUAL EXPERIENCE: ROLE OF SPECTRAL ENVIRONMENTHEYWOOD PETRY; Fiscal Year: 1991..know that appropriate sensory input early in life is critical to the development of normal spatial vision and binocular vision. Little work has been done to determine to what extent the spectral composition of the lighting environment ..
- ABNORMAL EYE MOVEMENTS IN STRABISMUS AND AMBLYOPIACLIFTON SCHOR; Fiscal Year: 1980..Abnormal sensory aspects of binocular vision, including suppression and reduced stereopsis will be quantified in non-paralytic strabismus...
- BINOCULAR VISION: INTERACTIONS ON AREA 18 NEURONSJERRY DANIELS; Fiscal Year: 1980..If this idea is correct, proprioception may be implicated in the loss of stereopsis which follows uncorrected stabismus in human development...
- ENHANCING STEREOTESTING IN CHILDREN FROM 6 MONTHS TO 5Elise Ciner; Fiscal Year: 1991The objective of this project is to develop a sensitive screening methodology for te detection of binocular vision problems in young or difficult to test children...
- THE SUPPRESSION MECHANISM IN BINOCULAR RIVALRYRobert Fox; Fiscal Year: 1990This research is concerned with the three major phenomena of binocular vision--stereopsis, rivalry, and fusion--and outlines investigations of these phenomena in adult humans, and in infants and young children using psychophysical or ..
- FMR Imaging of Eye Stabilization ProcessesCLAUDIO BUSETTINI; Fiscal Year: 2004..In humans and monkeys, with sophisticated foveal binocular vision, there are ultra-fast, highly specialized cortical eye-stabilization systems able to decode and compensate ..
- SPATIAL STRUCTURE PERCEPTION IN CHANGING OPTICAL PATTERNJOSEPH LAPPIN; Fiscal Year: 1991..Experiments on the coherence of binocular vision aim to determine the spatio-temporal bandwidth of the monocular signals underlying stereopsis and to quantify ..
- NEURAL BASIS OF MONOCULAR AND BINOCULAR TEXTURE ANALYSISIzumi Ohzawa; Fiscal Year: 2000..stimulating texture neurons simultaneously through the two eyes, the roles that texture information plays in binocular vision and stereopsis will be examined...
- FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF PANUMS FUSIONAL AREASAndrew Kertesz; Fiscal Year: 1991The long-term objective of this project is to study how single binocular vision is achieved by the fusional mechanism in humans. The nature of sensory compensation during fusional response is of particular interest...
- Mechanisms Underlying Binocular Disparity ProcessingJEREMY WILMER; Fiscal Year: 2007..covariation between individuals' sensitivity to binocular stimuli both a) to model mechanisms underlying binocular vision and b) to evaluate the influence of genetic vs. experiential factors upon sensitivity to binocular depth...
- Attention effects on signal processing under rivalry.Joetta Gobell; Fiscal Year: 2005..With standard binocular vision, attention has been shown to increase contrast sensitivity, improve spatial resolution, accelerate ..
- OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IN NORMAL VISUAL DEVELOPMENTEileen Birch; Fiscal Year: 2003..By relating long-term outcomes to visual cortical function during infancy, we will directly evaluate the predictive of early visual tests for long-term cognitive outcomes. ..
- Development and Maintenance of Binocular Vision (EY005236)EILEEN ELIZABETH BIRCH; Fiscal Year: 2010..S. Binocular imbalance during visual development has the potential to cause amblyopia and abnormalities in binocular vision. Over 90% of patients with congenital and early onset binocular imbalance require occlusion therapy, ..
- Convergence Insuffiency Treatment TrialMitchell Scheiman; Fiscal Year: 2006..CI is a prevalent and distinct binocular vision disorder. Typical symptoms include double vision, eyestrain, headaches, and blurred vision while reading...
- MONOCULAR DISTANCE PERCEPTION FOR REACHING AND GRASPINGGeoffrey P Bingham; Fiscal Year: 2010..The knowledge to be gained from this research is essential for formulating effective physical therapies for the elderly or children with DCD, or for learning to use visual aids and prosthetic limbs. ..
- TRAINING IN VISION RESEARCHAnthony Norcia; Fiscal Year: 2006..The INRSA component will fund exclusively fellows with U.S. residency certification while the other institutional components will fund both the remaining U.S. and non-U.S. fellows on an equal basis. ..
- OUTCOME MEASURES FOR CLINICAL TRIALS IN STRABISMUSJonathan Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2008..Ultimately this research will result in better quality of life for patients with strabismus. ..
- NORMAL AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPATIAL VISIONAnthony Norcia; Fiscal Year: 2008..This study will also determine whether nasalward/temporal biases previously reported for large field uniform stimuli propagate to the figure/ground segmentation process. ..
- The Organization of Suppression in Human Visual CortexSuzanne McKee; Fiscal Year: 2008..The multidimensional experimental design allows isolation of neural mechanisms utilized by perception, working memory, memory encoding, and recall. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Form and Motion IntegrationAnthony Norcia; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- PATHOGENESIS OF RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITYJonathan Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- MELATONIN'S ROLE IN TECTAL PHYSIOLOGY AND PLASTICITYSusan Udin; Fiscal Year: 2003..These data will be relevant to our understanding of how normal patterns of melatonin secretion affect the brain and will serve to alter us to possible consequences of long-term ingestion of melatonin. ..
- Objective Assessment of Suppression in AmblyopiaSuzanne McKee; Fiscal Year: 2003..The proposed test could assist with the diagnosis of amblyopia in infancy, as well as in monitoring progress during treatment, thereby improving the chance of a favorable outcome. ..
- DEVELOPMENT OF FORM, RIVALRY AND BINOCULARITYAnthony Norcia; Fiscal Year: 2003..interactions and binocularity will also be obtained that will be helpful for understanding the normal developmental sequences of both binocular vision and form vision, independent of their relationship to the development of rivalry.