startle reaction

Summary

Summary: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Identification and functional analysis of the vision-specific BBS3 (ARL6) long isoform
    Pamela R Pretorius
    Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000884. 2010
  2. pmc Phasic vs sustained fear in rats and humans: role of the extended amygdala in fear vs anxiety
    Michael Davis
    Department of Psychiatry, Yerkes National Primate Center, Emory University, and The Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:105-35. 2010
  3. ncbi Committee report: Guidelines for human startle eyeblink electromyographic studies
    Terry D Blumenthal
    Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27109, USA
    Psychophysiology 42:1-15. 2005
  4. ncbi Affective startle modulation in anticipation and perception
    D Sabatinelli
    National Institute of Mental Health Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA
    Psychophysiology 38:719-22. 2001
  5. ncbi Neural systems involved in fear and anxiety measured with fear-potentiated startle
    Michael Davis
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Am Psychol 61:741-56. 2006
  6. ncbi Fear and anxiety: animal models and human cognitive psychophysiology
    P J Lang
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, P O Box 100165, HSC, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    J Affect Disord 61:137-59. 2000
  7. ncbi Sensorimotor gating in larval zebrafish
    Harold A Burgess
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6058, USA
    J Neurosci 27:4984-94. 2007
  8. ncbi Inbred strain differences in prepulse inhibition of the mouse startle response
    R Paylor
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1375, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 132:169-80. 1997
  9. ncbi Preparation of anticipatory postural adjustments prior to stepping
    Colum D MacKinnon
    Department of Physical Therapy and Human Movement Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 645 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 1100, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Neurophysiol 97:4368-79. 2007
  10. pmc Mutations in the gene encoding GlyT2 (SLC6A5) define a presynaptic component of human startle disease
    Mark I Rees
    School of Medicine, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, West Glamorgan SA2 8PP, UK
    Nat Genet 38:801-6. 2006

Detail Information

Publications279 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Identification and functional analysis of the vision-specific BBS3 (ARL6) long isoform
    Pamela R Pretorius
    Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000884. 2010
    ..Bbs3L-null mice lack key features of previously published Bbs-null mice, including obesity. These data demonstrate that the BBS3L transcript is required for proper retinal function and organization...
  2. pmc Phasic vs sustained fear in rats and humans: role of the extended amygdala in fear vs anxiety
    Michael Davis
    Department of Psychiatry, Yerkes National Primate Center, Emory University, and The Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:105-35. 2010
    ..In rats, sustained fear is more sensitive to anxiolytic drugs. In humans, symptoms of clinical anxiety are better detected in sustained rather than phasic fear paradigms...
  3. ncbi Committee report: Guidelines for human startle eyeblink electromyographic studies
    Terry D Blumenthal
    Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27109, USA
    Psychophysiology 42:1-15. 2005
    ..It is hoped that this report will foster more methodological validity and reliability in research using the startle response, as well as increase the detail with which relevant methodology is reported in publications using this measure...
  4. ncbi Affective startle modulation in anticipation and perception
    D Sabatinelli
    National Institute of Mental Health Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA
    Psychophysiology 38:719-22. 2001
    ..The startle reflex is modulated by hedonic valence in picture perception, and by emotional arousal in a task context involving picture anticipation...
  5. ncbi Neural systems involved in fear and anxiety measured with fear-potentiated startle
    Michael Davis
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Am Psychol 61:741-56. 2006
    ..c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)...
  6. ncbi Fear and anxiety: animal models and human cognitive psychophysiology
    P J Lang
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, P O Box 100165, HSC, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    J Affect Disord 61:137-59. 2000
    ....
  7. ncbi Sensorimotor gating in larval zebrafish
    Harold A Burgess
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6058, USA
    J Neurosci 27:4984-94. 2007
    ..Thus, our results provide the first evidence for sensorimotor gating in larval zebrafish and report on the first unbiased screen to identify genes regulating this process...
  8. ncbi Inbred strain differences in prepulse inhibition of the mouse startle response
    R Paylor
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1375, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 132:169-80. 1997
    ..There was no correlation between the level of prepulse inhibition and the amplitude of the startle response. These findings indicate that inbred strains of mice may be a useful tool to study the genetic basis of sensorimotor gating...
  9. ncbi Preparation of anticipatory postural adjustments prior to stepping
    Colum D MacKinnon
    Department of Physical Therapy and Human Movement Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 645 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 1100, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Neurophysiol 97:4368-79. 2007
    ..These findings are consistent with a feedforward mode of neural control whereby the motor sequence, including the associated postural adjustments, is prepared before voluntary movement...
  10. pmc Mutations in the gene encoding GlyT2 (SLC6A5) define a presynaptic component of human startle disease
    Mark I Rees
    School of Medicine, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, West Glamorgan SA2 8PP, UK
    Nat Genet 38:801-6. 2006
    ..SLC6A5 mutations result in defective subcellular GlyT2 localization, decreased glycine uptake or both, with selected mutations affecting predicted glycine and Na+ binding sites...
  11. pmc Models and mechanisms of anxiety: evidence from startle studies
    Christian Grillon
    Unit of Affective Psychophysiology, Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199:421-37. 2008
    ....
  12. ncbi Salicylate induced tinnitus: behavioral measures and neural activity in auditory cortex of awake rats
    Guang Yang
    Center for Hearing and Deafness, Department of Communicative Disorders and Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
    Hear Res 226:244-53. 2007
    ..These preliminary physiology data suggest that salicylate induced tinnitus is associated with sound evoked hyperactivity in auditory cortex and spontaneous hypoactivity...
  13. ncbi Ethanol effects on the developing zebrafish: neurobehavior and skeletal morphogenesis
    Michael J Carvan
    Great Lakes WATER Institute, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 600 E Greenfield Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53204, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 26:757-68. 2004
    ..This work provides the foundation for identifying genes and pathways involved in developmental alcohol toxicity in vertebrates, leading to a more complete mechanistic understanding of fetal alcohol disorders in humans...
  14. ncbi Variation in genes involved in dopamine clearance influence the startle response in older adults
    Diana Armbruster
    Personality and Individual Differences, Institute of Psychology II, Dresden University of Technology, 01062, Dresden, Germany
    J Neural Transm 118:1281-92. 2011
    ..Although the functional significance of DAT1 VNTR is less defined, our results point to a potential influence of SLC6A3 on startle magnitude...
  15. pmc Acute episodes of predator exposure in conjunction with chronic social instability as an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder
    Phillip R Zoladz
    Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
    Stress 11:259-81. 2008
    ..This work demonstrates the effectiveness of acute inescapable episodes of predator exposure administered in conjunction with daily social instability as an animal model of PTSD...
  16. ncbi Prefrontal mechanisms of fear reduction after threat offset
    Floris Klumpers
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Biol Psychiatry 68:1031-8. 2010
    ..Reducing fear when a threat has disappeared protects against a continuously elevated anxiety state. In this study, we investigated the brain mechanism involved in this process...
  17. pmc Salicylate increases the gain of the central auditory system
    W Sun
    Center for Hearing and Deafness, 137 Cary Hall, State University of New York at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
    Neuroscience 159:325-34. 2009
    ..The enhanced startle response may be the behavioral correlate of hyperacusis that often accompanies tinnitus and hearing loss...
  18. pmc Motor preparation is modulated by the resolution of the response timing information
    Anthony N Carlsen
    Department of Physical Therapy and Human Movement Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 645 N Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Brain Res 1322:38-49. 2010
    ....
  19. pmc The early release of planned movement by acoustic startle can be delayed by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex
    Laila Alibiglou
    Department of Physical Therapy and Human Movement Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 645 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Physiol 590:919-36. 2012
    ..These findings provide evidence that the release of targeted ballistic wrist movements by SAS is mediated, in part, by a fast conducting transcortical pathway via the primary motor cortex...
  20. pmc Increased anxiety during anticipation of unpredictable but not predictable aversive stimuli as a psychophysiologic marker of panic disorder
    Christian Grillon
    NIMH MAP, 15K North Dr, Bldg 15k, Rm 113, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:898-904. 2008
    ..The authors tested the hypothesis that elevated anxious reactivity, specifically toward unpredictable aversive events, is a psychophysiological correlate of panic disorder...
  21. pmc Assessing fear and anxiety in humans using the threat of predictable and unpredictable aversive events (the NPU-threat test)
    Anja Schmitz
    Genetic Epidemiology Research Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Protoc 7:527-32. 2012
    ..The procedure is relatively short (35 min), simple to implement and generates consistent results with large effect sizes...
  22. ncbi Affective picture modulation: valence, arousal, attention allocation and motivational significance
    Jorge Leite
    Neuropsychophysiology Lab Cipsi, School of Psychology, University of Minho, Portugal
    Int J Psychophysiol 83:375-81. 2012
    ..The hedonic valence may then serve as a mediator of the attentional inhibition to the affective priming, potentiating or inhibiting a shift towards defensive activation, as measured by the startle reflex...
  23. ncbi Prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex: a window on the brain in schizophrenia
    David L Braff
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego UCSD, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0804, USA
    Curr Top Behav Neurosci 4:349-71. 2010
    ..PPI continues to hold promise as an exciting translational cross-species measure that can be used to understand the pathophysiology and treatment of the schizophrenias via pharmacological, anatomic, and genetic studies...
  24. ncbi Emotional scenes and facial expressions elicit different psychophysiological responses
    Georg W Alpers
    School of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Chair of Clinical and Biological Psychology, Germany
    Int J Psychophysiol 80:173-81. 2011
    ..Although arousal differences may account for some differences in physiological responding this shows that not all emotional material that is decoded similarly leads to the same psychophysiological output...
  25. ncbi Serotonin transporter gene variation and stressful life events impact processing of fear and anxiety
    Diana Armbruster
    Institute of Psychology II, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 12:393-401. 2009
    ..The results replicate and emphasize the role of 5-HTTLPR and stress on the overall startle response as a possible genetically driven endophenotype for anxiety-related behaviour...
  26. ncbi Neuropeptide S receptor deficiency modulates spontaneous locomotor activity and the acoustic startle response
    Markus Fendt
    Novartis Institutes of Biomedical Research, Neuropsychiatry, GPCR Expertise Program, Basel, Switzerland
    Behav Brain Res 217:1-9. 2011
    ..In the other experiments, Npsr deficiency leads to no or only a very modest phenotype. These results support an important role of neuropeptide S in regulating locomotor activity...
  27. ncbi Individual differences in fear-potentiated startle as a function of resting heart rate variability: implications for panic disorder
    Christiane A Melzig
    Department of Biological and Clinical Psychology, University of Greifswald, Germany
    Int J Psychophysiol 71:109-17. 2009
    ..The present studies explored resting heart rate variability (HRV) as a source of individual differences in startle potentiation in students at risk for panic disorder and in unmedicated panic patients...
  28. ncbi Long-term memory is facilitated by cAMP response element-binding protein overexpression in the amygdala
    S A Josselyn
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine and Connecticut Mental Health Center, New Haven, Connecticut 06508, USA
    J Neurosci 21:2404-12. 2001
    ..These results suggest that CREB activity in the amygdala serves as a molecular switch for the formation of LTM in fear conditioning...
  29. ncbi Infant vocalization, adult aggression, and fear behavior of an oxytocin null mutant mouse
    J T Winslow
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Horm Behav 37:145-55. 2000
    ..We conclude that the absence of exposure to OT during development was associated with abnormalities in the development of emotional behavior...
  30. ncbi Neurobehavioural functions in adult progeny of rat mothers exposed to methylmercury or 2,2', 4,4', 5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) alone or their combination during gestation and lactation
    Sławomir Gralewicz
    Department of Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland
    Int J Occup Med Environ Health 22:277-91. 2009
    ..The main source of human exposure to MeHg and PCBs is seafood. The aim of the present work was to find out whether and how separate or combined perinatal exposure to these neurotoxicants affects neurobehavioural functions in maturity...
  31. ncbi Gap detection methods for assessing salicylate-induced tinnitus and hyperacusis in rats
    Jeremy G Turner
    Department of Surgery Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL 62794 9629, USA
    Am J Audiol 17:S185-92. 2008
    ..These options are briefly reviewed, followed by data suggesting that gap detection procedures might be used to efficiently measure acute, salicylate-induced tinnitus and possibly hyperacusis in rats...
  32. ncbi Modulation of event-related brain potentials during affective picture processing: a complement to startle reflex and skin conductance response?
    Christine Amrhein
    University Hospital of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tubingen, Osianderstr 24, 72072 Tubingen, Germany
    Int J Psychophysiol 54:231-40. 2004
    ..The simultaneous registration of startle responses and ERPs in the affective picture paradigm seems valuable...
  33. ncbi The neuropsychology of fear learning and fear regulation
    Alfons O Hamm
    Department of Biological and Clinical Psychology, University of Greifswald, Franz Mehring Str 47, 17487 Greifswald, Germany
    Int J Psychophysiol 57:5-14. 2005
    ..It is suggested that the learning of stimulus relations is mediated by the hippocampus and that conditioned startle potentiation is also mediated by the hippocampus in trace conditioning...
  34. ncbi Now you feel it, now you don't: frontal brain electrical asymmetry and individual differences in emotion regulation
    Daren C Jackson
    University of Wisconsin Madison, 53706, USA
    Psychol Sci 14:612-7. 2003
    ..This relation between resting frontal activation and recovery following an aversive event supports the idea of a frontally mediated mechanism involved in one form of automatic emotion regulation...
  35. ncbi Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations
    Marieke Soeter
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Learn Mem 18:357-66. 2011
    ..Our findings demonstrate that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations, although selective, undermines the generalization of fear, a key feature of anxiety disorders...
  36. pmc Comparison of salicylate- and quinine-induced tinnitus in rats: development, time course, and evaluation of audiologic correlates
    Massimo Ralli
    Center for Hearing and Deafness, Department of Communicative Disorders and Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA
    Otol Neurotol 31:823-31. 2010
    ..The present study compared salicylate and quinine-induced tinnitus in rats using the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS)...
  37. ncbi Sex differences in the time course of emotion
    Marja Germans Gard
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Emotion 7:429-37. 2007
    ....
  38. pmc Effects of picture content and intensity on affective physiological response
    Edward Bernat
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Psychophysiology 43:93-103. 2006
    ..These results indicate that stimulus parameters of intensity and thematic content exert separate-and in some cases interactive-modulatory effects on physiological reactions to emotional pictures...
  39. ncbi COMT genetic variation affects fear processing: psychophysiological evidence
    Christian Montag
    Department of Psychology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
    Behav Neurosci 122:901-9. 2008
    ..The findings support prior genetic and neuroimaging associations of the COMT 158Met allele to affective psychopathology and alterations in neural systems for emotional arousal and regulation...
  40. ncbi Ethanol effects on three strains of zebrafish: model system for genetic investigations
    Cynthia A Dlugos
    Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, 317 Farber Hall, Buffalo, NY 14214 3000, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 74:471-80. 2003
    ..In the LFS strain, acute exposure to 0.25% (v/v) ethanol inhibited the startle reaction and increased both the area occupied by a group of subjects and the average distance between each fish and ..
  41. ncbi State anxiety and affective physiology: effects of sustained exposure to affective pictures
    J Carson Smith
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, PO Box 100165 HSC, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0165, USA
    Biol Psychol 69:247-60. 2005
    ..These findings suggest sustained exposure to unpleasant pictures may induce a short-term mood state, and may be a useful paradigm to study individuals who vary in symptoms of anxiety...
  42. pmc Impaired discriminative fear-conditioning resulting from elevated fear responding to learned safety cues among individuals with panic disorder
    Shmuel Lissek
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, NIH, DHHS, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Behav Res Ther 47:111-8. 2009
    ..Such results link PD to impaired discrimination learning, reflecting elevated fear responding to learned safety cues...
  43. pmc Conditioned fear extinction and reinstatement in a human fear-potentiated startle paradigm
    Seth D Norrholm
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Learn Mem 13:681-5. 2006
    ..This is the first demonstration of fear extinction and reinstatement in humans using startle measures...
  44. pmc Both predator and prey: emotional arousal in threat and reward
    Andreas Löw
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, P O Box 112766, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Psychol Sci 19:865-73. 2008
    ....
  45. ncbi Brain stem circuits mediating prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex
    M Fendt
    Tierphysiologie, Universitat Tubingen, Germany
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 156:216-24. 2001
    ..Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex occurs when brief, non-startling tactile, acoustic or visual stimuli are presented 20-500 ms before the startling stimulus...
  46. ncbi The psychophysiology of anxiety disorder: fear memory imagery
    Bruce N Cuthbert
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    Psychophysiology 40:407-22. 2003
    ..Overall, physiological reactivity to sentence memory cues was greatest in patients with focal fear of specific objects or events, and reduced in patients characterized by generalized, high negative affect...
  47. ncbi Pathophysiological mechanisms of dominant and recessive GLRA1 mutations in hyperekplexia
    Seo Kyung Chung
    Institute of Life Science, School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 30:9612-20. 2010
    ..This study also reports the first hyperekplexia mutation associated with a GlyR leak conductance, suggesting tonic channel opening as a new mechanism in neuronal ligand-gated ion channels...
  48. ncbi Human studies of prepulse inhibition of startle: normal subjects, patient groups, and pharmacological studies
    D L Braff
    Department of Psychiatry, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093 0804, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 156:234-58. 2001
    ..In humans, PPI occurs in a robust, predictable manner when the prepulse and startling stimuli occur in either the same or different modalities (acoustic, visual, or cutaneous)...
  49. ncbi The psychological significance of human startle eyeblink modification: a review
    D L Filion
    University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Occupational Therapy Edu, Kansas City 66160 7602, USA
    Biol Psychol 47:1-43. 1998
    ..Finally, an integrative summary that incorporates most of the cognitive findings is presented and directions for future research are identified regarding both cognitive and emotional modification of startle...
  50. ncbi Neonatal perturbation of neurotrophic signaling results in abnormal sensorimotor gating and social interaction in adults: implication for epidermal growth factor in cognitive development
    T Futamura
    Molecular Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Japan
    Mol Psychiatry 8:19-29. 2003
    ....
  51. ncbi Fear conditioning in virtual reality contexts: a new tool for the study of anxiety
    Johanna M Baas
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 55:1056-60. 2004
    ..A virtual environment might prove to be the ideal tool for innovative experimental paradigms to study explicitly cued fear and contextual anxiety in humans...
  52. ncbi A multi-process account of startle modulation during affective perception
    Margaret M Bradley
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    Psychophysiology 43:486-97. 2006
    ....
  53. pmc Identification of a fluorescent general anesthetic, 1-aminoanthracene
    Christopher A Butts
    Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6501-6. 2009
    ..Thus, 1-AMA provides an unprecedented opportunity for studying general anesthetic distribution in vivo at the cellular and subcellular levels...
  54. ncbi Generalisation of conditioned fear and its behavioural expression in mice
    T Rao Laxmi
    Institute of Physiology, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str 44, D 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 145:89-98. 2003
    ....
  55. ncbi Reducing chronic anxiety by making the threatening event predictable: an experimental approach
    Riet Fonteyne
    Department of Psychology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Behav Res Ther 47:830-9. 2009
    ..The data suggest that making unpredictable events, such as for example panic attacks, predictable, may reduce the generalized and sustained anxiety that often complicates exposure treatment...
  56. ncbi First trial postural reactions to unexpected balance disturbances: a comparison with the acoustic startle reaction
    Lars B Oude Nijhuis
    Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Center for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Neurophysiol 104:2704-12. 2010
    ..We hypothesized that first trial postural reactions consist of a generalized startle reaction, with a similar muscle synergy as the acoustic startle response, combined with an automatic postural reaction...
  57. ncbi Startle response potentiation to chemosensory anxiety signals in socially anxious individuals
    Bettina M Pause
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, FRG
    Int J Psychophysiol 74:88-92. 2009
    ..This adaptation is neither dependent on the gender of the odor donor nor on the gender of the perceiver, but is intensified in socially anxious participants...
  58. pmc Increased anxiety during anticipation of unpredictable aversive stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder but not in generalized anxiety disorder
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 66:47-53. 2009
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that elevated anxious reactivity, specifically for unpredictable aversive events, is a psychophysiological correlate of PTSD...
  59. ncbi Rapid picture presentation and affective engagement
    J Carson Smith
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, FL, USA
    Emotion 6:208-14. 2006
    ..The findings suggest that, despite conceptual masking inherent in rapid serial visual presentation, affective pictures prompt measurable emotional engagement...
  60. ncbi Ontogeny of sensorimotor gating and immune impairment induced by prenatal immune challenge in rats: implications for the etiopathology of schizophrenia
    E Romero
    Group of Neuroimmunology, Functional and Systems Neurobiology Department, Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid 28002, Spain
    Mol Psychiatry 15:372-83. 2010
    ..Here we show that prenatal LPS administration throughout pregnancy causes maturation-dependent PPI deficits and age-dependent alterations in dopamine activity, as well as in synaptophysin expression and cytokine levels...
  61. ncbi A single dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram exacerbates anxiety in humans: a fear-potentiated startle study
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:225-31. 2007
    ..These results indicate that a single dose of citalopram is not anxiogenic in itself, but can exacerbate the expression of fear and anxiety...
  62. ncbi Cardiac defense: from attention to action
    Jaime Vila
    University of Granada, Granada, Spain
    Int J Psychophysiol 66:169-82. 2007
    ....
  63. ncbi Covariation bias and its physiological correlates in panic disorder patients
    Christine Amrhein
    Clinic for Psychiatric Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    J Anxiety Disord 19:177-91. 2005
    ..CNV presumably reflects a biased processing of disorder-relevant stimuli by panic patients, perhaps with the expectation that aversive consequences will follow these stimuli...
  64. ncbi TPA023 [7-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6-(2-ethyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine], an agonist selective for alpha2- and alpha3-containing GABAA receptors, is a nonsedating anxiolytic in rodents and primates
    John R Atack
    Neuroscience Research Centre, Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Terlings Park, Eastwick Road, Harlow, Essex CM20 2QR, UK
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 316:410-22. 2006
    ..In summary, the novel alpha2/alpha3-selective efficacy profile of TPA023 translates into a nonsedating anxiolytic profile that is distinct from nonselective agonists...
  65. pmc The anxiety spectrum and the reflex physiology of defense: from circumscribed fear to broad distress
    Lisa M McTeague
    University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
    Depress Anxiety 29:264-81. 2012
    ..In summary, adaptive defensive engagement during imagery may be compromised by long-term dysphoria and stress-a phenomenon with implications for prognosis and treatment planning...
  66. ncbi Deficits in sensorimotor gating and tests of social behavior in a genetic model of reduced NMDA receptor function
    Gary E Duncan
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, CB 7090, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7090, USA
    Behav Brain Res 153:507-19. 2004
    ..The NR1 hypomorphic mice could represent a model system to explore novel treatment and preventative strategies for certain symptoms of schizophrenia...
  67. ncbi Prepulse modulation of the startle reaction and the blink reflex in normal human subjects
    J Valls-Sole
    Unitat d EMG, Servei de Neurologia, Departament de Medicina, Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel, 170 Barcelona, E 08036 Spain
    Exp Brain Res 129:49-56. 1999
    Blink reflexes are usually considered the most representative and consistent response of the auditory startle reaction (ASR), and they are often the only response evaluated in human psychophysiological studies...
  68. ncbi Neural circuit regulation of prepulse inhibition of startle in the rat: current knowledge and future challenges
    N R Swerdlow
    Department of Psychiatry, UCSD Schools of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093 0804, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 156:194-215. 2001
    ..Prepulse inhibition (PPI), a measure of sensorimotor gating, is reduced in patients with some neuropsychiatric disorders, and in rats after manipulations of limbic cortex, striatum, pallidum or pontine tegmentum ("CSPP" circuitry)...
  69. pmc Repetitive exposure: brain and reflex measures of emotion and attention
    Vera Ferrari
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Psychophysiology 48:515-22. 2011
    ..Taken together, the data suggest that the amplitude of the late positive potential during picture viewing reflects both motivational significance and attention allocation...
  70. ncbi Effects of threat of shock, shock electrode placement and darkness on startle
    C Grillon
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Int J Psychophysiol 28:223-31. 1998
    ..It is suggested that affective responses to contextual stimuli should be considered when investigating both normal and pathological fear...
  71. ncbi The role of amygdala glutamate receptors in fear learning, fear-potentiated startle, and extinction
    David L Walker
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Woodruff Memorial Building, 1639 Pierce Drive, Suite 4000, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 71:379-92. 2002
    ..A fuller understanding of the role of amygdala glutamate systems in fear and fear learning may suggest novel pharmacological approaches to the treatment of clinical anxiety disorders...
  72. pmc ADORA2A Gene variation, caffeine, and emotional processing: a multi-level interaction on startle reflex
    Katharina Domschke
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany
    Neuropsychopharmacology 37:759-69. 2012
    ..The present findings may eventually aid in improving primary and secondary prevention by sharpening the risk profiles of anxiety-prone individuals...
  73. ncbi Auditory startle response in trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: a prospective study
    A Y Shalev
    Department of Psychiatry, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
    Am J Psychiatry 157:255-61. 2000
    ..The present study attempted to clarify this issue by prospectively evaluating responses to sudden, loud tones in individuals who arrived at a hospital emergency room after psychologically traumatic events...
  74. ncbi Clozapine reverses schizophrenia-related behaviours in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 knockout mouse: association with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor up-regulation
    Laura Gray
    Howard Florey Institute, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 12:45-60. 2009
    ..These results highlight both the interactions between mGluR5 and NMDA receptors in the determination of schizophreniform behaviours and the potential for the effects of clozapine to be mediated by NMDA receptor regulation...
  75. pmc Atypical antipsychotics clozapine and quetiapine attenuate prepulse inhibition deficits in dopamine transporter knockout mice
    Susan B Powell
    aDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0804, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 19:562-5. 2008
    ..Thus male DAT knockout mice may provide a useful animal model for predicting the efficacy of novel drugs in treating psychiatric illnesses characterized by a dysregulated DA system...
  76. ncbi Method development studies for repeatedly measuring anxiolytic drug effects in healthy humans
    F Klumpers
    Departments of Experimental Psychology and Psychopharmacology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    J Psychopharmacol 24:657-66. 2010
    ..It is concluded that especially the startle paradigm could be a useful new instrument for screening new anxiolytic drugs...
  77. ncbi Negation as a means for emotion regulation? Startle reflex modulation during processing of negated emotional words
    Cornelia Herbert
    Department of Psychology, University of Wurzburg, Marcusstr 9 11, 97070, Wurzburg, Germany
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 11:199-206. 2011
    ..Our results suggest that negation may be an effective strategy for spontaneous down-regulation of emotional responses to unpleasant, but not to pleasant, stimuli...
  78. ncbi Startle and prepulse inhibition as a function of background noise: a computational and experimental analysis
    N A Schmajuk
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Duke University, NC 27708, USA
    Behav Brain Res 170:182-96. 2006
    ....
  79. ncbi Affective ratings and startle modulation in people with nonclinical depression
    Malek Mneimne
    Department of Psychology, St John s University, Jamaica, NY 11439, USA
    Emotion 8:552-9. 2008
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that nonclinical depression is associated with a lack of affective modulation of startle, as has been shown for clinical depression...
  80. ncbi Agomelatine facilitates positive versus negative affective processing in healthy volunteer models
    Catherine J Harmer
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 25:1159-67. 2011
    ..The study highlights the potential value of volunteer models in drug development for screening and profiling of novel antidepressants...
  81. ncbi Startle potentiation in aversive anticipation: evidence for state but not trait effects
    Jack B Nitschke
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706 1696, USA
    Psychophysiology 39:254-8. 2002
    ..These data suggest that the aversive nature of stimuli contribute to the potentiation of startle above and beyond the effects of emotional arousal, which may be a universal phenomenon not modulated by individual differences...
  82. pmc Fearful imagery in social phobia: generalization, comorbidity, and physiological reactivity
    Lisa M McTeague
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 65:374-82. 2009
    ..Social phobia has been characterized as a disorder of exaggerated fear of social threat and heightened sensitivity to imagery of social failure...
  83. pmc Development of tinnitus in CBA/CaJ mice following sound exposure
    Ryan J Longenecker
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities, Rootstown, 44272, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 12:647-58. 2011
    ..In summary, behavioral evidence of tinnitus can be reliably developed in mice by sound exposure, and tinnitus induction can be assessed by quantifying prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex...
  84. ncbi A double dissociation in the affective modulation of startle in humans: effects of unilateral temporal lobectomy
    E S Funayama
    Gallaudet University, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 13:721-9. 2001
    ..Additional evidence from case studies suggests that, within the medial temporal lobe, the amygdala is responsible for this modulation...
  85. ncbi Acute administration of the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist rimonabant impairs positive affective memory in healthy volunteers
    Jamie Horder
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:85-91. 2009
    ..The anti-obesity drug and cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, is associated with significant rates of depression and anxiety in clinical use...
  86. ncbi Emotion-modulated startle in anxiety disorders is blunted by co-morbid depressive episodes
    A Taylor-Clift
    Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33624, USA
    Psychol Med 41:129-39. 2011
    ..Although anxiety and depressive disorders are frequently co-morbid, surprisingly little is known about emotional reactivity when the two disorders co-occur...
  87. ncbi Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri): a missing link in the evolution of complementary side biases for predator avoidance and prey capture
    G Lippolis
    Centre for Neuroscience and Animal Behaviour, University of New England, Armidale, N S W, Australia
    Brain Behav Evol 73:295-303. 2009
    ..Hence, we conclude that it is a homologous pattern of lateralization that evolved in early aquatic vertebrates and was retained as they made the transition to land-dwelling tetrapods...
  88. ncbi Affect-modulated startle reflex and dopamine D4 receptor gene variation
    Paul Pauli
    Department of Psychology, Biological Psychology, Clinical Psychology, and Psychotherapy, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Psychophysiology 47:25-33. 2010
    ..Results speak for the importance of the DRD4 polymorphism in modulating emotional responses and also for the usefulness of the affect-modulated ASR as an endophenotype...
  89. ncbi The human glycine receptor beta subunit gene (GLRB): structure, refined chromosomal localization, and population polymorphism
    N Milani
    Institut fur Biochemie, Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany
    Genomics 50:341-5. 1998
    ..A polymorphism in exon 8 was found both in the normal population and in families affected by hyperekplexia, although no coding mutation was detectable...
  90. pmc Sensorimotor gating depends on polymorphisms of the serotonin-2A receptor and catechol-O-methyltransferase, but not on neuregulin-1 Arg38Gln genotype: a replication study
    Boris B Quednow
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Bonn, Germany
    Biol Psychiatry 66:614-20. 2009
    ..Therefore, we aimed to replicate these results and investigated the impact of the related polymorphisms on PPI in healthy human volunteers...
  91. ncbi A review of the modulation of the startle reflex by affective states and its application in psychiatry
    Christian Grillon
    National Institute of Mental Health, DHHS, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, 15K North Drive, Bldg 15k, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20895, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 114:1557-79. 2003
    ..To provide an overview of startle reflex methodologies applied to the examination of emotional and motivational states in humans and to review the findings in different forms of psychopathology...
  92. ncbi 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine injections into the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens differently affect prepulse inhibition and baseline startle magnitude in rats
    Daniela Mohr
    Animal Physiology, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 202:58-63. 2009
    ..However, the observed changes cannot be attributed to a specific brain site since our data clearly show that local 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine injections also affect transmitter levels in brain sites away from the injection site...
  93. pmc Validating a human model for anxiety using startle potentiated by cue and context: the effects of alprazolam, pregabalin, and diphenhydramine
    J M P Baas
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Utrecht University, Van Unnik Building, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:73-84. 2009
    ....
  94. ncbi Startle modulation before, during and after exposure to emotional stimuli
    Gabriel S Dichter
    Department of Psycology, Vanderbilt University, 301 Wilson Hall, South Nashville, TN 37240, USA
    Int J Psychophysiol 43:191-6. 2002
    ..No significant effects were observed during the offset phase. These results indicate that startle modulation is conditional upon temporal factors linked to stimulus onset and offset...
  95. ncbi When good things go bad: the reflex physiology of defense
    Margaret M Bradley
    University of Florida, USA
    Psychol Sci 16:468-73. 2005
    ....
  96. ncbi The CB receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 fails to elicit disruption of prepulse inhibition of the startle in Sprague-Dawley rats
    Marco Bortolato
    Department of Neuroscience B B Brodie, Center of Excellence Neurobiology of Dependence, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, S S 554 Km 4, 500, 09042, Monserrato, CA, Italy
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 177:264-71. 2005
    ..In this respect, recent studies have displayed controversial results on the ability of cannabinoids to elicit sensorimotor gating alterations and attentional filtering, whose disruption is a distinctive feature of psychosis...
  97. pmc Patterned ballistic movements triggered by a startle in healthy humans
    J Valls-Sole
    Unitat d EMG, Servei de Neurologia, Departament de Medicina, Hospital Clinic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Physiol 516:931-8. 1999
    ..5. The implication is that instructions for voluntary movement can in some circumstances be stored and released from subcortical structures...
  98. ncbi The anthraquinone derivative Emodin ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits of a rodent model for schizophrenia
    M Mizuno
    Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan
    J Neural Transm 115:521-30. 2008
    ..We conclude that emodin can both attenuate EGF receptor signaling and ameliorate behavioral deficits. Therefore, emodin might be a novel class of a pro-drug for anti-psychotic medication...
  99. pmc Dopamine is necessary for cue-dependent fear conditioning
    Jonathan P Fadok
    Graduate Program in Neurobiology and Behavior, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 29:11089-97. 2009
    ..These findings indicate that DA acting on multiple receptor subtypes within multiple target regions facilitates the stabilization of fear memory...
  100. ncbi Role of serotonin-1A receptors in the action of antipsychotic drugs: comparison of prepulse inhibition studies in mice and rats and relevance for human pharmacology
    Andrea Gogos
    Behavioural Neuroscience Laboratory, Mental Health Research Institute of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia
    Behav Pharmacol 19:548-61. 2008
    ..These comparative results allow a theoretical framework of receptor interactions, which may guide further studies on the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in schizophrenia...
  101. ncbi The acoustic startle response as an effective model for elucidating the effect of genes on the neural mechanism of behavior in mice
    C F Plappert
    Department of Animal Physiology, Zoologisches Institut, Universitat Tubingen, Tierphysiologie, Morgenstelle 28, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 125:183-8. 2001
    ..The possibility of interpreting behavioral output on a well known neural basis (as demonstrated here) makes the ASR a promising model system for investigating (neuro-) genetic influences of behavior...

Research Grants62

  1. Neural basis of heritable DA-mediated gating deficits
    Neal R Swerdlow; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  2. NEURAL CIRCUITRY OF SENSORIMOTOR GATING ACROSS SPECIES
    Neal Swerdlow; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  3. A Simple Measure for Studying Sensory Gating Deficits
    Neal Swerdlow; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. CORTICO-STRIATAL SUBSTRATES OF DEFICIENT STARTLE GATING
    Neal R Swerdlow; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..New information from these studies will be a foundation for innovative models of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other inherited neuropsychiatric disorders, and for prospective strategies for novel drug development. ..
  5. Neuroscience at the Boundaries of Neurology and Psychiatry
    Neal Swerdlow; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  6. SENSORY GATING AND HABITUATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
    David Braff; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..To accomplish these goals, we propose to utilize the prepulse inhibition (PPI) and habituation of the startle reaction in humans and rats using the very similar paradigms, stimulus parameters, dependent measures, and statistical ..
  7. Antipsychotic-Like Drug Effects of Neurotensin
    David Feifel; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  8. A Novel Animal Model of Relevance to Schizophrenia
    David Feifel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The successful development of this animal model could significantly enhance the understanding of the underlying causes of schizophrenia-associated abnormalities and improve drug discovery. ..
  9. Fear inhibition in posttraumatic stress disorder
    Tanja Jovanovic; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The present study will investigate how awareness interacts with startle in PTSD subjects. Finally, the present study will examine the relationship between contingency awareness and fear inhibition. ..
  10. Neural Substrates of Emotion in Borderline Patients
    Erin Hazlett; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. THE NEURAL CIRCUITRY OF SENSORIMOTOR GATING
    Erin Hazlett; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  12. VULNERABILITY MARKERS IN PRODROMAL SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Kristin S Cadenhead; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The disruption of social networks, education and occupational activity and the high incidence of suicide and crime that often accompany psychosis might be reduced or averted. ..
  13. Serotonin Club IUPHAR Satellite Meeting
    Mark Geyer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Hence, helping neuroscientists-in-training attend the meeting will have a positive influence on trainees and a lasting impact on the field. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  14. Pre-Cessation Effects of Bupropion on Smoking
    Larry Hawk; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  15. DOPAMINERGIC MODULATION OF THE STARTLE REFLEX
    Michael Davis; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..They also will evaluate whether conditioned fear uses some of the same circuitry to facilitate reflex behavior and how outputs from the amygdala intersect with this circuitry. ..
  16. Measuring the Aversive Effects of Alcohol Withdrawal
    JULIA CHESTER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Studies using this place conditioning technique are likely to provide important information that will lead to the development of novel behavioral and pharmacological treatments for alcoholism. ..
  17. DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS OF GATING DEFICITS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Mark A Geyer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Hence, Aim 3 studies will test the hypothesized differential roles of specific CRF receptors in mediating isolation rearing-induced deficits in PPI in mice, using CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 null mutant mice. ..
  18. Inhibitory control and clinical response in ADHD
    Larry Hawk; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This work will pave the way for a new generation of translational research and theory in ADHD. ..
  19. ROLE OF BED NUCLEUS OF STRIA TERMINALIS IN FEAR/ANXIETY
    Michael Davis; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Other studies will evaluate whether the BNST can 'take over' for the amygdala in fear-potentiated startle using lesion, chemical inactivation and IC-fosI methodologies. ..
  20. STARTLE GATING AND LOCOMOTION IN D2-FAMILY KNOCKOUT MICE
    Mark Geyer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This information will have important implications for the further development of therapeutic approaches to the treatment of both schizophrenia and drug abuse. ..
  21. GABA Receptors in the Acquisition and Extinction of Fear
    Scott Heldt; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. Antipsychotic Actions in Models of NMDA Hypofunction
    Gary Duncan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF METHAMPHETAMINE-LIKE STIMULANTS
    Charles Vorhees; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The number of prenatally MA exposed children continues to grow. Our goal is to develop models of early MA exposure that permit an understanding of the long-term consequences on brain development and cognition. ..
  24. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL NEUROSCIENCE LITERACY
    Gary Duncan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF METHLENEDIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE
    Charles Vorhees; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Such data will help identify risks associated with the prenatal use of MDMA on brain and cognitive development. ..
  26. Liability Markers for Deficit Schizophrenia?
    L Hong; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We plan to use the preliminary data collected from this grant support to guide our full-scale search for phenotypic markers specifically associated with the liability for deficit schizophrenia and subsequent molecular genetic studies. ..
  27. Identifying molecular path of behavioural phenotype in schizophrenia
    L Hong; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. Effects of Neonatal MDMA on Brain and Behavior
    Charles V Vorhees; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  29. Modulation of age-related changes in the auditory system
    JAMES WILLOTT; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The ultimate goal is to develop new approaches for amelioration and treatment ofpresbycusis and other hearing disorders. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. Adolescence: A Sensitive Period for Nicotine Addiction
    Edward Levin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. Role of CREB function in the BNST in fear and anxiety-like behaviors
    Edward Meloni; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such studies may ultimately lead to the development of novel and effective treatments for human anxiety disorders [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  32. Effect of CRF1 Receptor Genotype and Stress on Anxiety and Alcohol Endophenotypes
    Lisa Conti; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The purpose of these studies is to examine the relationship between stress and different CRF genotypes on anxiety and alcohol use endophenotypes. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  33. Behavioral Genetics and Toxic Response
    Edward Levin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  34. College Drinking: A Twin Study
    Andrey Anokhin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This study will provide a greater understanding of the interplay of genetic and high-risk environmental factors in college drinking and can inform prevention and intervention strategies on college campuses. ..
  35. Nicotinic-Antipsychotic Drug Interactions and Cognition
    Edward Levin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Antipsychotic Drugs and Maternal Behavior: A Preclinical Investigation
    Ming Li; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. SCREENING MICE FOR AUDITORY & NEUROBEHAVIORAL PHENOTYPES
    JAMES WILLOTT; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Johnson. This will be accompanied by development of an easy-to-use software/ hardware package that will integrate all screening techniques in a single, serial protocol for use on individual mice. ..
  38. BIOBEHAVIORAL MARKERS OF RISK FOR NICOTINE ADDICTION
    Andrey Anokhin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The acquired expertise will allow the candidate to better integrate genetic and psychophysiological approaches in order to establish a program of interdisciplinary research in the neurobehavioral genetics of addiction. ..
  39. Marine Toxin Impacts on Neurobehavioral Function
    Edward Levin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The forum will provide an opportunity for methodological and theoretical issues to be integrated in the context of each talk as well as in a discussion session at the end of the symposium. ..
  40. A Simple Behavioral Model of Cocaine Withdrawal in Rats
    WILLIAM CARLEZON; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Together, these studies may facilitate the identification and development of innovative treatments that more effectively treat the symptoms of withdrawal from cocaine and other drugs of abuse. ..
  41. Startle reflex amplitude and cortisol in PTSD.
    Mark Miller; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  42. Drug/Cue Interactions in Alcohol-Tobacco Comorbidity
    David J Drobes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Overall, the proposed research will provide valuable basic data regarding the separate and combined influences of alcohol, nicotine, and relevant cues on multidimensional aspects of alcohol and smoking cue reactivity. ..
  43. Models of Antipsychotic Prophylaxis for Schizophrenia
    Susan Powell; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..3. To assess the effects of prophylactic antipsychotic treatment on neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion induced behavioral deficits. ..
  44. Prevention of PTSD by Early Treatment
    ARIEH SHALEV; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Repeated telephone evaluations will assess treatment effectiveness. The study will generate vital knowledge about the feasibility and the effectiveness of secondary prevention of PTSD in large cohorts of survivors. ..
  45. Auditory Plasticity in the Aged Mouse
    Jeremy Turner; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  46. Brief Intervention for Smokers: Cue Reactivity & Smoking
    David Drobes; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  47. FEAR AND THE ANXIETY DISORDERS: BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR
    Peter Lang; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..and furthermore, to evaluate memorial, cognitive style, and temperament differences among anxiety disorders, to sharpen differential diagnosis and assess the significance of depressive co-morbidity. ..
  48. NEUROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ALTERED MOTOR CONTROL IN REM
    LARRY SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies may lead to a better understanding of disorders of REM, such as REM behavior disorder, which, like REM-A, is characterized by overt behavior during sleep. ..
  49. Mechanisms Influencing Sexual Risk Taking
    Erick Janssen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  50. Markers of Risk for Anxiety Disorders
    Michelle Craske; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Measurement of eye gaze in youths to gauge ongoing conditioning and attentional processes represents a new methodology. ..
  51. BIOBEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS OF DRUG REWARD AND ADDICTION
    WILLIAM CARLEZON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding mechanistic links between cocaine-induced adaptations in gene expression and adaptations in behavior may facilitate the development of novel treatments for cocaine addiction and craving. ..
  52. Improving memory after hippocampal cell loss
    MARK BARDGETT; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results may shed light on new directions in the treatment of memory disorders, and the proposed work will also enhance education in biomedical research among college undergraduates in Kentucky. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  53. Development of a rapid behavioral tinnitus screen for rats.
    Jeremy Turner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  54. Noninvasive monitoring of physiological parameters in mice
    LARRY SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The proposed applications have particular significance for studies of behavior and sleep. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. FAMILIAL SCHIZOPHRENIA SPECTRUM PERSONALITY DISORDERS
    Gunvant Thaker; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Clinical information, electrophysiological and cognitive measures will be collected and compared among the groups using standard family case control analytic procedures. ..
  56. RESEARCH TRACK RESIDENCY TRAINING PROGRAM
    Gunvant Thaker; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  57. Motion Perception in Schizophrenia
    Gunvant Thaker; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed project is a collaborative effort--involving clinical scientists studying schizophrenia pathophysiology and basic scientists studying motion perception and eye movements. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  58. Influence of reward devaluation on striatal activity
    HOWARD CROMWELL; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  59. The Effect of Gonadal Steriods on Pavlovian Fear Conditioning
    Michael Davis; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  60. Bipolar & Schizophrenia Consortium for Parsing Intermediate Phenotypes
    Gunvant K Thaker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....