blinking

Summary

Summary: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Affective startle modulation in anticipation and perception
    D Sabatinelli
    National Institute of Mental Health Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA
    Psychophysiology 38:719-22. 2001
  2. ncbi Committee report: Guidelines for human startle eyeblink electromyographic studies
    Terry D Blumenthal
    Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27109, USA
    Psychophysiology 42:1-15. 2005
  3. ncbi Analysis and visualization of single-trial event-related potentials
    T P Jung
    Institute for Neural Computation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0523, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 14:166-85. 2001
  4. ncbi Cerebellar LTD and learning-dependent timing of conditioned eyelid responses
    S K E Koekkoek
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Science 301:1736-9. 2003
  5. ncbi Automatic removal of eye movement and blink artifacts from EEG data using blind component separation
    Carrie A Joyce
    Department of Computer Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0114, USA
    Psychophysiology 41:313-25. 2004
  6. ncbi Dopamine and cognitive control: the influence of spontaneous eyeblink rate and dopamine gene polymorphisms on perseveration and distractibility
    Gesine Dreisbach
    Institute of Psychology I, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany
    Behav Neurosci 119:483-90. 2005
  7. ncbi Subjective sleepiness, simulated driving performance and blink duration: examining individual differences
    Michael Ingre
    National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Sleep Res 15:47-53. 2006
  8. ncbi The psychological significance of human startle eyeblink modification: a review
    D L Filion
    University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Occupational Therapy Edu, Kansas City 66160 7602, USA
    Biol Psychol 47:1-43. 1998
  9. pmc Differential effects of cerebellar inactivation on eyeblink conditioned excitation and inhibition
    John H Freeman
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Neurosci 25:889-95. 2005
  10. ncbi D1 and D2 dopamine receptors independently regulate spontaneous blink rate in the vervet monkey
    J D Elsworth
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 259:595-600. 1991

Detail Information

Publications360 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Affective startle modulation in anticipation and perception
    D Sabatinelli
    National Institute of Mental Health Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA
    Psychophysiology 38:719-22. 2001
    ..The startle reflex is modulated by hedonic valence in picture perception, and by emotional arousal in a task context involving picture anticipation...
  2. ncbi Committee report: Guidelines for human startle eyeblink electromyographic studies
    Terry D Blumenthal
    Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27109, USA
    Psychophysiology 42:1-15. 2005
    ..It is hoped that this report will foster more methodological validity and reliability in research using the startle response, as well as increase the detail with which relevant methodology is reported in publications using this measure...
  3. ncbi Analysis and visualization of single-trial event-related potentials
    T P Jung
    Institute for Neural Computation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0523, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 14:166-85. 2001
    ..Applying ICA and ERP image visualization to the analysis of sets of single trials from event-related EEG (or MEG) experiments can increase the information available from ERP (or ERF) data...
  4. ncbi Cerebellar LTD and learning-dependent timing of conditioned eyelid responses
    S K E Koekkoek
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Science 301:1736-9. 2003
    ..Here, we show that protein kinase C-dependent long-term depression in Purkinje cells is necessary for learning-dependent timing of Pavlovian-conditioned eyeblink responses...
  5. ncbi Automatic removal of eye movement and blink artifacts from EEG data using blind component separation
    Carrie A Joyce
    Department of Computer Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0114, USA
    Psychophysiology 41:313-25. 2004
    ....
  6. ncbi Dopamine and cognitive control: the influence of spontaneous eyeblink rate and dopamine gene polymorphisms on perseveration and distractibility
    Gesine Dreisbach
    Institute of Psychology I, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany
    Behav Neurosci 119:483-90. 2005
    ..Results converge with neuropsychological models that suggest a modulatory role of prefrontal dopaminergic activity for processes of cognitive control...
  7. ncbi Subjective sleepiness, simulated driving performance and blink duration: examining individual differences
    Michael Ingre
    National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Sleep Res 15:47-53. 2006
    ..The results have implications for any application that needs prediction at the subject level (e.g. driver fatigue warning systems) as well as for research design and the interpretation of group average data...
  8. ncbi The psychological significance of human startle eyeblink modification: a review
    D L Filion
    University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Occupational Therapy Edu, Kansas City 66160 7602, USA
    Biol Psychol 47:1-43. 1998
    ..Finally, an integrative summary that incorporates most of the cognitive findings is presented and directions for future research are identified regarding both cognitive and emotional modification of startle...
  9. pmc Differential effects of cerebellar inactivation on eyeblink conditioned excitation and inhibition
    John H Freeman
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Neurosci 25:889-95. 2005
    ..However, robust conditioned inhibition was evident in phases 3 and 4. The findings indicate that conditioned excitation and inhibition depend on different mechanisms...
  10. ncbi D1 and D2 dopamine receptors independently regulate spontaneous blink rate in the vervet monkey
    J D Elsworth
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 259:595-600. 1991
    ..Measurement of blink rate may provide a noninvasive method to assess the potency and selectivity of dopamine agonists and antagonists in primates...
  11. doi Evaluation of multiple-session delay eyeblink conditioning comparing patients with focal cerebellar lesions and cerebellar degeneration
    Marcus Gerwig
    Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, D 45147 Essen, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 212:143-51. 2010
    ..Intact anterior lobe, which it thought to contribute to CR timing, may explain recovery of disordered timing in focal cerebellar patients...
  12. ncbi Neural substrates of eyeblink conditioning: acquisition and retention
    Kimberly M Christian
    Neuroscience Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 2520, USA
    Learn Mem 10:427-55. 2003
    ....
  13. ncbi Blink duration as an indicator of driver sleepiness in professional bus drivers
    H Häkkänen
    Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Sleep 22:798-802. 1999
    ..The findings also suggest that nasal CPAP treatment is effective in reducing excessive daytime sleepiness...
  14. ncbi Role of the cerebellum in eyeblink conditioning
    Vlastislav Bracha
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Prog Brain Res 143:331-9. 2004
    ..There is also need for the development of new experimental approaches to associative learning in both the nonhuman primate and the human...
  15. ncbi Effect of blinking on tear dynamics
    Jayachandra R Palakuru
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:3032-7. 2007
    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to study the impact of blinking on tear dynamics.
  16. ncbi Startle potentiation in aversive anticipation: evidence for state but not trait effects
    Jack B Nitschke
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706 1696, USA
    Psychophysiology 39:254-8. 2002
    ..These data suggest that the aversive nature of stimuli contribute to the potentiation of startle above and beyond the effects of emotional arousal, which may be a universal phenomenon not modulated by individual differences...
  17. ncbi Startle modulation before, during and after exposure to emotional stimuli
    Gabriel S Dichter
    Department of Psycology, Vanderbilt University, 301 Wilson Hall, South Nashville, TN 37240, USA
    Int J Psychophysiol 43:191-6. 2002
    ..No significant effects were observed during the offset phase. These results indicate that startle modulation is conditional upon temporal factors linked to stimulus onset and offset...
  18. doi Blink before and after you think: blinks occur prior to and following cognitive load indexed by pupillary responses
    Greg J Siegle
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychophysiology 45:679-87. 2008
    ..Together these indices provide a rich picture of the time course of information processing, from early reactivity through sustained cognition, and after stimulus-related cognition ends...
  19. ncbi Impaired cerebellar learning in children with prenatal alcohol exposure: a comparative study of eyeblink conditioning in children with ADHD and dyslexia
    Joan M Coffin
    Program in Neuroscience, King s College, Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania 18711, USA
    Cortex 41:389-98. 2005
    ..The results suggest that children prenatally exposed to alcohol have deficits in cerebellar processing similar to those with dyslexia, and that these functional deficits are related to disabilities in learning...
  20. ncbi The simultaneous type, serial token model of temporal attention and working memory
    Howard Bowman
    University of Kent, Kent, United Kingdom
    Psychol Rev 114:38-70. 2007
    ..Finally, the authors review major AB models and theories and compare them with ST2...
  21. ncbi A new method to increase nociception specificity of the human blink reflex
    H Kaube
    Institute of Neurology, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK
    Clin Neurophysiol 111:413-6. 2000
    ..The medullary R2 response of the blink reflex can be elicited by innocuous and noxious stimuli. The purpose of this study was to elicit a nociception specific R2 response with a new surface electrode...
  22. ncbi Neuronal premotor networks involved in eyelid responses: retrograde transneuronal tracing with rabies virus from the orbicularis oculi muscle in the rat
    Sara Morcuende
    Laboratorio Andaluz de Biologia, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
    J Neurosci 22:8808-18. 2002
    ..These results provide a comprehensive picture of the premotor networks mediating reflex, voluntary, and limbic-related eyelid responses and highlight potential sites of motor learning in eyelid classical conditioning...
  23. doi Effects of suppression of blinking on quality of vision in borderline cases of evaporative dry eye
    Shizuka Koh
    Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Japan
    Cornea 27:275-8. 2008
    To study the effects of suppression of blinking on quality of vision in borderline cases of evaporative dry eye.
  24. ncbi Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in normal subjects
    Shizuka Koh
    Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Japan
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:3318-24. 2006
    To investigate sequential changes in the optical quality of normal eyes associated with blinking.
  25. ncbi Enhanced long-term potentiation-like plasticity of the trigeminal blink reflex circuit in blepharospasm
    Angelo Quartarone
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
    J Neurosci 26:716-21. 2006
    ..We propose that an abnormal corneal input induced by excessive blinking exacerbates increased LTP-like plasticity in BEB...
  26. ncbi Perceptual switching, eye movements, and the bus paradox
    Junji Ito
    Laboratory for Perceptual Dynamics, RIKEN BSI, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama, 351 0198 Japan
    Perception 32:681-98. 2003
    ..The time course of these indicators depicts switching behaviour as a process of cascaded stages...
  27. ncbi Activity profiles of single neurons in caudal anterior cingulate cortex during trace eyeblink conditioning in the rabbit
    Aldis P Weible
    Department of Physiology and Institute for Neuroscience, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Neurophysiol 90:599-612. 2003
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the caudal AC is involved early in trace eyeblink conditioning and that maintenance of the CS-elicited excitatory response may serve to signal the salience of the tone...
  28. ncbi Long-term storage of an associative memory trace in the cerebellum
    Kimberly M Christian
    Neuroscience Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Behav Neurosci 119:526-37. 2005
    ..In all cases, inactivation and lesions of the interpositus completely abolished the CR. The site of memory formation in the interpositus nucleus also appears to be the site of long-term memory storage...
  29. ncbi Incomplete blinking: exposure keratopathy, lid wiper epitheliopathy, dry eye, refractive surgery, and dry contact lenses
    Charles W McMonnies
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Kensington 2052, Australia
    Cont Lens Anterior Eye 30:37-51. 2007
    ..including that which occurs following laser assisted keratomileusis, appears to be associated with incomplete blinking. Incomplete blinking may contribute to the signs and symptoms of lid wiper epitheliopathy...
  30. ncbi Spatial attention freezes during the attention blink
    R Dell'Acqua
    Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Psychophysiology 43:394-400. 2006
    ....
  31. pmc Inhibition of eye blinking reveals subjective perceptions of stimulus salience
    Sarah Shultz
    Department of Psychology and Yale Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:21270-5. 2011
    Spontaneous eye blinking serves a critical physiological function, but it also interrupts incoming visual information...
  32. ncbi Blinking patterns and corneal staining
    Michael J Collins
    Contact Lens and Visual Optics Laboratory, School of Optometry, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Australia
    Eye Contact Lens 32:287-93. 2006
    To investigate the blinking patterns of healthy subjects and soft contact lens wearers and determine whether these blinking characteristics were associated with corneal fluorescein staining.
  33. ncbi Dopamine and cognitive control: the influence of spontaneous eyeblink rate, DRD4 exon III polymorphism and gender on flexibility in set-shifting
    Johannes Muller
    Institute of Psychology II, Dresden University of Technology, Zellescher Weg 17, 01069 Dresden, Germany
    Brain Res 1131:155-62. 2007
    ....
  34. ncbi Optimal EMG signal bandwidth and interelectrode distance for the recording of acoustic, electrocutaneous, and photic blink reflexes
    A van Boxtel
    Department of Psychology, Tilburg University, The Netherlands
    Psychophysiology 35:690-7. 1998
    ..Given the optimal bandwidth, a larger electrode spacing may be expected to moderately improve the detectability of small blinks in all stimulus conditions...
  35. ncbi Awareness in classical differential eyeblink conditioning in young and aging humans
    M G Knuttinen
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Institute for Neuroscience, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Behav Neurosci 115:747-57. 2001
    ..These results indicate that awareness or knowledge of stimulus contingencies may be an important contributor to successful acquisition in higher order discrimination tasks...
  36. doi Are locus coeruleus neurons involved in blinking?
    Céline Dauvergne
    Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Manducation, UP7, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Neurosci Res 61:182-91. 2008
    ..Our results revealed the existence of a STC-LC-SC loop...
  37. ncbi Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids
    Jianhua Wang
    Department of Ophthalmology, Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:4349-55. 2006
    ..To investigate the relationship between central tear film thickness (TFT) and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids using real-time optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
  38. ncbi Selective and nonselective attention effects on prepulse inhibition of startle: a comparison of task and no-task protocols
    Diane L Filion
    University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    Biol Psychol 64:283-96. 2003
    ..Overall, these results suggest that PPI is sensitive to selective and nonselective attentional influences and indicate that task and no-task PPI protocols reveal unique aspects of sensorimotor gating ability...
  39. doi Affective ratings and startle modulation in people with nonclinical depression
    Malek Mneimne
    Department of Psychology, St John s University, Jamaica, NY 11439, USA
    Emotion 8:552-9. 2008
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that nonclinical depression is associated with a lack of affective modulation of startle, as has been shown for clinical depression...
  40. ncbi Masking T1 difficulty: processing time and the attenional blink
    Troy A W Visser
    Department of Behavioural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic, Australia
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 33:285-97. 2007
    ..These findings clarify the role of 1st-target masking in the AB and support the validity of the bottleneck account...
  41. doi Differential effects of reflex blinks on saccade perturbations in humans
    H H L M Goossens
    Donders Inst for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Dept of Biophysics, Radboud Univ Nijmegen Medical Ctr, G Grooteplein 21, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Neurophysiol 103:1685-95. 2010
    ..These findings support the theory that blink-perturbed saccades are programmed as slow, but straight, saccades onto which blink-related eye movements are superimposed. This linear superposition occurs downstream from the SC...
  42. ncbi Influence of the superior colliculus on the primate blink reflex
    J W Gnadt
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, SUNY at Stony Brook 11794 5230, USA
    Exp Brain Res 116:389-98. 1997
    ..From these points and other considerations, we conclude that the reflex blink suppression from the superior colliculus is not directly mediated by the OPNs or the saccadic eye movement circuits...
  43. ncbi The spontaneous eye-blink as sleepiness indicator in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome-a pilot study
    Philipp P Caffier
    ENT Clinic Charité University Medicine Berlin, Joint Facility of Free University and Humboldt University, Campus Charite Mitte, Schumannstrasse 20 21, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Sleep Med 6:155-62. 2005
    ..To evaluate the spontaneous eye-blink as drowsiness/sleepiness indicator in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome...
  44. doi Reciprocal dynamics of EEG alpha and delta oscillations during spontaneous blinking at rest: a survey on a default mode-based visuo-spatial awareness
    Luca Bonfiglio
    Department of Neurosciences, Unit of Neurorehabilitation, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, I 56126 Pisa, Italy
    Int J Psychophysiol 80:44-53. 2011
    ..5-6Hz), EEG delta event-related oscillations (EROs), both time- and phase-locked to spontaneous blinking (delta blink-related oscillations or delta BROs), have recently been demonstrated...
  45. ncbi Eyeblink activity in a word-naming task as a function of semantic priming and cognitive load
    H Ohira
    Tokai Women s College, Gifu Prefecture, Japan
    Percept Mot Skills 82:835-42. 1996
    ..These results suggested that the eyeblink activity is influenced by inner cognitive processes of word recognition...
  46. ncbi Oculomotor changes due to road events during prolonged monotonous simulated driving
    A Campagne
    centre d études de physiologie appliquée, CNRS, UPS 858, 21 rue Becquerel, Strasbourg, France
    Biol Psychol 68:353-68. 2005
    ..Thirty six subjects drove for two hours. Blinking activity and eye movements associated with glances to the speedometer were recorded during the entire driving ..
  47. ncbi Near vision accommodation in horizontality with VDT: why low blinking and dry eye?
    Juan Murube
    Rizal Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, University of Alcala, Madrid, Spain
    Adv Exp Med Biol 506:1205-11. 2002
  48. doi Prefrontal control of trace eyeblink conditioning in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) II: effects of type of unconditioned stimulus (airpuff vs. periorbital shock) and unconditioned stimulus intensity
    Barbara B Oswald
    Shirley L Buchanan Neuroscience Laboratory, WJB Dorn VA Medical Center, Columbia, SC 29209, USA
    Physiol Behav 96:67-72. 2009
    ..The results indicate that there are optimal intensities of both airpuff and periorbital shock as the US in the demonstration of mPFC control of trace classical EB conditioning...
  49. ncbi Increased attentional blink after focal cerebral lesions
    M Rizzo
    Department of Neurology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242 1053, USA
    Neurology 57:795-800. 2001
    ..This attentional blink is reported to increase in subjects with neglect due to acute right hemisphere lesions...
  50. pmc Medial auditory thalamic nuclei are necessary for eyeblink conditioning
    Hunter E Halverson
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Behav Neurosci 120:880-7. 2006
    ..The medial auditory thalamic nuclei may modulate activity in a short-latency auditory CS pathway or serve as part of a longer latency auditory CS pathway that is necessary for eyeblink conditioning...
  51. pmc Medial auditory thalamus inactivation prevents acquisition and retention of eyeblink conditioning
    Hunter E Halverson
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Learn Mem 15:532-8. 2008
    ..Results from this experiment indicate that the MATN contralateral to the trained eye and its projection to the pontine nuclei are necessary for acquisition and retention of eyeblink CRs to an auditory CS...
  52. ncbi Prefrontal control of trace versus delay eyeblink conditioning: role of the unconditioned stimulus in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
    Barbara Oswald
    William Jennings Bryan Dorn Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Columbia, SC 29209 1639, USA
    Behav Neurosci 120:1033-42. 2006
    ..However, in circumstances when emotional arousal may be high (i.e., during exposure to aversive periorbital shock), other structures (such as amygdala) may be activated to permit learning even in the absence of input from mPFC...
  53. ncbi Cognition, blinks, eye-movements, and pupillary movements during performance of a running memory task
    Kyosuke Fukuda
    Department of Human Development and Education, Fukuoka Prefectural University, Tagawa, Fukuoka, Japan
    Aviat Space Environ Med 76:C75-85. 2005
    ..Blinks, saccades, and pupil diameter changes are studied for their application as tools to unobtrusively monitor aspects of performance...
  54. pmc Anatomical characterization of a rabbit cerebellar eyeblink premotor pathway using pseudorabies and identification of a local modulatory network in anterior interpositus
    Jimena Gonzalez-Joekes
    Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA
    J Neurosci 32:12472-87. 2012
    ..These results identify a complete eyeblink premotor pathway, deep cerebellar interconnectivity, and specific neurons responsible for the generation of eyeblink responses...
  55. ncbi A novel porcine dry eye model system (pDEM) with simulated lacrimation/blinking system: preliminary findings on system variability and effect of corneal drying
    Emily Pik Yin Choy
    Department of Optometry and Radiography, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Curr Eye Res 28:319-25. 2004
    ..To investigate inter- and intra-system variations and the effect of corneal drying using a recently developed pDEM...
  56. ncbi Stress enhances excitatory trace eyeblink conditioning and opposes acquisition of inhibitory conditioning
    A V Beylin
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08854 8020 USA
    Behav Neurosci 112:1327-38. 1998
    ..These results suggest that exposure to a stressful event persistently facilitates acquisition of trace conditioning and enhances a bias toward acquiring positive versus negative associations...
  57. pmc Impaired eye-blink conditioning in waggler, a mutant mouse with cerebellar BDNF deficiency
    S Bao
    Neuroscience Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90089, USA
    Learn Mem 5:355-64. 1998
    ..However, they were massively impaired in classic eye-blink conditioning. These results suggest that BDNF may have a role in normal cerebellar neuronal function, which, in turn, is essential for classic eye-blink conditioning...
  58. pmc Macaque pontine omnipause neurons play no direct role in the generation of eye blinks
    K P Schultz
    Department of Vision Sciences and Vision Science Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    J Neurophysiol 103:2255-74. 2010
    ..The abrupt dynamic change of the vertical eye transients from an oscillatory behavior to a single time constant exponential drift predicted the resumption of the OPNs...
  59. pmc Asymmetry of blinking
    Iris S Kassem
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 117940 5230, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:195-201. 2006
    Too investigate asymmetry in eyelid movements with blinking, the stability of the asymmetry, and its modifiability in normal humans.
  60. doi Self-report and startle-based measures of emotional reactions to body image cues as predictors of Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction in female college students
    Carrie D Spresser
    Department of Psychology, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    Body Image 9:298-301. 2012
    ....
  61. ncbi Systematic temporal variation in the rate of spontaneous eye blinking in human infants
    Leigh F Bacher
    Department of Psychology, Oswego State University, NY 13126, USA
    Dev Psychobiol 44:140-5. 2004
    The rate of spontaneous eye blinking, a putative index of central dopamine activity based on neuropharmacological and clinical research, has been linked to cognitive activity and behavioral state...
  62. ncbi Measuring the human retinal oxygenation response to a hyperoxic challenge using MRI: eliminating blinking artifacts and demonstrating proof of concept
    B A Berkowitz
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    Magn Reson Med 46:412-6. 2001
    ..However, the application of this technique in humans is limited by blinking artifacts that can confound detection of subtle signal intensity changes...
  63. doi Voluntary, spontaneous, and reflex blinking in Parkinson's disease
    Rocco Agostino
    Department of Neurological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
    Mov Disord 23:669-75. 2008
    b>Blinking, a motor act consisting of a closing and an opening eyelid movement, can be performed voluntarily, spontaneously, and reflexly...
  64. ncbi Persistence of attacks of cluster headache after trigeminal nerve root section
    Manjit S Matharu
    Headache Group, Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK
    Brain 125:976-84. 2002
    ..The case illustrates that cluster headache may be generated primarily from within the brain, and that triptans may have anti-headache effects through an entirely central mechanism...
  65. doi Voluntary, spontaneous and reflex blinking in patients with clinically probable progressive supranuclear palsy
    Matteo Bologna
    Department of Neurological Sciences, Sapienza, University of Rome, Rome, Italy
    Brain 132:502-10. 2009
    Patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) often have blinking abnormalities. In this study we examined the kinematic features of voluntary, spontaneous and reflex blinking in 11 patients with PSP and healthy control subjects...
  66. pmc Interactions between gaze-evoked blinks and gaze shifts in monkeys
    Neeraj J Gandhi
    Department of Otolaryngology, Center for Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Exp Brain Res 216:321-39. 2012
    ....
  67. doi Habituation and sensitization of protective reflexes: dissociation between cardiac defense and eye-blink startle
    José Luis Mata
    University of Granada, Granada, Spain
    Biol Psychol 81:192-9. 2009
    ..This pattern of findings highlights dissociations between protective reflexes when simultaneously examined. The results are discussed in the context of the cascade model of defense reactions...
  68. ncbi Infrared reflectance as an alternative to EMG for measuring prepulse inhibition of startle eyeblink
    Christopher T Lovelace
    Department of Psychology, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA
    Psychophysiology 43:511-5. 2006
    ..We conclude that when the goal is simply to assess the effects of a prepulse on the startle response, IR reflectance is an adequate alternative to EMG...
  69. ncbi The representation of blinking movement in cingulate motor areas: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study
    Takashi Hanakawa
    Human Motor Control Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1428, USA
    Cereb Cortex 18:930-7. 2008
    ..In a group-level analysis, the blinking task was associated with rostral cingulate activity more strongly than the bimanual tapping task...
  70. doi Blinking predicts enhanced cognitive control
    Marlies E van Bochove
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, H Dunantlaan 2, 9000, Ghent, Belgium
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 13:346-54. 2013
    ..The latter suggests an important role for DA in cognitive control on a trial-to-trial basis...
  71. pmc Dry eye, blinking, and blepharospasm
    Craig Evinger
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
    Mov Disord 17:S75-8. 2002
  72. ncbi Effects of voluntary blinks on saccades, vergence eye movements, and saccade-vergence interactions in humans
    H Rambold
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Luebeck, D 23538 Luebeck, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 88:1220-33. 2002
    ..ahead to targets at 20 degrees up, down, right, or left while either attempting not to blink or voluntarily blinking. While following the same blink instruction, subjects made horizontal vergence eye movements of 7 degrees and ..
  73. pmc Temporal interactions of air-puff-evoked blinks and saccadic eye movements: insights into motor preparation
    Neeraj J Gandhi
    Deptartment of Otolaryngology and Center for Neural Basis of Cognition, Eye and Ear Institute, University of Pittsburgh, RM 108, 203 Lothrop St, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Neurophysiol 93:1718-29. 2005
    ..Collectively, these results support the notion that temporal features of the low-frequency activity encode aspects of a premotor command and imply that inhibition of OPNs alone is not sufficient to trigger saccades...
  74. doi Impaired long-trace eyeblink conditioning in a Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    Yasushi Kishimoto
    Laboratory of Neurobiophysics, Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Sanuki, Kagawa 769 2193, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 506:155-9. 2012
    ..The long-trace eyeblink conditioning could be a potential tool for detecting early cognitive deficits in AD mouse model...
  75. ncbi Modulation of gaze-evoked blinks depends primarily on extraretinal factors
    Shawn S Williamson
    Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin, 1300 University Ave, Rm 127 SMI, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    J Neurophysiol 93:627-32. 2005
    ..Thus the modulation of gaze-evoked OOemg activity does not depend on the presence of visual information per se, but rather, results from an extraretinal signal...
  76. ncbi Performing saccadic eye movements or blinking improves postural control
    Patrice Rougier
    Laboratoire de Modelisation des Activites Sportives, Le Bourget du Lac, France
    Motor Control 11:213-23. 2007
    ..These conditions included imposed blinking patterns and horizontal and vertical saccadic eye movements...
  77. ncbi Consideration of three types of spontaneous eyeblink activity in normal humans: during reading and video display terminal use, in primary gaze, and while in conversation
    M J Doughty
    Department of Vision Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland
    Optom Vis Sci 78:712-25. 2001
    ..The reason for this analysis was to try to identify why such different values for the spontaneous eyeblink rate (SEBR) have been reported...
  78. ncbi Spontaneous blinks as a criterion of visual fatigue during prolonged work on visual display terminals
    K Kaneko
    Department of Communications and Systems, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu City, Tokyo, Japan
    Percept Mot Skills 92:234-50. 2001
    ..These experimental results suggested that the parameters regarding the EMG and the EOG for the spontaneous blinks were effective indices for assessing visual fatigue during prolonged VDT work...
  79. pmc Associative and non-associative blinking in classically conditioned adult rats
    Derick H Lindquist
    Univesity of Kansas, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Lawrence, KS 66045, United States
    Physiol Behav 96:399-411. 2009
    ..The results suggest that early in classical eyeblink conditioning, rats trained with a tone CS may emit a high number of non-associative blinks, thereby inflating the CR frequency reported at this stage of training...
  80. ncbi Spontaneous eye blinking in human infants: a review
    Leigh F Bacher
    Department of Psychology, Oswego State University, Oswego, NY 13126, USA
    Dev Psychobiol 44:95-102. 2004
    Spontaneous eye blinking has been studied in clinical and neuropharmacological research in adult humans and nonhuman primates as a putative index of central dopamine system activity...
  81. ncbi Lower levels of prepulse inhibition of startle response in pregnant women compared to postpartum women
    Kristiina Kask
    Department of Women s and Children s Health, Uppsala University, SE 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 33:100-7. 2008
    ..The aim of the current study was to compare acoustic startle response and PPI in healthy third trimester pregnant women and healthy postpartum women...
  82. doi Startle response in generalized anxiety disorder
    William J Ray
    Department of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Depress Anxiety 26:147-54. 2009
    ..ANS) activation and/or attentional focus? Second, are induced and self-reported emotional states related to the magnitude of the startle response? And third, do individuals with GAD and their controls show differential startle responses?..
  83. doi In the face of anger: startle modulation to graded facial expressions
    Jonathan P Dunning
    Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 2500, USA
    Psychophysiology 47:874-8. 2010
    ..These results are further discussed in terms of existing data, and how this paradigm might be utilized in psychopathology research...
  84. ncbi Diagnostic potential of acoustic startle reflex, acoustic blink reflex, and electro-oculography in progressive supranuclear palsy: a prospective study
    Alexandre Gironell
    Department of Neurology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Mov Disord 18:1273-9. 2003
    ..The three neurophysiological tests investigated provided sensitive and specific measures with predictor value in early stages of atypical parkinsonian syndrome...
  85. ncbi The thickness of the human precorneal tear film: evidence from reflection spectra
    P E King-Smith
    College of Optometry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:3348-59. 2000
    ....
  86. ncbi Comparison of blinking behavior during listening to and speaking in Japanese and English
    Kumi Hirokawa
    Kwansei Gakuin University, Hyogo, Japan
    Percept Mot Skills 98:463-72. 2004
    b>Blinking behavior during conversation may be different between conditions in listening and responding to questions because sifting attention from external to internal is possibly associated...
  87. ncbi Differentiation of lipid tear deficiency dry eye by kinetic analysis of tear interference images
    Eiki Goto
    Ocular Surface Center, Ocular Surface Research and Education Foundation, 8780 SW 92nd St, Suite 203, Miami, FL 33176, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 121:173-80. 2003
    ..To use kinetic changes to characterize tear interference images in patients with lipid tear deficiency (LTD) dry eye...
  88. doi The auditory startle response in parkinsonism may reveal the extent but not type of pathology
    David R Williams
    Faculty of Medicine Neurosciences, Monash University Alfred Hospital Campus
    J Neurol 255:628-32. 2008
    ....
  89. ncbi Cortical control of voluntary blinking: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study
    Y H Sohn
    Human Motor Control Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10 Room 5N226, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 1428, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 115:341-7. 2004
    To investigate cortical regions related to voluntary blinking.
  90. doi Working memory capacity, intelligence, and the magnitude of the attentional blink revisited
    Sander Martens
    BCN Neuroimaging Center, University Medical Center Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 2, 9713 AW, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Exp Brain Res 192:43-52. 2009
    ..Surprisingly, no correlation was found between memory capacity measures and AB magnitude, raising doubts about the generalizability of earlier findings of such a relationship...
  91. pmc Eye complaints in the office environment: precorneal tear film integrity influenced by eye blinking efficiency
    P Wolkoff
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Occup Environ Med 62:4-12. 2005
    ..thermal factors (low relative humidity; high room temperature); (2) demanding task content (attention decreases blinking and widens the exposed ocular surface area); and (3) individual characteristics (for example, tear film ..
  92. ncbi Marked reduction and distinct patterns of eye blinking in patients with moderately dry eyes during video display terminal use
    Torsten Schlote
    University Eye Hospital, Schleichstrasse 12, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 242:306-12. 2004
    To analyze the spontaneous eye-blink rate (SEBR) and blinking pattern in patients with moderately dry eyes during video display terminal (VDT) use.
  93. ncbi Neural correlates of eye blinking; improved by simultaneous fMRI and EOG measurement
    Hyo Woon Yoon
    fMRI Laboratory of Brain Science Research Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea
    Neurosci Lett 381:26-30. 2005
    ..However, the focus of most previous studies has been on intentional eye blinking. The goal of the present study was to examine the neural correlates of spontaneous eye blinking with the help of ..
  94. ncbi Independent component analysis using an extended infomax algorithm for mixed subgaussian and supergaussian sources
    T W Lee
    Computational Neurobiology Lab, The Salk Institute, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92038, USA
    Neural Comput 11:417-41. 1999
    ..Applied to high-dimensional data from electroencephalographic recordings, it is effective at separating artifacts such as eye blinks and line noise from weaker electrical signals that arise from sources in the brain...
  95. ncbi Made you blink! Contingent attentional capture produces a spatial blink
    Charles L Folk
    Department of Psychology Villanova University, PA 19085, USA
    Percept Psychophys 64:741-53. 2002
    ..The results suggest that spatial certainty is not sufficient to eliminate attentional capture and that attentional capture can result in a spatial "blink" that is conditional on top-down attentional control settings...
  96. ncbi Task-irrelevant visual motion and flicker attenuate the attentional blink
    Isabel Arend
    Wolfson Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Brigantia Building, University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2AS, Wales
    Psychon Bull Rev 13:600-7. 2006
    ..Our findings add to the generality of the previous conclusions, and we emphasize an account based on the overallocation of attention...
  97. ncbi Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography
    Jianhua Wang
    Centre for Contact Lens Research, School of Optometry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44:2524-8. 2003
    ..To demonstrate the feasibility of indirectly measuring the precorneal tear film thickness and pre- and postlens tear film (PLTF) thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
  98. pmc The attentional blink: past, present, and future of a blind spot in perceptual awareness
    Sander Martens
    Neuroimaging Center, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P O Box 196, 9700 AD, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 34:947-57. 2010
    ..In this review we extract the central questions and the main lessons learnt from the past, and subsequently provide important directions for future research...
  99. ncbi Spreading the sparing: against a limited-capacity account of the attentional blink
    Christian N L Olivers
    Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststr 1, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychol Res 71:126-39. 2007
    ..The findings argue against a limited-capacity account of the blink and suggest a strong role for attentional control processes that may be overzealously applied...
  100. ncbi fMRI of the conscious rabbit during unilateral classical eyeblink conditioning reveals bilateral cerebellar activation
    Michael J Miller
    Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60201, USA
    J Neurosci 23:11753-8. 2003
    ....
  101. ncbi Eyeblink-related areas in human cerebellum as shown by fMRI
    Albena Dimitrova
    Department of Neurology, University of Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, D 45122 Essen, Germany
    Hum Brain Mapp 17:100-15. 2002
    ..These eyeblink-related areas agree with trigeminal projection areas and blink reflex control areas shown in previous animal studies...

Research Grants73

  1. EYELID SENSORIMOTOR NETWORKS
    Mark leDoux; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The motor circuitry mediating spontaneous and reflex blinking is critical for the maintenance of normal ocular function and prevention of ocular injury...
  2. Antigen receptor inputs: linking structural, molecular, and cellular responses
    Jonathan P Schneck; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The quantum dots will be used to probe the lateral organization of TCR on naive and activated T cells. Blinking of bound quantum dots will be analyzed quantitatively to follow changes in receptor organization with time...
  3. NEURONAL PATHWAYS UNDERLYING IN VITRO MOTOR LEARNING
    Joyce Keifer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the trigeminal nerve (the "airpuff" US) that results in burst discharge in the abducens nerve, which controls blinking in this species, characteristic of conditioned eyeblink responses...
  4. Long-Acting Mucus-Penetrating Steroid Particles for Treatment of Eye Inflammation
    Hongming Chen; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..due to patient comfort and localized action, are cleared from the ocular surface within minutes by lachrymation, blinking and drainage...
  5. Aberrant Blink Reflex Motor Learning in a Rat Model of Parkinsons Disease
    JAIME A KAMINER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These data will demonstrate the degree of disruption for short-term plasticity and long term learning of reflex blinking caused by PD...
  6. Multifunctional fluorogenic Ag nanodots for dynamic intracellular single molecule
    Robert M Dickson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..probes capable of very high sustained single molecule emission rates with essentially no experimentally relevant blinking. These few-atom Ag nanodots encapsulated in short ss-DNA strands emit in the low background near IR region with ..
  7. Mechanical Interaction between Aqueous Humor and Iris
    Victor Barocas; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The effects of accommodation, blinking, and pupil diameter are not due to the position of the relevant tissues but rather to the motion thereof...
  8. Next-generation Fluorescent Probes for Biological Research
    Scott C Blanchard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Such phenomena, which include both transient (blinking) and irreversible (photobleaching), add uncertainties to all fluorescence applications, and are particularly ..
  9. Nanoplasmonics-enabled Quantitative Spatiotemporal Activity Mapping in Engineered
    Somin Lee; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Nanoplasmonic rulers do not suffer from photobleaching or blinking (ie...
  10. Extended Tracking of Single Synaptic Proteins with Upconverting Nanoparticles
    Alexis D Ostrowski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..research details the development of bioimaging probes using upconverting nanoparticles that are bright, non-blinking and photostable over hours-properties that will permit us to follow the events of synapse development in real ..
  11. CONTROL OF EYELIDS IN NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL STATES
    LESLIE CRAIG EVINGER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..of trigeminal sensitization such as occurs with dry eye in modifying the neural circuit that generates tears and blinking. The proposed studies will elucidate the neural bases of spasms of lid closure and photophobia, symptoms that can ..
  12. Heterostructured Quantum Dots as Molecular Probes: Chemistry and Photophysics
    Jennifer A Hollingsworth; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Firstly, long-term single-NQD tracking in cells is hindered by fluorescence intermittency (blinking) that is characteristic of NQDs...
  13. Novel probes for expanding immunobased detection into the short wave infrared spe
    ROBERT BRUCE WEISMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Unlike the commonly used fluors, SWCNT fluorescence shows no photobleaching or intermittent emission ("blinking")...
  14. Three-Dimensional Molecular Tracking of IgE-Fc{epsilon}RI in Live Cells
    James H Werner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..complexes during 3D molecular tracking of QD labeled Fc?RI-IgE, the acquisition of longer 3D trajectories using blinking-suppressed quantum dots, and methods to increase the spatio-temporal resolution of our 3D tracking methods. Aim 2...
  15. SURFACE ENHANCED FLUORESCENCE NANOTAGS FOR ULTRASENSITIVE MULTIPLEXED ASSAY SYST
    DAVID SEBBA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Quantum dots exhibit toxicity and irregular blinking as well as broad emission spectra which reduces the level of multiplexing possible...
  16. Bright Blinking Probes for Fast Multicolor Superresolution Imaging in Live Cells
    Marcel P Bruchez; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. Super-resolution imaging via programmable autonomous blinking
    Peng Yin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose a simple and robust super-resolution method based on the programmable autonomous blinking of a nucleic acid fluorescent probe...
  18. Indestructable Fluorescent Markers in Diamond Nanocrystals with Nanometer Distanc
    Philip Hemmer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..are a new class of external tags that have exceptionally high output, due to the absence of bleaching or blinking even after months of continuous excitation, yet with an instantaneous brightness comparable to fluorescent ..
  19. BIOLOGY AND THE STRUCTURES OF PERSONALITY AND EMOTION
    Auke Tellegen; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..functioning is assessed via the action of a DA agonist on prolactin (PRL) secretion, the rate of spontaneous eye blinking, and spatial delayed-response performance, all variables being strongly influenced by DA D2 receptor action...
  20. EYELID KINEMATICS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    Robert Baker; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Specific Aim 1 evaluates the role that dopamine plays in the neural control of blinking in a subhuman primate...
  21. The ALS Locked-in Communicator
    Robert Schmidt; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..devices depend on some form of small but reliable muscle movement, such as pressing a button, eye movements, or blinking. This program will provide a simple device to take standard AT technology to the next level with Biometric ..
  22. REMOTE SENSING OF EYE FIXATION
    David Guyton; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..or others to activate external devices, such as keyboards or control panels, simply by looking at them and blinking. Safe levels of infrared light from a GaAlAs IR light-emitting diode (880nm) will be used in continuous mode, and ..
  23. Neural Mechanisms of Inhibitory Classical Conditioning
    John Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results of these studies may also lead to a better understanding of the functional pathology associated with various psychiatric disorders that involve deficits in behavioral inhibition. ..
  24. Characterization of Tear Dynamics
    Jianhua Wang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..g. dry eye). [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. Aging and Sites of Action of Cognition-Enhancing Drugs
    DIANA WOODRUFF PAK; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies will likely support hypotheses about ACh mechanisms in learning and memory and may identify the cerebellum as an additional site of drug action. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  26. Pre-Cessation Effects of Bupropion on Smoking
    Larry Hawk; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. INTERMEDIATE CEREBELLUM IN ADAPTIVE REFLEX CONTROL
    Vlastislav Bracha; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  28. NEURONAL INTEGRATION IN CEREBELLAR SYSTEMS
    Vlastislav Bracha; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  29. Inhibitory control and clinical response in ADHD
    Larry Hawk; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This work will pave the way for a new generation of translational research and theory in ADHD. ..
  30. Neural Substrates of Emotion in Borderline Patients
    Erin Hazlett; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. Corticosterone and Hippocampal Learning During Development
    DRAGANA CLAFLIN; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Learning more about these differences may help us understand why certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., autism) are more prevalent in males vs. females. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  32. Spontaneous Eye Blinking in Human Infants
    LEIGH BACHER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The broad, long term objective of this research is to determine the clinical utility, if any, of spontaneous eye blinking (SEB) in human infants...
  33. THE NEURAL CIRCUITRY OF SENSORIMOTOR GATING
    Erin Hazlett; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  34. Mechanisms of Associative Learning in Aging: Mouse Models
    Diana S Woodruff Pak; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal has the potential to expand perspectives and devise treatments to facilitate learning and memory in older adults. ..
  35. Development of Single-Biomolecule Optical Imaging
    WILLIAM MOERNER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Single-Molecule Fluorophores for Cellular Imaging
    WILLIAM MOERNER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  37. Development of an Electrokinetic Trap for Single Biomolecules in Solution
    WILLIAM MOERNER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..It is for this reason that this research represents a new and powerful potential advance for biomedical applications. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. Single-Molecule Studies of Chaperonin Mechanism
    WILLIAM MOERNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The exploratory nature of this application arises from the fact that many of the assays proposed have not been previously utilized to explore chaperonin mechanisms. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  39. CORTICO-STRIATAL SUBSTRATES OF DEFICIENT STARTLE GATING
    Neal R Swerdlow; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..New information from these studies will be a foundation for innovative models of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other inherited neuropsychiatric disorders, and for prospective strategies for novel drug development. ..
  40. Neural basis of heritable DA-mediated gating deficits
    Neal R Swerdlow; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  41. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR
    Joyce Keifer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..For research focused on the changes to neural function induced by chronic social stress during adolescence, and to direct pharmacotherapy of associated psychiatric disorders. ..
  42. Identification of FASD in South African Children
    Sandra Jacobson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  43. Chronometry of amygdala response to affective stimuli
    Christine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Thus, the major aim of the proposed study is to further examine the dynamic process of the neural substrates of emotional experience, including both time course and magnitude of the neural instantiation of affective processes. ..
  44. Exercise, Executive Processes and the Aging Brain
    CHARLES HILLMAN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  45. NEURAL CIRCUITRY OF SENSORIMOTOR GATING ACROSS SPECIES
    Neal Swerdlow; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  46. Fear inhibition in posttraumatic stress disorder
    Tanja Jovanovic; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The present study will investigate how awareness interacts with startle in PTSD subjects. Finally, the present study will examine the relationship between contingency awareness and fear inhibition. ..
  47. Neuroscience at the Boundaries of Neurology and Psychiatry
    Neal Swerdlow; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  48. FAS, SIDS and Stillbirths in Cape Town, South Africa
    Sandra Jacobson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  49. Mechanisms Influencing Sexual Risk Taking
    Erick Janssen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  50. 2007 Oculomotor System Biology Gordon Research Conference
    Neeraj Gandhi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Other disorders such as congenital fibrosis can also alter mechanistic properties of the extraocular muscle itself. Hence, the oculomotor system is of immense relevance to health. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  51. A Simple Measure for Studying Sensory Gating Deficits
    Neal Swerdlow; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. Capacity Limits in Multi-Tasking
    Rene Marois; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..In addition, this project will investigate how response selection demands affect perception by determining whether our inability at doing more than one task at a time affects our visual cortex ability to "see". ..
  53. NEURONAL PATHWAYS UNDERLYING IN VITRO MOTOR LEARNING
    Joyce Keifer; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  54. Conference on Reproductive Psychophysiology
    Erick Janssen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In addition, selected members of the pre-conference workshop will work together to formulate and publish guidelines for psychophysiological measurement. ..
  55. 2005 (Oculomotor System Biology) Gordon Conference
    Neeraj Gandhi; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Hence, we seek to bring together ideas and investigators that are not often at the same venue. ..
  56. FETAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE AND SCHOOL AGE COGNITION
    Sandra Jacobson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  57. Imaging inhibitory control in cocaine dependence
    CHIANG SHAN LI; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  58. Surgical Management of Facial Nerve Injury
    Theresa Hadlock; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The academic environment is one of complete dedication to advancing both biomedical science and patient care through careful study and diligent investigation, and of support for the mentored investigator. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  59. Efficacy of Written Disclosure for Trauma Survivors
    DENISE SLOAN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Further, initial emotional engagement and habituation of emotion is anticipated to be significantly related to symptom improvements at follow-up for the disclosure participants. ..
  60. Dissociating Basal Forebrain vs. Medial Temporal Amnesia
    Catherine Myers; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. Nicotine and Cognition in Parkinsonism
    Jay Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Information obtained from these studies will hopefully lead to more efficient design of nicotinic therapeutics for patients with a variety of cognitive disorders. ..
  62. DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED ATTENTION IN INFANTS
    John Richards; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  63. VULNERABILITY MARKERS IN PRODROMAL SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Kristin S Cadenhead; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The disruption of social networks, education and occupational activity and the high incidence of suicide and crime that often accompany psychosis might be reduced or averted. ..
  64. COORDINATION OF VOLUNTARY EYE MOVEMENTS
    Richard J Krauzlis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding how these systems interact will also help us understand how and why these circuits malfunction in a variety of developmental disorders. ..
  65. A new general methodology for studying conformational dynamics in single cells
    Marcia Levitus; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Understanding chromatin dynamics is a key step in the process of elucidating the mechanisms of development, differentiation and cancer. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  66. Adolescence: Natural Incentives, Motivation and Affect
    Linda Spear; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  67. Allergy Therapy with Chimeric Human Ig Proteins
    Andrew Saxon; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Further, understanding of the mechanisms underlying the control of activating receptors by inhibitory receptors will have broad reaching implications for the manipulation the immune response. ..
  68. Diff responses- C and A delta nociceptive afferents
    Tuan Tran; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..ii) To develop the technical and theoretical foundation necessary for an independent investigator. (iii) To facilitate my future international cooperation and to become a leading neuroscience researcher in Vietnam. ..
  69. GENETICS OF PARKINSON DISEASE IN THE AMISH
    Brad Racette; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  70. IMPROVING CARE OF PANIC DISORDER IN PRIMARY CARE
    Michelle Craske; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..