reflex

Summary

Summary: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The inflammatory reflex
    Kevin J Tracey
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science, North Shore LIJ Research Institute, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 420:853-9. 2002
  2. ncbi Reflex principles of immunological homeostasis
    Ulf Andersson
    Department of Women s and Children s Health, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Annu Rev Immunol 30:313-35. 2012
  3. ncbi Reflex control of immunity
    Kevin J Tracey
    Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:418-28. 2009
  4. pmc Breathtaking TRP channels: TRPA1 and TRPV1 in airway chemosensation and reflex control
    Bret F Bessac
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Physiology (Bethesda) 23:360-70. 2008
  5. ncbi The lower limb flexion reflex in humans
    Giorgio Sandrini
    University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache, IRCCS C Mondino Institute of Neurology Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Mondino 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy
    Prog Neurobiol 77:353-95. 2005
  6. ncbi Neuroanatomical evidence demonstrating the existence of the vagal anti-inflammatory reflex in the intestine
    C Cailotto
    Department of Gastroenterology, Tytgat Institute for Liver and Intestinal Research, Academic Medical Center AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 24:191-200, e93. 2012
  7. pmc Inhibition of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity by baroreceptor and vagal afferent inputs in chronic heart failure
    Xian bing Gan
    Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e25784. 2011
  8. ncbi The inflammatory reflex and the role of complementary and alternative medical therapies
    Stacey L Oke
    Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore LIJ Health System, Manhasset, New York, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1172:172-80. 2009
  9. pmc Reflex regulation during sustained and intermittent submaximal contractions in humans
    Jacques Duchateau
    Laboratory of Biology, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 28 avenue P Héger, CP 168, Belgium
    J Physiol 541:959-67. 2002
  10. ncbi Voluntary and reflex cough and the expiration reflex; implications for aspiration after stroke
    J G Widdicombe
    Univ London, 116 Pepys Road, London SW208NY, UK
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 24:312-7. 2011

Detail Information

Publications358 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The inflammatory reflex
    Kevin J Tracey
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science, North Shore LIJ Research Institute, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 420:853-9. 2002
    ..The opportunity now exists to apply this insight to the treatment of inflammation through selective and reversible 'hard-wired' neural systems...
  2. ncbi Reflex principles of immunological homeostasis
    Ulf Andersson
    Department of Women s and Children s Health, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Annu Rev Immunol 30:313-35. 2012
    ..This elucidated the inflammatory reflex, a prototypical reflex circuit that maintains immunological homeostasis...
  3. ncbi Reflex control of immunity
    Kevin J Tracey
    Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:418-28. 2009
    ..The afferent arc of the reflex consists of nerves that sense injury and infection...
  4. pmc Breathtaking TRP channels: TRPA1 and TRPV1 in airway chemosensation and reflex control
    Bret F Bessac
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Physiology (Bethesda) 23:360-70. 2008
    ..by chlorine, reactive oxygen species, and noxious constituents of smoke and smog, initiating irritation and airway reflex responses...
  5. ncbi The lower limb flexion reflex in humans
    Giorgio Sandrini
    University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache, IRCCS C Mondino Institute of Neurology Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Mondino 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy
    Prog Neurobiol 77:353-95. 2005
    The flexion or flexor reflex (FR) recorded in the lower limbs in humans (LLFR) is a widely investigated neurophysiological tool...
  6. ncbi Neuroanatomical evidence demonstrating the existence of the vagal anti-inflammatory reflex in the intestine
    C Cailotto
    Department of Gastroenterology, Tytgat Institute for Liver and Intestinal Research, Academic Medical Center AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 24:191-200, e93. 2012
    The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is proposed to be part of the so-called vago-vagal 'inflammatory reflex'...
  7. pmc Inhibition of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity by baroreceptor and vagal afferent inputs in chronic heart failure
    Xian bing Gan
    Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e25784. 2011
    Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributes to sympathetic activation and angiotensin II (Ang II) in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) augments the CSAR in vagotomized (VT) and baroreceptor denervated (BD) rats with chronic heart ..
  8. ncbi The inflammatory reflex and the role of complementary and alternative medical therapies
    Stacey L Oke
    Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore LIJ Health System, Manhasset, New York, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1172:172-80. 2009
    ..This evolving area of research has implications for the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory conditions including inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes, and other conditions of excessive cytokine release...
  9. pmc Reflex regulation during sustained and intermittent submaximal contractions in humans
    Jacques Duchateau
    Laboratory of Biology, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 28 avenue P Héger, CP 168, Belgium
    J Physiol 541:959-67. 2002
    To investigate whether the intensity and duration of a sustained contraction influences reflex regulation, we compared sustained fatiguing contractions at 25 % and 50 % of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force in the human abductor ..
  10. ncbi Voluntary and reflex cough and the expiration reflex; implications for aspiration after stroke
    J G Widdicombe
    Univ London, 116 Pepys Road, London SW208NY, UK
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 24:312-7. 2011
    ..We review the four types of cough usually used to assess aspiration risk: voluntary cough (VC), reflex cough (RC), the laryngeal expiration reflex (LER), and cough on swallow (CoS)...
  11. ncbi Modular organization of human leg withdrawal reflexes elicited by electrical stimulation of the foot sole
    O K Andersen
    Laboratory for Experimental Pain Research, Center for Sensory Motor Interaction, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7, D3, DK 9220, Aalborg, Denmark
    Muscle Nerve 22:1520-30. 1999
    Human withdrawal reflex receptive fields were determined for leg muscles by randomized, electrical stimulation at 16 different positions on the foot sole...
  12. pmc Encoding of the cough reflex in anesthetized guinea pigs
    Brendan J Canning
    Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 300:R369-77. 2011
    ..The cough reflex can also be actively inhibited upon activation of other airway afferent nerve subtypes, including slowly adapting ..
  13. ncbi Production of reflex cough by brainstem respiratory networks
    R Shannon
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, MDC Box 8, University of South Florida Health Sciences Center, 12901 Bruce B Downs Blvd Tampa, FL 33612 4799, USA
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 17:369-76. 2004
    Delineation of neural mechanisms involved in reflex cough is essential for understanding its many physiological and clinical complexities, and the development of more desirable antitussive agents...
  14. ncbi Clinical relevance of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex
    Jason A Campagna
    Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA
    Anesthesiology 98:1250-60. 2003
  15. ncbi The role of serotonin in reflex modulation and locomotor rhythm production in the mammalian spinal cord
    B J Schmidt
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Brain Res Bull 53:689-710. 2000
    Over the past 40 years, much has been learned about the role of serotonin in spinal cord reflex modulation and locomotor pattern generation. This review presents an historical overview and current perspective of this literature...
  16. ncbi Superoxide anions in the paraventricular nucleus mediate the enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity in renovascular hypertensive rats
    Ying Han
    Dept of Physiology, Nanjing Medical Univ, Nanjing 210029, China
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 110:646-52. 2011
    An enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is involved in the sympathetic activation in renovascular hypertension...
  17. ncbi Paraventricular nucleus is involved in the central pathway of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats
    Ming Kui Zhong
    Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China
    Exp Physiol 93:746-53. 2008
    ..II and reactive oxygen species in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) modulate the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR)...
  18. pmc Synergistic interactions between airway afferent nerve subtypes regulating the cough reflex in guinea-pigs
    Stuart B Mazzone
    The Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Physiol 569:559-73. 2005
    ..capsaicin-sensitive C-fibres also innervate the airways and have been implicated in the cough reflex. Capsaicin-sensitive nerves act centrally and synergistically to modify reflex bronchospasm initiated by airway ..
  19. ncbi Spastic movement disorder: impaired reflex function and altered muscle mechanics
    Volker Dietz
    Spinal Cord Injury Centre, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Lancet Neurol 6:725-33. 2007
    ..Most antispastic treatments are, therefore, directed at the reduction of reflex activity...
  20. ncbi Spinal reflex activity: a marker for neuronal functionality after spinal cord injury
    Michèle Hubli
    Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Neurorehabil Neural Repair 26:188-96. 2012
    ..In healthy subjects, the SR consists of a dominant early reflex component, whereas in chronic, severely affected SCI subjects, a later component dominates.
  21. pmc Function of sural nerve reflexes during human walking
    E P Zehr
    Division of Neuroscience, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2
    J Physiol 507:305-14. 1998
    ..Net reflex EMG responses were quantified in each of the sixteen parts of the step cycle...
  22. ncbi Generalized expansion of nociceptive reflex receptive fields in chronic pain patients
    Alban Y Neziri
    University Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Therapy, University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
    Pain 151:798-805. 2010
    ..Here we hypothesized that patients with chronic pelvic pain display enlarged reflex receptive fields...
  23. ncbi Nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signalling mediates an inhibitory action on sensory pathways of the micturition reflex in the rat
    Romain Caremel
    Charles Nicolle Hospital, Department of Urology, Rouen, France
    Eur Urol 58:616-25. 2010
    ..Several studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO) or its downstream signalling could modulate the micturition reflex (MR) by reducing the excitability of bladder afferents.
  24. ncbi Interneuronal activity in reflex pathways from group II muscle afferents is monitored by dorsal spinocerebellar tract neurons in the cat
    Elzbieta Jankowska
    Department of Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Goteborg University, 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    J Neurosci 28:3615-22. 2008
    ..The results also indicate that interneurons mediating disynaptic reflex actions from tendon organ (group Ib) afferents and those mediating disynaptic actions from secondary muscle ..
  25. ncbi Effect of rhythmic arm movement on reflexes in the legs: modulation of soleus H-reflexes and somatosensory conditioning
    Alain Frigon
    Neural Control of Human Movement Laboratory, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
    J Neurophysiol 91:1516-23. 2004
    ..However, it is unclear how these interlimb pathways modulate reflex excitability during movement...
  26. ncbi Pediatric rapid sequence intubation: incidence of reflex bradycardia and effects of pretreatment with atropine
    Rebecca K Fastle
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and The Children s Hospital, Denver, CO, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 20:651-5. 2004
    The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) recommends atropine as adjunctive therapy to prevent reflex bradycardia prior to laryngoscopy/tracheal intubation (L/TI) in pediatric patients.
  27. ncbi Effects of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls on temporal summation of the RIII reflex in humans
    Mariano Serrao
    Department of Neurology and Otolaryngology, University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy
    Pain 112:353-60. 2004
    ..the effects of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs) on the temporal summation of the nociceptive flexion reflex (RIII reflex) in humans...
  28. ncbi Modulation of lower limb withdrawal reflexes during gait: a topographical study
    Erika G Spaich
    Center for Sensory Motor Interaction, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7 D3, DK 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
    J Neurophysiol 91:258-66. 2004
    The aim of this study was to investigate the modulation and topography of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex elicited by painful electrical stimulation of the foot sole during gait. Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in this study...
  29. pmc Changes in sensory-evoked synaptic activation of motoneurons after spinal cord injury in man
    Jonathan A Norton
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2
    Brain 131:1478-91. 2008
    ..It is likely that these second-long EPSPs securely recruit slowly activating PICs in motoneurons that are known to mediate, in large part, the many seconds-long activation of motoneurons during involuntary muscle spasms...
  30. ncbi Effects of leg pedaling on early latency cutaneous reflexes in upper limb muscles
    Syusaku Sasada
    United Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo, Japan
    J Neurophysiol 104:210-7. 2010
    ..This coupling can be detected by examining the effect of remote rhythmic limb movement on the modulation of reflex amplitude in stationary limbs...
  31. pmc Hydrogen sulfide in paraventricular nucleus enhances sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in chronic heart failure rats
    Xian bing Gan
    Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e50102. 2012
    ..This study was designed to determine the roles of H(2)S in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in modulating sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) in chronic heart failure (CHF).
  32. ncbi A perspective on the muscle reflex: implications for congestive heart failure
    Lawrence I Sinoway
    Division of Cardiology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 99:5-22. 2005
    In this review we examine the exercise pressor reflex in health and disease. The role of metabolic and mechanical stimulation of thin fiber muscle afferents is discussed...
  33. pmc Processing cardiovascular information in the vlPAG during electroacupuncture in rats: roles of endocannabinoids and GABA
    Stephanie C Tjen-A-Looi
    School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 4075, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 106:1793-9. 2009
    ..medulla (rVLM), is essential in electroacupuncture (EA) attenuation of sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular reflex responses. The ARC provides excitatory input to the vlPAG, which, in turn, inhibits neuronal activity in the rVLM...
  34. ncbi Botulinum toxin changes intrafusal feedback in dystonia: a study with the tonic vibration reflex
    Carlo Trompetto
    Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Oftalmologia e Genetica, Universita di Genova, Italia
    Mov Disord 21:777-82. 2006
    ..pre- and postinjection values of maximal M-wave (M-max), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and tonic vibration reflex (TVR) were measured in the injected muscles (wrist flexors or extensors)...
  35. ncbi Frontalis suspension with fascia lata for severe congenital blepharoptosis using enhanced involuntary reflex contraction of the frontalis muscle
    Kiyoshi Matsuo
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, 3 1 1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390 8621, Japan
    J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 62:480-7. 2009
    Increased stretching of the mechanoreceptors in Mueller's muscle induces involuntary reflex contraction of the ipsilateral frontalis muscle...
  36. ncbi Instructing subjects to make a voluntary response reveals the presence of two components to the audio-vocal reflex
    T C Hain
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Exp Brain Res 130:133-41. 2000
    ..These results demonstrate that there are two responses to pitch-shift stimuli. The first is relatively automatic but may be modulated by instructions to the participant. The second response is probably a voluntary one...
  37. pmc Volitional control of reflex cough
    Karen W Hegland
    Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 113:39-46. 2012
    Multiple studies suggest a role for the cerebral cortex in the generation of reflex cough in awake humans...
  38. ncbi Excitatory projections from arcuate nucleus to ventrolateral periaqueductal gray in electroacupuncture inhibition of cardiovascular reflexes
    Peng Li
    Department of Medicine, Susan Samueli Center for Integrative Medicine, UCI School of Medicine, University of California Irvine, CA 92697 4075, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 290:H2535-42. 2006
    ..Microinjection of DLH into the ARC, like EA, inhibited (30 min) the reflex increase in BP induced by application of bradykinin (BK) to the gallbladder, whereas microinjection of KA into the ..
  39. ncbi Dorsal root potentials and dorsal root reflexes: a double-edged sword
    W D Willis
    Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences and Marine Biomedical Institute, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555 1069, USA
    Exp Brain Res 124:395-421. 1999
    ..The conversion of an inhibitory process, presynaptic inhibition, to an excitatory one by DRRs can thus lead to pathological consequences...
  40. ncbi The mammalian exercise pressor reflex in health and disease
    Scott A Smith
    Department of Physical Therapy, Harry S Moss Heart Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9174 USA
    Exp Physiol 91:89-102. 2006
    The exercise pressor reflex (a peripheral neural reflex originating in skeletal muscle) contributes significantly to the regulation of the cardiovascular system during exercise...
  41. ncbi Afferent neural pathways in cough and reflex bronchoconstriction
    J A Karlsson
    Pharmacological Laboratory, AB Draco, Lund, Sweden
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 65:1007-23. 1988
    ..Although cough and bronchoconstriction may be mediated by the same type of receptor, they seem to have separate afferent neural pathways...
  42. ncbi Abnormal modulatory influence of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls in migraine and chronic tension-type headache patients
    G Sandrini
    University Centre for Adaptive Disorders and Headache, IRCCS C Mondino Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
    Cephalalgia 26:782-9. 2006
    ..17 patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and 20 healthy subjects by means of nociceptive flexion RIII reflex and the cold pressor test (CPT) as heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation (HNCS)...
  43. ncbi Afferent properties and reflex functions of bronchopulmonary C-fibers
    L Y Lee
    Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
    Respir Physiol 125:47-65. 2001
    ..Responses evoked by activating these afferents are mediated by both central reflex pathways and by local or axon reflexes involving the release of tachykinins from sensory endings...
  44. pmc The changing balance of brainstem-spinal cord modulation of pain processing over the first weeks of rat postnatal life
    G J Hathway
    Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    J Physiol 587:2927-35. 2009
    ..postnatal ages revealed a robust shift in the balance of descending control of both spinal nociceptive flexion reflex EMG activity and individual dorsal horn neuron firing properties, from excitation to inhibition, beginning after ..
  45. ncbi Decreased nitric oxide- and axon reflex-mediated cutaneous vasodilation with age during local heating
    Christopher T Minson
    Department of Exercise and Movement Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 1240, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 93:1644-9. 2002
    ..O: 38 +/- 5%CVCmax; P < 0.05). These data suggest that age-related changes in both axon reflex-mediated and NO-mediated vasodilation contribute to attenuated cutaneous vasodilator responses in the elderly.
  46. ncbi c-Src in paraventricular nucleus modulates sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in renovascular hypertensive rats
    Ying Han
    Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
    Pflugers Arch 461:437-46. 2011
    Enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributes to sympathetic activation in renovascular hypertension...
  47. pmc Specificity of reflex adaptation for task-relevant variability
    David W Franklin
    Computational and Biological Learning Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK
    J Neurosci 28:14165-75. 2008
    The motor system responds to perturbations with reflexes, such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex or stretch reflex, whose gains adapt in response to novel and fixed changes in the environment, such as magnifying spectacles or standing on a ..
  48. ncbi ANG II in the paraventricular nucleus potentiates the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats with heart failure
    Guo Qing Zhu
    Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Peoples Republic of China
    J Appl Physiol 97:1746-54. 2004
    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by sympathoexcitation, and the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is a sympathoexcitatory reflex. Our previous studies have shown that the CSAR was enhanced in CHF...
  49. ncbi Vagal afferent nerves regulating the cough reflex
    Brendan J Canning
    Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 152:223-42. 2006
    ..All afferent nerve subtypes innervating the airways can modulate the cough reflex. Rapidly adapting and slowly adapting stretch receptors (RARs and SARs, respectively) innervating the ..
  50. ncbi Emotion, motivation, and the brain: reflex foundations in animal and human research
    Peter J Lang
    NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, FL 32610 0165, USA
    Prog Brain Res 156:3-29. 2006
    ..Parallel results are described from experiments with humans, showing similar activation patterns in brain and body in response to emotion cues, co-varying with participants' reports of affective valence and increasing emotional arousal...
  51. pmc Three Drosophila mutations that block associative learning also affect habituation and sensitization
    J S Duerr
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79:3646-50. 1982
    ..tests on these mutants for more elementary types of behavioral plasticity--habituation and sensitization of a reflex. Fruit flies have taste receptors on their feet...
  52. ncbi A muscle-reflex model that encodes principles of legged mechanics produces human walking dynamics and muscle activities
    Hartmut Geyer
    Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 18:263-73. 2010
    ..Equipped with this reflex control, we find this model to stabilize into a walking gait from its dynamic interplay with the ground, reproduce ..
  53. pmc Defining the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) threshold in human participants: a comparison of different scoring criteria
    Jamie L Rhudy
    Department of Psychology, University of Tulsa, OK, USA
    Pain 128:244-53. 2007
    Despite the widespread use of the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) paradigm in clinical and experimental pain research, there is currently no consensus on how best to define NFR threshold...
  54. ncbi Evidence for spinal cord hypersensitivity in chronic pain after whiplash injury and in fibromyalgia
    Borut Banic
    Division of Pain Therapy, Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
    Pain 107:7-15. 2004
    ..The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (a spinal reflex) may be used to study the excitability state of spinal cord neurons...
  55. ncbi Sex-related differences in cough reflex sensitivity in patients with chronic cough
    Jack A Kastelik
    Academic Department of Medicine, University of Hull, Castle Hill Hospital, Cottingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166:961-4. 2002
    ..We tested the hypothesis that the sensitivity of the cough reflex is greater in female compared with male patients with chronic cough...
  56. pmc Emergent synchronous bursting of oxytocin neuronal network
    Enrico Rossoni
    Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom
    PLoS Comput Biol 4:e1000123. 2008
    When young suckle, they are rewarded intermittently with a let-down of milk that results from reflex secretion of the hormone oxytocin; without oxytocin, newly born young will die unless they are fostered...
  57. ncbi Modulations of interlimb and intralimb cutaneous reflexes during simultaneous arm and leg cycling in humans
    Masanori Sakamoto
    Division of Health and Sport Education, United of Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University, 1 33 Yayoi cho, Inage Ku, Chiba City 263 8522, Japan
    Clin Neurophysiol 117:1301-11. 2006
    ..We investigated to what extent intralimb and interlimb cutaneous reflexes are altered while simultaneously performing arm and leg cycling (AL cycling) under different kinematic and postural conditions...
  58. ncbi Reflex excitation of muscles during human walking
    Jens Bo Nielsen
    Department of Medical Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Adv Exp Med Biol 508:369-75. 2002
    ..When stretching plantarflexor muscles in the stance phase three reflex responses are generally observed...
  59. pmc Afferent nerves regulating the cough reflex: mechanisms and mediators of cough in disease
    Brendan J Canning
    Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Otolaryngol Clin North Am 43:15-25, vii. 2010
    ..capsaicin-insensitive mechanoreceptors innervating the larynx, trachea, and large bronchi regulate the cough reflex. These vagal afferent nerves may interact centrally with sensory input arising from afferent nerves innervating ..
  60. pmc Acceleration feedback improves balancing against reflex delay
    Tamas Insperger
    Department of Applied Mechanics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1521 Budapest, Hungary
    J R Soc Interface 10:20120763. 2013
    ..The addition of a sensory dead zone to account for the finite thresholds for detection by sensory receptors results in highly intermittent, complex oscillations that are a typical feature of human postural sway...
  61. ncbi A method to estimate EMG crosstalk between two muscles based on the silent period following an H-reflex
    Rinaldo André Mezzarane
    Neuroscience Program and Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, University of Sao Paulo, EPUSP, PTC, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Med Eng Phys 31:1331-6. 2009
    ..here for crosstalk assessment between two muscles based on changes in their electrical activity following a reflex discharge in one of the muscles in response to nerve stimulation...
  62. ncbi Experience with a two-tier reflex gFOBT/FIT strategy in a national bowel screening programme
    Callum G Fraser
    Centre for Research into Cancer Prevention and Screening, University of Dundee Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland
    J Med Screen 19:8-13. 2012
    To evaluate a two-tier reflex guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT)/faecal immunochemical test (FIT) algorithm in screening for colorectal cancer.
  63. ncbi A method for quantifying reflex responses from intra-muscular and surface electromyogram
    Russell S A Brinkworth
    Department of Physiology, University of Adelaide, S A 5005, Adelaide, Australia
    J Neurosci Methods 122:179-93. 2003
    Measuring human reflex responses from electromyogram (EMG) traces in an accurate, repeatable and reliable way with a high degree of specificity has traditionally been a difficult task...
  64. pmc Deliberation in the motor system: reflex gains track evolving evidence leading to a decision
    Luc P J Selen
    Computational and Biological Learning Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK
    J Neurosci 32:2276-86. 2012
    ..We probed the state of the motor system by perturbing the arm at random times during decision formation. Reflex gains were modulated by the strength and duration of motion, reflecting the accumulated evidence in support of the ..
  65. ncbi Clonus is explained from increased reflex gain and enlarged tissue viscoelasticity
    Erwin de Vlugt
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Neuromuscular Control, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands
    J Biomech 45:148-55. 2012
    ..We studied the effect of changes in the gain of the Ia reflex pathway and tissue viscoelasticity on the emergence, frequency, and persistence of ankle clonus: a clinically ..
  66. ncbi Effects of replicating primary-reflex movements on specific reading difficulties in children: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial
    M McPhillips
    School of Psychology, Queen s University of Belfast, UK
    Lancet 355:537-41. 2000
    ..We investigated the role of persistent primary reflexes (which are closely linked in the earliest months of life to the balance system) in disrupting the development of reading skills...
  67. ncbi Effects of monoamines on interneurons in four spinal reflex pathways from group I and/or group II muscle afferents
    E Jankowska
    Department of Physiology, Goteborg University, 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    Eur J Neurosci 12:701-14. 2000
    ....
  68. ncbi Facilitation of the withdrawal reflex by repeated transcutaneous electrical stimulation: an experimental study on central integration in humans
    L Arendt-Nielsen
    Aalborg University, Center for Sensory Motor Interaction, Denmark
    Eur J Appl Physiol 81:165-73. 2000
    ..human study, we aimed to investigate the facilitation of both the subjective pain responses, and the withdrawal reflex to consecutive transcutaneous electrical stimuli as measures of temporal summation. The frequency (0...
  69. ncbi Cough reflex sensitivity testing in in seasonal allergic rhinitis patients and healthy volunteers
    R Pecova
    Department of Pathological Physiology, Comenius University in Bratislava, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Slovakia
    J Physiol Pharmacol 59:557-64. 2008
    ..6) micromol/l (P= 0.013). We conclude that airway afferent nerve endings reactivity in pollen sensitive subjects suffering from seasonal allergic rhinitis was significantly increased out of pollen season compared with healthy volunteers...
  70. ncbi The effect of distraction strategies on pain perception and the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex)
    Ruth Ruscheweyh
    Department of Neurology, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    Pain 152:2662-71. 2011
    ..Here, we used the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex) to directly quantify the effects of different distraction strategies on basal spinal nociception and ..
  71. ncbi What functions do reflexes serve during human locomotion?
    E P Zehr
    Neurophysiology Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Prog Neurobiol 58:185-205. 1999
    Studies on the reflex modulation of vertebrate locomotion have been conducted in many different laboratories and with many different preparations: for example, lamprey swimming, bird flight, quadrupedal walking in cats and bipedal walking ..
  72. ncbi Load signals assist the generation of movement-dependent reflex reversal in the femur-tibia joint of stick insects
    Turgay Akay
    Zoological Institute, University of Cologne, D 50923 Cologne, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 96:3532-7. 2006
    ..Our results indicate for the first time that load signals from the leg affect the processing of movement-related feedback in controlling motor output...
  73. ncbi Modular organisation and spinal somatosensory imprinting
    Jens Schouenborg
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Lund University, Tornavagen 10, BMC F10, 221 84, Lund, Sweden
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 40:80-91. 2002
    The withdrawal reflex system has been extensively used as a model system for studies of pain related mechanisms, sensorimotor integration, learning and memory...
  74. ncbi Differential development of sensory hypersensitivity and a measure of spinal cord hyperexcitability following whiplash injury
    Michele Sterling
    Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Centre for National Research on Disability and Rehabilitation Medicine and CCRE Spine, Herston, 4006 QLD, Australia
    Pain 150:501-6. 2010
    ..Decreased nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) thresholds (spinal cord hyperexcitability) are a feature of chronic whiplash but have not been investigated ..
  75. pmc Repetitive exposure: brain and reflex measures of emotion and attention
    Vera Ferrari
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Psychophysiology 48:515-22. 2011
    ..The blink reflex, however, continued to be modulated by hedonic valence, despite massive massed repetition...
  76. ncbi Short- and long-latency reflex responses during different motor tasks in elbow flexor muscles
    K Nakazawa
    Motor Dysfunction Division, Research Institute, National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled, Namiki, Tokorozawa, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 116:20-8. 1997
    Stretch reflex responses in three elbow flexor muscles - the brachioradialis and the short and long heads of the biceps brachii - were studied during different motor tasks...
  77. ncbi Gradual enlargement of human withdrawal reflex receptive fields following repetitive painful stimulation
    Ole K Andersen
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Center for Sensory Motor Interaction, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7, D3, DK 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
    Brain Res 1042:194-204. 2005
    Dynamic changes in the topography of the human withdrawal reflex receptive fields (RRF) were assessed by repetitive painful stimuli in 15 healthy subjects...
  78. ncbi Enhanced adipose afferent reflex contributes to sympathetic activation in diet-induced obesity hypertension
    Xiao qing Xiong
    Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, 140 Hanzhong Rd, Nanjing 210029, China
    Hypertension 60:1280-6. 2012
    We recently found that adipose afferent reflex (AAR) induced by chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure in normal rats...
  79. ncbi Investigation to predict patellar tendon reflex using motion analysis technique
    L K Tham
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia laikuan
    Med Eng Phys 33:407-10. 2011
    The investigation of patellar tendon reflex involves development of a reflex hammer holder, kinematic data collection and analysis of patellar reflex responses using motion analysis techniques...
  80. ncbi Involvement of ionotropic purinergic receptors in the histamine-induced enhancement of the cough reflex sensitivity in guinea pigs
    Junzo Kamei
    Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University, 4 41, Ebara 2 Chome, Shinagawa ku, Tokyo 142 8501, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 547:160-4. 2006
    ..Furthermore, ATP might act not only on P2X receptors to directly activate rapidly adapting receptors, but also on P2Y receptors to increase histamine release, indirectly increasing the cough reflex sensitivity.
  81. ncbi Withdrawal reflex organisation to electrical stimulation of the dorsal foot in humans
    F A Sonnenborg
    Laboratory for Experimental Pain Research, Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction, Aalborg University, Denmark
    Exp Brain Res 136:303-12. 2001
    The present study investigated excitatory reflex receptive fields for various muscle reflex responses and reflex mediated ankle joint movements using randomised electrical stimulation of the dorsal and plantar surface of the foot in 12 ..
  82. ncbi Reliability of quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing and quantitative sensory testing in neuropathy of impaired glucose regulation
    Amanda Peltier
    Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Muscle Nerve 39:529-35. 2009
    ..The reproducibility of quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and quantitative sensory test (QST) (using the CASE IV system) was determined in a subset of patients ..
  83. ncbi Mechanically induced axon reflex and hyperalgesia in human UV-B burn are reduced by systemic lidocaine
    Wolfgang Koppert
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Eur J Pain 8:237-44. 2004
    The mechanisms for the induction of primary mechanical hyperalgesia are unclear. We analyzed the neurogenic axon reflex erythema (flare) following phasic mechanical stimulation in normal and in UV-B irradiated skin...
  84. ncbi Trigeminal autonomic pathways involved in nociception-induced reflex cardiovascular responses
    G V Allen
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Dalhousie University, Faculty of Medicine, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Brain Res 754:269-78. 1997
    b>Reflex cardiovascular responses elicited by noxious oro-facial stimulation are well known but the neural pathways that underlie trigeminal cardiovascular reflex reactions remain to be elucidated...
  85. ncbi Multiple mechanisms of reflex bronchospasm in guinea pigs
    B J Canning
    The Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 91:2642-53. 2001
    The mechanisms of histamine- and bradykinin-induced reflex bronchospasm were determined in anesthetized guinea pigs. With intravenous administration, both autacoids evoked dose-dependent increases in tracheal cholinergic tone...
  86. ncbi Effects of intranasal histamine on the cough reflex in subjects with allergic rhinitis
    J Plevkova
    Department of Pathophysiology, Jessenius Medical School, Comenius University, Martin, Slovakia
    J Physiol Pharmacol 56:185-95. 2005
    ..We conclude that stimulation of nasal mucosa with histamine enhanced the cough response in subjects with allergic rhinitis...
  87. ncbi Effects of intranasal capsaicin challenge on cough reflex in healthy human volunteers
    J Plevkova
    Department of Pathophysiology, Jessenius School of Medicine, Martin Comenius University, Martin, Slovakia
    J Physiol Pharmacol 55:101-6. 2004
    ..experimental evidence, that afferent nerve endings localized in the nose or sinuses can directly mediate the cough reflex. Stimulation of nasal afferents affects breathing pattern (apnea) and bronchial smooth muscles (nasobronchial ..
  88. ncbi Muscle proprioceptive feedback and spinal networks
    U Windhorst
    Center for Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Goettingen, Humboldtallee 23, D 37073 Goettingen, Germany
    Brain Res Bull 73:155-202. 2007
    ..The scope will at times extend beyond the narrow confines of spinal circuits in order to integrate them into wider contexts and concepts...
  89. ncbi The effects of nasal histamine challenge on cough reflex in healthy volunteers
    J Plevkova
    Department of Pathophysiology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin, Comenius University
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 19:120-7. 2006
    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of nasal histamine on the intensity of cough reflex and the effects of intensified nasal breathing following the nasal histamine challenge on cough sensitivity (CS) in humans...
  90. ncbi Musings on the wanderer: what's new in our understanding of vago-vagal reflex? IV. Current concepts of vagal efferent projections to the gut
    Howard Y Chang
    Center for Swallowing and Motility Disorders, VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02132, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 284:G357-66. 2003
    ..Vagal effects on secretory functions are exerted either directly or via release of local mediators or circulating hormones...
  91. pmc Endothelin-1 in paraventricular nucleus modulates cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity in rats
    Ai Dong Chen
    Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e40748. 2012
    Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is a positive-feedback, sympathoexcitatory reflex. Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an important component of the central neurocircuitry of the CSAR...
  92. ncbi Differential effects of reflex blinks on saccade perturbations in humans
    H H L M Goossens
    Donders Inst for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Dept of Biophysics, Radboud Univ Nijmegen Medical Ctr, G Grooteplein 21, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Neurophysiol 103:1685-95. 2010
    ..In this study, we compared the influence of two types of reflex blinks on the trajectories and kinematics of memory-guided saccades in human subjects...
  93. ncbi Transcutaneous spinal cord direct current stimulation inhibits the lower limb nociceptive flexion reflex in human beings
    Filippo Cogiamanian
    Unità Operativa di Neurofisiopatologia, Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy
    Pain 152:370-5. 2011
    ..direct current (2mA, 15min) applied on the skin overlying the thoracic spinal cord on the lower-limb flexion reflex in a group of 11 healthy volunteers...
  94. ncbi Enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex involved in sympathetic overactivity in renovascular hypertensive rats
    Guo Qing Zhu
    Department of Pathophysiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China
    Exp Physiol 94:785-94. 2009
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is enhanced in two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats, and whether the enhanced CSAR ..
  95. ncbi Expression and localization of the Nav1.9 sodium channel in enteric neurons and in trigeminal sensory endings: implication for intestinal reflex function and orofacial pain
    Françoise Padilla
    Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie Cellulaire, CNRS, UMR 6150, Faculte de Medecine, IFR Jean Roche, Bd Pierre Dramard, 13916 Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Mol Cell Neurosci 35:138-52. 2007
    ..9 in the transmission of trigeminal pain and the regulation of intestinal reflexes. Nav1.9 might therefore constitute a molecular target for therapeutic treatments of orofacial pain and gastrointestinal syndromes...
  96. ncbi Restoration of anterior cruciate ligament-hamstring reflex arc after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
    Eiichi Tsuda
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hirosaki University, 5 Zaifu cho, 036 8562 Hirosaki, Japan
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 11:63-7. 2003
    ..The existence of an ACL-hamstring reflex arc, one of the protective ligament-muscular pathways, has been revealed in normal human knees...
  97. ncbi Involvement of P2X receptor subtypes in ATP-induced enhancement of the cough reflex sensitivity
    Junzo Kamei
    Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University, 4 41, Ebara 2 Chome, Shinagawa ku, Tokyo 142 8501, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 528:158-61. 2005
    ..results suggest that although ATP, by itself, does not elicit spontaneous coughs, it likely enhances the cough reflex sensitivity...
  98. ncbi Working memory load but not multitasking eliminates the prepared reflex: further evidence from the adapted flanker paradigm
    Nachshon Meiran
    Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Acta Psychol (Amst) 139:309-13. 2012
    The prepared reflex (PR) metaphor (Exner, 1879; Woodworth, 1938) suggests that stimulus-response (S-R) instructions held in working memory (WM) can lead to autonomous response activation without any practice...
  99. ncbi Reflex regulation of airway smooth muscle tone
    Brendan J Canning
    Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 101:971-85. 2006
    ....
  100. ncbi Aging attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans
    Chester A Ray
    Department of Medicine Cardiology, General Clinical Research Center, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 2390, USA
    Circulation 105:956-61. 2002
    ..We hypothesized that responses to otolithic stimulation would be attenuated in older adults because of morphological and physiological alterations that occur in the vestibular system with aging...
  101. pmc Medial olivocochlear reflex interneurons are located in the posteroventral cochlear nucleus: a kainic acid lesion study in guinea pigs
    Ronald K de Venecia
    Department of Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School, and Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Comp Neurol 487:345-60. 2005
    The medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex arc is probably a three-neuron pathway consisting of type I spiral ganglion neurons, reflex interneurons in the cochlear nucleus, and MOC neurons that project to the outer hair cells of the cochlea...

Research Grants71

  1. Chronic nicotine and synaptic transmission in brainstem respiratory neurons
    RALPH FRANK FREGOSI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Reflex control of tongue muscles evoked by changing upper airway pressure will also be measured and quantified...
  2. Autonomic and Antihypertensive Actions of Neuronal CGRP/RAMP1 Receptors
    Mark W Chapleau; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mice that include measurements of baroreceptor afferent nerve activity from aortic depressor nerve and reflex changes in heart rate and blood pressure during graded electrical stimulation of baroreceptor afferents...
  3. Glutamate receptor recruitment to new synapses in vivo
    PHILIP ERIC WASHBOURNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are required for forming a specific circuit in a developing embryo that is required for a sensorimotor reflex. Our approach gives us the unprecedented opportunity to determine the mechanisms of glutamatergic synapse ..
  4. Mechanims of CNS Autonomic Regulation by EA
    John C Longhurst; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..recently have begun to explore the potential for acupuncture to elevate depressed blood pressure in two models of reflex vasodepression...
  5. Computer/Electrical Engineering
    Theodore Raphan; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..2. Design control electronics for measuring the cervico-ocular reflex (COR) in monkeys. 3...
  6. Chronic Electrical Stimulation to Reduce Bladder Hyperreflexia after SCI
    Kenneth J Gustafson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Neurogenic bladder can result in reflex bladder activity that can result in urinary incontinence, renal damage and autonomic dysreflexia...
  7. SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED NONINVASIVE MONITORING OF MOUSE SLEEP AND BEHAVIOR
    Sridhar Sunderam; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the capability to apply and quantify responses to sensory stimulation for selective sleep restriction and startle reflex measurement...
  8. WIDEBAND CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS AND MONITORING OF MIDDLE-EAR AND COCHLEAR FUNCTION
    Douglas H Keefe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tests in the battery to assess middle-ear function are an acoustic transfer function (ATF) test and an acoustic- reflex threshold (ART) test...
  9. ROLE OF GUT PEPTIDES IN INTESTINAL PERISTALSIS
    John R Grider; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The long term goal of this project has been to identify the components of the underlying reflex, the peristaltic reflex, and understand the complex interplay between luminal stimulants, paracrine agents ..
  10. Mechanisms of Vasovagal Syncope
    Julian M Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the microvascular mechanisms of NO modulation of noradrenergic neurotransmission free of confounding systemic reflex changes...
  11. Safety signal learning in Rhesus monkeys following early life stressChallenge Ar
    MICHAEL NMN DAVIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..an objective measure of safety signal learning and expression using identical paradigms and the acoustic startle reflex in all species. Three cues are used in the form AX+/BX-, where cues A and X in compound (e.g...
  12. VASODEPRESSOR MECHANISMS IN HYPERTENSION
    Carlos M Ferrario; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius is necessary for maintaining normal blood pressure, baroreceptor reflex function and metabolism through up-regulation of phosphatases;and Proiect 5 investigates whether Ang-(1-7) acts as ..
  13. Stem cell-mediated delivery of neurotrophic factors for treatment of glaucoma
    Donald S Sakaguchi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..delivered from biodegradable microspheres was temporally correlated with recovering visual function (pupil light reflex and electroretinogram) in rats affected with experimental glaucoma or retinal ischemia...
  14. Age and Control of Human Skin Flow
    W Larry Kenney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recently we have examined the mechanisms of age-related attenuated reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction (VC) and vasodilation (VD)...
  15. Acquisition of a MALDI-TOF/TOF MS for Glycomic and Lipidomic Research
    Larry S Schlesinger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..molecular formula determination (Q-TOF and LCT), routine LC- MS (Q-TOF and LCT), peptide and polymer screening (Reflex MALDI) and advanced proteomics requiring high resolution LC-MS/MS (Orbitrap)...
  16. Remodeling of the guinea pig intrinsic cardiac plexus with chronic heart disease
    ELIZABETH MARIE SOUTHERLAND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..final common pathway for such neural control, integrates information from multiple inputs and mediates short- loop reflex control of regional cardiac indices...
  17. The upper airway and the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
    Donald Bartlett; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..One suspected mechanism of SIDS is that stomach contents, regurgitated into the larynx, trigger a powerful reflex that stops breathing and leads to death from oxygen lack...
  18. Plasticity of nTS output neurons in acute and chronic hypoxia
    DAVID DOUGLAS KLINE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The RVLM contains neurons crucial for basal and reflex control of sympathetic activity and breathing in health and disease...
  19. Regulation of TRP channels and visual transduction
    Craig Montell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) of the mouse, which function in the pupillary light reflex and several accessory light-driven behaviors...
  20. NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF PARASYMPATHETIC CARDIAC NEURONS
    David Mendelowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..as well as those that are initiated in response to acute hypoxia challenges, and in addition impairs essential reflex activation and excitation of premotor CVNs...
  21. Nicotine Modulation of Parasympathetic Cardiac Neurons
    David Mendelowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..evokes a dramatic decrease in heart rate in animals including man, and has often been termed the `trigeminocardiac reflex'in the clinical literature, and `trigeminal depressor responses'in animal studies...
  22. ROLE OF GUT PEPTIDES IN INTESTINAL PERISTALSIS
    JOHN GRIDER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The long term goal of this project has been to identify the components of the underlying reflex, the peristaltic reflex, and understand the complex interplay between luminal stimulants, paracrine agents ..
  23. Mechanisms of Cardiac Afferents and CNS Reflex Processing
    John C Longhurst; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ischemia that play an important role in activating ischemically sensitive cardiac spinal nerve endings to evoke reflex hypertension...
  24. Neurovascular Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Renal Failure
    Jeanie Park; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The BP response during exercise is mediated by a balance between vasoconstrictive forces induced by reflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and vasodilatory forces induced by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent ..
  25. Central Sympathetic Regulation of Thermogenesis in Fever
    Shaun F Morrison; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..blood vessels and increased somatic motorneuron discharge to muscle, also constitutes the cold defense homeostatic reflex response to stimulation of cutaneous cold receptors or falls in core temperature...
  26. Sympathetic Nervous System and Heart Failure-Role of Primary Afferent Neurons
    Jianhua Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abnormalities in those receptors in primary afferent neurons may initiate the development of an exaggerated muscle reflex in HF...
  27. Molecular and Cellular Determinants of the Exercise Pressor Reflex in CHF
    Irving H Zucker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sympatho-excitation during exercise is directly related to increased contribution of the exercise pressor reflex (EPR). However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the increased EPR in CHF remain to be determined...
  28. Central TRPV1 in Cardiovascular Regulation
    MICHAEL CHRISTIAN ANDRESEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies will rely on methods including electrophysiological, live cell imaging, dye tracing and reflex assays in a combination of rats, mice and transgenic mice...
  29. The effects of glucose on central vagal brainstem circuits
    KIRSTEEN NAIRN BROWNING; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The receptive relaxation reflex is a classical, vagally-mediated reflex activated upon distension of the esophagus (during swallowing, for example)..
  30. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS TO SUPPORT BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
    Catherine E Costello; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Instrumentation Laboratory operates three mass spectrometers (a Thermo-Fisher LTQ-Orbitrap, a Bruker Daltonics Reflex IV MALDI-TOF MS and a Bruker SolariX 12-T UPLC-FTMS), that are dedicated to meeting the increasing and complex ..
  31. Gender differences in aortic baroreceptor function and neural integration
    John H Schild; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..channels in myelinated and unmyelinated BR afferents and the manner in which this defines the strikingly different reflex control of heart rate and blood pressure evoked by these neuroanatomically distinct afferent pathways...
  32. Wireless Implantable Monitor for Improved Neuromodulation
    Margot S Damaser; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Electrical stimulation of pudendal sensory pathways can arrest unwanted reflex bladder contractions in SCI patients...
  33. Pharmacology of Intravesical Antisense Based Therapy for Over Active Bladder
    Naoki Yoshimura; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..stretch can activate muscarinic receptors, leading to modulation of afferent pathways during the micturition reflex, and that increased ACh levels in the bladder can induce OAB mediated by the local effects on muscarinic receptors ..
  34. Excitability of afferents evoking the exercise pressor reflex
    Victor Ruiz-Velasco; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and channels that control excitability of the thin fiber muscle afferents that evoke the exercise pressor reflex as well as transduce the sensation of pain...
  35. Mechanisms of Neuroprotection in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius of Hibernators
    BARBARA ANN HORWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abnormalities in those receptors in primary afferent neurons may initiate the development of an exaggerated muscle reflex in HF...
  36. Intervention for Menstrual Mood Disorders &Early Life Abuse: Biopsych Mechanisms
    Susan S Girdler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..plasma ACTH and cortisol);3) inflammatory (plasma IL-6);and 4) cardiac autonomic control (baroreceptor reflex sensitivity)...
  37. Regulation of Sensory-Motor Connectivity by Semaphorin-Plexin Signaling
    Yutaka Yoshida; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The spinal reflex circuit in the spinal cord is an excellent model system to study synapse formation and synaptic specificity ..
  38. Aging, Sleep Apnea, and Vascular Control During Systemic Hypoxia
    Frank A Dinenno; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..acute reductions in arterial oxygen content (hypoxia), a physiological and pathophysiological stress that evokes reflex increases in sympathoadrenal activity as well as the synthesis of local endothelium-derived vasoactive factors...
  39. Use of Optogenetics to Assess the Role of Climbing Fibers in Motor Learning
    Rhea R Kimpo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The candidate decided to focus on the cerebellum-dependent motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in mice for three reasons: the circuit is relatively simple, learning is easily quantifiable, and mice lend ..
  40. Factors that Initiate Arrhythamias in Long QT Syndrome
    Guy Salama; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..questions regarding the neuromodulation of cardiac function by autonomic activity, the effects of intra-cardiac reflex responses and their role in LQT-related arrhythmias...
  41. Aging Auditory System: Presbycusis and Its Neural Bases
    Robert D Frisina; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..from audiology, speech perception, psychoacoustics, evoked potentials and psychophysics in humans, to startle reflex psychology, neurophysiology, evoked potentials, single-unit physiology, neuroanatomy, immunohistochemistry, and ..
  42. MECHANISM OF CARDIORESPIRATORY RHYTHM IN NEONATES
    David Mendelowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    The diving reflex is the most powerful autonomic reflex. Stimulation of the diving reflex evokes a pronounced bradycardia with heart rate decreasing up to 51% upon a single facial submersion...
  43. Sex-specific genetic architecture of irritable bowel syndrome
    Lisa A Kilpatrick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and descending pain inhibition will be examined using fMRI (Project 3) and the nociceptive lower limb flexion reflex (Project 4)...
  44. Central Endocannabinoid System Dysfunction and Hypertension
    Jeanne L Seagard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..arterial baroreceptors provide a powerful beat-to-beat regulation of blood pressure (BP) via a well- defined CNS reflex. The physiological importance of the baroreflex is underscored by the consequences of impaired baroreflex function ..
  45. Intranasal deferoxamine to treat stroke in young and older, male and female rats
    SAMUEL SCOTT PANTER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Rats will undergo 120 minute MCAO and be given an acute neurological assessment comprised of postural reflex and forelimb placing tests at 60 minutes after the onset of stroke to confirm a neurological deficit...
  46. Acoustic and electrical hearing after Atoh1 treatment
    Bryan E Pfingst; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Predeafened ears treated with Atoh1 exhibit partial restoration of function as determined by Preyer's reflex and acoustically-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds...
  47. Non-linear Characterization of the Stretch Reflex Arc and its Neuromodulation
    AMAN BEHAL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Stretch Reflex Arc (SRA) is the simplest and most fundamental regulatory mechanism of posture control and muscle contraction...
  48. SUPRASPINAL CONTROL OF SPINAL CORD PLASTICITY
    Xiang Yang Chen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..When injury or disease impairs this long-term supraspinal control, reflex patterns are distorted and spasticity and other disabling problems appear...
  49. Cystitis-Induced Plasticity of Micturitin Reflexes
    MARGARET ANN VIZZARD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transducer, transient receptor potential (TRPV) family member TRPV4, in the sensory limb of the urinary bladder reflex. These studies examine the contributions of and interactions between the neuropeptide, PACAP, and receptor PAC1 ..
  50. Muscle Afferent Feedback Effects in Patients with Heart Failure
    Markus Amann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cardinal determinants of these characteristics include excessive exercise pressor reflex, premature fatigue, and exertional dyspnea...
  51. Role of Thromboxane in the Exercise Pressor Reflex in Peripheral Artery Disease
    ANNA KATHERINE LEAL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): During physical activity, the exercise pressor reflex, a feed-back mechanism originating in skeletal muscle, increases mean arterial pressure and heart rate to ensure that the working muscle is ..
  52. Chemical Anatomy and Synaptology of Vestibulo-Sympathetic Pathways
    Gay R Holstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This latter circuit is often called the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex (VSR). Primary afferents of this pathway terminate on cells in the caudal vestibular nuclear complex (VNCc)...
  53. Arousal, orexins and anesthesia
    MAX KELZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..contribution of Ox neurons to induction and emergence from inhaled anesthesia using behavioral (loss of righting reflex) as well as electroencephalographic (EEC) assays...
  54. Producing micturition by combined afferent and effernet electrical stimulation
    Kenneth J Gustafson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e., a dorsal rhizotomy) to eliminate reflex contractions of the urethral sphincter that otherwise prevent voiding...
  55. NEURONAL BASIS UNDERLYING VOLATILE ANESTHETIC INDUCED HYPNOSIS
    MAX KELZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..MnPO, or light-induced hyperpolarization of VLPO cause resistance to anesthetic hypnosis as determined by righting reflex assays and processed EEG entropy...
  56. Mechanistic characterization of genes for hypertension and renal disease.
    Howard J Jacob; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Level one investigates blood pressure, baroreceptor reflex, oxidative stress, vascular reactivity, and response to salt load in 20 KO strains...
  57. Neural Plasticity During Acclimatization to Hypoxia
    Frank L Powell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..question in pulmonary medicine: What are the neural mechanisms that increase ventilatory drive and enhance the reflex control of arterial O2 and CO2 during chronic hypoxemia from pulmonary disease? More specifically, we will test ..
  58. Plasticity of micturition-related neurons following spinal cord injury
    Paul C Dolber; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Understanding the changes in reflex pathways is vital if effective therapies are to be developed for the debilitating consequences of SCI on the lower ..
  59. Neurovascular Responses to Reflex Cooling in Essential Hypertensive Humans
    JODY GREANEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, there is a dearth of information regarding potential aberrant regulation of these reflex pathways in hypertensive (HTN) humans during whole body cold exposure, a physiologic stress that causes increases ..
  60. DESCENDING SYSTEMS TO THE COCHLEA AND COCHLEAR NUCLEUS
    M Christian Brown; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These experiments will answer questions like, "Which neurons are the important reflex interneurons for the MOC and MEM reflexes?" and "What types of synapses do the interneurons make on MOC neurons ..
  61. Changing a reflex to improve locomotion
    Aiko Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Common motor abnormalities after SCI include spasticity and weak voluntary muscle control. Altered spinal reflex pathways contribute to these problems...
  62. Electrical Stimulation to Restore Three Dimensional Vestibular Sensation
    Charles C Della Santina; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..stimulation of three or more vestibular nerve branches;(2) characterization of the 3D angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (AVOR), vestibular nerve activity and endorgan histology in chinchillas after vestibular ototoxic injury due to ..
  63. Visualization of Pelvic Floor Reflexes
    CHRISTOS EURIPIDES CONSTANTINOU; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the pelvic floor (PF) in maintaining urinary continence by evaluating the dynamics produced during voluntary and reflex activation...
  64. DOPAMINERGIC MODULATION OF THE STARTLE REFLEX
    Michael Davis; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..research proposal are to study the neural systems involved in dopaminergic modulation of the acoustic startle reflex. In addition, based on very recent data, not contained in the original proposal, we will evaluate how some of the ..
  65. LUNG AND AIRWAY AFFERENTS AND THEIR REFLEX ROLE
    JOHN COLERIDGE; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The reflex studies have four main objectives: 1) To examine the reflex effects on tracheal submucosal gland secretion of ..
  66. Central auditory pathway of the middle ear reflex
    Daniel Lee; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..is to understand the anatomic and physiologic features of interneurons of the mammalian middle ear muscle (MEM) reflex pathway...
  67. Neuromechanical changes caused by stroke & stretching
    Li Qun Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Increased resistance to passive movement in spastic hypertonia can be due to reflex (with both tonic and phasic components) and/or non-reflex (with both viscous damping and elastic stiffness ..
  68. REFLEX REGULATION OF THE HUMAN BREATHING PATTERN
    JOHN DAUBENSPECK; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Since breathing is controlled at both subconscious (reflex) and conscious (behavioral) levels, and since both control modes depend upon mechanical information from the ..
  69. RENAL BLOOD FLOW DURING EXERCISE IN HEART FAILURE
    Holly Middlekauff; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..abstract): The overall goal of this project is further understanding of the mechanisms underlying the exaggerated reflex renal vasoconstriction in humans with heart failure during exercise...
  70. Oxytocin enhances afferent synaptic transmission within the NTS.
    JAMES PETERS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cranial afferent neurons are the first step in medullary reflex pathways and synapse at the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)...
  71. Myofilament Protein Isoforms in Neuromuscular Reflex
    Jian Ping Jin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Neuromuscular reflex plays a central role in the maintenance of muscle tone and hypertonia forms a basis of muscle contracture...