Summary: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Arousal and reward: a dichotomy in orexin function
    Glenda C Harris
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Translational Research Labs 3403, 125 South 31st Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Trends Neurosci 29:571-7. 2006
  2. pmc Sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs: a blinded controlled polysomnographic study
    Morten Engstrøm
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, N 7489, Norway
    J Headache Pain 14:12. 2013
  3. pmc The pupil as a measure of emotional arousal and autonomic activation
    Margaret M Bradley
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, Box 112766, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Psychophysiology 45:602-7. 2008
  4. ncbi How brains beware: neural mechanisms of emotional attention
    Patrik Vuilleumier
    Laboratory for Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, Department of Neurosciences and Clinic of Neurology, University Medical Center, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trends Cogn Sci 9:585-94. 2005
  5. ncbi Cardiac activation during arousal in humans: further evidence for hierarchy in the arousal response
    E Sforza
    Laboratoire de Sommeil, Departement de Psychiatrie, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Geneve, Switzerland
    Clin Neurophysiol 111:1611-9. 2000
  6. doi Emotion words, regardless of polarity, have a processing advantage over neutral words
    Stavroula Thaleia Kousta
    Research Department of Cognitive, Perceptual and Brain Sciences, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, United Kingdom
    Cognition 112:473-81. 2009
  7. doi Stuck on you: face-to-face arousal and gaze aversion in Williams syndrome
    Gwyneth Doherty-Sneddon
    Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
    Cogn Neuropsychiatry 14:510-23. 2009
  8. doi General anaesthesia: from molecular targets to neuronal pathways of sleep and arousal
    Nicholas P Franks
    Blackett Laboratory Biophysics Section, Imperial College, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:370-86. 2008
  9. ncbi Discharge of identified orexin/hypocretin neurons across the sleep-waking cycle
    Maan Gee Lee
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B4, Canada
    J Neurosci 25:6716-20. 2005
  10. ncbi Hypothalamic orexin neurons regulate arousal according to energy balance in mice
    Akihiro Yamanaka
    Institute of Basic Medical Science, University of Tsukuba, 305 8575, Ibaraki, Japan
    Neuron 38:701-13. 2003

Detail Information

Publications402 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Arousal and reward: a dichotomy in orexin function
    Glenda C Harris
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Translational Research Labs 3403, 125 South 31st Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Trends Neurosci 29:571-7. 2006
    ..Previous studies reported that this system is most strongly associated with feeding, arousal and the maintenance of waking...
  2. pmc Sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs: a blinded controlled polysomnographic study
    Morten Engstrøm
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, N 7489, Norway
    J Headache Pain 14:12. 2013
    Our aim was to compare subjective and objective sleep quality and arousal in migraine and to evaluate the relationship between sleep quality and pain thresholds (PT) in controls, interictal, preictal and postictal migraine.
  3. pmc The pupil as a measure of emotional arousal and autonomic activation
    Margaret M Bradley
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, Box 112766, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Psychophysiology 45:602-7. 2008
    Pupil diameter was monitored during picture viewing to assess effects of hedonic valence and emotional arousal on pupillary responses...
  4. ncbi How brains beware: neural mechanisms of emotional attention
    Patrik Vuilleumier
    Laboratory for Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, Department of Neurosciences and Clinic of Neurology, University Medical Center, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trends Cogn Sci 9:585-94. 2005
    ..This work should help to elucidate the neural processes and temporal dynamics governing the integration of cognitive and affective influences in attention and behaviour...
  5. ncbi Cardiac activation during arousal in humans: further evidence for hierarchy in the arousal response
    E Sforza
    Laboratoire de Sommeil, Departement de Psychiatrie, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Geneve, Switzerland
    Clin Neurophysiol 111:1611-9. 2000
    ..studies is whether bursts of K-complexes (K-bursts) and delta waves (D-bursts), expressions of a subcortical arousal, truly reflect an arousal response during sleep...
  6. doi Emotion words, regardless of polarity, have a processing advantage over neutral words
    Stavroula Thaleia Kousta
    Research Department of Cognitive, Perceptual and Brain Sciences, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, United Kingdom
    Cognition 112:473-81. 2009
    ..We found no asymmetry between negative and positive words and suggest that previous findings of such an asymmetry can be attributed to failure to control for a number of critical lexical variables and to a sampling bias...
  7. doi Stuck on you: face-to-face arousal and gaze aversion in Williams syndrome
    Gwyneth Doherty-Sneddon
    Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
    Cogn Neuropsychiatry 14:510-23. 2009
    ..We investigate whether individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), associated with hypersociability and atypical face gaze, use GA to manage cognitive load and whether physiological arousal is associated with looking at faces.
  8. doi General anaesthesia: from molecular targets to neuronal pathways of sleep and arousal
    Nicholas P Franks
    Blackett Laboratory Biophysics Section, Imperial College, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:370-86. 2008
    ..Recent work suggests that the thalamus and the neuronal networks that regulate its activity are the key to understanding how anaesthetics cause loss of consciousness...
  9. ncbi Discharge of identified orexin/hypocretin neurons across the sleep-waking cycle
    Maan Gee Lee
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B4, Canada
    J Neurosci 25:6716-20. 2005
    Although maintained by multiple arousal systems, wakefulness falters if orexin (hypocretin), orexin receptors, or orexin neurons are deficient; narcolepsy results with hypersomnolence or sudden onset of rapid eye movement sleep [or ..
  10. ncbi Hypothalamic orexin neurons regulate arousal according to energy balance in mice
    Akihiro Yamanaka
    Institute of Basic Medical Science, University of Tsukuba, 305 8575, Ibaraki, Japan
    Neuron 38:701-13. 2003
    ..respond to reduced food availability by becoming more wakeful and active, yet the central pathways regulating arousal and instinctual motor programs (such as food seeking) according to homeostatic need are not well understood...
  11. ncbi Neuropeptide S: a neuropeptide promoting arousal and anxiolytic-like effects
    Yan Ling Xu
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, USA
    Neuron 43:487-97. 2004
    b>Arousal and anxiety are behavioral responses that involve complex neurocircuitries and multiple neurochemical components...
  12. ncbi Processing of the arousal of subliminal and supraliminal emotional stimuli by the human amygdala
    Jan Gläscher
    NeuroImage Nord, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Hamburg Eppendorf, University of Hamburg, D 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 23:10274-82. 2003
    ..We investigated this issue by showing emotional visual stimuli of varying arousal to patients with left (n = 12), right (n = 8), and bilateral (n = 3) amygdala damage and compared their results ..
  13. pmc Tuning arousal with optogenetic modulation of locus coeruleus neurons
    Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:1526-33. 2010
    Neural activity in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus correlates with periods of wakefulness and arousal. However, it is unclear whether tonic or phasic activity in these neurons is necessary or sufficient to induce transitions between ..
  14. doi A quantitative meta-analysis on cue-induced male sexual arousal
    Simone Kühn
    Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Department of Experimental Psychology and Gent Institute for Functional and Metabolic Imaging, Gent University, Henri Dunantlaan, Gent, Belgium
    J Sex Med 8:2269-75. 2011
    Visually induced sexual arousal is a common occurrence in human behavior. The cerebral underpinnings of this response have been explored in recent neuroimaging studies.
  15. ncbi Activation of the visual cortex in motivated attention
    Margaret M Bradley
    National Institute of Mental Health, Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610, USA
    Behav Neurosci 117:369-80. 2003
    ..Both the extent and strength of functional activity were related to the judged affective arousal of the different picture contents, and the same pattern of functional activation was present whether pictures ..
  16. pmc The time course of the influence of valence and arousal on the implicit processing of affective pictures
    Chunliang Feng
    State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e29668. 2012
    ..positive) by arousal (low vs. high)...
  17. ncbi Adenosine A2A, but not A1, receptors mediate the arousal effect of caffeine
    Zhi Li Huang
    Department of Molecular Behavioral Biology, Osaka Bioscience Institute, Osaka 565 0874, Japan
    Nat Neurosci 8:858-9. 2005
    ..Thus, caffeine-induced wakefulness depends on adenosine A2A receptors...
  18. doi Reading emotional words within sentences: the impact of arousal and valence on event-related potentials
    Mareike Bayer
    Department of Psychology, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Germany
    Int J Psychophysiol 78:299-307. 2010
    ..within the framework of two-dimensional models of affect, conceiving emotion as a function of valence and arousal. Negative and neutral target verbs, embedded within sentences, were presented while event-related brain ..
  19. ncbi A neural circuit for circadian regulation of arousal
    G Aston-Jones
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, VAMC 151, University and Woodland Avenues, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nat Neurosci 4:732-8. 2001
    ..In this report, we describe the necessary elements for a circuit that provides circadian regulation of arousal. Trans-synaptic retrograde tracing revealed a prominent indirect projection from the SCN to the noradrenergic ..
  20. pmc Glucocorticoid effects on object recognition memory require training-associated emotional arousal
    Shoki Okuda
    Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, and Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 3800, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:853-8. 2004
    ..experiments investigated whether the influence of these hormones on memory depends on the level of emotional arousal induced by the training experience...
  21. ncbi Overlapping distributions of orexin/hypocretin- and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers in rat brain regions mediating arousal, motivation, and stress
    Brian A Baldo
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Madison Medical School, 6001 Research Park Blvd, Madison, Wisconsin 53719, USA
    J Comp Neurol 464:220-37. 2003
    ..DbetaH) -immunopositive projections and the projections of hypothalamic neurons containing the arousal- and feeding-related peptide, orexin/hypocretin (HCRT), in rat brain...
  22. doi Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal and orgasm in healthy men and women: a review and meta-analysis
    Serge Stoléru
    INSERM, U669, 123 rue de Reuilly, Paris, F 75012, France
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 36:1481-509. 2012
    ..years, functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal in healthy human subjects...
  23. ncbi Neural correlates of attention and arousal: insights from electrophysiology, functional neuroimaging and psychopharmacology
    J T Coull
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology and University College London, UK
    Prog Neurobiol 55:343-61. 1998
    Attention and arousal are multi-dimensional psychological processes, which interact closely with one another. The neural substrates of attention, as well as the interaction between arousal and attention, are discussed in this review...
  24. ncbi Neural activity in the human brain relating to uncertainty and arousal during anticipation
    H D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, 12 Queen Square, Institute of Neurology, University College London, WC1N 3BG, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 29:537-45. 2001
    ..between reward-related decisions and their outcomes, and the modulation of this delay activity by uncertainty and arousal. Feedback, indicating financial gain or loss, was given following a fixed delay...
  25. ncbi On the functional neuroanatomy of intrinsic and phasic alertness
    W Sturm
    Department of Neurology Neuropsychology, Medical Faculty of the RWTH Aachen, Aachen, D 52074, Germany
    Neuroimage 14:S76-84. 2001
    ..Intrinsic alertness represents the cognitive control of wakefulness and arousal and is typically assessed by simple reaction time tasks without a preceding warning stimulus...
  26. ncbi The intralaminar and midline nuclei of the thalamus. Anatomical and functional evidence for participation in processes of arousal and awareness
    Ysbrand D Van Der Werf
    Department of Anatomy, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Neurosciences Vrije Universiteit, Graduate School for Neurosciences Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 39:107-40. 2002
  27. doi Interactions between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and early life stress predict brain and arousal pathways to syndromal depression and anxiety
    J M Gatt
    The Brain Dynamics Centre, Westmead Millennium Institute and University of Sydney at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Mol Psychiatry 14:681-95. 2009
    ..Multiple regression analysis revealed main effects of ELS for body arousal (resting heart rate, P=0.005) and symptoms (depression and anxiety, P<0...
  28. pmc Two routes to emotional memory: distinct neural processes for valence and arousal
    Elizabeth A Kensinger
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3310-5. 2004
    ..information, but they have not directly contrasted effects attributable to valence and those attributable to arousal. By using functional MRI and behavioral studies, we found that distinct cognitive and neural processes contribute ..
  29. ncbi Hypocretin/Orexin excites hypocretin neurons via a local glutamate neuron-A potential mechanism for orchestrating the hypothalamic arousal system
    Ying Li
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Neuron 36:1169-81. 2002
    Neurons that release hypocretin/orexin modulate sleep, arousal, and energy homeostasis; the absence of hypocretin results in narcolepsy...
  30. pmc How to handle anxiety: The effects of reappraisal, acceptance, and suppression strategies on anxious arousal
    Stefan G Hofmann
    Department of Psychology, Boston University, 648 Beacon Street, 6th Floor, Boston, MA 02215 2002, USA
    Behav Res Ther 47:389-94. 2009
    ..The Reappraisal group was instructed to regulate their anxious arousal by reappraising the situation; the Suppression group was asked to suppress their anxious behaviors; and the ..
  31. pmc Neural correlates of processing valence and arousal in affective words
    P A Lewis
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK
    Cereb Cortex 17:742-8. 2007
    Psychological frameworks conceptualize emotion along 2 dimensions, "valence" and "arousal." Arousal invokes a single axis of intensity increasing from neutral to maximally arousing...
  32. doi Early life stress combined with serotonin 3A receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor valine 66 to methionine genotypes impacts emotional brain and arousal correlates of risk for depression
    Justine M Gatt
    Brain Dynamics Center, University of Sydney Medical School and Westmead Millennium Institute, Australia
    Biol Psychiatry 68:818-24. 2010
    ..of depression relies on elucidating the integrative relationships between susceptibility markers from gene-stress interactions and how they impact emotional brain and arousal systems. They have largely been studied in isolation.
  33. ncbi Fear and anxiety: animal models and human cognitive psychophysiology
    P J Lang
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, P O Box 100165, HSC, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    J Affect Disord 61:137-59. 2000
  34. ncbi Sleep homeostasis in Drosophila melanogaster
    Reto Huber
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53719, USA
    Sleep 27:628-39. 2004
  35. doi Early emotion word processing: evidence from event-related potentials
    Graham G Scott
    Department of Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
    Biol Psychol 80:95-104. 2009
    ..The overall pattern of results is consistent with a time line of word recognition in which semantic analysis, including the evaluation of emotional quality, occurs at an early, lexical stage of processing...
  36. ncbi Anxiolytic action on the behavioural inhibition system implies multiple types of arousal contribute to anxiety
    N McNaughton
    Department of Psychology and Centre for Neuroscience, University of Otago, P O Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    J Affect Disord 61:161-76. 2000
    ..subcortical control of hippocampal "theta" activity - the principle response of the septo-hippocampal system to arousal. Our recent experiments show that there are multiple systems controlling theta activity and that anxiolytics act ..
  37. doi Emotional Stroop task: effect of word arousal and subject anxiety on emotional interference
    Thomas Dresler
    Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Research Center, Berlin NeuroImaging Center, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany
    Psychol Res 73:364-71. 2009
    ..the emotional Stroop effect in healthy subjects may be explained by confounding effects of stimulus valence and arousal, as well as individual differences in anxiety...
  38. doi Acoustic features to arousal and identity in disturbance calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)
    Simone Schehka
    Institute of Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 203:223-31. 2009 lead to commonalities in the vocal conveyance of acoustic features to specific attributes of callers, such as arousal and individual identity...
  39. ncbi Indirect projections from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to major arousal-promoting cell groups in rat: implications for the circadian control of behavioural state
    S Deurveilher
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5, Canada
    Neuroscience 130:165-83. 2005
    ..In the absence of major direct SCN projections to most of these sleep/wake-regulatory regions, indirect neuronal pathways probably play an important role in the circadian control of sleep-wake cycles and other physiological functions...
  40. ncbi The nature of arousal in sleep
    Peter Halasz
    Neurological Department, National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Budapest, Hungary
    J Sleep Res 13:1-23. 2004
    ..In addition, the concept of micro-arousal (MA) has been extended, incorporating, besides the classical low-voltage fast-rhythm electroencephalographic (EEG)..
  41. pmc Role of innate and drug-induced dysregulation of brain stress and arousal systems in addiction: Focus on corticotropin-releasing factor, nociceptin/orphanin FQ, and orexin/hypocretin
    Remi Martin-Fardon
    The Scripps Research Institute, Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, SP30 2120, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Brain Res 1314:145-61. 2010
    ..Orx/Hcrt system helps regulate several physiological processes, including feeding, energy metabolism, and arousal. Moreover, these two systems have been suggested to participate in psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and ..
  42. ncbi Dysfunction of arousal systems in sleep-related migraine without aura
    G Della Marca
    Department of Neuroscience, Catholic University Rome, Italy
    Cephalalgia 26:857-64. 2006
    Primary headaches are closely related to sleep. Modifications in the patterns of arousal during sleep have been reported in migraine, especially in the nights preceding a headache attack...
  43. ncbi Hormonal cycle modulates arousal circuitry in women using functional magnetic resonance imaging
    Jill M Goldstein
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Connors Center for Women s Health and Gender Biology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 25:9309-16. 2005
    ..the early follicular menstrual cycle phase compared with late follicular/midcycle, using negative valence/high arousal versus neutral visual stimuli, validated by concomitant electrodermal activity (EDA)...
  44. ncbi Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms
    Clifford B Saper
    Department of Neurology and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, 02215, USA
    Nature 437:1257-63. 2005
    ..A key switch in the hypothalamus shuts off this arousal system during sleep...
  45. pmc Arousal effect of orexin A depends on activation of the histaminergic system
    Z L Huang
    Department of Molecular Behavioral Biology, Osaka Bioscience Institute, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:9965-70. 2001
    ..These findings strongly indicate that the arousal effect of orexin A depends on the activation of histaminergic neurotransmission mediated by H1R.
  46. ncbi Catechol O-methyltransferase val158met genotype and neural mechanisms related to affective arousal and regulation
    Emily M Drabant
    Genes, Cognition, and Psychosis Program, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health DHHS, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:1396-406. 2006
  47. ncbi The hypocretins: setting the arousal threshold
    J Gregor Sutcliffe
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 3:339-49. 2002
    ..converged on the discovery of a neuropeptide system, centred in the dorsolateral hypothalamus, that regulates arousal states, influences feeding and is implicated in the sleep disorder narcolepsy...
  48. ncbi Attention, arousal, and memory in posttraumatic stress disorder
    B T Litz
    National Center for PTSD, Boston Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Massachusetts 02130, USA
    J Trauma Stress 9:497-519. 1996
    ..PTSD symptoms and threat reactions contributed to MSP interference effects for high-threat words after controlling for medications, depression, and baseline physiological activity...
  49. ncbi May I have your attention, please: electrocortical responses to positive and negative stimuli
    N Kyle Smith
    Department of Psychology, Ohio Wesleyan University, Phillips Hall, Delaware, OH 43015, USA
    Neuropsychologia 41:171-83. 2003
    ..This is (a) evidence for the extremely rapid (<120 ms) differentiation of positive and negative stimuli and (b) process-based evidence for a negativity bias in attention allocation...
  50. ncbi Processing of emotional adjectives: Evidence from startle EMG and ERPs
    Cornelia Herbert
    Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
    Psychophysiology 43:197-206. 2006
    ..Specific effects for pleasant material may arise from a "positivity offset," favoring responses to pleasant material at lower arousal levels.
  51. ncbi Effects of attention and arousal on early responses in striate cortex
    Vahe Poghosyan
    Laboratory for Human Brain Dynamics, BSI, RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama, 351 0198, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 22:225-34. 2005
    ..Even before the striate cortex, activity of the right inferior parietal lobule was modulated by attention, suggesting this region as a candidate for mediating attentional signals to the striate cortex...
  52. ncbi A novel demonstration of enhanced memory associated with emotional arousal
    L Cahill
    Department of Psychobiology, University of California, Irvine 92717 3800, USA
    Conscious Cogn 4:410-21. 1995
    The relationship between emotional arousal and long-term memory is addressed in two experiments in which subjects viewed either a relatively emotionally neutral short story (presented as a brief slide show) or a closely matched but more ..
  53. ncbi Distinct narcolepsy syndromes in Orexin receptor-2 and Orexin null mice: molecular genetic dissection of Non-REM and REM sleep regulatory processes
    Jon T Willie
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Neuron 38:715-30. 2003
  54. doi Neural correlates of written emotion word processing: a review of recent electrophysiological and hemodynamic neuroimaging studies
    Francesca M M Citron
    Cluster of Excellence Languages of Emotion, Freie Universitat Berlin, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Brain Lang 122:211-26. 2012
    ..importantly to address the distinct and interactive contributions of the two dimensions of emotion: valence and arousal. The aim of the present review is to integrate findings from electrophysiological (ERP) and hemodynamic ..
  55. pmc Adaptive mechanisms regulate preferred utilization of ketones in the heart and brain of a hibernating mammal during arousal from torpor
    Matthew T Andrews
    Department of Biology, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota 1035 Kirby Dr, Duluth, MN 55812, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 296:R383-93. 2009
    ..During arousal from torpor, glucose enters the brain over a wide range of body temperatures, but metabolism is minimal, as only ..
  56. pmc Synchronized arousal between performers and related spectators in a fire-walking ritual
    Ivana Konvalinka
    Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:8514-9. 2011
    ..Here we show physiological effects of synchronized arousal in a Spanish fire-walking ritual, between active participants and related spectators, but not participants and ..
  57. pmc Noradrenergic modulation of arousal
    Craig W Berridge
    Psychology Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Brain Res Rev 58:1-17. 2008
    ..Norepinephrine enhances arousal, in part, via actions of beta- and alpha1-receptors located within multiple subcortical structures, including the ..
  58. doi Central thalamic contributions to arousal regulation and neurological disorders of consciousness
    Nicholas D Schiff
    Laboratory of Cognitive Neuromodulation, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1129:105-18. 2008
    This review focuses on the contributions of the central thalamus to normal mechanisms of arousal regulation and to neurological disorders of consciousness...
  59. ncbi Dissociable effects of arousal and valence on prefrontal activity indexing emotional evaluation and subsequent memory: an event-related fMRI study
    Florin Dolcos
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 0999, USA
    Neuroimage 23:64-74. 2004
    ..The effect of arousal on these measures was indicated by greater activity for both positive and negative pictures than for neutral ones,..
  60. ncbi Role of stress, arousal, and coping skills in primary insomnia
    Charles M Morin
    Universite Laval, Ecole de Psychologie, Sainte Foy, Quebec, Canada
    Psychosom Med 65:259-67. 2003
    ..The present study examined the relationship of stress and coping skills, and the potential mediating role of presleep arousal, to sleep patterns in good sleepers and insomnia sufferers.
  61. pmc Glucocorticoid enhancement of memory requires arousal-induced noradrenergic activation in the basolateral amygdala
    Benno Roozendaal
    Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, and Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 3800, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:6741-6. 2006
    ..However, previous studies have not determined the basis of such arousal-induced selectivity...
  62. pmc Affective visual event-related potentials: arousal, repetition, and time-on-task
    Jonas K Olofsson
    Department of Psychology, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    Biol Psychol 75:101-8. 2007
    ..b>Arousal effects did not interact with stimulus repetition at any latency range...
  63. ncbi Age-related differences in valence and arousal ratings of pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS): do ratings become more extreme with age?
    Daniel Grühn
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    Behav Res Methods 40:512-21. 2008
    ..The aim of the present study was to close this gap by providing ratings of valence and arousal for 504 IAPS pictures by 53 young and 53 older adults...
  64. ncbi The visual scoring of sleep and arousal in infants and children
    Madeleine Grigg-Damberger
    Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    J Clin Sleep Med 3:201-40. 2007
    ..frontal, frontocentral, or occipital maximal rhythmic 3-5 Hz slowing; (6) vertex sharp waves; and/or (7) post-arousal hypersynchrony...
  65. doi Emotional time distortions: the fundamental role of arousal
    Sandrine Gil
    Psychology Department, University of Poitiers, CNRS, Poitiers, France
    Cogn Emot 26:847-62. 2012
    ..lengthening effect on the perception of durations of emotional pictures has been assumed to result from an arousal-based mechanism, involving the activation of an internal clock system...
  66. pmc Multilevel modulation of a sensory motor circuit during C. elegans sleep and arousal
    Julie Y Cho
    Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Cell 156:249-60. 2014
    Sleep is characterized by behavioral quiescence, homeostasis, increased arousal threshold, and rapid reversibility...
  67. doi Electroencephalogram theta/beta ratio and arousal in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence of independent processes
    Robert J Barry
    Brain and Behaviour Research Institute and School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia
    Biol Psychiatry 66:398-401. 2009
    ..within the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) literature as a marker of central nervous system (CNS) arousal, underpinning current models of the disorder. However, this usage has not been validated...
  68. pmc Noradrenergic modulation of wakefulness/arousal
    Craig W Berridge
    Psychology Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Sleep Med Rev 16:187-97. 2012
    ..wake-promoting action of central noradrenergic neurotransmission has clinical implications for treatment of sleep/arousal disorders, such as insomnia and narcolepsy, and clinical conditions associated with excessive arousal, such as ..
  69. doi Saccadic velocity as an arousal index in naturalistic tasks
    Leandro L Di Stasi
    Department of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, 350 West Thomas Road, Phoenix, AZ 85013, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 37:968-75. 2013
    ..We moreover discuss the hypothesis that changes in saccadic velocity indicate variations in sympathetic nervous system activation; that is, variations in arousal.
  70. doi Affective picture modulation: valence, arousal, attention allocation and motivational significance
    Jorge Leite
    Neuropsychophysiology Lab Cipsi, School of Psychology, University of Minho, Portugal
    Int J Psychophysiol 83:375-81. 2012
    ..The affective pictures categories were balanced in terms of valence (pleasant; unpleasant) and arousal (high; low)...
  71. ncbi Maternal hen calls modulate memory formation in the day-old chick: the role of noradrenaline
    S E Field
    School of Psychology, Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, Monash University, VIC 3800, Australia
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 88:321-30. 2007
    ..Increased arousal, mediated by noradrenergic activation, is believed to underlie this effect...
  72. ncbi A quantitative model of sleep-wake dynamics based on the physiology of the brainstem ascending arousal system
    A J K Phillips
    School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
    J Biol Rhythms 22:167-79. 2007
    A quantitative, physiology-based model of the ascending arousal system is developed, using continuum neuronal population modeling, which involves averaging properties such as firing rates across neurons in each population...
  73. ncbi Dopamine is a regulator of arousal in the fruit fly
    Kazuhiko Kume
    Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860 0811, Japan
    J Neurosci 25:7377-84. 2005
    Sleep and arousal are known to be regulated by both homeostatic and circadian processes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood...
  74. ncbi How arousal modulates memory: disentangling the effects of attention and retention
    Tali Sharot
    New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 4:294-306. 2004
    ..To date, studies have focused on the enhancement of memory consolidation by arousal. However, they have failed to rule out a role for attention...
  75. pmc Improvement in arousal, visual neglect, and perception of stimulus intensity following cold pressor stimulation
    Adam J Woods
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Neurocase 18:115-22. 2012
    The relationship between arousal, perception, and visual neglect was examined in this case study...
  76. doi Noise effects on human performance: a meta-analytic synthesis
    James L Szalma
    Performance Research Laboratory, Departmentof Psychology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
    Psychol Bull 137:682-707. 2011
    ..were made on the basis of major theories of noise and performance, specifically those explanations based on arousal, masking, or cognitive-resource mechanisms...
  77. ncbi Emotional perception: correlation of functional MRI and event-related potentials
    Dean Sabatinelli
    NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Cereb Cortex 17:1085-91. 2007
    ..visual cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals were both modulated by the rated intensity of picture arousal. The amplitude of the LPP correlated significantly with BOLD intensity in lateral occipital, inferotemporal, and ..
  78. ncbi Nesbitt's Paradox resolved? Stress and arousal modulation during cigarette smoking
    A C Parrott
    Department of Psychology, University of East London, UK
    Addiction 93:27-39. 1998
    ..smoking generates physiological and psychological changes which are normally incompatible, namely increased arousal together with decreased stress...
  79. ncbi Performance in auditory and visual emotional stroop tasks: a comparison of older and younger adults
    Lee H Wurm
    Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
    Psychol Aging 19:523-35. 2004
    ..Latencies were longer for test words high on arousal, but only for older adults...
  80. ncbi Remembering emotional experiences: the contribution of valence and arousal
    Elizabeth A Kensinger
    Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Rev Neurosci 15:241-51. 2004
    Emotional experiences can be described by two factors: valence (how negative or positive) and arousal (how calming or exciting). Although both dimensions appear to influence memory, they may do so via distinct mechanisms...
  81. doi Emotional arousal modulates the encoding of crime-related details and corresponding physiological responses in the Concealed Information Test
    Judith Peth
    Department of Systems Neuroscience, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Psychophysiology 49:381-90. 2012
    ..However, its field applicability is still debated, and it is specifically unknown how emotional arousal during a crime would influence CIT results...
  82. pmc Amygdalar peptidergic circuits regulating noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons: linking limbic and arousal centers
    B A S Reyes
    Department of Neuroscience, Farber Institute for Neurosciences, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Exp Neurol 230:96-105. 2011
  83. doi A single exposure to social isolation in domestic piglets activates behavioural arousal, neuroendocrine stress hormones, and stress-related gene expression in the brain
    E Kanitz
    Research Unit Behavioural Physiology, Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals, Wilhelm Stahl Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany
    Physiol Behav 98:176-85. 2009 isolation in piglets caused age-dependent neuroendocrine and behavioural changes that indicate increased arousal and experienced distress...
  84. pmc Lasting increases in basolateral amygdala activity after emotional arousal: implications for facilitated consolidation of emotional memories
    Joe Guillaume Pelletier
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers State University, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA
    Learn Mem 12:96-102. 2005
    ..Although this suggests that BLA activity is altered after emotional arousal, such changes have not been directly demonstrated...
  85. doi Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP): the marker of sleep instability
    Liborio Parrino
    Sleep Disorders Center, Department of Neurosciences, University of Parma, Italy
    Sleep Med Rev 16:27-45. 2012
  86. ncbi Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures
    P A Robinson
    Theoretical Physics Group and Center for Wave Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
    Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 65:041924. 2002
    ..Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters...
  87. pmc The effect of arousal on the emotional memory network depends on valence
    Katherine R Mickley Steinmetz
    Department of Psychology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA
    Neuroimage 53:318-24. 2010
    Some suggest that arousal is the essential element needed to engage the amygdala...
  88. doi Cortical arousal in children with severe enuresis
    Chung K Yeung
    N Engl J Med 358:2414-5. 2008
  89. ncbi Processing emotional pictures and words: effects of valence and arousal
    Elizabeth A Kensinger
    Department of Psychology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 6:110-26. 2006
    ..Negative and positive items were equated on arousal. The participants rated each item for whether it depicted or described something animate or inanimate or ..
  90. pmc More aroused, less fatigued: fatty acid amide hydrolase gene polymorphisms influence acute response to amphetamine
    Andrea M Dlugos
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:613-22. 2010
    ..Associations between individual genotypes and levels of self-reported Arousal (Profile of Mood States) after d-amphetamine ingestion were investigated using two-way ANOVAs/ANCOVAs...
  91. ncbi Emotional control of nociceptive reactions (ECON): do affective valence and arousal play a role?
    Jamie L Rhudy
    Department of Psychology, The University of Tulsa, 600 South College Avenue, Tulsa, OK 74104, USA
    Pain 136:250-61. 2008
    ..The present study sought to determine whether emotional valence and arousal contribute to nociception modulation...
  92. ncbi Attentional effects of noradrenaline vary with arousal level: selective activation of thalamic pulvinar in humans
    Jennifer T Coull
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuroimage 22:315-22. 2004
    ..can switch rapidly from a state of extremely low to almost full consciousness following phasic increases in arousal or cognitive demand...
  93. doi Emotions induced by operatic music: psychophysiological effects of music, plot, and acting: a scientist's tribute to Maria Callas
    Felicia Rodica Balteş
    Emotion and Cognition Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Babes Bolyai University, Cluj Napoca, CJ 400015, Romania
    Brain Cogn 76:146-57. 2011
    ..Music listening alone elicited positive emotion and autonomic arousal, seen in faster heart rate, but slower respiration rate and reduced skin conductance...
  94. doi Specific cerebral activation due to visual erotic stimuli in male-to-female transsexuals compared with male and female controls: an fMRI study
    Elke R Gizewski
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
    J Sex Med 6:440-8. 2009
    ..Differences between males and females in terms of functional imaging during erotic stimuli have been previously described, revealing gender-specific results...
  95. doi Affective processing within 1/10th of a second: High arousal is necessary for early facilitative processing of negative but not positive words
    Markus J Hofmann
    Free University Berlin, Germany
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 9:389-97. 2009
    Lexical decisions to high- and low-arousal negative words and to low-arousal neutral and positive words were examined in an event-related potentials (ERP) study...
  96. doi The role of physiological arousal in time perception: psychophysiological evidence from an emotion regulation paradigm
    N Mella
    Unit of Cognitive Neurosciences and Cerebral Imaging, CNRS, Paris, France
    Brain Cogn 75:182-7. 2011
    Time perception, crucial for adaptive behavior, has been shown to be altered by emotion. An arousal-dependent mechanism is proposed to account for such an effect...
  97. doi Hyperarousal and insomnia: state of the science
    Michael H Bonnet
    Dayton Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45428, USA
    Sleep Med Rev 14:9-15. 2010
    ..increased, additional evidence continues to suggest that insomnia is associated with inappropriate physiological arousal. It is now known that patients with primary insomnia have increased high-frequency EEG activation, abnormal ..
  98. ncbi Functional MR imaging of regional brain activation associated with the affective experience of pain
    R K Fulbright
    Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, Box 208042, 333 Cedar St, New Haven, CT 06520-8042, USA
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 177:1205-10. 2001
  99. ncbi Buzzwords: early cortical responses to emotional words during reading
    Johanna Kissler
    Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
    Psychol Sci 18:475-80. 2007
    ..early processing stages, emotion-related enhancement of cortical activity along the dominant processing pathway is due to arousal, rather than valence of the stimuli. This enhancement may be driven by cortico-amygdaloid connections.
  100. doi Identification of a dopamine pathway that regulates sleep and arousal in Drosophila
    Taro Ueno
    Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
    Nat Neurosci 15:1516-23. 2012
    ..We found that the D1 dopamine receptor (DA1) in the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFSB) mediates the arousal effect of dopamine in Drosophila...
  101. ncbi Autonomic response in depersonalization disorder
    Mauricio Sierra
    Institute of Psychiatry, 103 Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AZ, England
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:833-8. 2002
    ..In this study, we tested the prediction that autonomic response to emotional stimuli would be reduced in patients with depersonalization disorder...

Research Grants76

    Patrice G Guyenet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..First, activation of the C1 neurons contributes to the arousal effect of acute asphyxia/hypoxia...
  2. Epigenomic Events in Development of the Locus Coeruleus Noradrenergic Neurons
    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a critical component of the circuitry that is necessary for the processes of learning, memory, attention, sleep, arousal, anxiety, and responses to stress...
  3. Respiratory and autonomic plasticity following intermittent hypoxia
    JASON HAROLD MATEIKA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of LTF in humans might in part be dependent on a variety of factors, including prior exposure to IH, arousal state (wake vs. sleep) and gender...
  4. Olfactory Circuits for Reproduction and Reward
    James A Cherry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that process reproductively salient odor cues, and may also help elucidate the mechanism whereby non-olfactory (visual, auditory, or purely cognitive) inputs control sex partner preference and sexual arousal in humans.
  5. Iyengar yoga for adolescents and young adults with irritable bowel syndrome
    Subhadra Evans; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Emotional stress appears to exacerbate IBS symptoms suggesting that mind-body interventions reducing arousal may prove beneficial...
  6. Connexins in Neuronal and Glial Gap Junctions in the Central Nervous System
    John E Rash; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..optimizing the high-frequency neuronal oscillatory synchronizations that are thought to underlie consciousness, arousal from sleep, cognition, associative binding for learning and memory, and fine motor control, and which become ..
  7. Anxiety development in 5-HT1A autoreceptor knockout mice, interaction with stress
    Rene Hen; Fiscal Year: 2010 divided into two categories: 1) state anxiety, which is an acute adaptive response of heightened vigilance and arousal that enables an organism to navigate an unfamiliar environment of unknown danger, and 2) trait anxiety which is a ..
  8. Presynaptic Mechanisms Regulating the Dopamine Transporter
    JAMES A HARDAWAY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In humans, DA signaling modulates arousal, cognition, reward, and motor function...
  9. Inducible recombination and gene expression in specific neurotransmitter systems
    Steven A Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2012 highly relevant to the understanding of fundamental neurophysiological and behavioral processes such as sleep, arousal and attention, motivation and reward, and learning and memory, as well as disorders related to these processes ..
  10. PTSD Hyperarousal Symptoms Treated with Physiological Stress Management
    WALTON THOMPSON ROTH; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Neuroimaging findings in PTSD support the idea that regulation of autonomic arousal from the cingulate cortex can be helpful in reducing anxiety...
  11. Integrated PTSD and Smoking Treatment
    Mark B Powers; Fiscal Year: 2013 smokers'progression to nicotine dependence and cessation relapse include negative affect, fear, increased arousal, irritability, anger, distress intolerance, and anxiety sensitivity...
  12. Perinatal Assessment of At-Risk Populations
    William P Fifer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also propose to augment our autonomic challenges to include investigation of arousal and learning...
  13. Sleep in Rats: From Conceptualization to Measurement, Analysis and Interpretation
    Gayle Giboney Page; Fiscal Year: 2010 electroencephalogram (EEG)/electromyogram (EMG) electrode and telemetry unit implantation, quantification of arousal states and EEG spectral analysis, and statistical methods in the analysis of sleep outcomes...
    Helen A Baghdoyan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that GABAergic and cholinergic transmission in the pontine reticular formation interact to regulate levels of arousal. Aim 4 will test the hypothesis that GABA and glutamate levels in the pontine reticular formation change in a ..
  15. Developmental defects in serotonin neurons and the response to O2 and CO2
    George B Richerson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..neurons of the raphe nuclei are sensors of arterial carbon dioxide that respond to hypercapnia by inducing arousal, an increase in breathing, and other changes aimed at restoring pH/CO2 homeostasis...
  16. Modulation of subcortical visual information processing
    CHARLES LEROY COX; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g., sleep/wake, attention, arousal), and certain pathophysiological conditions such as generalized absence epilepsy...
  17. Integrated Treatment for Smoking Cessation &Anxiety in People with HIV
    Michael J Zvolensky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..anxiety disorders and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (or fear of somatic arousal), negatively impact cessation...
  18. How do Amine Neurons Work?
    Edward A Kravitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Arousal, reward, learning and memory, risk taking behavior, aggression and stress related behavioral and physiological ..
  19. Brain changes in tinnitus
    Josef P Rauschecker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and the NAc that both tinnitus and activity in the subcallosal area (including the NAc) are modulated by stress, arousal, and sleep deprivation...
  20. Exercise Intervention for Smoking
    Michael J Zvolensky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal), negatively impact cessation...
  21. Depression &CHD: Cellular-Molecular Mechanisms
    EDWARD CARLOS SUAREZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and at the cellular/molecular level via attenuation of stress-induced cardiovascular and adrenergic responses and arousal of negative affect, both shown to predict inflammatory cellular markers...
  22. Molecular-Genetic Dissection of Basal Forebrain Circuitry Regulating Arousal
    PATRICK MICHAEL FULLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the "ascending reticular activating system") contains circuitry critical for maintaining behavioral arousal and an aroused cortex, which is the sine qua non for cognition and purposeful behaviors...
  23. Treatment Implications of Trauma Memory Modulation for PTSD & Alcohol Dependence
    Michael E Saladin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..after recalling the memory of a fear-inducing event(s) can result in an attenuation of the negative emotion and arousal of memories for the fear-inducing events...
  24. Enhancing NEAT to Treat Obesity
    Catherine M Kotz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Orexin neurons appear to play a key role as they project to brain areas involved in arousal and activity and loss of brain orexin activity increases body mass index...
  25. Inflammatory Cytokine regulation of POMC and Orexin neurons in cachexia.
    AARON GROSSBERG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Recent research has implicated the role of orexin neurons in the maintenance of arousal and somnolence...
  26. The Effect of Maternal Stress on Perinatal Development
    LISA J ECKLUND-FLORES; Fiscal Year: 2011 pregnant participants, and correlate those measures with their fetuses' neurobehavioral attention and arousal. The second phase of research assesses subsequent newborn autonomic and CNS reactivity to auditory stimulation ..
  27. Functional Anatomy of REM Sleep: Brainstem-Control
    Gerald A Marks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the biological functions or brain mechanisms subserving initiation and maintenance of this unique state of arousal are incompletely understood...
  28. Modulation of subcortical visual information processing
    Charles Cox; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..g., sleep/wake, attention, arousal), and certain pathophysiological conditions such as generalized absence epilepsy...
  29. Sleep, Arousal, and Spontaneous Movements in Opioid Exposed Infants
    Marie J Hayes; Fiscal Year: 2010 detect the periodicity and bout structure of spontaneous movements (SM) a putative autonomic probe of arousal regulatory integrity. Healthy human neonates express 1-5 minute cycles of 5-25 second bursts of SM...
  30. Intervention for Menstrual Mood Disorders &Early Life Abuse: Biopsych Mechanisms
    Susan S Girdler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Early life abuse (ELA) impacts neurobiological systems that regulate stress, arousal and emotion...
  31. Prediction of Physiological Events in People with Sleep Disordered Breathing
    Jonathan A Waxman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..An arousal, or brief, often unnoticed, disruption of sleep is commonly associated with apnea...
  32. Hypothalamic Mechanisms in Cachexia
    Daniel L Marks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have also shown that cytokines affect the function of MCH and orexin neurons, key players in food intake and arousal, respectively...
  33. MBSR Symptom Cluster Trial for Breast Cancer Survivors
    Cecile A Lengacher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..evaluated is a clinical program that provides systematic training to promote stress reduction by self-regulating arousal to stress...
  34. Intercellular networks and luminal acidification in the male reproductive tract
    Sylvie Breton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose that stimulation of principal cells by basolateral paracrine factors during sexual arousal leads to subsequent activation of clear cells via ATP and bicarbonate that are secreted into the epididymal lumen...
  35. The Ventral Medulla and the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
    HANNAH CHASE KINNEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..derangements in protective homeostatic responses related to 5-HT and GABA, including autoresuscitation, arousal, and the laryngeal chemoreflex (Projects II and III);4) the development and connectivity of subtypes of brainstem ..
  36. Agonistic Stress and CVD Risk in Young Adults
    Craig K Ewart; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will pool data from the 3 original PH studies to generate indices of adolescent AG behavior, AG stress (AS;anger arousal / hostility/ hostile environment), Dysphoric Affect (DA;anxiety/ depression/ isolation), and risky health habits (..
  37. Sleep promotion in zebrafish by hypocretin neuronal networks
    Philippe Mourrain; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..criteria (circadian rhythm, reversible periods of immobility, place preference, characteristic posture, increased arousal threshold, sleep rebound)...
  38. Ethanol modulation of nicotinic receptors
    John McDaid; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..projections to limbic areas, basal ganglia and the thalamus contribute to many behaviors including reward, arousal, motor control and sensitization to drugs of abuse...
  39. From Child Maltreatment to Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risks, Protective Factors
    Penelope K Trickett; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..indictors of stress reactivity (salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase) and autonomic nervous system arousal (skin conductance, heart rate);indicators of cognitive abilities and school performance;and pubertal development...
  40. The Role Leptin on Arousal
    PAIGE B BECK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Dysregulation of sleep/wake control can result in life-long disturbances in arousal and REM sleep drive, leading to hypervigilance or hypovigilance such as that observed in a number of ..
  41. Synaptic basis of perceptual learning in primary auditory cortex
    ROBERT CROOKS FROEMKE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Norepinephrine is important for selective attention, general arousal, and learning, is a major factor in stress, and s released by the locus coeruleus, a small and relatively ..
  42. Functional Connectivity of the Hypocretin/Orexin System
    Thomas S Kilduff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): The hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) system is a neuropeptide system involved in behavioral arousal, metabolism, addiction, stress-induced analgesia (SIA) and neuroendocrine function...
  43. Mechanisms of the Relaxation Response in Elderly Hypertensives
    Jeffery A Dusek; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..alteration of vascular function via changes in nitric oxide production or hormonal alterations in sympathetic arousal (i.e., stress response)...
  44. Ultraviolet light sensing by cryptochrome
    Todd C Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and up to 300% increased action potential firing rate over baseline dark firing rate in central brain arousal neurons (Sheeb et al., 2007;Fogle et al., 2011)...
  45. Arousal, orexins and anesthesia
    MAX KELZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will map neural activation through c-Fos protein immunohistochemistrythe same methodology used initially to find arousal state- dependent nuclei...
    MAX KELZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..neural substrates, this proposal focuses on two emerging hypothalamic targets with proven ability to affect arousal state: the median preoptic nucleus, MnPO, and ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, VLPO...
  47. Mechanisms and Consequences of Locus Coeruleus Activation
    KENICHIRO HAYASHIDA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..GBP-induced activation in the LC is a global phenomenon or selective to projections controlling pain, attention, arousal and memory...
  48. Environment, Psychosocial Stress and Self-regulatory Development
    SARA BURR JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Competent regulatory functioning allows individuals to control impulses, manage arousal and uncertainty, and delay short-term gratification in favor of longer-term goals...
  49. Stress-induced poor sleep: Sex differences, vulnerability &resilience factors
    Elissa S Epel; Fiscal Year: 2013 being high in stress sensitivity-certain psychological and biological processes that promote vigilance and arousal. The goal of the proposed project is to unpack the sleep-stress cycle, by examining: 1) stress-sensitivity ..
  50. Cholinergic Mechanisms in Spatial Attention
    Anita A Disney; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..understanding of cholinergic processes, investigating cholinergic function in a species in which attention and arousal are more separable in behavioral tasks is essential...
  51. Remote effects of focal hippocampal seizures on neocortical function
    Hal Blumenfeld; Fiscal Year: 2013 disrupting the fornix (a main connection between the hippocampus and subcortical nuclei important for arousal) and by introducing a replacement for acetycholine (a major neurotransmitter of subcortical arousal nuclei)...
  52. Optogenetic Control of Vigilance State Transition
    Luis de Lecea; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of Hcrt neurons to test whether phasic activity of these neurons during wakefulness is sufficient to stabilize arousal. First, we will introduce ChR2 in Hcrt neurons using a lentivirus and we will use different photostimulation ..
  53. Treatment of Smoking Among Individuals with PTSD
    Edna B Foa; Fiscal Year: 2012 nicotine dependence and relapse include negative affect, fear, anxiety sensitivity, increased arousal, irritability, and anger...
  54. Circadian light entrainment following genetic ablation of retinal glutamate trans
    HEINRICH SELWYN GOMPF; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..such as shift work can make it difficult for humans to receive these synchronizing inputs and this can impact arousal and wakefulness;moreover certain disorders such as seasonal affective disorders are also linked to light inputs ..
  55. Effects of tai chi chuan on psychobiological indicators of anxiety and sleep qual
    KAREN LEIGH CALDWELL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cognition and improving psychological functioning, and (2) physiologically by reducing chronic physiological arousal. [We propose a randomized controlled trial comparing tai chi chuan with a stress management education group on ..
    Nicholas D Schiff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These neurons link the brain stem centers that control arousal with the cerebral cortex, and play a crucial role in integrating cortex, striatum and thalamus...
  57. Reversal of AMPA receptor plasticity underlying incubation of cocaine craving
    MARINA ELIZABETH WOLF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Hypocretin plays a role in modulating arousal, foraging for food in rodents, the response to stress, and learning and memory...
  58. Assessing the Influence of Oxytocin on Postpartum Depression Using Brain Imaging
    Julia R Heiman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that occur with motherhood, such as oxytocin-mediated inhibition of neural activity related to negative emotional arousal, is critical to promote optimal maternal care and protection from mood disorders during the postpartum period.
    Laszlo Zaborszky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..many laboratories over the last two decades, it remains enigmatic how the BF is organized to support both general arousal as well as specific functions like attention...
  60. Serotonin neurons in arousal, epilepsy and SUDEP.
    GORDON FRANK BUCHANAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the chemosensitivity of midbrain 5-HT neurons was not known;however, we now have data to suggest it mediates an arousal response to elevated CO2 concentrations. 5-HT has also been implicated in epilepsy...
  61. The Role of Melatonin in Natural Neuroprotection
    Christine Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Arousal from torpor to IBA, where body temperature increases from 5 to 37oC and heart rate explodes from 3 to 300-400 ..
  62. Neural circuits underlying circadian regulation of behavior and physiology
    Nina Vujovic; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of the hypothalamus (DMH) is a major relay and integrator in the circuitry through which circadian patterns in arousal state, behavior and endocrine rhythms are temporally organized...
    LAUREN RITERS; Fiscal Year: 2003 a new investigator, is to elucidate basic relationships between hormones and brain areas regulating sexual arousal and those important for the expression of behaviors reflecting sexual arousal...
  64. Circadian and Aminergic Regulation of Orexin Neurons
    THOMAS SCAMMELL; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We propose a model in which orexin neurons promote wakefulness and inhibit REM sleep by activating aminergic arousal regions, and, in turn, the orexin neurons are activated by these aminergic regions...
  65. Spontaneous Arousals in "CHIME" Infants at Risk for SIDS
    ROBERT DARNALL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Arousal from sleep is an important component of the protective responses to physiological challenges during sleep, helping to protect the infant from potentially dangerous situations, even sudden ..
  66. A Rodent Model of TBI Suffered During Sustained Combat Operations
    RONALD RIECHERS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Combat operations require high level of sustained arousal as well as prolonged periods of sleep deprivation. The impact of these factors on TBI has not been studied...
    Abdulmaged Traish; Fiscal Year: 2003
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the Applicant's Abstract): Female sexuality is an desire, arousal, orgasm or pain, are estimated to afflict 30-50 percent of women in the United States...
    Rick Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..g., sexual arousal), and substance use and abuse...
    Peter Killeen; Fiscal Year: 2001 develop a model of the reinforcement process into a general theory of performance based on principles of arousal, temporal constraint, and coupling...
  70. The Roles of Neuropeptide S System in the Regulation of Sleep and Wakefulness
    Yanling Xu; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Neuropeptide S (NPS) and it receptor are a newly discovered neuropeptide system that promotes arousal and wakefulness...
  71. Ginkgo Biloba: Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction
    Cindy Meston; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In women, the side effects most commonly reported include decreased sexual arousal with decreased lubrication, delayed or inhibited orgasm, and decreased sexual desire...
    Gregory Harshfield; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..This research will use the power of the study of twins to investigate the effect of behaviorally-induced arousal of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) on the renal handling of sodium (Na+) and the hemodynamic and humoral ..
  73. Neuroendocrine Mechanisms in Yoga Treatment of Insomnia
    SAT BIR KHALSA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    There is good evidence that physiological arousal, associated with sustained activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and the sympathetic nervous system, is an underlying cause of chronic insomnia...
  74. Probing of Hypothalamic circuits in arousal using optogenetics
    Antoine Adamantidis; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Probing of hypothalamic circuits in arousal using optogenetics...
  75. Effects of DA D1 and D2 agonists on reward sensitivity
    Valeri Farmer Dougan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..relating dopamine to behavior have suggested a better description of dopamine may be as the neural substrate of arousal, novelty or surprise...
    LARRY SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 1999 the same time that largely unknown mechanisms prevent translation of that brain activity into behavioral arousal. The amygdala may have a role in modulating arousal and the generation of many of the features common to alert ..