contrast sensitivity

Summary

Summary: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.

Top Publications

  1. pmc The normalization model of attention
    John H Reynolds
    Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037 1099, USA
    Neuron 61:168-85. 2009
  2. pmc Orientation-selective adaptation to first- and second-order patterns in human visual cortex
    Jonas Larsson
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    J Neurophysiol 95:862-81. 2006
  3. ncbi Contrast masking in strabismic amblyopia: attenuation, noise, interocular suppression and binocular summation
    Daniel H Baker
    School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Vision Res 48:1625-40. 2008
  4. ncbi Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial)
    Stuart Richer
    Department of Veterans Affairs, Medical Center Eye Clinic, North Chicago, Illinois 60064 3095, USA
    Optometry 75:216-30. 2004
  5. ncbi Selectivity and spatial distribution of signals from the receptive field surround in macaque V1 neurons
    James R Cavanaugh
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York City, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurophysiol 88:2547-56. 2002
  6. pmc Enhancing the contrast sensitivity function through action video game training
    Renjie Li
    Brain and Cognitive Sciences Department and Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, New York, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:549-51. 2009
  7. pmc Dissociable prior influences of signal probability and relevance on visual contrast sensitivity
    Valentin Wyart
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3UD, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:3593-8. 2012
  8. ncbi Local contrast in natural images: normalisation and coding efficiency
    N Brady
    Department of Psychology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Perception 29:1041-55. 2000
  9. ncbi Spatio-temporal luminance contrast sensitivity and visual backward masking in schizophrenia
    Walter L Slaghuis
    School of Psychology, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 30, 7001 Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
    Exp Brain Res 156:196-211. 2004
  10. pmc Perceptual learning improves contrast sensitivity of V1 neurons in cats
    Tianmiao Hua
    Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, China
    Curr Biol 20:887-94. 2010

Detail Information

Publications328 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The normalization model of attention
    John H Reynolds
    Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037 1099, USA
    Neuron 61:168-85. 2009
    ....
  2. pmc Orientation-selective adaptation to first- and second-order patterns in human visual cortex
    Jonas Larsson
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    J Neurophysiol 95:862-81. 2006
    ....
  3. ncbi Contrast masking in strabismic amblyopia: attenuation, noise, interocular suppression and binocular summation
    Daniel H Baker
    School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Vision Res 48:1625-40. 2008
    ..This implies a behavioural influence from monocular noise in the amblyopic visual system as well as in normal observers with an ND filter over one eye...
  4. ncbi Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial)
    Stuart Richer
    Department of Veterans Affairs, Medical Center Eye Clinic, North Chicago, Illinois 60064 3095, USA
    Optometry 75:216-30. 2004
    ....
  5. ncbi Selectivity and spatial distribution of signals from the receptive field surround in macaque V1 neurons
    James R Cavanaugh
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York City, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurophysiol 88:2547-56. 2002
    ..We suggest that the underlying mechanism of this complexity may involve interactions between relatively simple center and surround mechanisms...
  6. pmc Enhancing the contrast sensitivity function through action video game training
    Renjie Li
    Brain and Cognitive Sciences Department and Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, New York, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:549-51. 2009
    The contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is routinely assessed in clinical evaluation of vision and is the primary limiting factor in how well one sees...
  7. pmc Dissociable prior influences of signal probability and relevance on visual contrast sensitivity
    Valentin Wyart
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3UD, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:3593-8. 2012
    ..We interpret these findings in light of "predictive-coding" models of perception, which propose separable top-down influences of expectation (probability driven) and attention (relevance driven) on bottom-up sensory processing...
  8. ncbi Local contrast in natural images: normalisation and coding efficiency
    N Brady
    Department of Psychology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Perception 29:1041-55. 2000
    ..Response variability, both within and between scenes, is reduced by normalisation, and the entropy of the response distribution is increased after normalisation, indicating a more efficient transfer of information...
  9. ncbi Spatio-temporal luminance contrast sensitivity and visual backward masking in schizophrenia
    Walter L Slaghuis
    School of Psychology, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 30, 7001 Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
    Exp Brain Res 156:196-211. 2004
    The aim of two experiments was to investigate the relationship between spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity and visual backward masking in normal observers and in subgroups with positive or negative symptoms in schizophrenia...
  10. pmc Perceptual learning improves contrast sensitivity of V1 neurons in cats
    Tianmiao Hua
    Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, China
    Curr Biol 20:887-94. 2010
    ..measurements with extracellular single-unit recording under anesthetized preparations and examined the effects of training in grating orientation identification on both perceptual and neuronal contrast sensitivity functions of cats.
  11. ncbi Quantitative characterization of visual response properties in the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus
    Matthew S Grubb
    University Laboratory of Physiology, Oxford OX1 3PT, United Kingdom
    J Neurophysiol 90:3594-607. 2003
    ..We looked for evidence of parallel processing in the mouse dLGN and found it only in a functional difference between ON- and OFF-center cells: ON-center cells were more sensitive to stimulus contrast than their OFF-center neighbors...
  12. ncbi Membrane potential and conductance changes underlying length tuning of cells in cat primary visual cortex
    J S Anderson
    Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    J Neurosci 21:2104-12. 2001
    ..These two mechanisms differ in their contrast sensitivity, resulting in stronger end stopping and shorter optimal lengths for high-contrast stimuli...
  13. pmc Temporal expectation enhances contrast sensitivity by phase entrainment of low-frequency oscillations in visual cortex
    Andre M Cravo
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3UD, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 33:4002-10. 2013
    ..Psychophysical results indicated that temporal expectation enhanced the contrast sensitivity of visual targets...
  14. ncbi Excitatory and inhibitory interaction fields of flankers revealed by contrast-masking functions
    Chien Chung Chen
    Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Vis 8:10.1-14. 2008
    ..The model parameters show that the facilitative flanker effect is narrowly tuned in space. The data are not compatible with a model of additive normalization by the pedestal contrast or with the uncertainty model...
  15. ncbi The importance of acuity, stereopsis, and contrast sensitivity for health-related quality of life in elderly women with cataracts
    Sayan Datta
    Department of Ophthalmology, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:1-6. 2008
    ..To investigate the relative contribution of visual and other factors to quality of life among elderly women with bilateral cataract...
  16. ncbi Context-enabled learning in the human visual system
    Yael Adini
    Department of Neurobiology, Brain Research, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    Nature 415:790-3. 2002
    ..On the basis of a combination of hebbian and anti-hebbian synaptic learning rules compatible with our results, we propose a mechanism of plasticity in the visual cortex that is enabled by a change in the context...
  17. ncbi Covert attention affects the psychometric function of contrast sensitivity
    E Leslie Cameron
    Department of Psychology, New York University, 6 Washington Place, 8th Floor, New York 10003, USA
    Vision Res 42:949-67. 2002
    We examined the effect of transient covert attention on the psychometric function for contrast sensitivity in an orientation discrimination task when the target was presented alone in the absence of distracters and visual masks...
  18. pmc Two distinct mechanisms of suppression in human vision
    Yury Petrov
    The Smith Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94115, USA
    J Neurosci 25:8704-7. 2005
    ..We show that human contrast sensitivity is similarly affected by two distinct suppression mechanisms...
  19. ncbi VEP contrast sensitivity responses reveal reduced functional segregation of mid and high filters of visual channels in autism
    Boutheina Jemel
    Research Laboratory in Neuroscience and Cognitive Electrophysiology, Hôpital Rivière des Prairies, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Canada
    J Vis 10:13. 2010
    ..Here, we address this issue by assessing the contrast sensitivity response properties of the early visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) to sine-wave gratings of low, medium and ..
  20. ncbi Perceptual learning improves contrast sensitivity and visual acuity in adults with anisometropic amblyopia
    Yifeng Zhou
    Vision Research Lab, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui
    Vision Res 46:739-50. 2006
    ..We concluded that the visual system of adult amblyopes might still retain substantial plasticity. Perceptual learning shows potential as a clinical tool for treating child and adult amblyopia...
  21. ncbi Binocular contrast interactions: dichoptic masking is not a single process
    Daniel H Baker
    School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Vision Res 47:3096-107. 2007
    ..These can now be seen as the envelope of the direct effects from interocular suppression and the indirect effect from binocular summation, which contaminates the signal channel with a mask that has been suppressed by the target...
  22. ncbi Contrast letter acuity as a visual component for the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite
    L J Balcer
    Division of Neuro ophthalmology, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Neurology 61:1367-73. 2003
    ..Visual dysfunction is one of the most common causes of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), a new clinical trial outcome measure, does not currently include a test of visual function...
  23. ncbi Visual risk factors for crash involvement in older drivers with cataract
    C Owsley
    Department of Ophthalmology, Clinical Research Unit, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 700 S 18th St, Suite 609, Birmingham, AL 35294 0009, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 119:881-7. 2001
    ..The Impact of Cataracts on Mobility project has previously demonstrated that older drivers with cataract have an elevated risk of motor vehicle collision...
  24. ncbi Quantitative measurement of interocular suppression in children with amblyopia
    Sathyasri Narasimhan
    University of British Columbia, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Vision Res 66:1-10. 2012
    ..Contrast interference thresholds were significantly lower in the strabismic group than in the anisometropic and control group. Our results suggest that interocular suppression is stronger in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia...
  25. ncbi Secondary outcomes in a clinical trial of carotenoids with coantioxidants versus placebo in early age-related macular degeneration
    Stephen Beatty
    Macular Pigment Research Group, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford City, Waterford, Republic of Ireland
    Ophthalmology 120:600-6. 2013
    ..To report the secondary outcomes in the Carotenoids with Coantioxidants in Age-Related Maculopathy trial...
  26. ncbi Contrast dependence of contextual effects in primate visual cortex
    J B Levitt
    Department of Visual Science, Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, UK
    Nature 387:73-6. 1997
    ..We suggest that these effects reflect a complex gain-control mechanism that regulates cortical neuron responsiveness, which permits dynamic modification of response properties of cortical neurons...
  27. ncbi Differential roles of contrast polarity reveal two streams of second-order visual processing
    Isamu Motoyoshi
    Human and Information Science Laboratory, NTT Communication Science Laboratories, NTT 3 1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi 243 0198, Japan
    Vision Res 47:2047-54. 2007
    ..The two-stream model is shown to predict the perceptual effects of changes to the skewness statistics of natural-image textures, and to solve a contradiction among previous data concerning the detection of contrast modulation...
  28. ncbi Asymmetric transfer of the dynamic motion aftereffect between first- and second-order cues and among different second-order cues
    Andrew J Schofield
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Vis 7:1. 2007
    ..This asymmetric transfer of the dMAE between first- and second-order cues and between the second-order cues suggests some degree of separation between the mechanisms that process them...
  29. ncbi Binocular contrast vision at and above threshold
    Tim S Meese
    School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    J Vis 6:1224-43. 2006
    ..A review of evidence from elsewhere leads us to favor the two-stage model...
  30. ncbi Responses of neurons in primary visual cortex to transient changes in local contrast and luminance
    Wilson S Geisler
    Center for Perceptual Systems and Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    J Neurosci 27:5063-7. 2007
    ..The results suggest that most, if not all, cortical neurons carry substantial local luminance information...
  31. ncbi Backward masking suppresses collinear facilitation in the visual cortex
    Anna Sterkin
    Goldschleger Eye Research Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
    Vision Res 49:1784-94. 2009
    ..We suggest an explanation for the role of improved detection of collinear stimuli in grouping of contours...
  32. ncbi Lateral modulation of contrast discrimination: flanker orientation effects
    Chien Chung Chen
    The Smith Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Vis 2:520-30. 2002
    ..The explanation of the flanker orientation effect requires the both the values of each factor and the ratio between them...
  33. ncbi Visual risk factors for falls in older people
    S R Lord
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Sydney, Australia
    J Am Geriatr Soc 49:508-15. 2001
    ..older people from a range of visual screening tests (high and low contrast visual acuity, edge contrast sensitivity, depth perception, and visual field size)...
  34. pmc Broad bandwidth of perceptual learning in the visual system of adults with anisometropic amblyopia
    Chang Bing Huang
    Vision Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4068-73. 2008
    ..We measured and compared contrast sensitivity functions-i.e...
  35. ncbi The impact of macular pigment augmentation on visual performance in normal subjects: COMPASS
    John M Nolan
    Macular Pigment Research Group, Chemical and Life Sciences, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland
    Vision Res 51:459-69. 2011
    ..VP was assessed as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), mesopic and photopic contrast sensitivity (CS), glare disability, photostress, and subjective visual function...
  36. ncbi Contrast's effect on spatial summation by macaque V1 neurons
    M P Sceniak
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Pl, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Nat Neurosci 2:733-9. 1999
    ..3-fold greater at low contrast. This adaptive increase in spatial summation at low contrast was seen in cells throughout V1 and was independent of surround inhibition...
  37. pmc Adaptive changes in visual cortex following prolonged contrast reduction
    MiYoung Kwon
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    J Vis 9:20.1-16. 2009
    ..The adaptation appears to be compensatory, such that the precision of contrast coding is improved for low retinal-image contrasts...
  38. ncbi Validation of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) in age-related macular degeneration
    Peggy Orr
    Retina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:3354-9. 2011
    ..information is available regarding the associations between distance visual acuity (VA), reading speed, or contrast sensitivity and the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) subscales judged relevant to ..
  39. ncbi Quality of life evaluation after implantation of 2 multifocal intraocular lens models and a monofocal model
    Jorge L Alio
    Vissum Corporation Instituto Oftalmologico de Alicante, Avenida de Denia s n, Edificio Vissum, 03016 Alicante, Spain
    J Cataract Refract Surg 37:638-48. 2011
    ..To compare vision-related quality of life using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) in patients with 1 of 3 types of intraocular lenses (IOLs) and to correlate it with postoperative visual outcomes...
  40. pmc The neural representation of speed in macaque area MT/V5
    Nicholas J Priebe
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Physiology, W M Keck Foundation Center for Integrative Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Neurosci 23:5650-61. 2003
    ..Instead, MT neurons derive form-invariant speed tuning in a way that takes advantage of the multiple spatial frequencies that comprise moving objects in natural scenes...
  41. ncbi Single-unit responses to kinetic stimuli in New World monkey area V2: physiological characteristics of cue-invariant neurones
    L L Lui
    Department of Physiology, Monash University, 3800 Clayton, Vic, Australia
    Exp Brain Res 162:100-8. 2005
    ..The responses of V2 cells to kinetic stimuli were slightly delayed relative to their responses to luminance-defined stimuli...
  42. ncbi Normal values for the Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity test
    M Mantyjarvi
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kuopio, University Hospital of Kuopio, Finland
    J Cataract Refract Surg 27:261-6. 2001
    To define normal values for the Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity test in different age groups.
  43. pmc Rapid dynamics of contrast responses in the cat primary visual cortex
    Ming Hu
    State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e25410. 2011
    ..This fast contrast adaptation may play a role in detecting contrast contours in the context of visual scenes that are varying rapidly...
  44. pmc Stimulus contrast modulates functional connectivity in visual cortex
    Ian Nauhaus
    Biomedical Engineering Department, University of California Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:70-6. 2009
    ..Lateral connections dominate at low contrast, when spatial integration of signals is perhaps most beneficial...
  45. ncbi The scotopic low-frequency spatial contrast sensitivity develops in children between the ages of 5 and 14 years
    Gyorgy Benedek
    Department of Physiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Neurosci Lett 345:161-4. 2003
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of visual contrast sensitivity (CS) in children between 5 and 14 years of age...
  46. ncbi High frequency edges (but not contrast) predict where we fixate: A Bayesian system identification analysis
    Roland J Baddeley
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol 8, Woodland Road, Bristol, UK
    Vision Res 46:2824-33. 2006
    ..It was found that rather than centre surround inhibition, the weightings simply averaged over an area of about 2 degrees...
  47. ncbi "Crowding" in normal and amblyopic vision assessed with Gaussian and Gabor C's
    Srividhya Hariharan
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 6052, USA
    Vision Res 45:617-33. 2005
    ..Instead we suggest that crowding in amblyopic and peripheral vision is a result of extended pooling at a stage following the stage of feature detection...
  48. ncbi Distributed and overlapping cerebral representations of number, size, and luminance during comparative judgments
    Philippe Pinel
    INSERM Unit 562, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA DRM DSV, 4 Place du General Leclerc, 91401 Orsay Cedex, France
    Neuron 41:983-93. 2004
    ....
  49. ncbi Visual contrast sensitivity alterations in inferred magnocellular pathways and anomalous perceptual experiences in people at high-risk for psychosis
    Szabolcs Keri
    Semmelweis University, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Budapest, Hungary
    Vis Neurosci 24:183-9. 2007
    ..Two types of contrast sensitivity measurements were used, during which participants were asked to detect a briefly presented target Gabor ..
  50. ncbi Functional and laminar dissociations between muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic neuromodulation in the tree shrew primary visual cortex
    Anwesha Bhattacharyya
    Visual Cognition Laboratory, Department of Medicine, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musee 5, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Eur J Neurosci 35:1270-80. 2012
    ..Our findings suggest close homology between cholinergic mechanisms in tree shrew and primate visual cortices...
  51. pmc Synchronous chaos and broad band gamma rhythm in a minimal multi-layer model of primary visual cortex
    Demian Battaglia
    Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self Organization, Gottingen, Germany
    PLoS Comput Biol 7:e1002176. 2011
    ..It stems from the fact that gamma oscillations induced by local delayed inhibition tend to develop chaos when coupled by sufficiently strong excitation...
  52. pmc The pattern of learned visual improvements in adult amblyopia
    Andrew T Astle
    Visual Neuroscience Group, School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:7195-204. 2011
    ..Many of these deficits can be collapsed along two basic visual dimensions (visual acuity and contrast sensitivity) that together account for most of the variability in performance of the amblyopic visual system...
  53. ncbi Binocular interaction: contrast matching and contrast discrimination are predicted by the same model
    Daniel H Baker
    School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK
    Spat Vis 20:397-413. 2007
    ..These results show that performance measures and perception (contrast discrimination and contrast matching) can be understood in the same theoretical framework for binocular contrast vision...
  54. ncbi Preliminary findings on the effects of occupational exposure to mercury vapor below safety levels on visual and neuropsychological functions
    Mirella Telles Salgueiro Barboni
    Neuroscience and Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Occup Environ Med 51:1403-12. 2009
    ..To evaluate whether there are visual and neuropsychological decrements in workers with low exposure to Hg vapor...
  55. ncbi Crowding is unlike ordinary masking: distinguishing feature integration from detection
    Denis G Pelli
    Psychology and Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY, USA
    J Vis 4:1136-69. 2004
    ..The rest seem to arise through a distinct phenomenon that one might call "temporal crowding," which depends on time pressure ("overloading attention"), independent of spatial proximity...
  56. ncbi Correlation of aberrometry, contrast sensitivity, and subjective symptoms with quality of vision after LASIK
    Jens Bühren
    Department of Ophthalmology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    J Refract Surg 25:559-68. 2009
    ..To compare which parameter category (wavefront data, psychophysical data, or subjective symptoms) predicts best subjective quality of vision after LASIK...
  57. pmc Spatial covert attention increases contrast sensitivity across the CSF: support for signal enhancement
    M Carrasco
    Department of Psychology, New York University, 6 Washington Place, New York, NY 1003 6634, USA
    Vision Res 40:1203-15. 2000
    This study is the first to report the benefits of spatial covert attention on contrast sensitivity in a wide range of spatial frequencies when a target alone was presented in the absence of a local post-mask...
  58. pmc Functional circuitry of visual adaptation in the retina
    Jonathan B Demb
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, 1000 Wall Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    J Physiol 586:4377-84. 2008
    ..Thus, contrast adaptation in ganglion cells involves multiple synaptic and intrinsic mechanisms for gain control and hyperpolarization. Several forms of adaptation in ganglion cells originate in presynaptic bipolar cells...
  59. ncbi Congenital stationary night blindness in mice - a tale of two Cacna1f mutants
    N Lodha
    Department Medical Genetics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Adv Exp Med Biol 664:549-58. 2010
    ..We have characterized two putative murine CSNB2 models: an engineered null-mutant, with a stop codon (G305X); and a spontaneous mutant with an ETn insertion in intron 2 of Cacna1f (nob2)...
  60. ncbi Contextual influences on visual processing
    Thomas D Albright
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Systems Neurobiology Laboratories, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 25:339-79. 2002
    ..We review a number of recent studies that have used this context-based approach to explore the neuronal bases of visual scene perception...
  61. ncbi Subclinical visual involvement in multiple sclerosis: a study by MRI, VEPs, frequency-doubling perimetry, standard perimetry, and contrast sensitivity
    Dario Sisto
    Department of Ophthalmology and Otorhinolaringology, Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:1264-8. 2005
    ..visual evoked potentials (VEPs), frequency-doubling perimetry (FDP), standard achromatic perimetry (SAP), contrast sensitivity (CS) test, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), isolated or in combination, in detecting subclinical ..
  62. ncbi Different circuits for ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells cause different contrast sensitivities
    Kareem A Zaghloul
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6058, USA
    J Neurosci 23:2645-54. 2003
    ..These circuit asymmetries explain asymmetric contrast sensitivity observed in spiking behavior.
  63. ncbi Local luminance and contrast in natural images
    Robert A Frazor
    Department of Psychology and Center for Perceptual Systems, University of Texas at Austin, 78712, USA
    Vision Res 46:1585-98. 2006
    ..The low correlation between local luminance and contrast implies that efficient contrast gain control mechanisms can operate largely independently of luminance gain control mechanisms...
  64. ncbi Feature-based attention modulates feedforward visual processing
    Weiwei Zhang
    Center for Mind and Brain, University of California Davis, 267 Cousteau Place, Davis, California 95618, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:24-5. 2009
    ..Thus, color-based attention can operate as early as, and independently from, spatial attention...
  65. ncbi Increasing depth of binocular rivalry suppression along two visual pathways
    Vincent A Nguyen
    School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sydney, P O Box 170, NSW 1825, Lidcombe, Australia
    Vision Res 43:2003-8. 2003
    ..We conclude that binocular rivalry suppression is present at a number of stages along two visual cortical pathways, and that suppression deepens as the visual signal progresses along these pathways...
  66. ncbi Strength in the lower limbs, visual contrast sensitivity, and simple reaction time predict cognition in older women
    K J Anstey
    Department of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
    Psychol Aging 12:137-44. 1997
    ..A community sample of 202 women ages 60-86 was assessed on 5 measures of lower limb strength, visual contrast sensitivity (VisCS), and reaction time (RT)...
  67. pmc The effect of spatial configuration on surround suppression of contrast sensitivity
    Yury Petrov
    The Smith Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA
    J Vis 6:224-38. 2006
    b>Contrast sensitivity is known to be strongly influenced by the target surround, yet the role of the surround interaction in visual processing remains unclear...
  68. ncbi Attention enhances contrast sensitivity at cued and impairs it at uncued locations
    Franco Pestilli
    Department of Psychology, New York University, 6 Washington Place, 8th Fl, New York, NY 10003 6634, USA
    Vision Res 45:1867-75. 2005
    Transient covert attention increases contrast sensitivity at the target location with an informative spatial cue...
  69. ncbi Measurement and modeling of center-surround suppression and enhancement
    J Xing
    Department of Psychology, Jordan Hall, Building 420, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Vision Res 41:571-83. 2001
    ..Based on the experimental data, we developed a computational model to account for center-surround suppression and enhancement...
  70. ncbi Aging and the perception of speed
    J Farley Norman
    Department of Psychology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 3576, USA
    Perception 32:85-96. 2003
    ....
  71. ncbi Visual dysfunction in workers exposed to a mixture of organic solvents
    Yingyan Gong
    Department of Public Health, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Neurotoxicology 24:703-10. 2003
    ..Here the visual functions included color vision (CV), visual contrast sensitivity (CS) and visual evoked potentials (VEP)...
  72. ncbi Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson's disease
    M F Silva
    Department of Biophysics and Center for Ophthalmology, IBILI Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra University Hospital, Coimbra, Portugal
    Brain 128:2260-71. 2005
    ..Both parvo- and koniocellular pathways were studied by means of contrast sensitivity (CS) measurements along protan, tritan and deutan axes and also by fitting chromatic discrimination ..
  73. ncbi Feature detection and letter identification
    Denis G Pelli
    Institute for Sensory Research, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, NY 13210, USA
    Vision Res 46:4646-74. 2006
    ..This, and the surprisingly fixed ratio of detection and identification thresholds, indicate that identifying a letter is mediated by detection of about 7 visual features...
  74. ncbi Visual performance after correcting the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of the eye
    Geun Young Yoon
    Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 19:266-75. 2002
    ..We demonstrate improvements in contrast sensitivity and visual acuity in white light and in monochromatic light when adaptive optics corrects the eye's higher-..
  75. ncbi Reliability and validity of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 in patients with age-related macular degeneration
    Dennis A Revicki
    Center for Health Outcomes Research, United BioSource Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:712-7. 2010
    ..To evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who participated in two clinical trials...
  76. ncbi Rapid quantification of adult and developing mouse spatial vision using a virtual optomotor system
    Glen T Prusky
    Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, The University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1K 3M4
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:4611-6. 2004
    ..To develop a simple, rapid method of quantifying the spatial vision of mice...
  77. ncbi The pattern of visual deficits in amblyopia
    Suzanne P McKee
    Smith Kettlewell Institute of Visual Sciences, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Vis 3:380-405. 2003
    ..To decide this issue, we measured optotype acuity, Vernier acuity, grating acuity, contrast sensitivity, and binocular function in 427 adults with amblyopia or with risk factors for amblyopia and in a comparison ..
  78. pmc Receptive-field properties of V1 and V2 neurons in mice and macaque monkeys
    Gert Van den Bergh
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 2020, USA
    J Comp Neurol 518:2051-70. 2010
    ....
  79. ncbi Contrast sensitivity and magnocellular functioning in schizophrenia
    Bernt C Skottun
    Skottun Research, Oakland, CA 94601, USA
    Vision Res 47:2923-33. 2007
    ..This would predict a loss of contrast sensitivity at low spatial and/or at high temporal frequencies...
  80. pmc Suppressive surrounds and contrast gain in magnocellular-pathway retinal ganglion cells of macaque
    Samuel G Solomon
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 26:8715-26. 2006
    ..If perceptual phenomena with similar stimulus contexts, such as the "shift effect" and saccadic suppression, have a retinal component, then they reflect the activity of the MC pathway...
  81. ncbi Deficits in perceptual noise exclusion in developmental dyslexia
    Anne J Sperling
    Georgetown University Medical Center, 4000 Reservoir Road NW, Building D, Room 207E, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:862-3. 2005
    ..Our findings suggest that deficits in noise exclusion, not magnocellular processing, contribute to the etiology of dyslexia...
  82. ncbi Spatial organization and magnitude of orientation contrast interactions in primate V1
    H E Jones
    Department of Visual Science, Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London EC1V 9EL, United Kingdom
    J Neurophysiol 88:2796-808. 2002
    ..We suggest these processes may serve to enhance response levels to salient image features such as junctions and corners and may contribute to orientation pop-out...
  83. ncbi Spatial-frequency and contrast properties of crowding
    S T Chung
    School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
    Vision Res 41:1833-50. 2001
    ....
  84. ncbi Perceptual learning of luminance contrast detection: specific for spatial frequency and retinal location but not orientation
    Paul T Sowden
    Department of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
    Vision Res 42:1249-58. 2002
    ..In two experiments we find that contrast sensitivity increases following extensive practice at detecting briefly presented sinusoidal luminance gratings and ..
  85. pmc The cortical deficit in humans with strabismic amblyopia
    G R Barnes
    McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
    J Physiol 533:281-97. 2001
    ..We did not find a close relationship between the fMRI response reduction in amblyopia and either of the known psychophysical deficits even though the fMRI response reduction in amblyopia did covary with stimulus spatial frequency...
  86. ncbi Response facilitation from the "suppressive" receptive field surround of macaque V1 neurons
    Jennifer M Ichida
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    J Neurophysiol 98:2168-81. 2007
    ..This strongly suggests that feedforward connections do not contribute to far-surround modulation and that the latter is generated by intra-cortical mechanisms, likely involving top-down feedback...
  87. ncbi Visual cortex neurons of monkeys and cats: temporal dynamics of the contrast response function
    Duane G Albrecht
    Department of Psychology, University of Texas, Austin 78712, USA
    J Neurophysiol 88:888-913. 2002
    ....
  88. ncbi Night driving self-restriction: vision function and gender differences
    John A Brabyn
    Smith Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94115, USA
    Optom Vis Sci 82:755-64. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender differences in the relationship between night driving self-restriction and vision function in an older population...
  89. ncbi [Effect of intrastromal correction of presbyopia with femtosecond laser (INTRACOR) on mesopic contrast sensitivity]
    A Fitting
    International Vision Correction Research Centre, Universitäts Augenklinik Heidelberg
    Ophthalmologe 109:1001-7. 2012
    The aim of this study was to examine the mesopic contrast sensitivity (CS) and glare sensitivity following intrastromal femtosecond laser correction of presbyopia (INTRACOR).
  90. ncbi Perceptual learning in contrast discrimination: the effect of contrast uncertainty
    Yael Adini
    Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    J Vis 4:993-1005. 2004
    ..We contend that learned tasks that do not pass the uncertainty test involve modification of decision strategies that require exact knowledge of the stimulus...
  91. ncbi Reducing contrast makes speeds in a video-based driving simulator harder to discriminate as well as making them appear slower
    Mark S Horswill
    School of Psychology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
    Perception 37:1269-75. 2008
    ..Our results supported both predictions, each of which may have traffic-safety implications when reduced-contrast conditions are experienced in real life, such as with fog or when the driver has cataracts...
  92. pmc Multiple adaptable mechanisms early in the primate visual pathway
    Neel T Dhruv
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 31:15016-25. 2011
    ..We could thus infer desensitization of the tuned mechanism by comparing effects obtained with adapting gratings of preferred and null orientation modulated at low temporal frequencies...
  93. pmc Contrast sensitivity in 10 year old preterm and full term children: a population based study
    E Larsson
    Department of Ophthalmology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
    Br J Ophthalmol 90:87-90. 2006
    To determine the contrast sensitivity (CS) in 10 year old prematurely born children, previously included in a population based study on the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and in full term controls.
  94. ncbi A biologically inspired algorithm for the recovery of shading and reflectance images
    Andriana Olmos
    McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A1, Canada
    Perception 33:1463-73. 2004
    ..A number of image examples are included to illustrate the successes and limitations of the algorithm...
  95. ncbi Attentional modulation of visual processing
    John H Reynolds
    Systems Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037 1099, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 27:611-47. 2004
    ..both at the behavioral level and among neurons in area V4, where endogenously generated attention increases contrast sensitivity. Studies in the slice have begun to explain how modulatory signals might cause such increases in sensitivity...
  96. ncbi Detection, discrimination and integration of second-order orientation information in strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia
    Behzad Mansouri
    Department of Opthalmology, McGill Vision Research Unit, 687 Pine Avenue West, Rm H4 14, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1A1
    Vision Res 45:2449-60. 2005
    ..Orientation discrimination for an isolated second-order patch was comparable in normal and amblyopic eyes. We showed that pure integration of second-order patterns can be normal in amblyopia...
  97. ncbi The effects of surround contrast on contrast thresholds, perceived contrast and contrast discrimination
    R J Snowden
    Vision Research Unit, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, UK
    Vision Res 38:1935-45. 1998
    ....
  98. ncbi Stimulus dependence of neuronal correlation in primary visual cortex of the macaque
    Adam Kohn
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 25:3661-73. 2005
    ....
  99. ncbi Cumulative exposure to styrene and visual functions
    L Castillo
    , , , , Canada
    Am J Ind Med 39:351-60. 2001
    ..that for those workers whose styrene exposure had decreased, color vision (CV) improved; while near visual contrast sensitivity (CS) was poorer. METHODS: In 1999, we retested these visual functions in 18 workers with good visual acuity...
  100. ncbi The Fröhlich effect: a consequence of the interaction of visual focal attention and metacontrast
    K Kirschfeld
    Max Planck Institut für biologische Kybernetik, Tubingen, Germany
    Vision Res 39:3702-9. 1999
    ..Under unnatural conditions these mechanisms lead to an optical illusion first described by Fröhlich [Fröhlich, F. W. (1923). Uber die Messung der Empfindungszeit. Zeitschrift für Sinnesphysiologie, 54, 58-78]...
  101. ncbi Metacontrast masking and stimulus contrast polarity
    Bruno G Breitmeyer
    Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 5022, USA
    Vision Res 48:2433-8. 2008
    ..We conclude that Becker and Anstis's failure to obtain metacontrast with stimuli of opposite contrast polarity is due to their use of a single, relatively large, SOA value...

Research Grants63

  1. Familial and Birth Cohort Effects on the Aging Senses
    Karen J Cruickshanks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tests, distortion product otoacoustic emissions), eye examination (refraction, visual acuity measures, contrast sensitivity, and digital images of the lens and retina), olfaction testing (San Diego Odor Identification Test), and ..
  2. Unfolded Protein Response as a Therapeutic Target for ADRP Animal Models
    Marina Gorbatyuk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also measure improvement in vision using Optometry, a technique that can evaluate both acuity and contrast sensitivity in mice...
  3. African and European Descent, Ocular Blood Flow and Glaucoma Progression
    Alon Harris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..testing including: multiple measures of intraocular pressure (Goldmann and Psacal), visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, ultrasonic corneal pachymetry of central corneal thickness, height, weight, body mass index, blood ..
  4. Training in Clinical Trials for Subjects with Low Vision
    Ava K Bittner; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Short term research aims are to determine whether within and between day fluctuations in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and visual field among RP patients are associated with perceived stress, sleepiness or negative mood states...
  5. Neuromodulators and Circadian Clocks: Roles in Retinal Function and Dysfunction
    P Michael Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..designed to test the following three predictions of our hypotheses: (1) DA modulates circadian rhythms of contrast sensitivity via dopamine D4 receptor (D4R)-mediated regulation of cAMP signaling and circadian oscillators that drive ..
  6. RETINAL GANGLION CELL AND AMACRINE CELL FUNCTION IN MOUSE MODELS OF ELEVATED INTR
    Benjamin J Frankfort; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and an optomotor system that allows for the reliable non-invasive assessment of both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in living mice...
  7. LIMITING FACTORS IN NORMAL AND AMBLYOPIC SPATIAL VISION
    DENNIS MICHAEL LEVI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It affects visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and position acuity...
  8. Therapeutic Effects of Cataract Removal in Alzheimer's Disease
    GROVER CLEVELAND GILMORE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Primary Specific Aim. To determine the effects of cataract removal on visual acuity, spatial contrast sensitivity, vision dependent functions, visual information processing, and quality of life in patients with Alzheimer&..
  9. Retinal Mechanisms of Refractive Development
    Machelle T Pardue; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Based on the assumption that contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency are characteristics of the visual image that drive this response, we hypothesize that ..
  10. Structure-Function Relationships in Glaucoma
    JOE LEONARD WHEAT; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..of data from perimetry and optical coherence tomography in glaucoma subjects, comparison of perimetry to contrast sensitivity in glaucoma subjects, and analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer in glaucomatous monkeys...
  11. Mechanisms limiting visual performance in retinal degenerations
    JAMES JASON MCANANY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..one of the most frequently occurring blinding hereditary retinal dystrophies, can have profound spatial contrast sensitivity (CS) deficits of unknown origin...
  12. A Dual Resolution Cone Beam CT System for 3-D Breast Imaging
    Chris C Shaw; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..approach referred to as the dedicated or pendant geometry cone beam breast CT technique which couples high contrast sensitivity with true 3-D rendition of breast anatomy and lesions...
  13. Attention and Perceptual Learning
    Marisa Carrasco; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., contrast sensitivity, orientation and spatial resolution) with regard to location specificity, taking into account retinal ..
  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF FUNCTIONAL MRI
    RICHARD BRUCE BUXTON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The proposed experiments exploit contrast sensitivity and temporal frequency tuning effects (Aim 1), adaptation effects (Aim 2), and inhibitory effects and ..
  15. Multi-modal high-resolution technology for tissue diagnostics
    Laura Marcu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  16. Mid-Level Vision Systems for Low Vision
    Norberto M Grzywacz; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..a system for low-noise image-contrast enhancement, which should help with AMD, because it causes lower contrast sensitivity. 2) Our second milestone will be a system that extracts the main contours of images in a cortical-like ..
  17. Studies of Ocular Complications of AIDS - Reading Center
    Ronald Danis; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..are abnormalities of the visual system among patients with AIDS without ocular Ols, manifested as decreased contrast sensitivity, often of sufficient magnitude to impair reading speed, and as visual field loss...
  18. Studies of Ocular Complications of AIDS - Chairman's Office
    Douglas A Jabs; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..are abnormalities of the visual system among patients with AIDS without ocular Ols,manifested as decreased contrast sensitivity, often of sufficient magnitude to impair reading speed, and as visual field loss...
  19. Studies of Ocular Complications of AIDS - Coordinating Center
    Mark L Van Natta; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..are abnormalities of the visual system among patients with AIDS without ocular Ols, manifested as decreased contrast sensitivity, often of sufficient magnitude to impair reading speed, and as visual field loss...
  20. Virtual Clinical Trials: Simulation of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Screening
    Andrew D A Maidment; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CHO) will be adapted to 3D (2D + time) by studying and then implementing the human spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity function...
  21. A Dual Resolution Cone Beam CT System for 3-D Breast Imaging
    Chris Shaw; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..approach referred to as the dedicated or pendant geometry cone beam breast CT technique which couples high contrast sensitivity with true 3-D rendition of breast anatomy and lesions...
  22. OPTICAL AND NEURAL CHANGES IN THE AGING VISUAL SYSTEM
    John S Werner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..changes in the temporal properties of isolated color mechanisms through measurements of the temporal contrast sensitivity function and the impulse responsefunction...
  23. Function of fixational instability during natural viewing
    Michele Rucci; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., contrast sensitivity and its dynamics) that, at present, are solely attributed to neural mechanisms...
  24. High Resolution Photovoltaic Retinal Prosthesis
    Daniel V Palanker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To achieve these goals we will assess visual acuity and contrast sensitivity obtained with subretinal photovoltaic implants of different designs in-vitro and in-vivo in animals with ..
  25. Feasibility of Pediatric Contrast Sensitivity Test
    ANGELA MARGARET BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This STTR project develops and assesses a new clinical test of visual contrast sensitivity that will work on infants and uninstructable children nd adults...
  26. Photosensitive control of the inner retina
    Kenneth P Greenberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These parallel information streams are largely responsible for allowing contrast sensitivity and high acuity...
  27. TEST OF TAURINE AS AN ESSENTIAL NUTRIENT
    John Sturman; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..2. Additional measures of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, behavioral tests of color vision, and foveal electroretinograms. 3...
  28. Mechanisms limiting visual performance in retinal degenerations
    JAMES JASON MCANANY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The goal of this proposal is to identify the mechanisms that form the basis for the spatial contrast sensitivity deficits observed in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a group of hereditaty retinal degenerations ..
  29. EARLY CORTICAL PROCESSING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Daniel C Javitt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the visual system, deficits include reduced contrast sensitivity particularly to low contrast, low spatial frequency (LSF) stimuli that preferentially engage the ..
  30. APPLICATION OF PSYCHOPHYSICAL MODELS TO VISUAL DISORDERS
    WILLIAM HOWARD SWANSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There are three Specific Aims: Specific Aim 1) To optimize contrast sensitivity perimetry (CSP) for clinical use in patients with glaucoma, using a quantitative neural model for perimetry...
  31. Street-Crossing Decision Making in Low Vision
    Shirin E Hassan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will assess how street-crossing decision making performance changes as a function of vision (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and visual fields), and a pedestrian's characteristics (age and walking speed)...
  32. The influence of dopamine on retinal function
    Michael L Risner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Successful completion of these studies will provide insight into the physiological mechanisms involved in retinal network light adaptation, and the underlying retinal circuitry involved in contrast sensitivity and visual acuity.
  33. Efficient Assessment of Visual Deficits and Rehabilitation Methods in Amblyopia
    Zhong lin Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim 1, we will develop and test novel methods for rapidly assessing contrast sensitivity, binocular interaction, and spatial distortion in normal and amblyopic vision at the individual leve...
  34. PHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF OPTIC NERVE DISEASE
    P King Smith; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..tests including spectral sensitivity curves, bichromatic mixture thresholds, color vision tests, contrast sensitivity functions, flicker modulation sensitivity and pupillometry...
  35. X-ray Luminescence Optical Tomography for Small Animal Imaging
    Changqing Li; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..But its application in molecular imaging is limited because of its low contrast sensitivity. We propose a hybrid imaging modality, X-ray luminescence optical tomography (XLOT), to image X-ray ..
  36. OPTIC NEURITIS TREATMENT TRIAL--COORDINATING CENTER
    Patricia Cleary; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Although visual acuity may return to normal, there is often still considerable abnormality in contrast sensitivity, color vision, perimetry and other measures...
  37. Reorganization of Visual Cortex in Macular Disease
    Nancy Kanwisher; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..with loss of central vision must learn to cope with peripheral vision only, which has low acuity and contrast sensitivity. In normal subjects, a large region of visual cortex is allocated to processing visual information at the ..
  38. Incidence of late macular degeneration in older women
    Anne Coleman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ), and measurements of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, peripheral vision with automated perimetry, intraocular pressure, and uncorrected refractive error...
  39. PERIMETRIC RESULTS IN THE OPTIC NEURITIS TREATMENT TRIAL
    Chris Johnson; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Two primary outcome measures, contrast sensitivity and visual field sensitivity, and two secondary outcome measures, color discrimination and visual acuity, ..
  40. CCD X-RAY FLUOROSCOPY USING BINARY OPTICAL TECHNIQUE
    Hong Liu; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..intensifier and conventional fluoroscopy, it offers improved spatial resolution (up to 14 lp/mm), better contrast sensitivity, and a wider dynamic range (12-14 bit) for the same radiation dose...
  41. Digital Mammography: Advanced Computer-Aided Breast Can*
    Heang Ping Chan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..then be developed to improve upon the current methods and to exploit the potential advantages of the high contrast sensitivity, high detective quantum efficiency, wide dynamic range, and the linear response to x-ray intensity of ..
  42. DEVELOPMENT OF FORM PERCEPTION IN INFANCY
    MARTIN BANKS; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Many aspects of spatial vision improve significantly during the first year of life At birth, contrast sensitivity, contrast discrimination threshold, grating acuity, and vernier acuity are all at least an order of magnitude poorer than ..
  43. Improved C-Arm CT for Interventional Procedures
    Rebecca Fahrig; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..imaging high-contrast objects, basic problems have prevented these systems from providing sufficient low contrast sensitivity for a number of important tasks...
  44. STRUCTURAL BASES FOR OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF CORNEAS
    RUSSELL MCCALLY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..g., reduced visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, particularly under low luminance conditions). Aims 1 and 3 have obvious clinical significance...
  45. VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & PHYSICAL DISABILITY IN OLDER PERSONS
    Sheila West; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..the scope of vision assessment, compared to previous population-based studies, by including tests of contrast sensitivity, glare, stereoacuity, and visual fields...
  46. LOW VISION AID FOR OBSERVERS WITH CENTRAL VISION LOSSES
    TERI LAWTON; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..These filters enhance text by optimizing the low vision observer's remaining contrast sensitivity, and render the text in shades of gray that are more easily perceived than black and white...
  47. VISUAL ABNORMALITIES IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
    David Regan; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..develop our motion-defined letter reading test for detecting visual loss hidden to Snellen acuity and contrast sensitivity tests and, by comparing motion- defined letter test results with the results of other visual tests in ..
  48. Motor Vehicle Collision Prevention via Earlier Cataract Surgery
    Stephen Mennemeyer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..to examine how many motor vehicle collisions and deaths might be avoided if a threshold measure of vision, contrast sensitivity, were to determine when cataract surgery ought to be performed...
  49. INSTRUMENT FOR OBJECTIVE MEAS. OF CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
    Peter Magnante; Fiscal Year: 1990
    It is proposed to develop an ophthalmic instrument that will be used to objectively measure contrast sensitivity loss in patients due to intraocular light scattering...
  50. Signal Recovery in Susceptibility Based Functional MRI
    Douglas Noll; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..susceptibility-induced artifact but preserve the speed, robustness to motion and physiological noise, and contrast sensitivity of standard single- shot fMRI techniques...
  51. ADULT AGE DIFFERENCES IN COMPONENT PROCESSES OF READING
    David Madden; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..A measure of basic visual functioning, contrast sensitivity to gratings of various spatial frequencies, will also be obtained in Experiment 1, and the relationship ..
  52. INFANT CHROMATIC AND LUMINANCE CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
    Angela Brown; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The relative rates of development of chromatic and luminance contrast sensitivity may contribute to our understanding of why the color vision of young infants is so poor...
  53. CHROMATIC FACTORS IN LOW VISION
    Kenneth Knoblauch; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..of residual color discrimination, (2) evaluation of the interaction of luminance and chromatic factors in contrast sensitivity, and (3) evaluation of the interaction of luminance and chromatic contrast on reading performance...
  54. FLICKER SENSITIVITY IN AGING AND AGE-RELATED MACULOPATHY
    MELANIE MAYER; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity testing is the method explored here. There are three specific aims of the proposed work. 1...
  55. Non-invasive assessment of retinal function
    DANIEL TS O; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..To characterize the spatial and contrast sensitivity properties of the signals...
  56. MOTION OF RETINAL IMAGE AND CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
    ULKER TULUNAY KEESEY; Fiscal Year: 1980
    The effect of the normal motion of the image on contrast sensitivity is studied by the use of the stabilized image technique...
  57. How Sustained Attention Affects Perception
    Samuel Ling; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..studies will address this question by investigating: (a) whether sustained attention affects early vision (contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution) via the mechanism of signal enhancement, (b) the time course of sustained attention&..
  58. Advan Scintillator Structure for X-Ray Microtomography
    Vivek Nagarkar; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..XMT carries the CT techniques to their limits in spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. Thus, the ability to make precise x-ray attenuation measurements on ever-smaller volume elements is made ..
  59. Visual Dysfunction in Retinal Degenerations
    Kenneth R Alexander; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in patients with RP;(2) to define the object spatial frequencies that are optimal for evaluating letter contrast sensitivity and visual acuity in retinal degenerations;(3) to determine the retinal origin and generality of a phase ..
  60. Development of Motion Processing in Human Infants
    Karen Dobkins; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. Spatial & Temporal Interactions in Brightness Perception
    Barbara Blakeslee; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  62. TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION IN THE VISUAL SYSTEM
    Denis G Pelli; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus techniques from cognition, perception, statistical learning theory, and physiology together will reveal what is computed where, in the brain, when an observer identifies an object. ..
  63. Visual Processing in Schizophrenia
    Pamela Butler; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..