reward

Summary

Summary: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A neural substrate of prediction and reward
    W Schultz
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Science 275:1593-9. 1997
  2. pmc The reward circuit: linking primate anatomy and human imaging
    Suzanne N Haber
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:4-26. 2010
  3. ncbi The role of the medial frontal cortex in cognitive control
    K Richard Ridderinkhof
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Science 306:443-7. 2004
  4. ncbi Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions
    J Siegrist
    Institute of Medical Sociology, University of Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Occup Health Psychol 1:27-41. 1996
  5. ncbi The nature of human altruism
    Ernst Fehr
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 425:785-91. 2003
  6. pmc Cortical substrates for exploratory decisions in humans
    Nathaniel D Daw
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, University College London UCL, Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK
    Nature 441:876-9. 2006
  7. pmc Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion
    A J Blood
    Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:11818-23. 2001
  8. ncbi Dopamine, learning and motivation
    Roy A Wise
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:483-94. 2004
  9. ncbi Temporal difference models and reward-related learning in the human brain
    JOHN P O'DOHERTY
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, WC1N 3BG, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 38:329-37. 2003
  10. ncbi Anticipation of increasing monetary reward selectively recruits nucleus accumbens
    B Knutson
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1610, USA
    J Neurosci 21:RC159. 2001

Detail Information

Publications392 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A neural substrate of prediction and reward
    W Schultz
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Science 275:1593-9. 1997
    ..Taken together, these findings can be understood through quantitative theories of adaptive optimizing control...
  2. pmc The reward circuit: linking primate anatomy and human imaging
    Suzanne N Haber
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:4-26. 2010
    Although cells in many brain regions respond to reward, the cortical-basal ganglia circuit is at the heart of the reward system...
  3. ncbi The role of the medial frontal cortex in cognitive control
    K Richard Ridderinkhof
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Science 306:443-7. 2004
    ....
  4. ncbi Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions
    J Siegrist
    Institute of Medical Sociology, University of Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Occup Health Psychol 1:27-41. 1996
    ..third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model...
  5. ncbi The nature of human altruism
    Ernst Fehr
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 425:785-91. 2003
    ..Current gene-based evolutionary theories cannot explain important patterns of human altruism, pointing towards the importance of both theories of cultural evolution as well as gene-culture co-evolution...
  6. pmc Cortical substrates for exploratory decisions in humans
    Nathaniel D Daw
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, University College London UCL, Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK
    Nature 441:876-9. 2006
    ....
  7. pmc Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion
    A J Blood
    Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:11818-23. 2001
    ..increased, cerebral blood flow increases and decreases were observed in brain regions thought to be involved in reward/motivation, emotion, and arousal, including ventral striatum, midbrain, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and ..
  8. ncbi Dopamine, learning and motivation
    Roy A Wise
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:483-94. 2004
  9. ncbi Temporal difference models and reward-related learning in the human brain
    JOHN P O'DOHERTY
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, WC1N 3BG, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 38:329-37. 2003
    ..learning has been proposed as a model for Pavlovian conditioning, in which an animal learns to predict delivery of reward following presentation of a conditioned stimulus (CS)...
  10. ncbi Anticipation of increasing monetary reward selectively recruits nucleus accumbens
    B Knutson
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1610, USA
    J Neurosci 21:RC159. 2001
    ..At the highest reward level ($5...
  11. pmc Dopamine in motivational control: rewarding, aversive, and alerting
    Ethan S Bromberg-Martin
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Neuron 68:815-34. 2010
    ..Here we review recent advances in understanding the reward and nonreward functions of dopamine...
  12. ncbi Self-control in decision-making involves modulation of the vmPFC valuation system
    Todd A Hare
    Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 324:646-8. 2009
    ..It incorporated both taste and health in self-controllers but only taste in non-self-controllers. Activity in DLPFC increased when subjects exercised self-control and correlated with activity in vmPFC...
  13. pmc Layered reward signalling through octopamine and dopamine in Drosophila
    Christopher J Burke
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Nature 492:433-7. 2012
    Dopamine is synonymous with reward and motivation in mammals. However, only recently has dopamine been linked to motivated behaviour and rewarding reinforcement in fruitflies...
  14. pmc Input-specific control of reward and aversion in the ventral tegmental area
    Stephan Lammel
    Nancy Pritzker Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 265 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 491:212-7. 2012
    ..tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons have important roles in adaptive and pathological brain functions related to reward and motivation...
  15. ncbi The human orbitofrontal cortex: linking reward to hedonic experience
    Morten L Kringelbach
    University of Oxford, University Laboratory of Physiology, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PT, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:691-702. 2005
    ..human brain, the orbitofrontal cortex has emerged as the strongest candidate for linking food and other types of reward to hedonic experience...
  16. ncbi The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression
    Eric J Nestler
    Department of Psychiatry and Center for Basic Neuroscience, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9070, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 59:1151-9. 2006
    ....
  17. ncbi Neural correlates of decision variables in parietal cortex
    M L Platt
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 400:233-8. 1999
    ..Here we show that the gain (or reward) a monkey can expect to realize from an eye-movement response modulates the activity of neurons in the lateral ..
  18. ncbi The debate over dopamine's role in reward: the case for incentive salience
    Kent C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street East Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:391-431. 2007
    Debate continues over the precise causal contribution made by mesolimbic dopamine systems to reward. There are three competing explanatory categories: 'liking', learning, and 'wanting'...
  19. ncbi Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons
    Christopher D Fiorillo
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Science 299:1898-902. 2003
    ..5 and decreasing at higher and lower probabilities. Using distinct stimuli to indicate the probability of reward, we found that the phasic activation of dopamine neurons varied monotonically across the full range of ..
  20. ncbi Stress, eating and the reward system
    Tanja C Adam
    University of California, San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry, United States
    Physiol Behav 91:449-58. 2007
    ..We propose a theoretical model of Reward Based Stress Eating...
  21. ncbi The measurement of effort-reward imbalance at work: European comparisons
    Johannes Siegrist
    Department of Medical Sociology, University of Duesseldorf, PO Box 10 10 07, D 40001 Duesseldorf, Germany
    Soc Sci Med 58:1483-99. 2004
    Using comparative data from five countries, this study investigates the psychometric properties of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work model...
  22. pmc Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats
    Paul M Johnson
    Laboratory of Behavioral and Molecular Neuroscience, Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute Scripps Florida, Jupiter, Florida, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:635-41. 2010
    We found that development of obesity was coupled with emergence of a progressively worsening deficit in neural reward responses...
  23. ncbi Reward circuitry function in autism during face anticipation and outcomes
    Gabriel S Dichter
    Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3366, USA
    J Autism Dev Disord 42:147-60. 2012
    The aim of this study was to investigate reward circuitry responses in autism during reward anticipation and outcomes for monetary and social rewards...
  24. ncbi The role of the dorsal striatum in reward and decision-making
    Bernard W Balleine
    Department of Psychology and the Brain Research Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 1563, USA
    J Neurosci 27:8161-5. 2007
    ..We review key evidence from recent studies in rodent, nonhuman primate, and human subjects...
  25. ncbi Behavioral shifts and action valuation in the anterior cingulate cortex
    René Quilodran
    INSERM, U846, Stem Cell and Brain Research Institute, 69500 Bron, France
    Neuron 57:314-25. 2008
    ..In particular, it produced signals specific of the first reward, i.e., the end of exploration...
  26. ncbi Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards
    Samuel M McClure
    Department of Psychology and Center for the Study of Brain, Mind, and Behavior, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Science 306:503-7. 2004
    ..we examined the neural correlates of time discounting while subjects made a series of choices between monetary reward options that varied by delay to delivery. We demonstrate that two separate systems are involved in such decisions...
  27. pmc Dopamine reward circuitry: two projection systems from the ventral midbrain to the nucleus accumbens-olfactory tubercle complex
    Satoshi Ikemoto
    Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Brain Res Rev 56:27-78. 2007
    ..of two dopamine projection systems from the ventral midbrain to the ventral striatum is useful for understanding reward function...
  28. ncbi What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience?
    K C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 28:309-69. 1998
    What roles do mesolimbic and neostriatal dopamine systems play in reward? Do they mediate the hedonic impact of rewarding stimuli? Do they mediate hedonic reward learning and associative prediction? Our review of the literature, together ..
  29. ncbi Neural mechanisms of addiction: the role of reward-related learning and memory
    Steven E Hyman
    Office of the Provost, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 29:565-98. 2006
    ..on the hypothesis that addiction represents the pathological usurpation of neural processes that normally serve reward-related learning...
  30. ncbi Functional imaging of neural responses to expectancy and experience of monetary gains and losses
    H C Breiter
    Motivation and Emotion Neuroscience Center, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Neuron 30:619-39. 2001
    ..The overlap of the observed activations with those seen previously in response to tactile stimuli, gustatory stimuli, and euphoria-inducing drugs is consistent with a contribution of common circuitry to the processing of diverse rewards...
  31. pmc Cell type-specific loss of BDNF signaling mimics optogenetic control of cocaine reward
    Mary Kay Lobo
    Fishberg Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Science 330:385-90. 2010
    The nucleus accumbens is a key mediator of cocaine reward, but the distinct roles of the two subpopulations of nucleus accumbens projection neurons, those expressing dopamine D1 versus D2 receptors, are poorly understood...
  32. pmc Two types of dopamine neuron distinctly convey positive and negative motivational signals
    Masayuki Matsumoto
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4435, USA
    Nature 459:837-41. 2009
    Midbrain dopamine neurons are activated by reward or sensory stimuli predicting reward. These excitatory responses increase as the reward value increases...
  33. ncbi Beautiful faces have variable reward value: fMRI and behavioral evidence
    I Aharon
    Motivation and Emotion Neuroscience Center, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, USA
    Neuron 32:537-51. 2001
    ..In this study, discrete categories of beautiful faces are shown to have differing reward values and to differentially activate reward circuitry in human subjects...
  34. pmc States versus rewards: dissociable neural prediction error signals underlying model-based and model-free reinforcement learning
    Jan Gläscher
    Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA
    Neuron 66:585-95. 2010
    ..Whereas model-free RL uses this experience directly, in the form of a reward prediction error (RPE), model-based RL uses it indirectly, building a model of the state transition and outcome ..
  35. pmc Associative learning of social value
    Timothy E J Behrens
    FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Nature 456:245-9. 2008
    ..This information may come via personal experiences of reward, but also from the behaviour of social partners...
  36. pmc A selective role for dopamine in stimulus-reward learning
    Shelly B Flagel
    Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, Michigan, USA
    Nature 469:53-7. 2011
    ..However, whether a cue acts solely as a predictor of reward, or also serves as an incentive stimulus, differs between individuals...
  37. pmc Reward circuitry function in autism spectrum disorders
    Gabriel S Dichter
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, CB 3366, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3366, USA
    Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 7:160-72. 2012
    ..and interests that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may both reflect aberrant functioning of brain reward circuits...
  38. pmc Representation of confidence associated with a decision by neurons in the parietal cortex
    Roozbeh Kiani
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Primate Research Center and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Science 324:759-64. 2009
    ..trials, after viewing the stimulus, the monkeys could opt out of the direction decision for a small but certain reward. Monkeys exercised this option in a manner that revealed their degree of certainty...
  39. ncbi A role for lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons in reward seeking
    Glenda C Harris
    Laboratory of Neuromodulation and Behavior, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, 705 Stellar Chance 6100 422 Curie Blvd, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6100, USA
    Nature 437:556-9. 2005
    The lateral hypothalamus is a brain region historically implicated in reward and motivation, but the identity of the neurotransmitters involved are unknown...
  40. pmc Excitatory transmission from the amygdala to nucleus accumbens facilitates reward seeking
    Garret D Stuber
    Department of Psychiatry, UNC Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Nature 475:377-80. 2011
    ..intake of sucrose, demonstrating an important role of this specific pathway in controlling naturally occurring reward-related behaviour...
  41. pmc Reward processing in autism
    Ashley A Scott-Van Zeeland
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Autism Res 3:53-67. 2010
    ..such as altered face and voice processing have been examined, there has not been a direct investigation of social reward processing in autism...
  42. ncbi Neural economics and the biological substrates of valuation
    P Read Montague
    Center for Theoretical Neuroscience, Human Neuroimaging Lab, Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Neuron 36:265-84. 2002
    ..when combined with single-unit data from orbitofrontal cortex, suggests major additions to current models of reward processing...
  43. ncbi Molecular adaptations underlying susceptibility and resistance to social defeat in brain reward regions
    Vaishnav Krishnan
    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center UTSWMC, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390 9070, USA
    Cell 131:391-404. 2007
    ..a multidisciplinary approach to examine the neurobiological mechanisms of variations in stress resistance, and illustrate the importance of plasticity within the brain's reward circuits in actively maintaining an emotional homeostasis.
  44. ncbi Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning
    John O'Doherty
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Science 304:452-4. 2004
    ..reinforcement learning models, two distinct components are involved: a "critic," which learns to predict future reward, and an "actor," which maintains information about the rewarding outcomes of actions to enable better ones to be ..
  45. ncbi Frontal cortex and reward-guided learning and decision-making
    Matthew F S Rushworth
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road OX13UD, UK
    Neuron 70:1054-69. 2011
    b>Reward-guided decision-making and learning depends on distributed neural circuits with many components...
  46. ncbi Lateral habenula as a source of negative reward signals in dopamine neurons
    Masayuki Matsumoto
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4435, USA
    Nature 447:1111-5. 2007
    Midbrain dopamine neurons are key components of the brain's reward system, which is thought to guide reward-seeking behaviours...
  47. ncbi Anterior prefrontal function and the limits of human decision-making
    Etienne Koechlin
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Departement d Etudes Cognitives, Ecole Normale Superieure, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 9, quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
    Science 318:594-8. 2007
    ..enables contingent interposition of two concurrent behavioral plans or mental tasks according to respective reward expectations, overcoming the serial constraint that bears upon the control of task execution in the prefrontal ..
  48. ncbi Distributed neural representation of expected value
    Brian Knutson
    Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Neurosci 25:4806-12. 2005
    Anticipated reward magnitude and probability comprise dual components of expected value (EV), a cornerstone of economic and psychological theory. However, the neural mechanisms that compute EV have not been characterized...
  49. ncbi Human insula activation reflects risk prediction errors as well as risk
    Kerstin Preuschoff
    Computation and Neural Systems Program and Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    J Neurosci 28:2745-52. 2008
    Understanding how organisms deal with probabilistic stimulus-reward associations has been advanced by a convergence between reinforcement learning models and primate physiology, which demonstrated that the brain encodes a reward ..
  50. ncbi Neural systems responding to degrees of uncertainty in human decision-making
    Ming Hsu
    Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, 228 77, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 310:1680-3. 2005
    ..Moreover, striatal activity correlates positively with expected reward. Neurological subjects with orbitofrontal lesions were insensitive to the level of ambiguity and risk in ..
  51. ncbi Dissociation of reward anticipation and outcome with event-related fMRI
    B Knutson
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1610, USA
    Neuroreport 12:3683-7. 2001
    b>Reward processing involves both appetitive and consummatory phases. We sought to examine whether reward anticipation vs outcomes would recruit different regions of ventral forebrain circuitry using event-related fMRI...
  52. ncbi Neural differentiation of expected reward and risk in human subcortical structures
    Kerstin Preuschoff
    Computation and Neural Systems Program, Social Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, 228 77, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Neuron 51:381-90. 2006
    In decision-making under uncertainty, economic studies emphasize the importance of risk in addition to expected reward. Studies in neuroscience focus on expected reward and learning rather than risk...
  53. ncbi Neurocognitive mechanisms of cognitive control: the role of prefrontal cortex in action selection, response inhibition, performance monitoring, and reward-based learning
    K Richard Ridderinkhof
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Brain Cogn 56:129-40. 2004
    ..decision making: goal-directed action selection, response activation and inhibition, performance monitoring, and reward-based learning...
  54. ncbi A subset of dopamine neurons signals reward for odour memory in Drosophila
    Chang Liu
    Max Planck Institut fur Neurobiologie, Martinsried 82152, Germany
    Nature 488:512-6. 2012
    Animals approach stimuli that predict a pleasant outcome. After the paired presentation of an odour and a reward, Drosophila melanogaster can develop a conditioned approach towards that odour...
  55. pmc Effects of fructose vs glucose on regional cerebral blood flow in brain regions involved with appetite and reward pathways
    Kathleen A Page
    Section of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8020, USA
    JAMA 309:63-70. 2013
    ..Fructose ingestion produces smaller increases in circulating satiety hormones compared with glucose ingestion, and central administration of fructose provokes feeding in rodents, whereas centrally administered glucose promotes satiety...
  56. pmc Reward, dopamine and the control of food intake: implications for obesity
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 15:37-46. 2011
    ..functioning of neuronal circuits involved in top-down control to oppose the conditioned responses that predict reward from eating the food and the desire to eat the food...
  57. pmc Dissecting components of reward: 'liking', 'wanting', and learning
    Kent C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109 1043, USA
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 9:65-73. 2009
    In recent years significant progress has been made delineating the psychological components of reward and their underlying neural mechanisms...
  58. pmc The primate amygdala represents the positive and negative value of visual stimuli during learning
    Joseph J Paton
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 87, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 439:865-70. 2006
    ..Behavioural and physiological responses to visual stimuli may therefore be based in part on the plastic representation of value provided by the amygdala...
  59. pmc Disentangling pleasure from incentive salience and learning signals in brain reward circuitry
    Kyle S Smith
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:E255-64. 2011
    Multiple signals for reward-hedonic impact, motivation, and learned associative prediction-are funneled through brain mesocorticolimbic circuits involving the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum...
  60. pmc Social and monetary reward learning engage overlapping neural substrates
    Alice Lin
    California Institute of Technology, Computations and Neural Systems, MC 136 93 Pasadena, CA 91125 7700, USA
    Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 7:274-81. 2012
    ..outcomes of those decisions and prediction errors that are used to update the values assigned to stimuli during reward learning...
  61. ncbi A short generic measure of work stress in the era of globalization: effort-reward imbalance
    Johannes Siegrist
    University of Duesseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Int Arch Occup Environ Health 82:1005-13. 2009
    We evaluate psychometric properties of a short version of the original effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. This measure is of interest in the context of assessing stressful work conditions in the era of economic globalization.
  62. pmc The orbitofrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area are necessary for learning from unexpected outcomes
    Yuji K Takahashi
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 20 Penn Street, HSF 2 S251, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Neuron 62:269-80. 2009
    ..We propose this reflects a critical contribution of outcome signaling by OFC to encoding of reward prediction errors elsewhere...
  63. pmc Neuron-type-specific signals for reward and punishment in the ventral tegmental area
    Jeremiah Y Cohen
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 482:85-8. 2012
    Dopamine has a central role in motivation and reward. Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) signal the discrepancy between expected and actual rewards (that is, reward prediction error), but how they compute such ..
  64. pmc Impulsivity as a determinant and consequence of drug use: a review of underlying processes
    Harriet de Wit
    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Chicago, USA
    Addict Biol 14:22-31. 2009
    ..The findings lay the groundwork for studying the cognitive and neurobiological substrates of impulsivity, and for future studies on the role of impulsive behavior as both facilitator and a result of drug use...
  65. ncbi Multiple dopamine functions at different time courses
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Neurosci 30:259-88. 2007
    ..the reactivity of the organism to the environment at different time scales, from fast impulse responses related to reward via slower changes with uncertainty, punishment, and possibly movement to the tonic enabling of postsynaptic motor,..
  66. ncbi Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: insights from neuroimaging
    JOHN P O'DOHERTY
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 14:769-76. 2004
    ..of brain areas including orbital and medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, striatum and dopaminergic mid-brain in reward processing. Distinct reward-related functions can be attributed to different components of this network...
  67. ncbi The feedback-related negativity reflects the binary evaluation of good versus bad outcomes
    Greg Hajcak
    Department of Psychology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA
    Biol Psychol 71:148-54. 2006
    ..FRN in both experiments; however, the magnitude of the FRN did not demonstrate sensitivity to the magnitude of non-reward in either experiment...
  68. ncbi Reward expectation, orientation of attention and locus coeruleus-medial frontal cortex interplay during learning
    Sebastien Bouret
    Neuromodulation et Processus Mnésiques, CNRS UMR 7102, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 9 Quai St Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
    Eur J Neurosci 20:791-802. 2004
    ..To this end simultaneous recordings were made from LC and prelimbic cortex (PL) during an odour-reward association task in the rat...
  69. ncbi Parsing reward
    Kent C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, Biopsychology Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Trends Neurosci 26:507-13. 2003
    ..This has lead to major advances in the neuroscience of reward. Here, it is argued that further advances will require equal sophistication in parsing reward into its specific ..
  70. ncbi Minds made for sharing: initiating joint attention recruits reward-related neurocircuitry
    Leonhard Schilbach
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
    J Cogn Neurosci 22:2702-15. 2010
    ..In contrast, self-initiated joint attention leads to a differential increase of neural activity in reward-related brain areas, which might contribute to the uniquely human motivation to engage in the sharing of ..
  71. ncbi The architecture of reward value coding in the human orbitofrontal cortex
    Guillaume Sescousse
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Reward and Decision Making Group, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5229, 69675 Bron, France
    J Neurosci 30:13095-104. 2010
    To ensure their survival, animals exhibit a number of reward-directed behaviors, such as foraging for food or searching for mates...
  72. ncbi The P300 and reward valence, magnitude, and expectancy in outcome evaluation
    Yan Wu
    Research Center for Learning Science, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
    Brain Res 1286:114-22. 2009
    The P300 in event-related potentials (ERPs) has been implicated in outcome evaluation and reward processing, but it is controversial as to what aspects of reward processing it is sensitive...
  73. ncbi Orbitofrontal cortex encodes willingness to pay in everyday economic transactions
    Hilke Plassmann
    California Institute of Technology, Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, MC 228 77, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    J Neurosci 27:9984-8. 2007
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that the medial orbitofrontal cortex encodes the value of goals in decision making...
  74. pmc Common and distinct networks underlying reward valence and processing stages: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies
    Xun Liu
    Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:1219-36. 2011
    To better understand the reward circuitry in human brain, we conducted activation likelihood estimation (ALE) and parametric voxel-based meta-analyses (PVM) on 142 neuroimaging studies that examined brain activation in reward-related ..
  75. pmc Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals
    Kent C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199:457-80. 2008
    Pleasure and reward are generated by brain circuits that are largely shared between humans and other animals.
  76. ncbi Arousal and reward: a dichotomy in orexin function
    Glenda C Harris
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Translational Research Labs 3403, 125 South 31st Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Trends Neurosci 29:571-7. 2006
    ..We review here recent studies that reveal a novel and important role for the orexin/hypocretin neuronal system in reward processing and addiction...
  77. ncbi Matching behavior and the representation of value in the parietal cortex
    Leo P Sugrue
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 304:1782-7. 2004
    Psychologists and economists have long appreciated the contribution of reward history and expectation to decision-making...
  78. pmc Midbrain dopamine neurons encode a quantitative reward prediction error signal
    Hannah M Bayer
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuron 47:129-41. 2005
    The midbrain dopamine neurons are hypothesized to provide a physiological correlate of the reward prediction error signal required by current models of reinforcement learning...
  79. ncbi Representation of action-specific reward values in the striatum
    Kazuyuki Samejima
    Department of Computational Neurobiology, ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories, 619 0288 Kyoto, Japan
    Science 310:1337-40. 2005
    The estimation of the reward an action will yield is critical in decision-making...
  80. pmc Reward encoding in the monkey anterior cingulate cortex
    C Amiez
    Department of Cognitive Neurosciences, Inserm U371 Cerveau et Vision, IFR19, UCB Lyon1, 18 av Doyen Lépine, 69500 Bron, France
    Cereb Cortex 16:1040-55. 2006
    ..cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to play a crucial role in the fast adaptations of behavior based on immediate reward values...
  81. ncbi Neural signatures of economic preferences for risk and ambiguity
    Scott A Huettel
    Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Neuron 49:765-75. 2006
    ....
  82. pmc Dopamine signals for reward value and risk: basic and recent data
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK
    Behav Brain Funct 6:24. 2010
    ..electrical self-stimulation and drug addiction studies suggest that the midbrain dopamine systems are parts of the reward system of the brain...
  83. ncbi Dissociable neural responses in human reward systems
    R Elliott
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 20:6159-65. 2000
    b>Reward is one of the most important influences shaping behavior...
  84. ncbi The short-latency dopamine signal: a role in discovering novel actions?
    Peter Redgrave
    Neuroscience Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TP, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:967-75. 2006
    An influential concept in contemporary computational neuroscience is the reward prediction error hypothesis of phasic dopaminergic function...
  85. ncbi Coincident but distinct messages of midbrain dopamine and striatal tonically active neurons
    Genela Morris
    Department of Physiology, Hadassah Medical School, The Interdisciplinary Center for Neural Computation, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Neuron 43:133-43. 2004
    ..Both neuronal types respond robustly to reward-related events...
  86. pmc Comparing apples and oranges: using reward-specific and reward-general subjective value representation in the brain
    Dino J Levy
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 31:14693-707. 2011
    ..subjects to choose between disparate kinds of rewards suggests that the neural circuits for valuing different reward types must converge...
  87. ncbi Characterization of the decision-making deficit of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions
    A Bechara
    Department of Neurology, Division of Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Brain 123:2189-202. 2000
    ..In this study, we addressed three possibilities that may account for this behaviour: (i) hypersensitivity to reward; (ii) insensitivity to punishment; and (iii) insensitivity to future consequences, such that behaviour is always ..
  88. pmc Heterogeneous reward signals in prefrontal cortex
    Jonathan D Wallis
    Department of Psychology, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 20:191-8. 2010
    ..Neurons in orbitofrontal cortex (PFo) appear to be responsible for calculating the specific value of an expected reward, information that can help efficiently guide decision-making...
  89. pmc Expectations, gains, and losses in the anterior cingulate cortex
    Jerome Sallet
    Inserm U846, Stem Cell and Brain Research Institute, Bron, France
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 7:327-36. 2007
    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) participates in evaluating actions and outcomes. Little is known on how action-reward values are processed in ACC and if the context in which actions are performed influences this processing...
  90. pmc Neurons in the frontal lobe encode the value of multiple decision variables
    Steven W Kennerley
    Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3190, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 21:1162-78. 2009
    ..This supports the notion that the ACC is an important component of the neural circuitry underlying optimal decision making...
  91. ncbi Lateral prefrontal cortex and self-control in intertemporal choice
    Bernd Figner
    Center for Decision Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:538-9. 2010
    ..rTMS did not change choices involving only delayed rewards or valuation judgments of immediate and delayed rewards, providing causal evidence for a neural lateral-prefrontal cortex-based self-control mechanism in intertemporal choice...
  92. ncbi Evidence for addiction-like behavior in the rat
    Véronique Deroche-Gamonet
    INSERM U588, Laboratoire de Physiopathologie des Comportements, Bordeaux Institute for Neurosciences, University Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Domaine de Carreire, rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux Cedex, France
    Science 305:1014-7. 2004
    ..These findings provide a new basis for developing a true understanding and treatment of addiction...
  93. pmc The neural correlates of subjective value during intertemporal choice
    Joseph W Kable
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Room 809, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:1625-33. 2007
    Neuroimaging studies of decision-making have generally related neural activity to objective measures (such as reward magnitude, probability or delay), despite choice preferences being subjective...
  94. ncbi Banburismus and the brain: decoding the relationship between sensory stimuli, decisions, and reward
    Joshua I Gold
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Neuron 36:299-308. 2002
    ..In the codebreaking scheme, the threshold determined the speed and accuracy of the decision process. Here we propose that in the brain, the threshold may be controlled by neural circuits that calculate the rate of reward.
  95. pmc Relation between obesity and blunted striatal response to food is moderated by TaqIA A1 allele
    E Stice
    Oregon Research Institute, 1715 Franklin Boulevard, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Science 322:449-52. 2008
    The dorsal striatum plays a role in consummatory food reward, and striatal dopamine receptors are reduced in obese individuals, relative to lean individuals, which suggests that the striatum and dopaminergic signaling in the striatum may ..
  96. pmc Cortico-Basal Ganglia reward network: microcircuitry
    Susan R Sesack
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:27-47. 2010
    Many of the brain's reward systems converge on the nucleus accumbens, a region richly innervated by excitatory, inhibitory, and modulatory afferents representing the circuitry necessary for selecting adaptive motivated behaviors...
  97. ncbi Tonic dopamine: opportunity costs and the control of response vigor
    Yael Niv
    Interdisciplinary Center for Neural Computation, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 91904, Israel
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:507-20. 2007
    ....
  98. ncbi Reward changes salience in human vision via the anterior cingulate
    Clayton Hickey
    Department of Cognitive Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci 30:11096-103. 2010
    b>Reward-related mesolimbic dopamine steers animal behavior, creating automatic approach toward reward-associated objects and avoidance of objects unlikely to be beneficial...
  99. ncbi The neural mechanisms of inter-temporal decision-making: understanding variability
    Jan Peters
    Department of Systems Neuroscience, University Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Martinistrase 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    Trends Cogn Sci 15:227-39. 2011
    ..variability (trait effects) in the neural instantiation of subprocesses of delay discounting (such as reward valuation, cognitive control and prospection) contributes to differences in behaviour...
  100. pmc Representation of negative motivational value in the primate lateral habenula
    Masayuki Matsumoto
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, US National Institutes of Health, 49 Convent Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4435, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:77-84. 2009
    An action may lead to either a reward or a punishment. Therefore, an appropriate action needs to be chosen on the basis of the values of both expected rewards and expected punishments...
  101. pmc Risk-dependent reward value signal in human prefrontal cortex
    Philippe N Tobler
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7185-90. 2009
    ..the other choice situations, we investigated how predicted risk and expected value aggregate into a common reward signal in the human brain...

Research Grants85

  1. Understanding/ Treating Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Pediatric Physical Illness
    Eva Szigethy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Discovery metabolite profiling of the prolyl peptidases
    Alan Saghatelian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, the application of DMP to peptidases will demonstrate the generality of this approach for the future characterization of medically relevant enzymes and signaling pathways. ..
  3. Brain Activation responses in adolescents with genetic predisposition to obesity
    Susan Carnell; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..relative to lean Ss in the insula, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum (appetitive reward), and less activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (inhibition of food intake) and posterior hypothalamus ..
  4. Neurobehavioral Correlates of Familial/genetic obesity risk in adolescents
    Susan Carnell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..relative to lean Ss in the insula, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum (appetitive reward), and less activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (inhibition of food intake) and posterior hypothalamus ..
  5. The Habenulo-Interpeduncular Pathway and Nicotine
    Christie D Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The positive effects of nicotine involve the brain[unreadable]s mesolimbic reward pathways[2,3], whereas the aversive effects appear to be mediated by the habenulo-interpeduncular pathway[4]...
  6. Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation of Drug Reinforcement
    Diane Lebesgue; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Surprisingly little is known about the influence of ovarian steroids on the mesolimbic drug reward circuits, especially the possibility that estradiol rapidly modulates synaptic dopamine availability in the ..
  7. Functional Neuroimaging of Individual Differences in Affect and Motivation
    BRIAN JAMES MICKEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..avoidance behavior and circuitry, preclinical data have also indicated a role in approach behavior and circuitry (reward, motivated behavior, and appetitive drive)...
  8. DNA Methylation in Ethanol Drinking Behavior
    David P Gavin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that BDNF dysregulation in the reward circuitry may, in part, contribute to high ethanol consumption in C57 mice...
  9. Electrochemical tools to measure local cerebral blood flow and metabolism
    ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3. We will test the hypothesis that extracellular O2 in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) fluctuates during reward based activity...
  10. Neural Functioning of Feeding Centers in Obese Youth
    ROBERT STANLEY SHERWIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3- Functional connectivity between brain regions of the reward system implicated in the response to specific food cues are altered in the obese adolescents and this is related ..
  11. Therapeutic Approaches for Extinction of Conditioned Drug Reward
    Gary B Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our proposed preclinical research examines mechanisms of conditioned opiate reward (COR) and its extinction and tests novel pharmacological and behavioral extinction learning approaches in C57BL/6 ..
  12. Validation of a functional MRI-based reward processing task as a non-invasive too
    MARY LOUISE PHILLIPS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Abnormal function in reward systems is associated with these major psychiatric disorders...
  13. Olfactory Circuits for Reproduction and Reward
    James A Cherry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the involvement of each system in regulating responses to olfactory cues that control sexual motivation and reward. First, we will determine whether the direct pathway from the ventral MOB to the Me is differentially activated by ..
  14. Fall risk assessment and prevention in elderly with diabetes using wearable techn
    Bor Rong Chen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..conditions;2) to motivate and guide simple exercise performance in a clinic/home, using an interactive virtual reward-based scheme;and 3) to improve postural control in patients with altered sensory feedback condition...
  15. Parenting, Adolescent Self-Regulation, and Risk-Taking Across Cultures
    Jennifer E Lansford; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also assess adolescents'reward-seeking, self-regulation, social information processing, and risk-taking via a computerized battery administered ..
  16. Histone Methylation: a role in excessive ethanol intake and self-administration
    Jennifer A Rinker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Because ethanol, like cocaine, induces [unreadable]FosB in discrete reward-related regions of the brain, it is reasonable to conceive that neuroplastic changes induced by excessive ethanol ..
  17. Leptin function &resistance in midbrain VTA &SN in reward eating &obesity
    YI NONE ZHANG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent data underpin a direct leptin function in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain reward circuitry to temper high-fat (HF) feeding...
  18. Role of G-gamma-7 in striatal cannabinoid and D2 dopamine
    Dana E Selley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..marijuana and are a critical component of the endogenous cannabinoid system, which is involved in motivation and reward, motor control, appetite, learning and memory, and pain and thermoregulation...
  19. Mechanisms of structural plasticity in stress-related disorders
    Scott J Russo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and anxiety disorders, we have observed an increase in NF?B activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward structure...
  20. Dopamine Transporter Structure and Function
    Christopher K Surratt; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Pharmacological and behavioral studies indicate that the DAT is the brain receptor chiefly responsible for the reward/reinforcing properties of cocaine and the amphetamines...
  21. Presynaptic Mechanisms Regulating the Dopamine Transporter
    JAMES A HARDAWAY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In humans, DA signaling modulates arousal, cognition, reward, and motor function...
  22. Preclinical studies of a heroin/morphine vaccine for opiate addiction
    Paul R Pentel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..metabolites, 3) M-TT attenuates heroin and morphine self-administration, and opiate-induced changes in brain reward thresholds over a range of clinically relevant opiate doses, and 4) M- TT is safe and does not itself precipitate ..
  23. Inducible recombination and gene expression in specific neurotransmitter systems
    Steven A Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of fundamental neurophysiological and behavioral processes such as sleep, arousal and attention, motivation and reward, and learning and memory, as well as disorders related to these processes that include narcolepsy, drug abuse, ..
  24. In utero programming of the dopamine system: behavior, neuroanatomy &epigenetics
    Teresa M Reyes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protein diet fed to pregnant mice), we have found evidence for behavioral components of ADHD, including altered reward processing and hyperactivity...
  25. Monoamine Contributions to Neurocircuitry in Eating Disorders
    Walter H Kaye; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of appetitive behaviors in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), through effects on inhibitory and reward neural pathways...
  26. Frontal Lobe Injury and Executive Control of Cognition and Emotion
    Diane Swick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..response inhibition, or the ability to withhold pre-potent motor responses;(2) impulsive choice in the context of reward, or decision making without regard to future consequences;(3) emotion regulation, or the ability to control ..
  27. Dopaminergic Mechanisms of Cytokine-Induced Behavioral Change
    Andrew H Miller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Basal ganglia DA plays a pivotal role in regulating multiple behaviors including mood, motivation/reward, motor activity, sleep and cognition...
  28. Appetite-regulating Hormones and Neurocircuitry in Anorexia Nervosa
    ELIZABETH AUSTEN LAWSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the AN phenotype is characterized by abnormalities in hormones and neurocircuitry involved in food motivation and reward, and that T administration improves outcomes by modulating these pathways...
  29. Mechanisms Underlying Social Cooperative Behavior
    LUKE JOSEPH CHANG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cooperation can lead to increased positive moods and increased activity in regions ofthe brain associated with reward processing, suggesting that indeed people find utility in positive social interactions...
  30. Neuroplasticity with alcohol dependence
    Scott C Steffensen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to chronic ethanol, evince hyperexcitabililty during withdrawal, and accelerate in anticipation of ethanol self-reward. These correlative studies are complemented by our recent studies demonstrating a causal role for VTA GABA neurons ..
  31. CB1 Receptor Regulation by Cannabinoid Receptor Interacting Protein CRIP1a
    DANA E contact SELLEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in regulating motor activity and coordination, short-term memory, pain perception, metabolic homeostasis and drug reward and craving...
  32. Neurochemistry/physiology of proopiomelanocortin neurons
    MALCOLM JAMES LOW; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..analysis and will test the hypothesis that melanocortin signaling coordinately modulates stereotyped motor, reward, and hedonic aspects of feeding behavior;processes which are particularly relevant to human issues surrounding ..
  33. BEHAVIORAL PHYSIOLOGY OF BODY WEIGHT REGULATION
    DIANNE FIGLEWICZ LATTEMANN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of palatable, high caloric density foods;activation of responsive CNS pathways that mediate motivation and reward;and loss of effectiveness of endocrine adiposity signals to act at the CNS, may all contribute to excess caloric ..
  34. How do Amine Neurons Work?
    Edward A Kravitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Arousal, reward, learning and memory, risk taking behavior, aggression and stress related behavioral and physiological responses ..
  35. Diet, Insulin, Dopamine, and Reward.
    Margaret E Rice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These findings suggest a role for endocrine adiposity hormones such as insulin in regulating brain reward pathways...
  36. A novel and powerful C. elegans behavioral model of addiction
    Eric A Engleman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent work indicates that the same basic types of behavior that define drug reward in mammals are also evident in invertebrates (crayfish, flies, c-elegans). C...
  37. Neurobiological mechanisms of nicotine reinforcement: Role of the nucleus tractus
    LUIS MIGUEL TUESTA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..regulation of feeding, respiration, processing of interoceptive information, and was recently implicated in opiate reward, yet its role in nicotine reinforcement remains largely unexplored...
  38. Anabolic-androgenic steroids enhance motivation
    Ruth I Wood; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed studies will investigate how high-dose androgens in adolescent rats alter reward processes...
  39. BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION, STRESS AND MATERNAL OXYTOCIN RESPONSE
    Kathleen C Light; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..adrenal (HPA) activity and stress behavior, while increasing positive affect and activation of central reward pathways during mother-infant contact...
  40. MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY OF DRUG ADDICTION
    Eric J Nestler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..two transcription factors, CREB and ?FosB, and a small number of their putative target genes, in the brain's reward pathways in opiate and cocaine action...
  41. Adolescent brains, nicotine and endogenous prototoxins
    Rae Nishi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..prototoxin modulators of nAChRs allows exogenously administered nicotine to lead to long term changes that enhance reward pathways, while preventing full cholinergic maturation, leading to a beneficial effect of nicotine in cognitive ..
  42. Adolescent Alcohol,Dysregulated Stress System, and PTSD Vulnerability
    GERHARD H SCHULTEIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..behavior);2) acoustic startle reactivity (exaggerated startle);2) intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) reward threshold deficits (anhedonia);4) plasma corticosterone (hypocortisolism)...
  43. The Neurochemistry of Cognitive Therapy: Predicting Treatment Outcome with PET
    Jeffrey M Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in which subjects must establish and then reverse associations of specific stimuli with either punishment or reward, and is considered a measure of cognitive flexibility...
  44. Multigenerational Epigenetic Effects of Cannabis Exposure
    Yasmin L Hurd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The molecular studies will be combined with behavioral tests to assess reward-, depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in F1 males and females...
  45. Endocannabinoid Discrimination
    Jenny L Wiley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The system plays an important modulatory role in many crucial CNS processes (e.g., brain reward, appetite regulation, cognition)...
  46. Low Cost Diagnosis of Disease using Synthetic DNA Reactions
    William L Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..humanity, iv) the ability for DNA nanotechnology to contribute to the mission of NIH while providing intellectual reward to the PI, and v) the potential to collaborate with and receive technical support from the Idaho Idea Network of ..
  47. CRF and Stress Modulation of Phasic Dopamine Release and Behavior
    MATTHEW J WANAT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..factor (CRF) acts in the VTA to affect motivated behavior and phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens to reward-related stimuli for natural (Aim 1) and drug (Aim 2a) reinforcers...
  48. Sex Differences in the Roles of Oxytocin and Vasopressin in Social Withdrawal
    Michael Q Steinman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Diminished reward can result in reduced consumption of sucrose and reduced time engaging in social interaction...
  49. New Inactivators of GABA Aminotransferase for Addiction
    Richard B Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, which activates the neurons responsible for pleasure and reward responses...
  50. Addiction-like behavior in models of mood disorders: role of CLOCK and NPAS2
    Colleen A McClung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..know from animal studies that drugs of abuse can entrain behavioral rhythms and molecular rhythms in key brain reward regions...
  51. Examination of Reward Processing in the Treatment of Adolescent Major Depression
    Randy Patrick Auerbach; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Research Career Development Award, the applicant will pursue an innovative line of research examining the role of reward learning in adolescent MDD, and at the same time, receive essential training, which will significantly extend ..
  52. Molecular mechanisms of neural plasticity in drug addiction
    LAURA NICOLE SMITH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..it has been shown that chronic cocaine exposure regulates spine density in the nucleus accumbens, the brain's reward center, via cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent inhibition of a transcription factor known as myocyte ..
  53. Development of a Human Hydrolase to Treat Cocaine Abuse and Overdose: Rat Models
    WILLIAM STEPHEN BRIMIJOIN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Previous attempts to block such behavior, which involves activation of dopaminergic reward circuitry, have used dopamine receptor antagonists...
  54. Mechanisms of glucosensation mediating food choice behavior in Drosophila
    Monica Dus; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, how signals from both metabolic (to replenish energy) and hedonic (for reward) feeding circuits are integrated to regulate food intake and food choice remain unclear...
  55. Novel interventions to reduce stress induced non-homeostatic eating
    Barbara A Laraia; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with researchers at Kaiser-Permanente to test novel interventions based on the physiology by which stress and reward from palatable food influence eating behaviors and abdominal fat deposition...
  56. Mechanisms of regulation of ethanol intake by lateral habenula
    Jiang Hong Ye; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is processed by the habenular complex, an epithalamic structure involved in fear, anxiety, depression, stress and reward. The LHb receives inputs primarily from the basal ganglia and sends outputs mainly to dopaminergic (DA) and ..
  57. Amphetamine-Induced Transcriptional Plasticity in Striatal GABAergic Interneurons
    ANNE ELIZABETH WEST; Fiscal Year: 2013
    The mesolimbic reward circuit is comprised of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area and their targets in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and other associated limbic brain regions...
  58. Regulation of striatal cannabinoid CB1 receptors by DARPP32 and deltaFosB mediate
    Matthew F Lazenka; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In particular, brain regions like the nucleus accumbens (NAC) and caudate-putamen (CPU) that contribute to the reward and motivational properties of THC have reduced sensitivity to desensitization/downregulation and extended time ..
  59. Models for?functional evaluation of?CHRN polymorphisms
    Beverly H Koller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These receptors are also the physiological targets of nicotine activating the mesolimbic dominergic reward and pleasure pathways...
  60. Placebo Effects in the Treatment of Depression: Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms
    Bret R Rutherford; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cortical (PFC) areas, amygdala and insular cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), and dopaminergic reward pathways in the striatum...
  61. Regulation of Brain Signaling After Bariatric Surgery
    Jonathan Q Purnell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..food stimuli have consistently demonstrated involvement of dopaminergic pathways traditionally linked with reward motivation...
  62. Ontogenic factors in adolescent-emergent depression and decision-making
    SHANNON LEIGH GOURLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, because depression attenuates reward sensitivity, disrupts decision-making processes essential to accomplishing goals, and diminishes motivation to ..
  63. Using fMRI to Measure Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia
    EDWARD E contact SMITH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..On each trial of the task, a subject has to decide which of two objects is more likely to lead to a reward (e.g., money), where the probability that each object leads to reward keeps changing slowly...
  64. Prenatal ethanol exposure effects on reward circuitry and ethanol consumption
    JAMES PATRICK RICE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..levels of ethanol during early development can alter voluntary ethanol consumption later in adulthood, and how reward related circuitry in the brain is involved in these changes in behavior...
  65. Interactions Between the Brain Reward and Pain Systems.
    Conan Kornetsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The major objective of the proposed research is to study the interaction of the brain reward system with the brain pain system and the effects of morphine on this interaction...
  66. Motivational control of goal-directed actions and habits
    Brian J Wiltgen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The goal of this project is to examine the motivational effects of reward cues on habitual responding...
  67. The effects of SAMe on reward circuitry in depression
    Diego Pizzagalli; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..have shown that SAMe influences neurotransmitter metabolism (including dopamine, a neurotransmitter implicated in reward brain mechanisms), membrane fluidity, and receptor activity, the precise mechanisms of its antidepressant actions ..
  68. MARIJUANA & DOPAMINE/ENKEPHALIN BRAIN REWARD SYSTEMS
    ELIOT GARDNER; Fiscal Year: 1992
    The objective of the proposed research is to gain further insights into marijuana's action on brain reward circuits and on dopamine (DA) and enkephalinergic mechanisms involved in marijuana, derive part of their abuse liability from ..
  69. GABAA subtype-specific pharmacological modulation of reward-related behavior
    Uwe Rudolph; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to study the role of different GABAA receptor subtypes defined by the presence of the ?1, ?2 or ?3 subunits in reward-related behavior using the intracranial self-stimulation paradigm...
  70. Forebrain Response to Sapid NaCI During Salt Appetite
    Samantha Dayawansa; Fiscal Year: 2009
    We tend to develop a craving for certain substances more than others due to the innate reward mechanism in the central nervous system which is driven by limbic system mediated motivation...
  71. In vivo and in vitro tools to target CHRNA5 for smoking cessation.
    Andreas Walz; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..One strategy for smoking cessation therapies is to break the reward cycle between the act of smoking with the pleasurable outcome of nicotine ingestion...
  72. ROLE OF NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS CA2+ FLUX IN COCAINE REWARD
    WILLIAM CARLEZON; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Several lines of evidence suggest that changes in Ca2+ flux in the NASh influence brain reward processes...
  73. Dopaminergic modulation of cost/benefit decision making during aging
    Paul Phillips; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This fast transmission may provide a threshold signal for the costs an animal should endure to obtain a reward. Since they encode the expected reward amplitude, this should drive animals to tolerate a higher cost for better (..
  74. Effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on brain reward
    C Malanga; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..compromise in brain systems involved in drug self-administration, which have been linked to alterations in brain reward, in animals exposed to cocaine in utero...
  75. Cannabis & Schizophrenia: fMRI Reward Circuit Biomaker
    Alan Green; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This R21 application proposes an "add-on" functional MRI (fMRI) pilot study of brain reward circuitry to this "base" study...
  76. Mesolimbic Dopamine Modulation of Cue-Enhanced Ventral Pallidal Activity
    Jennifer Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..how addictive drugs "hijack" brain circuits involved in the association of neutral environmental stimuli with reward. Psychostimulants such as amphetamine are thought to cause excessive dopamine release from mesolimbic neurons ..
  77. Neural Basis of Sensory Discrimination Learning
    DAVID TRUMBULL BLAKE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our working hypothesis is that these plasticity effects depend only on cognitive reward associations...
  78. Endogenous Opioid Mediation of Stress and Drug Reward
    JAY MCLAUGHLIN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Released endogenous opioid peptides regulate pain sensation, physiological stress responses and reward pathways...
  79. Polymorphisms Related to Dopamine Receptor Function and Smoking
    ERIC CHRISTIAN DONNY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..provided by applicant): Several theories of addiction posit that dependent smoking results from an imbalance in reward processing, such that cigarettes and smoking related stimuli become "overvalued" and/or other non-smoking ..
  80. Using rt-fMRI to Modulate Neural Responses to Drug and Nondrug Rewards in Cocaine
    MATTHEW contact SHANE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Current models of cocaine addiction have proposed that cocaine may alter the sensitivity of mesocorticolimbic reward circuitry to drug- and nondrug-rewards, such that chronic cocaine users manifest increased sensitivity to drug-..
  81. FMRI STUDIES OF BRAIN REWARD AND EMOTION
    Hans Breiter; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..ABSTRACT: This is a request for an NIDA Scientist Development Award (K21) entitled "FMRI Studies of Brain Reward and Emotion", and is submitted in response to a NIDA notice of "special research scientist development awards for ..
  82. Optogenetic Manipulation of Brain Reward
    Luis de Lecea; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Optogenetic manipulation of brain reward. Direct electrical stimulation in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is highly rewarding...
  83. Altering nicotine reward through conditioning
    RICK BEVINS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..That is, the biological effects of the drug (e.g., reward, psychomotor stimulation) enter into an association with stimuli that reliably co-occur with these effects (e.g...
  84. Individual Differences in Incentive Salience Attribution: Relevance to Addiction
    SHELLY BETH FLAGEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..one plausible explanation is that individual differences in addiction liability are related to the extent to which reward-related cues come to control behavior...
  85. A VISUAL CUE MODEL TO INVESTIGATE COCAINE REWARD
    Chana Akins; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..To date, there is no animal model of cocaine reward that is used to focus specifically on the role of visual cues in drug-seeking behavior...