operant conditioning

Summary

Summary: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Lesions of dorsolateral striatum preserve outcome expectancy but disrupt habit formation in instrumental learning
    Henry H Yin
    Department of Psychology, and Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 1285 Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1563, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 19:181-9. 2004
  2. ncbi The role of the dorsomedial striatum in instrumental conditioning
    Henry H Yin
    Department of Psychology and Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1563, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 22:513-23. 2005
  3. ncbi Effort-related functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine and associated forebrain circuits
    J D Salamone
    Division of Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269 1020, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:461-82. 2007
  4. pmc Nucleus accumbens core lesions retard instrumental learning and performance with delayed reinforcement in the rat
    Rudolf N Cardinal
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    BMC Neurosci 6:9. 2005
  5. ncbi Role of alpha-2 adrenoceptors in stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking and alcohol self-administration in rats
    A D Le
    Department of Neuroscience, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2S1
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:366-73. 2005
  6. ncbi The neural correlates and role of D1 dopamine receptors in renewal of extinguished alcohol-seeking
    A S Hamlin
    School of Psychology, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia
    Neuroscience 146:525-36. 2007
  7. ncbi Use of a novel thermal operant behavioral assay for characterization of orofacial pain sensitivity
    John K Neubert
    Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Road, P O Box 100444, Gainesville, FL 32610 0444, USA
    Pain 116:386-95. 2005
  8. pmc Characterization of cold sensitivity and thermal preference using an operant orofacial assay
    Heather L Rossi
    College of Dentistry Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0444, USA
    Mol Pain 2:37. 2006
  9. ncbi Neurobehavioral mechanisms of impulsivity: fronto-striatal systems and functional neurochemistry
    Jeffrey W Dalley
    Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge, CB2 3EB, UK
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:250-60. 2008
  10. pmc Sex differences in learning processes of classical and operant conditioning
    Christina Dalla
    Department of Psychology and Center for Collaborative Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Physiol Behav 97:229-38. 2009

Detail Information

Publications367 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Lesions of dorsolateral striatum preserve outcome expectancy but disrupt habit formation in instrumental learning
    Henry H Yin
    Department of Psychology, and Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 1285 Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1563, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 19:181-9. 2004
    ..Furthermore, it suggests that, when the habit system is disrupted, control over instrumental performance reverts to the system controlling the performance of goal-directed instrumental actions...
  2. ncbi The role of the dorsomedial striatum in instrumental conditioning
    Henry H Yin
    Department of Psychology and Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1563, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 22:513-23. 2005
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that the posterior region of the DMS is a crucial neural substrate for the acquisition and expression of action-outcome associations in instrumental conditioning...
  3. ncbi Effort-related functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine and associated forebrain circuits
    J D Salamone
    Division of Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269 1020, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:461-82. 2007
    ....
  4. pmc Nucleus accumbens core lesions retard instrumental learning and performance with delayed reinforcement in the rat
    Rudolf N Cardinal
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    BMC Neurosci 6:9. 2005
    ....
  5. ncbi Role of alpha-2 adrenoceptors in stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking and alcohol self-administration in rats
    A D Le
    Department of Neuroscience, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2S1
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:366-73. 2005
    ..We also tested the effect of lofexidine and yohimbine on alcohol self-administration. Lofexidine is used clinically for treating opiate withdrawal symptoms and yohimbine induces stress-like responses in humans and non-humans...
  6. ncbi The neural correlates and role of D1 dopamine receptors in renewal of extinguished alcohol-seeking
    A S Hamlin
    School of Psychology, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia
    Neuroscience 146:525-36. 2007
    ..Neuroscience 143:25-38] permits identification of similarities and differences in the correlates of renewal of extinguished drug- and natural-reward seeking...
  7. ncbi Use of a novel thermal operant behavioral assay for characterization of orofacial pain sensitivity
    John K Neubert
    Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Road, P O Box 100444, Gainesville, FL 32610 0444, USA
    Pain 116:386-95. 2005
    ..These data reflect an orofacial pain behavior profile that was based on an animal's responses in an operant escape paradigm. This technique allows evaluation of nociceptive processing and modulation throughout the neuraxis...
  8. pmc Characterization of cold sensitivity and thermal preference using an operant orofacial assay
    Heather L Rossi
    College of Dentistry Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0444, USA
    Mol Pain 2:37. 2006
    ..Male and female rats were trained to drink sweetened milk while pressing their shaved faces against a thermode. This presents a conflict paradigm between milk reward and thermal stimulation...
  9. ncbi Neurobehavioral mechanisms of impulsivity: fronto-striatal systems and functional neurochemistry
    Jeffrey W Dalley
    Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge, CB2 3EB, UK
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:250-60. 2008
    ....
  10. pmc Sex differences in learning processes of classical and operant conditioning
    Christina Dalla
    Department of Psychology and Center for Collaborative Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Physiol Behav 97:229-38. 2009
    ..We review here sex differences as they occur in laboratory rodent species. We focus on classical and operant conditioning paradigms, including classical eyeblink conditioning, fear-conditioning, active avoidance and conditioned ..
  11. ncbi Nicotine induces conditioned place preferences over a large range of doses in rats
    Bernard Le Foll
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Department of Health and Human Services, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 178:481-92. 2005
    ..Conditioned place preference (CPP) procedures provide one measure of potential rewarding effects of abused drugs. Many attempts to induce CPP with nicotine have been unsuccessful...
  12. ncbi Long-lasting increase in voluntary ethanol consumption and transcriptional regulation in the rat brain after intermittent exposure to alcohol
    Roberto Rimondini
    Neurotec, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    FASEB J 16:27-35. 2002
    ..These observations may have important implications for how alcoholism is managed clinically. Novel clinically effective treatments may be possible to develop by targeting the products of genes found to be regulated in our model...
  13. ncbi Contrasting roles of basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in impulsive choice
    Catharine A Winstanley
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Site, Cambridge CB2 3EB, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 24:4718-22. 2004
    ..This is the first time that lesions to these two structures have produced opposite behavioral effects, indicating their distinct contributions to cognition...
  14. ncbi Dissociation of Pavlovian and instrumental incentive learning under dopamine antagonists
    A Dickinson
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Behav Neurosci 114:468-83. 2000
    ..These results suggest that Pavlovian and instrumental incentive learning are not mediated by a common process...
  15. ncbi Global 5-HT depletion attenuates the ability of amphetamine to decrease impulsive choice on a delay-discounting task in rats
    Catharine A Winstanley
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 170:320-31. 2003
    ..Although most behavioural effects of amphetamine are attributed to the dopaminergic system, some recent evidence suggests a role for serotonin in this paradoxical "calming" effect...
  16. ncbi Reward-related responses in the human striatum
    Mauricio R Delgado
    Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1104:70-88. 2007
    ..The rest of the article will center on how human neuroimaging studies map to findings from the animal literature, and how more recently, this research can be extended into the social and economic domains...
  17. pmc Effects of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant on distinct measures of impulsive behavior in rats
    Tommy Pattij
    Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Research Institute Neurosciences Vrije Universiteit, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, VU Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, Amsterdam, 1081 BT, The Netherlands
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 193:85-96. 2007
    ..Pathological impulsivity is a prominent feature in several psychiatric disorders, but detailed understanding of the specific neuronal processes underlying impulsive behavior is as yet lacking...
  18. pmc Different neural substrates mediate cocaine seeking after abstinence versus extinction training: a critical role for the dorsolateral caudate-putamen
    Rita A Fuchs
    Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Neurosci 26:3584-8. 2006
    ....
  19. ncbi Operant conditioning of gill withdrawal in Aplysia
    Robert D Hawkins
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Neurosci 26:2443-8. 2006
    ..neuronal mechanisms contributing to habituation, sensitization, and classical conditioning, also undergoes operant conditioning. Animals were run in pairs...
  20. ncbi Differential involvement of the core and shell subregions of the nucleus accumbens in conditioned cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats
    Rita A Fuchs
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 176:459-65. 2004
    ..Thus, determination of the involvement of NAC subregions in conditioned cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking is warranted...
  21. ncbi Motivational views of reinforcement: implications for understanding the behavioral functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine
    John D Salamone
    Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 1020, USA
    Behav Brain Res 137:3-25. 2002
    ....
  22. ncbi The ventral tegmental area is required for the behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal firing responses to incentive cues
    Irene A Yun
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 24:2923-33. 2004
    ..Our findings suggest a neural mechanism by which the dopamine-dependent firing of NAc neurons mediates goal-directed behavior...
  23. pmc The anxiogenic drug yohimbine reinstates palatable food seeking in a rat relapse model: a role of CRF1 receptors
    Udi E Ghitza
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, NIDA IRP NIH DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:2188-96. 2006
    ..These data suggest that CRF is involved in stress-induced relapse to palatable food seeking, and that CRF1 antagonists should be considered for the treatment of maladaptive eating habits...
  24. ncbi Microdialysis of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring (P) rats during anticipation and operant self-administration of ethanol
    Roberto I Melendez
    Department of Psychology, Program in Psychobiology of Addictions, Purdue School of Science IUPUI, 402 N Blackford Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 3275, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26:318-25. 2002
    ..The study also explored the association between elevated locomotor activity and NAc dopamine efflux during operant self-administration of ethanol...
  25. ncbi Progressive plasticity of auditory cortex during appetitive operant conditioning
    Hirokazu Takahashi
    Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Meguro ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Biosystems 101:37-41. 2010
    ..representation in the auditory cortex changed progressively depending on the stage of training in auditory operant conditioning. At the early stage, tone-responsive areas mainly in the core cortex expanded, while both the core and belt ..
  26. ncbi Augmented reinforcer value and accelerated habit formation after repeated amphetamine treatment
    R E Nordquist
    Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Research Institute of Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 17:532-40. 2007
    ..These data show that both habit formation and motivational value of reinforcers are augmented in amphetamine-sensitized rats, and suggest that the task demands determine which behavioral alteration is most prominently expressed...
  27. ncbi Place preference induced by nucleus accumbens amphetamine is impaired by antagonists of ERK or p38 MAP kinases in rats
    Todor V Gerdjikov
    Department of Psychology, Queen s University, Kingston, ON, Canada
    Behav Neurosci 118:740-50. 2004
    ..Results suggest that ERK and p38, but not JNK, MAPKs may be necessary for the establishment of NAc amphetamine-produced CPP and may also mediate other forms of reward-related learning dependent on NAc...
  28. ncbi Lesion to the nigrostriatal dopamine system disrupts stimulus-response habit formation
    Alexis Faure
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie de l Apprentissage, de la Memoire et de la Communication, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8620, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
    J Neurosci 25:2771-80. 2005
    ..In dopamine-depleted rats, lever press and chain pull remained sensitive to reward devaluation, evidencing a role of striatal dopamine transmission in habit formation...
  29. ncbi Feeding behavior of Aplysia: a model system for comparing cellular mechanisms of classical and operant conditioning
    Douglas A Baxter
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, W M Keck Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Learn Mem 13:669-80. 2006
    ..model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase ..
  30. ncbi Acetylcholine receptors containing the beta2 subunit are involved in the reinforcing properties of nicotine
    M R Picciotto
    CNRS UA D1284, Neurobiologie moleculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Nature 391:173-7. 1998
    ..Our results strongly support the idea that the beta2-containing neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is involved in mediating the reinforcing properties of nicotine...
  31. ncbi Double dissociation of basolateral and central amygdala lesions on the general and outcome-specific forms of pavlovian-instrumental transfer
    Laura H Corbit
    Department of Psychology and the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Neurosci 25:962-70. 2005
    ..Together, these results suggest that the BLA mediates outcome-specific incentive processes, whereas CN is involved in controlling the general motivational influence of reward-related events...
  32. ncbi Cocaine seeking over extended withdrawal periods in rats: different time courses of responding induced by cocaine cues versus cocaine priming over the first 6 months
    Lin Lu
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, IRP NIDA NIH DHHS, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 176:101-8. 2004
    ..Here, we studied cocaine seeking induced by re-exposure to cocaine cues or cocaine itself over an extended withdrawal period of 6 months...
  33. ncbi Evidence for a role of D1 dopamine receptors in d-amphetamine's effect on timing behaviour in the free-operant psychophysical procedure
    T H C Cheung
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 185:378-88. 2006
    ..Studies using the fixed-interval peak procedure implicated D2 dopamine receptors in these effects. Less is known about the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on temporal differentiation in other timing schedules...
  34. pmc Neuronal correlates of post-error slowing in the rat dorsomedial prefrontal cortex
    Nandakumar S Narayanan
    The John B Pierce Laboratory, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    J Neurophysiol 100:520-5. 2008
    ..In contrast to dmPFC, no such neurons were found in motor cortex. Our results implicate the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in a form of retrospective working memory that improves task performance following errors...
  35. ncbi Evidence for the sensitivity of operant timing behaviour to stimulation of D1 dopamine receptors
    T H C Cheung
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 195:213-22. 2007
    ..It is not known whether this effect of d-amphetamine is mimicked by direct D(1)-like receptor stimulation...
  36. ncbi Dopamine and drug addiction: the nucleus accumbens shell connection
    Gaetano Di Chiara
    Department of Toxicology, University of Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari, Italy
    Neuropharmacology 47:227-41. 2004
    ..It is speculated that drug addiction results from the impact exerted on behavior by the abnormal DA stimulant properties acquired by drug-conditioned stimuli as a result of their association with addictive drugs...
  37. pmc Role of ventral medial prefrontal cortex in incubation of cocaine craving
    Eisuke Koya
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, IRP NIDA NIH DHHS, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropharmacology 56:177-85. 2009
    ..The present results indicate that ventral mPFC neuronal activity plays an important role in the incubation of cocaine craving...
  38. ncbi Direct involvement of orexinergic systems in the activation of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and related behaviors induced by morphine
    Minoru Narita
    Department of Toxicology, Hoshi University School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo 142 8501, Japan
    J Neurosci 26:398-405. 2006
    ..These findings provide new evidence that orexin-containing neurons in the VTA are directly implicated in the rewarding effect and hyperlocomotion induced by morphine through activation of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in rodents...
  39. ncbi Prefrontal cortex lesions disrupt the contextual control of response conflict
    Josephine E Haddon
    School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 26:2933-40. 2006
    ..This procedure provides a good foundation for an improved understanding of the disruption to goal-directed behavior seen with frontal dysfunction in a number of neuropsychological disorders including schizophrenia...
  40. ncbi Monoamine oxidase inhibition dramatically increases the motivation to self-administer nicotine in rats
    Karine Guillem
    Laboratoire de Neuropsychobiologie des Desadaptations, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5541, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite de Bordeaux 2, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France
    J Neurosci 25:8593-600. 2005
    ..The results suggest that the inhibition of MAO activity by compounds present in tobacco smoke may combine with nicotine to produce the intense reinforcing properties of cigarette smoking that lead to addiction...
  41. ncbi Lesions of medial prefrontal cortex disrupt the acquisition but not the expression of goal-directed learning
    Sean B Ostlund
    Department of Psychology, The Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1563, USA
    J Neurosci 25:7763-70. 2005
    ..These results indicate that the mPFC is selectively involved in the acquisition, but not the permanent storage or expression, of action-outcome associations in instrumental conditioning...
  42. pmc Role of food type in yohimbine- and pellet-priming-induced reinstatement of food seeking
    S G Nair
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, IRP NIDA NIH DHHS, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Physiol Behav 88:559-66. 2006
    ..Results suggest that the magnitude of the effect of yohimbine and pellet priming on reinstatement of food seeking depends in part on the composition of the food pellets used during training...
  43. ncbi Rimonabant, a CB1 antagonist, blocks nicotine-conditioned place preferences
    Bernard Le Foll
    Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuroreport 15:2139-43. 2004
    ....
  44. ncbi Conditioned place preference: what does it add to our preclinical understanding of drug reward?
    M T Bardo
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 153:31-43. 2000
    ..However, a number of controversial issues have surrounded the use of this experimental protocol...
  45. ncbi Differential effects of stress on escape and reflex responses to nociceptive thermal stimuli in the rat
    C D King
    Comprehensive Center for Pain Research, Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Brain Res 987:214-22. 2003
    ..These results are discussed in relation to studies involving physical or psychological forms of stress, different nociceptive stimuli, and assessment strategies used to evaluate thermal pain sensitivity...
  46. pmc Erythropoietin improves operant conditioning and stability of cognitive performance in mice
    Ahmed El-Kordi
    Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Gottingen, Germany
    BMC Biol 7:37. 2009
    ..This procedure allows the study of the effects of erythropoietin on discrete processes of learning and attention in a sequential fashion...
  47. ncbi The role of the nucleus accumbens in instrumental conditioning: Evidence of a functional dissociation between accumbens core and shell
    L H Corbit
    Department of Psychology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Neurosci 21:3251-60. 2001
    ..This double dissociation suggests that nucleus accumbens core and shell differentially mediate the impact of instrumental and Pavlovian incentive processes, respectively, on instrumental performance...
  48. ncbi Effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on inter-temporal choice: further observations with an adjusting-delay procedure
    S da Costa Araújo
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Behav Brain Res 202:272-7. 2009
    ..The results are consistent with previous findings that indicate a role for the AcbC in delay discounting...
  49. ncbi Activity in human ventral striatum locked to errors of reward prediction
    Giuseppe Pagnoni
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Nat Neurosci 5:97-8. 2002
    ..We tested this hypothesis in humans, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and an operant conditioning paradigm for the discrete delivery of small quantities of fruit juice, along with a control experiment in ..
  50. ncbi The role of operant conditioning in chronic pain: an experimental investigation
    Herta Flor
    Department of Neuropsychology, Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg, Central Institute of Mental Health, J 5, D 68159 Mannheim, Germany
    Pain 95:111-8. 2002
    The role of operant conditioning for the development and maintenance of chronic pain was examined in 30 chronic back pain patients (CBP) and 30 matched healthy controls...
  51. ncbi Human nicotine conditioning requires explicit contingency knowledge: is addictive behaviour cognitively mediated?
    Lee Hogarth
    Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 184:553-66. 2006
    ....
  52. ncbi General and outcome-specific forms of Pavlovian-instrumental transfer: the effect of shifts in motivational state and inactivation of the ventral tegmental area
    Laura H Corbit
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 26:3141-9. 2007
    ....
  53. ncbi Environmental stimuli promote the acquisition of nicotine self-administration in rats
    Anthony R Caggiula
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 3131 Sennott Square, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:230-7. 2002
    ....
  54. ncbi Conditioned appetitive stimulus increases extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of the rat
    K P Datla
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 16:1987-93. 2002
    ..The increase in DA release in the test session may be related either to the secondary reinforcing properties acquired by the stimulus, or to the change in contingencies, or to the aversive effects of the omission of reward...
  55. ncbi Repeated nicotine exposure enhances reward-related learning in the rat
    Peter Olausson
    Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 28:1264-71. 2003
    ..In this study, all nicotine treatment schedules increased Pavlovian discriminative approach behavior and, thus, prior repeated exposure to nicotine, repeated postsession nicotine injections, or both, facilitated reward-related learning...
  56. ncbi Dopaminergic synapses mediate neuronal changes in an analogue of operant conditioning
    R Nargeot
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy and W M Keck Center for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, The University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Neurophysiol 81:1983-7. 1999
    Feeding behavior in Aplysia can be modified by operant conditioning in which contingent reinforcement is conveyed by the esophageal nerve (E n.)...
  57. ncbi The CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin attenuates yohimbine-induced increases in operant alcohol self-administration and reinstatement of alcohol seeking in rats
    Peter W Marinelli
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurobiology of Alcohol Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 195:345-55. 2007
    ..In this study, we assess whether these effects of yohimbine are attenuated by systemic injections of the corticotrotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist antalarmin...
  58. ncbi Operant conditioning in invertebrates
    Björn Brembs
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, The University of Texas Houston Medical School, 6431 Fannin, MSB 7 312, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 13:710-7. 2003
    ..to anticipate future events on the basis of past experience with the consequences of one's own behavior (operant conditioning) is a simple form of learning that humans share with most other animals, including invertebrates...
  59. pmc Effect of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on performance on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement: implications for inter-temporal choice
    G Bezzina
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 197:339-50. 2008
    ..Recent evidence suggests that it is not crucial for determining the incentive value of immediately available reinforcers, but is important for maintaining the values of delayed reinforcers...
  60. ncbi Self-administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by drug naive squirrel monkeys
    Zuzana Justinova
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 169:135-40. 2003
    ....
  61. ncbi Quantitative analysis of the effects of some "atypical" and "conventional" antipsychotics on progressive ratio schedule performance
    Z Zhang
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:489-97. 2005
    ..In a previous experiment we found that the "atypical" antipsychotic clozapine increased alpha, indicating an increase in the efficacy of a food reinforcer...
  62. pmc Effects of step size and break-point criterion on progressive-ratio performance
    D Stafford
    University of Florida, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 70:123-38. 1998
    ..This function also provided an excellent description of data drawn from previous reports...
  63. ncbi Operant conditioning of rat H-reflex affects motoneuron axonal conduction velocity
    J S Carp
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany 12201, USA
    Exp Brain Res 136:269-73. 2001
    This study assessed the effects of operant conditioning of the H-reflex on motoneuron axonal conduction velocity in the rat...
  64. ncbi Differentiation between capsaicin-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia using a thermal operant assay
    John K Neubert
    College of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
    Behav Brain Res 170:308-15. 2006
    ..This technique provides an alternative to reflex tests of orofacial sensitivity, and it presents a pivotal link for translating basic pain research into clinic trial strategies...
  65. pmc Does satiation close the open economy?
    Diana Posadas-Sánchez
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 1104, USA
    Learn Behav 33:387-98. 2005
    ..Behavioral theories may provide a parsimonious alternative to economic theories in accounting for such effects...
  66. ncbi Complementary roles for the amygdala and hippocampus in aversive conditioning to explicit and contextual cues
    N R Selden
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, U K
    Neuroscience 42:335-50. 1991
    ..These results suggest a double dissociation of the effects of amygdala and hippocampal damage on fear conditioning to explicit and contextual cues...
  67. ncbi Comparison of operant escape and innate reflex responses to nociceptive skin temperatures produced by heat and cold stimulation of rats
    Charles J Vierck
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Behav Neurosci 118:627-35. 2004
    ..0 or 0.3 degrees C and were not appropriately related to heat intensity. The reflexes were relatively insensitive to thermal nociceptive stimulation other than heating of the skin at a high rate...
  68. ncbi Hippocampal lesions prevent trace eyeblink conditioning in the freely moving rat
    C Weiss
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Behav Brain Res 99:123-32. 1999
    ..We conclude that the hippocampus is required for rats to learn the association between a tone CS and an airpuff US when a 250 ms trace interval is interposed between the two stimuli...
  69. ncbi From foraging to operant conditioning: a new computer-controlled Skinner box to study free-flying nectar gathering behavior in bees
    Michel B C Sokolowski
    Unité Dynamiques des Systèmes Anthropisés, Dpt de Psychologie, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Chemin du Thil, F 80025 Amiens, Cedex 1, France
    J Neurosci Methods 188:235-42. 2010
    ..These data show large individual variations among subjects across several dependent variables. Finally, we discuss possible applications of our device to problems in behavioral sciences...
  70. ncbi Contrasting effects of dopamine and glutamate receptor antagonist injection in the nucleus accumbens suggest a neural mechanism underlying cue-evoked goal-directed behavior
    Irene A Yun
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 20:249-63. 2004
    ....
  71. ncbi Stimuli linked to ethanol availability activate hypothalamic CART and orexin neurons in a reinstatement model of relapse
    Christopher V Dayas
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 63:152-7. 2008
    ..However, the potential role of other hypothalamic feeding peptides, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), in conditioned reinstatement has yet to be explored...
  72. ncbi Nicotine improves sustained attention in mice: evidence for involvement of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
    Jared W Young
    Fujisawa Institute of Neuroscience, Division of Neuroscience, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:891-900. 2004
    ..Furthermore, as alpha7 KO mice are clearly impaired in the acquisition and asymptotic performance of this task, the alpha7 nAChR may be involved in mediating these effects of nicotine...
  73. ncbi Relations between Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and reinforcer devaluation
    Peter C Holland
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 30:104-17. 2004
    ....
  74. ncbi The rat nucleus accumbens is involved in guiding of instrumental responses by stimuli predicting reward magnitude
    Christian Giertler
    Abteilung Tierphysiologie, Biologisches Institut, Universitat Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, Stuttgart, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 18:1993-6. 2003
    ....
  75. ncbi Do vertical shifts in dose-response rate-relationships in operant conditioning procedures indicate "sensitization" to "drug wanting"?
    Gerald Zernig
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 171:349-51; author reply 352-63. 2004
  76. ncbi D1 or D2 antagonism in nucleus accumbens core or dorsomedial shell suppresses lever pressing for food but leads to compensatory increases in chow consumption
    K L Nowend
    Unit 1020, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, Storrs, CT 06269-1020, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 69:373-82. 2001
    ..Nevertheless, interference with accumbens DA does appear to set constraints upon which responses are selected for obtaining food, and may impair the ability of animals to overcome work-related response costs in order to obtain food...
  77. ncbi Nicotine-induced attentional enhancement in rats: effects of chronic exposure to nicotine
    B Hahn
    Section of Behavioural Pharmacology, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, De Crespigny Park, SE5 8AF, London, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 27:712-22. 2002
    ..This is important for potential therapeutic applications of the drug and indicates that these effects can be a continuous motive for smoking behavior...
  78. pmc Trace but not delay fear conditioning requires attention and the anterior cingulate cortex
    C J Han
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13087-92. 2003
    ..These data suggest that trace conditioning may be useful for studying neural substrates of attention in mice, and implicate the ACC as one such substrate...
  79. ncbi Unconscious operant conditioning in the paradigm of brain-computer interface based on color perception
    Alexander Ya Kaplan
    Department of Human Physiology, Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation
    Int J Neurosci 115:781-802. 2005
    ..It is suggested that the basic neurophysiological mechanism of described NF training consists of the directed selection of EEG patterns reinforced by comfortable color shades without conscious control...
  80. ncbi Neural substrates of cocaine-cue associations that trigger relapse
    Ronald E See
    Department of Neurosciences, 173 Ashley Avenue, BSB 416, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, 29425, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 526:140-6. 2005
    ..Taken together, these results reveal the importance of the amygdala in the acquisition, consolidation, and expression of drug-stimulus learning that drives relapse to drug-seeking behavior...
  81. ncbi Differential effects of nucleus accumbens core, shell, or dorsal striatal inactivations on the persistence, reacquisition, or reinstatement of responding for a drug-paired conditioned reinforcer
    Patricia Di Ciano
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:1413-25. 2008
    ..These results are discussed with reference to the neural systems involved in different aspects of responding maintained by drug-paired conditioned reinforcers...
  82. ncbi Behavioral and in vitro correlates of compulsive-like food seeking induced by operant conditioning in Aplysia
    Romuald Nargeot
    Universités Bordeaux 2, 1, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5227, Bordeaux, 33076 France
    J Neurosci 27:8059-70. 2007
    ..explored such behavioral plasticity in Aplysia by analyzing how appetitive reward stimulation in a form of operant conditioning can modify a goal-directed component of the animal's food-seeking behavior...
  83. ncbi The role of cognition in classical and operant conditioning
    Irving Kirsch
    University of Connecticut, USA
    J Clin Psychol 60:369-92. 2004
    ..cognitive involvement (typically thought of as expectancy) is assumed for most instances of classical and operant conditioning, with current theoretical differences concerning the level of cognition that is involved (e.g...
  84. ncbi Modulation of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthases during learning of an operant conditioning task
    Maximiliano Rapanelli
    IBYME CONICET, Laboratorio de Biologia del Comportamiento, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Neurochem 113:725-34. 2010
    ..and enzymatic activity of eNOS and nNOS in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus during learning an operant conditioning task...
  85. ncbi Identifying a "default" visual search mode with operant conditioning
    Jun ichiro Kawahara
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 6, 1 1 1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305 8566, Japan
    Acta Psychol (Amst) 135:38-49. 2010
    ..The present study examined which strategy represents the "default" mode using an operant conditioning approach in which participants were trained, in the absence of explicit instructions, to search for a ..
  86. ncbi 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor antagonists have opposing effects on a measure of impulsivity: interactions with global 5-HT depletion
    Catharine A Winstanley
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 176:376-85. 2004
    ..Mounting evidence suggests that 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors have opposing effects on behaviour, and that the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 242084 produces a pattern of behaviour similar to 5-HT depletion...
  87. ncbi A new paradigm for operant conditioning of Drosophila melanogaster
    G Wustmann
    , , , Germany
    J Comp Physiol A 179:429-36. 1996
    ..3) The procedure is fast, robust and requires little handling. Therefore the apparatus is suitable for largescale mutant screening. (4) Animals are not attached to a hook and thus can easily be used for breeding...
  88. ncbi Changes in neuronal excitability serve as a mechanism of long-term memory for operant conditioning
    Riccardo Mozzachiodi
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, W M Keck Center for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 6431 Fannin Street, Suite MSB 7 046, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Nat Neurosci 11:1146-8. 2008
    ..We found that in vitro analogs of operant conditioning produced a long-term (24 h) increase in the excitability of an identified neuron (B51) that is critical for ..
  89. ncbi cAMP-dependent protein kinase and reward-related learning: intra-accumbens Rp-cAMPS blocks amphetamine-produced place conditioning in rats
    Richard J Beninger
    Department of Psychology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 170:23-32. 2003
    ..Dopamine may produce reward-related learning by activating D(1)-like receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and stimulating the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)...
  90. ncbi Acute tryptophan depletion in healthy volunteers enhances punishment prediction but does not affect reward prediction
    Roshan Cools
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:2291-9. 2008
    ..Furthermore, the finding highlights the importance of central 5-HT in resilience to adversity and may have implications for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety...
  91. ncbi The role of prelimbic cortex in instrumental conditioning
    Laura H Corbit
    Department of Psychology and the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Behav Brain Res 146:145-57. 2003
    ....
  92. ncbi Classical and operant conditioning differentially modify the intrinsic properties of an identified neuron
    Fred D Lorenzetti
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, W M Keck Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:17-9. 2006
    A long-standing debate in neuroscience is whether classical and operant conditioning are mechanistically similar or distinct. The feeding behavior of Aplysia provides a model system suitable for addressing this question...
  93. ncbi Dissociable roles for the nucleus accumbens core and shell in regulating set shifting
    Stan B Floresco
    Department of Psychology, Brain Research Center, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    J Neurosci 26:2449-57. 2006
    ..The NAc core facilitates the acquisition and maintenance of novel behavioral strategies and elimination of inappropriate response options, whereas the shell may mediate learning about irrelevant stimuli...
  94. ncbi The basolateral amygdala-ventral striatal system and conditioned place preference: further evidence of limbic-striatal interactions underlying reward-related processes
    B J Everitt
    Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, U K
    Neuroscience 42:1-18. 1991
    ..These data provide further support for the hypothesis that the basolateral amygdala and ventral striatum are important parts of a neural system subserving stimulus-reward associations...
  95. pmc The dysphoric component of stress is encoded by activation of the dynorphin kappa-opioid system
    Benjamin B Land
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7280, USA
    J Neurosci 28:407-14. 2008
    ..The convergence of stress-induced aversive inputs on the dynorphin system was unexpected, implicates dynorphin as a key mediator of dysphoria, and emphasizes kappa-receptor antagonists as promising therapeutics...
  96. pmc Toward a model of drug relapse: an assessment of the validity of the reinstatement procedure
    David H Epstein
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Research Branch, IRP NIDA NIH DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189:1-16. 2006
    ..The reinstatement model is widely used to study relapse to drug addiction. However, the model's validity is open to question...
  97. ncbi The impact of tryptophan depletion and 5-HTTLPR genotype on passive avoidance and response reversal instrumental learning tasks
    Elizabeth C Finger
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Unit on Affective Cognitive Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:206-15. 2007
    ..Furthermore, they demonstrate behavioral differences in responses to punishing stimuli between long allele homozygotes and short allele carriers when serotonin levels are acutely reduced...
  98. ncbi Ventral striatal control of appetitive motivation: role in ingestive behavior and reward-related learning
    Ann E Kelley
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience Program, University of Wisconsin Madison Medical School, 6001 Research Park Boulevard, Madison, WI 53719, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27:765-76. 2004
    ..g. lever pressing and delivery of reward) become associated. Such basic mechanisms of plasticity within this reinforcement learning network also appear to be profoundly affected in addiction...
  99. ncbi Effects of orbital prefrontal cortex dopamine depletion on inter-temporal choice: a quantitative analysis
    S Kheramin
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, Queen s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 175:206-14. 2004
    ..We recently found that destruction of the OPFC disrupted inter-temporal choice in rats. It is not known whether the dopaminergic projection to the OPFC contributes to the regulation of inter-temporal choice...
  100. ncbi Behavioral vigilance following infusions of 192 IgG-saporin into the basal forebrain: selectivity of the behavioral impairment and relation to cortical AChE-positive fiber density
    J McGaughy
    Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA
    Behav Neurosci 110:247-65. 1996
    ..These findings help to elucidate the nature of the attentional impairments resulting from the loss of cortical cholinergic inputs...
  101. ncbi Serotonin depletion impairs waiting but not stop-signal reaction time in rats: implications for theories of the role of 5-HT in behavioral inhibition
    Dawn M Eagle
    Department of Experimental Psychology and the Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1311-21. 2009
    ..This has significant implications for the treatment of conditions such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse, and affective disorders, in which inhibitory and impulse-control deficits are common...

Research Grants65

  1. SUPRASPINAL CONTROL OF SPINAL CORD PLASTICITY
    Xiang Yang Chen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex (or tendon jerk) or its electrical analog, the H-reflex, is a simple model for ..
  2. Sex differences in the aversive effects of kappa-opioid receptor activation
    Elena H Chartoff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the role of kappa-opioid receptors in males and females using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant conditioning paradigm that is sensitive to increases or decreases in reward function "in real time"...
  3. Changing a reflex to improve locomotion
    Aiko Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Spinal reflexes can be changed through operant conditioning. Previous work in rats and monkeys shows that successful operant conditioning of a spinal reflex changes ..
  4. NEURAL PATHWAYS UNDERLYING EMOTIONAL CONDITIONING
    Joseph E LeDoux; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. Prenatal ethanol exposure effects on reward circuitry and ethanol consumption
    JAMES PATRICK RICE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..He will also learn surgical techniques in order to test intracranial self-stimulation and related operant conditioning behavioral procedures...
  6. Presynaptic Mechanisms for Variability in Human Dopamine Function and Impulsivity
    JOSHUA WILLIAM BUCKHOLTZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This work will form the basis of a translational research program that is centered on the development of novel interventions to prevent and treat substance use disorders. ..
  7. The Role of 5-HT6 Receptors in Primary Neuronal Cilia
    John F Neumaier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These experiments will create a platform for determining whether targeting cell signaling mechanisms in the cilia will offer new opportunities for developing therapeutics for addiction and other compulsive disorders. ..
  8. Habits and cues in alcohol drinking: Dynamic striatal activity
    Donita L Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Operant conditioning paradigms in rats, which can produce robust goal-directed or habitual behavior, can model the contribution ..
  9. CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING
    John H Byrne; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to analyze the mechanisms underlying two forms of reward-related learning, appetitive classical and reward operant conditioning. Results from the previous and present project periods demonstrate that similarities exist between ..
  10. Social and Enviromental Influences on Opioid Sensitivity
    Mark Smith; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..With a few simple modifications to our existing operant conditioning chambers, we can construct a large selfadministration chamber that can also serve as a home cage for two ..
  11. PERCEPTUAL BASES OF VISUAL CONCEPTS
    Edward A Wasserman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Pigeons will be trained with several different operant conditioning procedures to discriminate line drawings and computer renderings of natural and artificial stimuli...
  12. Social Influences on Drug-Seeking Behavior
    Mark A Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Also, given the high scientific priority that NIDA places on investigating sex differences in preclinical and clinical research, all studies will employ both male and female subjects. ..
  13. ADAPTIVE PLASTICITY IN THE SPINAL STRETCH REFLEX
    JONATHAN RICKEL WOLPAW; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Its spinal pathway is influenced by the brain. By changing this influence in response to an operant conditioning protocol, monkeys, humans, rats, and mice can gradually increase or decrease the SSR or its electrical ..
  14. Behavioral effects of deep brain stimulation in rats with chronic pain
    THOMAS JEFFREY MARTIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in whic DBS produces rewarding and/or reinforcing effects in SNL rats using conditioned place preference or operant conditioning paradigms...
  15. Restoration of Estradiol Effects on Learning by Cholinergic Enhancement
    Robert Gibbs; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..on two cognitive tasks, a delayed matching-to-position (DMP) T-maze task, and a configural association (CA) operant conditioning task. In vivo microdialysis will be used to measure effects on acetylcholine release in the hippocampus...
  16. Striatal 5-HT6 receptors, reward and addiction
    John F Neumaier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The goal is to understand how serotonin participates in the adaptations associated with addiction so that we can design treatments to prevent or reverse these changes. ..
  17. Motivational control of goal-directed actions and habits
    Brian J Wiltgen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..W. Kalivas and N. D. Volkow, 2005). The current experiments will examine this motivational process using operant conditioning techniques in mice...
  18. Mechanisms and behavioral relevance of reward timing in the primary visual cortex
    EMMA BERYL ROACH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is to BLOCK the reward signal, hypothesized to be acetylcholine acting on muscarinic receptors, during the operant conditioning task previously used to induce reward-timing activity in V1...
  19. Behavioral Momentum of Cocaine Self-Administration
    Timothy A Shahan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and taking are operant behavior and animal models of drug self-administration based on the principles of operant conditioning have been useful for studying drug seeking and relapse...
  20. Impact of early auditory training on developemental hearing loss
    EMMA CHRISTINE SARRO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..when auditory perception for signals important for communication (sAM), matures in animals trained on an operant conditioning paradigm...
  21. Treating South African Pregnant Women for Methamphetamine
    Wendee M Wechsberg; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The proposed Principal Investigator has developed an efficacious, operant conditioning/social-learning-theory-driven, comprehensive drug abuse treatment model, Reinforcement-Based Treatment (RBT)..
  22. Are drug-associated cues susceptible to the blocking effect?
    Adi Jaffe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  23. Function of basal ganglia-cortical circuits in vocal learning in early life
    Satoshi Kojima; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..this difficulty by using much simpler learning of adult song, which is experimentally induced using an operant conditioning paradigm with aversive stimuli and is targeted to a specific feature of song (e.g...
  24. Reversal of pain by group II metabotropic glutamate receptors
    Steve Davidson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, we will determine whether group II mGluRs are capable of relieving ongoing neuropathic pain using an operant conditioning paradigm.
  25. Variable Rewards Incentives for ART Adherence in Uganda
    Sebastian Linnemayr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Insights from behavioral psychology, in particular Operant Conditioning, suggest that the use of variable rewards results in reinforcement of behavior that is particularly ..
  26. Ethanol Effects on Neostriatal Function
    Henry Yin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  27. Development and Validation of a Computerized Opioid Overdose Intervention
    Kelly E Dunn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to develop a computerized opioid OD prevention program that incorporates features of direct instruction and operant conditioning to promote immediate and sustained knowledge gain...
  28. A Placebo-Control Evaluation of Neurofeedback Efficacy in Adults with ADHD
    Julian R Keith; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Operant conditioning principles are employed to train participants to control certain aspects of electroencephalographic (EEG) ..
  29. Physiology and function of basal ganglia subcircuits in sequence learning
    Xin Jin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A combination of different techniques including operant conditioning, behavioral microstructure analysis, in vivo electrophysiology, genetic and optogenetic tools will be ..
  30. Neuropharmacology of Cue-Induced Nicotine Relapse
    Xiu Liu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..procedure where animals are initially trained to self-administer nicotine by pressing a lever in operant conditioning chambers and then the drug-reinforced behavior is extinguished by withholding the drug delivery...
  31. Prediction Error Signaling and Reinforcement Learning in Schizophrenia
    ERIN CONNOR DOWD; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. Behavioral Momentum of Alcohol Self-Administration
    Timothy A Shahan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Because drug taking is operant behavior, animal models of drug self-administration based on operant conditioning have been useful in examining how biological and environmental variables contribute to drug seeking and ..
  33. Alcohol, Habit and the Failure of Behavioral Control
    Bernard W Balleine; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The broad, long-term objective of the current project is, therefore, to investigate how exposure to alcohol affects the neural systems that control goal-directed and habitual instrumental learning processes. ..
  34. Novel Operant Thermal Assessments of Orofacial Pain
    JOHN NEUBERT; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  35. HALOPERIDOL AND ATTENTIONAL LEARNING IN AUTISTIC CHILDRE
    Magda Campbell; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..will be rated by multiple raters on a variety of subjective and objective scales and will participate in an operant conditioning, learning discrimination task in an automated laboratory...
  36. Investigating Computation and Communication in Multi-Scale Brain Networks
    RYAN THOMAS CANOLTY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..tasks, between distinct neuronal groups, over extended periods of learning, and under pressure from operant conditioning. The second aim, targeting control of CLC, investigates the feasibility of using electrical stimulation to ..
  37. CHANGES IN HEARING FOLLOWING DAMAGE TO THE COCHLEAR APEX
    David Moody; Fiscal Year: 1990
    Experimental animals (monauralized guinea pigs and chinchillas) will be trained by operant conditioning procedures with food reinforcement on one or more of several protocols for hearing evaluation...
  38. Physiological Effects of Ethanol on Neural Circuits Mediating Habit Formation
    Henry Yin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Such mechanisms can provide novel targets for the treatment of alcohol addiction. ..
  39. BEHAVIORAL & PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOUND LOCALIZATION
    TOM YIN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..head-free preparation by monitoring eye, head and ear movement using the search coil technique and standard operant conditioning. We will compare the accuracy of localization in the head-fixed and head-free conditions, study the effect ..
  40. CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING IN APLYSIA
    THOMAS CAREW; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..We have recently discovered that Aplysia is also capable of exhibiting a reliabale form of operant conditioning: the animal rapidly learns to maintain a specific postural response in order to terminate the presentation ..
  41. FMRI STUDIES OF BRAIN REWARD AND EMOTION
    Hans Breiter; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..C) Lastly, operant conditioning paradigms using cocaine and morphine as the rewards with substance abusers will address whether the ..
  42. DOWN-TRAINING SPINAL STRETCH REFLEXES
    Steven Wolf; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Available therapeutic approaches are rarely wholly effective and often ineffective. Operant conditioning can reduce SSRs in non-human primates, and recent studies indicate that it can reduce SSRs in humans also...
  43. Homer Upregulation During Instrumental Learning in the Dorsomedial Striatum
    Brenda L McKee; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding the neural substrates of addiction will help to produce treatments for this devastating disease. ..
  44. TEMPORAL DISCRIMINATION LEARNING
    Russell Church; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These include procedures that involve classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and choice...
  45. NEURAL CODING OF CONTEXT IN INSTRUMENTAL LEARNING
    Michael Gabriel; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Flow from entorhinal cortex to amygdala is required to initiate learning-relevant plasticity subserving many or all of the aforementioned effects. ..
  46. Effects of Chondroitinase and Training in Acute SCI
    Anindita Ganguly; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  47. PAVLOVIAN LEARNING FOLLOWING LOW DOSES OF ABUSED DRUGS
    LINDA HERNANDEZ; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ....
  48. Receptive Field Correlates of Starling Song Recognition Behavior
    CHAD MELIZA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..particular attention in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), whose social nature makes them amenable to operant conditioning paradigms in which subjects learn to distinguish between songs from different individuals...
  49. INSTRUMENTAL LEARNING AND TOLERANCE TO STIMULANTS
    DAVID WOLGIN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..To the extent that behavioral tolerance involves instrument learning, the proposed research will provide a rationale for understanding how people adapt to the behaviorally disruptive effects of these drugs. ..
  50. Plasticity of Vocal Control
    ELIOT BRENOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Aim 5 will use operant conditioning to test the hypothesis that seasonal plasticity of the song nuclei causes seasonal changes in song ..
  51. The Function of Arrestin in Drosophila Behavior
    Gregg Roman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..the function of the kurtz arrestin in sensory processing, and in both negatively-reinforced associative and operant conditioning learning paradigms...
  52. Cortical signals restore functional muscle activation
    CHET MORITZ; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Subsequently, we will test that these cortical units can be volitionally controlled by the monkey using an operant conditioning paradigm...
  53. Paviovian Conditioning of Injured Spinal Cord Systems
    Michelle Hook; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..An understanding of spinal cord plasticity, how it is disrupted, and how it can be restored, is essential to the development of new procedures that promote recovery after a spinal injury. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  54. Age and Cognition in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome
    GALEN WENGER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..b>Operant conditioning procedures are uniquely suited for this type of longitudinal study since behavior can be maintained and ..
  55. Animal Models for Learning Disability. IV
    Albert Galaburda; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..physiologically (including field potentials and single cell recordings), and behaviorally (including operant conditioning, gap detection and oddball startle reduction paradigms)...
  56. BEHAVIORAL THERAPY FOR DEPRESSION IN DRUG DEPENDENCE
    Edward Nunes; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Aspects of three operant conditioning based treatment programs demonstrated to be effective for treating depression or reducing illicit substance ..
  57. Effects of Cocaine Self-administration: fMRI of Awake Non-human Primates
    JOHN MAROTA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..for awake, behaving imaging to the development of cocaine self-administration using eye-fixation as an operant conditioning technique...
  58. REWARD MECHANISMS AND DRUG ABUSE
    Larry Stein; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..These questions will be evaluated primarily by use of two recently- developed operant conditioning methods for the localization of chemical reinforcement effects in the brain...
  59. PRIMING THE REINFORCER IN INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING
    William Terry; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The results will be relevant to motivational and information-processing interpretations of stimulus-priming phenomena. ..
  60. NEUROLEPTICS AND CONTROL OF OPERANT RESPONSE FORCE
    Stephen Fowler; Fiscal Year: 1980
    By using operant conditioning procedures of proven utility in behavioral pharmacology, the proposed research will attempt to increase the "resolving power" of these methods by concurrently measuring peak force, duration, and interresponse ..
  61. PHARMACOGENETICS; ETHANOL REINFORCEMENT AND EFFECTS
    Frank George; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The methodology and principles or operant conditioning and pharmacogenetic analysis will be used...
  62. SENSITIZATION--BEHAVIORAL PROPERTIES & NEURAL MECHANISMS
    JAMES GRAU; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..variety of stimuli and increases the affective impact of thermal and shock stimuli in both a Pavlovian and operant conditioning paradigm...
  63. CONDITIONING ANALYSIS OF INFANT MEMORY
    Carolyn Rovee Collier; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  64. INFANT PERCEPTUAL ABILITIES AS COGNITIVE PRECURSORS
    April Benasich; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We have been pursuing these goals in two ways. First, by continuing to develop and refine our infant operant conditioning paradigm that facilitates assessment of auditory temporal processing (ATP) and by collecting cross-..
  65. Gene expression associated with the CNS reinforcing act*
    ZACHARY RODD HENRICKS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The results of the proposed project will provide valuable information on neuronal systems and receptors within the extended amygdala involved in mediating the rewarding properties of alcohol. ..