eyelid conditioning

Summary

Summary: Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi CS-US preexposure effects on trace eyeblink conditioning in young rats: potential implications for functional brain development
    Dragana Ivkovich Claflin
    Department of Psychology, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45434, USA
    Behav Neurosci 120:257-66. 2006
  2. ncbi Cerebellar LTD and learning-dependent timing of conditioned eyelid responses
    S K E Koekkoek
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Science 301:1736-9. 2003
  3. pmc Purkinje cell activity in the cerebellar anterior lobe after rabbit eyeblink conditioning
    John T Green
    Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA
    Learn Mem 12:260-9. 2005
  4. ncbi Timing of conditioned eyeblink responses is impaired in cerebellar patients
    Marcus Gerwig
    Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg Essen, D 45147 Essen, Germany
    J Neurosci 25:3919-31. 2005
  5. ncbi The human cerebellum and associative learning: dissociation between the acquisition, retention and extinction of conditioned eyeblinks
    V Bracha
    Division of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, 350 W Thomas Rd, Phoenix, AZ, USA
    Brain Res 860:87-94. 2000
  6. pmc Acute stress impairs trace eye blink conditioning in females without altering the unconditioned response
    Debra A Bangasser
    Department of Psychology and Center for Collaborative Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 82:57-60. 2004
  7. pmc Temporal patterns of inputs to cerebellum necessary and sufficient for trace eyelid conditioning
    Brian E Kalmbach
    Center for Learning and Memory, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    J Neurophysiol 104:627-40. 2010
  8. ncbi Potentiation of mossy fiber EPSCs in the cerebellar nuclei by NMDA receptor activation followed by postinhibitory rebound current
    Jason R Pugh
    Institute for Neuroscience, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Neuron 51:113-23. 2006
  9. ncbi The role of interpositus nucleus in eyelid conditioned responses
    J M Delgado-Garcia
    Laboratorio Andaluz de Biologia, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain
    Cerebellum 1:289-308. 2002
  10. ncbi Dynamic associations in the cerebellar-motoneuron network during motor learning
    Raudel Sánchez-Campusano
    Division de Neurociencias, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla 41013, Spain
    J Neurosci 29:10750-63. 2009

Detail Information

Publications166 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi CS-US preexposure effects on trace eyeblink conditioning in young rats: potential implications for functional brain development
    Dragana Ivkovich Claflin
    Department of Psychology, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45434, USA
    Behav Neurosci 120:257-66. 2006
    ..Unpaired preexposure impaired acquisition of both delay and trace. These behavioral findings provide a foundation for hypotheses about the functional maturation of cerebellar, hippocampal, and entorhinal learning circuits...
  2. ncbi Cerebellar LTD and learning-dependent timing of conditioned eyelid responses
    S K E Koekkoek
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Science 301:1736-9. 2003
    ..Here, we show that protein kinase C-dependent long-term depression in Purkinje cells is necessary for learning-dependent timing of Pavlovian-conditioned eyeblink responses...
  3. pmc Purkinje cell activity in the cerebellar anterior lobe after rabbit eyeblink conditioning
    John T Green
    Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA
    Learn Mem 12:260-9. 2005
    ....
  4. ncbi Timing of conditioned eyeblink responses is impaired in cerebellar patients
    Marcus Gerwig
    Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg Essen, D 45147 Essen, Germany
    J Neurosci 25:3919-31. 2005
    ..Extracerebellar premotoneuronal disinhibition, however, is another possible explanation for changes in CR timing...
  5. ncbi The human cerebellum and associative learning: dissociation between the acquisition, retention and extinction of conditioned eyeblinks
    V Bracha
    Division of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, 350 W Thomas Rd, Phoenix, AZ, USA
    Brain Res 860:87-94. 2000
    ..This finding suggests that in humans, the acquisition of new and the extinction of previously learned conditioned responses depends on a similar set of cerebellar circuits...
  6. pmc Acute stress impairs trace eye blink conditioning in females without altering the unconditioned response
    Debra A Bangasser
    Department of Psychology and Center for Collaborative Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 82:57-60. 2004
    ..Taken together, these experiments indicate that the stress-induced impairment of conditioning in females is not due to a decreased perception of US strength...
  7. pmc Temporal patterns of inputs to cerebellum necessary and sufficient for trace eyelid conditioning
    Brian E Kalmbach
    Center for Learning and Memory, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    J Neurophysiol 104:627-40. 2010
    Trace eyelid conditioning is a form of associative learning that requires several forebrain structures and cerebellum...
  8. ncbi Potentiation of mossy fiber EPSCs in the cerebellar nuclei by NMDA receptor activation followed by postinhibitory rebound current
    Jason R Pugh
    Institute for Neuroscience, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Neuron 51:113-23. 2006
    ..Based on predictions of neuronal activity during delay eyelid conditioning, we developed quasi-physiological induction protocols consisting of high-frequency mossy fiber stimulation ..
  9. ncbi The role of interpositus nucleus in eyelid conditioned responses
    J M Delgado-Garcia
    Laboratorio Andaluz de Biologia, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain
    Cerebellum 1:289-308. 2002
    ....
  10. ncbi Dynamic associations in the cerebellar-motoneuron network during motor learning
    Raudel Sánchez-Campusano
    Division de Neurociencias, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla 41013, Spain
    J Neurosci 29:10750-63. 2009
    ..Thus, it can be proposed that the cerebellum is always looking back and reevaluating its own function, using the information acquired in the process, to play a modulating-reinforcing role in motor learning...
  11. ncbi Cerebellar modulation of trigeminal reflex blinks: interpositus neurons
    Fang Ping Chen
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Neurosci 26:10569-76. 2006
    ..Burst neurons may play a role in eyelid conditioning.
  12. ncbi Purkinje cell activity during learning a new timing in classical eyeblink conditioning
    Sadaharu Kotani
    Laboratory of Neurobiophysics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Brain Res 994:193-202. 2003
    ..These results suggest that some Purkinje cells code the timing of the CR, but do not play a consistent role in shaping the CR over a range of ISIs...
  13. pmc Interactions between prefrontal cortex and cerebellum revealed by trace eyelid conditioning
    Brian E Kalmbach
    Center for Learning and Memory, The University of Texas at Austin, 78712, USA
    Learn Mem 16:86-95. 2009
    b>Eyelid conditioning has proven useful for analysis of learning and computation in the cerebellum. Two variants, delay and trace conditioning, differ only by the relative timing of the training stimuli...
  14. ncbi Cerebellar neuronal activity expresses the complex topography of conditioned eyeblink responses
    June Seek Choi
    Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA
    Behav Neurosci 117:1211-9. 2003
    ..The striking similarity between the time course of bimodal CRs and neuronal responses indicates that neuronal activities in the cerebellum are causally related to the production of behavioral CRs...
  15. ncbi Time-dependent reorganization of the brain components underlying memory retention in trace eyeblink conditioning
    Kaori Takehara
    Laboratory of Neurobiophysics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    J Neurosci 23:9897-905. 2003
    ..As time elapses, the circuitry is reorganized to use mainly the mPFC and the cerebellum, but not the hippocampus, for remotely acquired memory...
  16. ncbi Time and tide in cerebellar memory formation
    Chris I De Zeeuw
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 15:667-74. 2005
    ....
  17. ncbi Firing activities of identified posterior interpositus nucleus neurons during associative learning in behaving cats
    Jose M Delgado-Garcia
    Division de Neurociencias, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra de Utrera, km 1, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 49:367-76. 2005
    ..Moreover, interpositus neurons probably contribute to the proper damping of newly acquired eyelid responses. The contributing role of other neuronal centers and circuits related to the eyelid motor system are also discussed...
  18. ncbi Evidence from retractor bulbi EMG for linearized motor control of conditioned nictitating membrane responses
    N F Lepora
    Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
    J Neurophysiol 98:2074-88. 2007
    ..Analysis of a detailed plant model suggests that one method for linearising the plant would be appropriate recruitment of motor units...
  19. ncbi Monitoring kinetic and frequency-domain properties of eyelid responses in mice with magnetic distance measurement technique
    S K E Koekkoek
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurophysiol 88:2124-33. 2002
    ..These data show that MDMT can be used to measure the kinetics and frequency domain properties of conditioned eyelid responses in mice and that these properties follow the dynamic characteristics of other mammals...
  20. ncbi Cerebellar inhibition of inferior olivary transmission in the decerebrate ferret
    P Svensson
    Department of Experimental Medical Science, Division for Neuroscience, Lund University, BMC F10, 22184, Lund, Sweden
    Exp Brain Res 168:241-53. 2006
    ..The duration of the strongest inhibition was short and had a sharp peak at about 30 ms. It is suggested that the time course of the inhibition is important for temporal regulation of learned responses...
  21. ncbi The cognitive enhancer T-588 partially compensates the motor associative learning impairments induced by scopolamine injection in mice
    Lyndell Eleore
    Division de Neurociencias, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain
    Behav Neurosci 121:1203-14. 2007
    ..These results suggest that T-588 could be used as a pharmacological agent to improve motor and associative learning disorders...
  22. ncbi Cerebellar mechanisms in eyeblink conditioning
    Philip J E Attwell
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 978:79-92. 2002
    ..Our findings indicate that a fully functional olivo-cortico-nuclear loop is required to express all characteristics of associatively conditioned responses...
  23. ncbi Extinction of a classically conditioned response: red nucleus and interpositus
    Karla Robleto
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA
    J Neurosci 28:2651-8. 2008
    ..These findings speak to the important role of cerebellar structures in the extinction of discrete motor responses and provide important insight as to the validity of a particular theory of extinction...
  24. ncbi Building new motor responses: eyelid conditioning revisited
    Jose M Delgado-Garcia
    Division de Neurociencias, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra de Utrera, km 1, 41013 Seville, Spain
    Trends Neurosci 29:330-8. 2006
    ..This review is part of the TINS special issue on The Neural Substrates of Cognition...
  25. ncbi mGluR1 in cerebellar Purkinje cells is required for normal association of temporally contiguous stimuli in classical conditioning
    Yasushi Kishimoto
    Department of Cellular Neurophysiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, 13 1, Takaramachi, Kanazawa 920 8640, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 16:2416-24. 2002
    ..In contrast, mGluR1 in other cell types is required for associating discontiguous stimuli and long-term memory formation in nonspatial hippocampus-dependent learning...
  26. ncbi The fragile X-cerebellum connection
    Kimberly M Huber
    Center for Basic Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Trends Neurosci 29:183-5. 2006
    ..This work forges an important link between the FMR1 gene, altered synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum and mental retardation...
  27. pmc Stimulus generalization of conditioned eyelid responses produced without cerebellar cortex: implications for plasticity in the cerebellar nuclei
    Tatsuya Ohyama
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, and Keck Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas 77225, USA
    Learn Mem 10:346-54. 2003
    In Pavlovian eyelid conditioning and adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, cerebellar cortex lesions fail to completely abolish previously acquired learning, indicating an additional site of plasticity in the deep cerebellar or ..
  28. pmc Eyelid conditioning to a target amplitude: adding how much to whether and when
    Joy C Kreider
    Center for Learning and Memory, Section of Neurobiology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    J Neurosci 30:14145-52. 2010
    Conceptual and practical advantages of pavlovian eyelid conditioning facilitate analysis of cerebellar computation and learning. Even so, eyelid conditioning procedures are unrealistic in an important way...
  29. ncbi Classical eyeblink conditioning during acute hypobaric hypoxia is improved in acclimatized mice and involves Fos expression in selected brain areas
    J C López-Ramos
    Neuroscience Division, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 103:1479-87. 2007
    ....
  30. ncbi What the cerebellum computes
    Tatsuya Ohyama
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, W M Keck Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, University of Texas Medical School Houston, 6431 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Trends Neurosci 26:222-7. 2003
    ..We review evidence that indicates how Pavlovian eyelid conditioning reveals cerebellar processing to be an example of feedforward control...
  31. ncbi Latent acquisition of timed responses in cerebellar cortex
    T Ohyama
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas 77225, USA
    J Neurosci 21:682-90. 2001
    Evidence indicates that rabbit eyelid conditioning is mediated by plasticity in the interpositus cerebellar nucleus and in cerebellar cortex...
  32. ncbi Eyeblink conditioning in patients with hereditary ataxia: a one-year follow-up study
    D Timmann
    Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122, Essen, Germany
    Exp Brain Res 162:332-45. 2005
    ..In other heredoataxias (such as SCA3 and FRDA), extracerebellar involvement not assessed by ICARS likely contributes to eyeblink conditioning abnormalities...
  33. ncbi Deletion of FMR1 in Purkinje cells enhances parallel fiber LTD, enlarges spines, and attenuates cerebellar eyelid conditioning in Fragile X syndrome
    S K E Koekkoek
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, P O Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Neuron 47:339-52. 2005
    ..These data indicate that a lack of FMRP leads to cerebellar deficits at both the cellular and behavioral levels and raise the possibility that cerebellar dysfunctions can contribute to motor learning deficits in Fragile X patients...
  34. pmc Developmental changes in eyeblink conditioning and neuronal activity in the pontine nuclei
    John H Freeman
    Department of Psychology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Learn Mem 10:337-45. 2003
    ..The developmental changes in pontine neuronal activity might play a significant role in the ontogeny of eyeblink conditioning...
  35. ncbi Gradient of adaptability in four different motor systems performing the same learned motor task in cats
    Agnes Gruart
    Laboratorio Andaluz de Biologia, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
    Eur J Neurosci 18:2813-24. 2003
    ..It is suggested that there is a gradient of adaptability in motoneuron pools forced to perform new motor tasks through foreign muscles, which depends on their embryological origins and functional properties...
  36. ncbi Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning in combat veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder
    Edwin D Ayers
    Shirley L Buchanan Neuroscience Laboratory, Dorn V A Medical Center, Columbia, SC 29209, USA
    Integr Physiol Behav Sci 38:230-47. 2003
    ....
  37. ncbi Glutamate neurotransmission in the cerebellar interposed nuclei: involvement in classically conditioned eyeblinks and neuronal activity
    D P Aksenov
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, 2032 Vet Med, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    J Neurophysiol 93:44-52. 2005
    ..These results indicate that fast glutamate neurotransmission in the IN plays only an accessory role both in the expression of behavioral CRs and in the generation of associated neuronal activity in the IN...
  38. pmc Eyeblink conditioning in rats using pontine stimulation as a conditioned stimulus
    John H Freeman
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, E11 Seashore Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Integr Physiol Behav Sci 39:180-91. 2004
    ..In addition, the loss of CRs following muscimol inactivation shows that the conditioning produced with pontine stimulation depends on cerebellar mechanisms...
  39. ncbi Eyeblink conditioning deficits indicate timing and cerebellar abnormalities in schizophrenia
    S M Brown
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University, 1101 East Tenth Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Brain Cogn 58:94-108. 2005
    ..These findings are consistent with models of schizophrenia in which timing deficits underlie information-processing abnormalities and clinical features of the disorder...
  40. ncbi Ibotenic acid lesions to ventrolateral thalamic nuclei disrupts trace and delay eyeblink conditioning in rabbits
    B B Oswald
    Shirley L Buchanan Neuroscience Laboratory, Dorn VA Medical Center, Columbia, SC 29209, USA
    Behav Brain Res 179:111-7. 2007
    ..These findings, thus confirm the importance of the VLTN in a postulated cerebellar-thalamic-prefrontal circuit that underlies successful trace, as well as delay EB conditioning...
  41. ncbi A long-range, wide field-of-view infrared eyeblink detector
    Steven B Ryan
    Biomedical Sciences Department, Iowa State University, 2032 Vet Med, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 152:74-82. 2006
    ....
  42. ncbi Trace eyeblink conditioning in abstinent alcoholic individuals: effects of complex task demands and prior conditioning
    Regina E McGlinchey
    Geriatric, Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA
    Neuropsychology 19:159-70. 2005
    ..The similarity of performances in delay and trace conditioning suggests a common source of impairment across both tasks...
  43. ncbi Brain mechanisms of extinction of the classically conditioned eyeblink response
    Karla Robleto
    University of Southern California, Neuroscience Program, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Learn Mem 11:517-24. 2004
    ..The nature of this phenomenon and identification of the neural substrates necessary for extinction of originally learned responses is the topic of this review...
  44. ncbi Role of cerebellar interpositus nucleus in the genesis and control of reflex and conditioned eyelid responses
    Lydia Jiménez-Díaz
    Division de Neurociencias, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla 41013, Spain
    J Neurosci 24:9138-45. 2004
    ..It is concluded that the PIN contributes to the enhancement of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses and to the damping of resonant properties of neuromuscular elements controlling eyelid kinematics...
  45. ncbi Classical conditioning of eyelid and mystacial vibrissae responses in conscious mice
    Julieta Troncoso
    Division de Neurociencias, Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
    Learn Mem 11:724-6. 2004
    ..This finding suggests that evolutionary pressure has selected a sensorimotor system capable of constructing conditioned responses on the basis of temporal relationships of stimuli, independently of any putative functional purpose...
  46. ncbi A discrete approach for a model of temporal learning by the cerebellum: in silico classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex
    André Garenne
    INSERM E358, Institut Magendie, 1 rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux Cedex, France
    J Integr Neurosci 3:301-18. 2004
    ..This rate based selection allows robust supervised learning of temporal events (i.e., delayed signals) and gives the network ability to react with anticipation on the arousal of a noxious event...
  47. ncbi Temporal properties of cerebellar-dependent memory consolidation
    Samuel F Cooke
    Division of Neurophysiology, The National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 24:2934-41. 2004
    ..So, over a time window beginning approximately 1 hr after the end of the training session and closing 1 hr after that, intracortical activity is critical for consolidation of this motor memory...
  48. ncbi A developmental comparison of trace and delay eyeblink conditioning in rats using matching interstimulus intervals
    Dragana Ivkovich Claflin
    Department of Psychology, Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, Ohio 45435, USA
    Dev Psychobiol 47:77-88. 2005
    ..However, conditioned response timing (onset and peak latencies) was affected by age and paradigm, suggesting that different neural mechanisms may play a role in timing delay versus trace conditioned responses...
  49. ncbi Cholesterol modifies classical conditioning of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) nictitating membrane response
    Bernard G Schreurs
    Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA
    Behav Neurosci 117:1220-32. 2003
    ..The cholesterol-fed rabbits had beta amyloid accumulation in the cortex, but little in the hippocampus. The data suggest cholesterol had facilitative effects that outweighed potential amnesic effects of cortical beta amyloid...
  50. ncbi The importance of awareness for eyeblink conditioning is conditional: theoretical comment on Bellebaum and Daum (2004)
    Robert E Clark
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Behav Neurosci 118:1466-8. 2004
    ....
  51. ncbi Timing of conditioned responses utilizing electrical stimulation in the region of the interpositus nucleus as a CS
    Andrew M Poulos
    Neuroscience Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90082 2520, USA
    Integr Physiol Behav Sci 39:83-94. 2004
    ..The acquisition of conditioned eyeblink responses by direct electrical stimulation of the IP as a CS thus retains temporal flexibility following shifts in the CS-US delay, as found in standard classical eyeblink conditioning procedures...
  52. ncbi The effect of rewarding hypothalamic stimulation on behavioral and neural hippocampal responses during trace eyeblink conditioning in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
    Elina Hyvärinen
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyvaskyla, P O Box 35, FIN 40014 Jyvaskyla, Finland
    Behav Brain Res 167:141-9. 2006
    ..The results suggest that hypothalamic stimulation affects trace conditioning differently depending on its time of delivery during conditioning...
  53. ncbi Neuroscience. From molecules to memory in the cerebellum
    David J Linden
    Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Science 301:1682-5. 2003
    ..suggesting that long-term depression in Purkinje cells mediated by protein kinase C signaling is responsible for motor memory in a task called associative eyelid conditioning.
  54. ncbi Nefiracetam ameliorates associative learning impairment in the scopolamine-injected older rabbit
    Jonathan Pak
    Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Albert Einstein Healthcare Network, Philadelphia, PA 19141, USA
    Med Sci Monit 8:BR105-12. 2002
    ..Delay eyeblink classical conditioning is impaired in normal aging and severely disrupted in AD...
  55. ncbi A connectionist model of septohippocampal dynamics during conditioning: closing the loop
    Bas Rokers
    Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA
    Behav Neurosci 116:48-62. 2002
    ..The model provides a computational, neurally based synthesis of prior learning theories that predicts changes in medial septal activity based on the novelty of stimulus events...
  56. pmc Pontine stimulation overcomes developmental limitations in the neural mechanisms of eyeblink conditioning
    John H Freeman
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Learn Mem 12:255-9. 2005
    ..The findings suggest that developmental changes in the CS pathway play an important role in the ontogeny of eyeblink conditioning...
  57. ncbi Conditioned facilitation of the unconditioned reflex after classical eyeblink conditioning
    Ole Asli
    Department of Psychology, University of Tromsø, N 9037 Tromsø, Norway
    Int J Psychophysiol 67:17-22. 2008
    ..This reflex facilitation was correlated with CR magnitude, indicating that conditioned facilitation of eyeblink URs indexes an early, automatic, preattentive stage in CR formation...
  58. ncbi Comparison of single unit responses to tone, light, and compound conditioned stimuli during rabbit classical eyeblink conditioning
    J A Tracy
    Department of Psychology, Program in Neural Science, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 76:253-67. 2001
    ..These results are discussed in the context of multisensory processing...
  59. ncbi Hippocampal lesions in rats differentially affect long- and short-trace eyeblink conditioning
    Adam G Walker
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences and Program in Neuroscience, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Physiol Behav 93:570-8. 2008
    ..In particular, the relative lengths of the CS period and the trace interval appear to be important...
  60. ncbi Conditioning-specific reflex modification of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) nictitating membrane response: generality and nature of the phenomenon
    D L Buck
    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Behav Neurosci 115:1039-47. 2001
    ..After conditioning with a stronger AP, CRM was again detected by AP tests. CRM is a general phenomenon but is more readily detected after training with a relatively aversive stimulus; thus, it may be a function of level of arousal...
  61. ncbi Dose-dependent deficits in dual interstimulus interval classical eyeblink conditioning tasks following neonatal binge alcohol exposure in rats
    Kevin L Brown
    Department of Psychology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:277-93. 2008
    ....
  62. pmc Eyeblink conditioning in 12-day-old rats using pontine stimulation as the conditioned stimulus
    Matthew M Campolattaro
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, E11 Seashore Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:8120-3. 2008
    ..The findings suggest that cerebellar neurons are capable of supporting associative learning-specific plasticity in vivo in very immature animals if given sufficient afferent stimulation...
  63. ncbi Eyeblink conditioning in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with stimulation of the mystacial vibrissae as a conditioned stimulus
    S Das
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Northwestern University Medical School, Ward Building, Room 5-303, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Behav Neurosci 115:731-6. 2001
    ..Vibrotactile stimulation of the vibrissae as a CS will enable further examination of the neural correlates of learning in a well-characterized sensory system...
  64. ncbi Prefrontal control of trace eyeblink conditioning in rabbits: role in retrieval of the CR?
    B B Oswald
    Shirley L Buchanan Neuroscience Laboratory, Dorn VA Medical Center, Columbia, SC 29209 1639, USA
    Behav Neurosci 122:841-8. 2008
    ....
  65. ncbi Eighteen-month-old Fischer 344 rats fed a spinach-enriched diet show improved delay classical eyeblink conditioning and reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha ) and TNFbeta in the cerebellum
    M Claire Cartford
    Center for Aging and Brain Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA
    J Neurosci 22:5813-6. 2002
    ..Cerebelli from older animals on the spinach-enriched diet had significantly less TNFalpha and TNFbeta than cerebelli from older animals on the control diet...
  66. ncbi Extinction revisited: similarities between extinction and reductions in US intensity in classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response
    E James Kehoe
    School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Anim Learn Behav 30:96-111. 2002
    ..The results are discussed with respect to possible contributions from unlearning, new learning, generalization decrement, and nonassociative loss, especially CS-specific attentional changes and CR-specific reactive inhibition...
  67. ncbi Eyeblink conditioning is impaired in subjects with essential tremor
    Martin Kronenbuerger
    Department of Neurology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany
    Brain 130:1538-51. 2007
    ..In particular, results point to an involvement of the olivo-cerebellar system in early stages of ET...
  68. ncbi Comparisons of dorsal and ventral hippocampus cornu ammonis region 1 pyramidal neuron activity during trace eye-blink conditioning in the rabbit
    A P Weible
    Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Institute for Neuroscience, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Neuroscience 141:1123-37. 2006
    ..Thus, dorsal hippocampus activation is more robust, suggesting a more substantial role for these neurons in the processing of temporal information during trace eye-blink conditioning...
  69. ncbi A mechanism for savings in the cerebellum
    J F Medina
    W. M. Keck Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, and Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Neurosci 21:4081-9. 2001
    ..and reversible lesions to investigate mechanisms of savings that operate in the cerebellum during eyelid conditioning, a well characterized form of motor learning...
  70. ncbi Stereological estimation of Purkinje neuron number in C57BL/6 mice and its relation to associative learning
    D S Woodruff-Pak
    Department of Psychology, Temple University, 1701 North 13th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
    Neuroscience 141:233-43. 2006
    ..Results indicate that individual variation in Purkinje neuron number is related to eyeblink conditioning in young organisms suggesting that reserves of neuron numbers against which individuals draw are defined early in life...
  71. ncbi Projection of the magnocellular red nucleus to the region of the accessory abducens nucleus in the rabbit
    F R Robinson
    Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 76:358-74. 2001
    ....
  72. pmc Hippocampal and cerebellar single-unit activity during delay and trace eyeblink conditioning in the rat
    John T Green
    Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington VT 05405 0134, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 87:269-84. 2007
    ..Interpositus nucleus neurons show strong modeling of the eyeblink CR regardless of paradigm but show a changing pattern across conditioning that may be due to the necessary contributions of forebrain processing to trace conditioning...
  73. pmc Inactivation of cerebellar output axons impairs acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks
    W U Nilaweera
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, 2032 Vet Med, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Brain Res 1122:143-53. 2006
    ..We conclude that this form of associative learning in the rabbit eyeblink system requires extra-cerebellar learning and/or cerebellar learning that depends on the operation of cerebellar feedback loops...
  74. pmc Metabolic mapping of the rat cerebellum during delay and trace eyeblink conditioning
    Bethany Plakke
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, E11 SSH, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 88:11-8. 2007
    ..Delay and trace eyeblink conditioning both resulted in increased metabolic activity within the cerebellum but delay conditioning resulted in more widespread cerebellar cortical activation...
  75. pmc Eyeblink classical conditioning and interpositus nucleus activity are disrupted in adult rats exposed to ethanol as neonates
    John T Green
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 7007, USA
    Learn Mem 9:304-20. 2002
    ..These results indicate that the disruption in eyeblink conditioning after early exposure to ethanol is reflected in alterations in interpositus nucleus activity...
  76. ncbi Contribution of NMDA receptor NR2B subunit to synaptic plasticity during associative learning in behaving rats
    Mauricio Valenzuela-Harrington
    Division de Neurociencias, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra de Utrera, km 1, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
    Eur J Neurosci 25:830-6. 2007
    ..The present results suggest the involvement of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in hippocampal functions related to both associative learning and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity...
  77. ncbi Reduction of trace but not delay eyeblink conditioning in panic disorder
    Christian Grillon
    NIMH Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, 15K North Dr, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:283-9. 2007
    ..The present study examined trace eyeblink conditioning in order to test the hypothesis that individuals with panic disorder are impaired in associative learning tasks that depend on declarative memory...
  78. ncbi Inferior olivary inactivation abolishes conditioned eyeblinks: extinction or cerebellar malfunction?
    S Zbarska
    Biomedical Sciences, 2032 Vet Med, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Behav Brain Res 178:128-38. 2007
    ..We concluded that inactivating the rostral parts of the IO complex abolishes CRs by producing a tonic malfunction of cerebellar eyeblink conditioning circuits...
  79. pmc Synaptic inhibition, excitation, and plasticity in neurons of the cerebellar nuclei
    Nan Zheng
    Northwestern University Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Cerebellum 9:56-66. 2010
    ..and excitatory stimuli that potentiate EPSCs resemble patterns of activity predicted to occur during eyelid conditioning, suggesting that this form long-term potentiation, perhaps amplified by intrinsic plasticity, may represent ..
  80. pmc Cerebellar cortex contributions to the expression and timing of conditioned eyelid responses
    Brian E Kalmbach
    Center for Learning and Memory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    J Neurophysiol 103:2039-49. 2010
    We used micro-infusions during eyelid conditioning in rabbits to investigate the relative contributions of cerebellar cortex and the underlying deep nuclei (DCN) to the expression of cerebellar learning...
  81. ncbi Unilateral storage of fear memories by the amygdala
    Hugh T Blair
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA
    J Neurosci 25:4198-205. 2005
    ....
  82. pmc A decrementing form of plasticity apparent in cerebellar learning
    Tatsuya Ohyama
    Center for Learning and Memory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 0805, USA
    J Neurosci 30:16993-7003. 2010
    ..In the cerebellum, for example, long-term plasticity contributes to eyelid conditioning and to learning in eye movement systems...
  83. ncbi Learning-induced plasticity in deep cerebellar nucleus
    Tatsuya Ohyama
    Keck Center for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory and Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Neurosci 26:12656-63. 2006
    Evidence that cerebellar learning involves more than one site of plasticity comes from, in part, pavlovian eyelid conditioning, where disconnecting the cerebellar cortex abolishes one component of learning, response timing, but spares ..
  84. ncbi Adaptive processing in electrosensory systems: links to cerebellar plasticity and learning
    Nathaniel B Sawtell
    Neurological Sciences Institute, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    J Physiol Paris 102:223-32. 2008
    ..lobe (ELL) of mormyrid fish and from extensive work characterizing the role of the cerebellum in Pavlovian eyelid conditioning and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) modification...
  85. ncbi The neural basis of temporal processing
    Michael D Mauk
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas, Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 27:307-40. 2004
    ..Timing is also required for a wide range of motor tasks from eyelid conditioning to playing the piano...
  86. ncbi Are rules applied in Pavlovian electrodermal conditioning with humans general or outcome specific?
    Harald Lachnit
    Department of Psychology, Philipps University Marburg, Germany
    Psychophysiology 39:380-7. 2002
    ..In Experiment 1, we investigated SCR and eyelid conditioning with different types of training administered in an interleaved fashion...
  87. ncbi Similarity and discrimination in human Pavlovian conditioning
    Annette Kinder
    Department of Psychology, Philipps Universitat Marburg, Marburg, Germany
    Psychophysiology 40:226-34. 2003
    We report three Pavlovian eyelid conditioning experiments with humans, designed to experimentally decide between elemental and configural learning theories. We used two different designs originally proposed by Redhead and Pearce (1995)...
  88. ncbi Neuroscience of Pavlovian conditioning: a brief review
    Luis Aguado
    Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Span J Psychol 6:155-67. 2003
    ..Then, two exemplars of associative learning in vertebrates, fear conditioning in rodents and eyelid conditioning in rabbits, are described and research into its neuronal substrates discussed...
  89. ncbi Stimulus representations in human Pavlovian conditioning: implications of missing negative transfer across response systems
    H Lachnit
    Department of Psychology, Philipps University Marburg, Germany
    Q J Exp Psychol B 53:209-24. 2000
    ..Experiment 1 specified the conditions under which such a negative transfer effect occurs in human eyelid conditioning. Experiments 2 and 3 investigated whether a similar effect also occurs if two response systems--the eyelid ..
  90. ncbi Responding under time pressure: testing two animal learning models and a model of visual categorization
    Annette Kinder
    Philipps University, Dept of Psychology, Marburg, Germany
    Q J Exp Psychol A 55:173-93. 2002
    Two experiments are reported, which employed a Pavlovian eyelid conditioning procedure with human participants. The experiments tested the predictions of three models of the time-course of processing under time pressure...
  91. pmc Consolidation of motor memory
    John W Krakauer
    The Neurological Institute, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 710 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Trends Neurosci 29:58-64. 2006
    ..Evidence implicates cerebellar circuitry in two types of associative motor learning--eyelid conditioning and vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation--and implicates primary motor cortex in skilled finger movements...
  92. ncbi Stress impairs acquisition of delay eyeblink conditioning in men and women
    Oliver T Wolf
    Department of Cognitive Psychology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 91:431-6. 2009
    In rodents stress impairs delay as well as trace eyelid conditioning in females, but enhances it in males...
  93. pmc NMDA receptor-dependent processes in the medial prefrontal cortex are important for acquisition and the early stage of consolidation during trace, but not delay eyeblink conditioning
    Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
    Laboratory of Neurobiophysics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan
    Learn Mem 12:606-14. 2005
    ..These results suggest that the mPFC participates in both acquisition of a CR and the early stage of consolidation of memory in trace, but not delay eyeblink conditioning by NMDA receptor-mediated operations...
  94. ncbi The cerebellum is necessary for rabbit classical eyeblink conditioning with a non-somatosensory (photic) unconditioned stimulus
    R F Rogers
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405 7007, USA
    Behav Brain Res 104:105-12. 1999
    ..The findings are discussed in reference to the processing of conditioning stimuli within the brainstem-cerebellar circuitry that underlies eyeblink conditioning...
  95. ncbi An investigation of auditory dimensional interaction in a bivariate bilateral conditioning paradigm in the rabbit
    Kristin N Mauldin
    Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, 340 Stein Clinical Research Building, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Acoust Soc Am 125:3205-13. 2009
    ..The variation of the irrelevant dimension did not disrupt performance, indicating that rabbits perceive these dimensions as separable...
  96. ncbi Inactivation of sodium channel Scn8A (Na-sub(v)1.6) in Purkinje neurons impairs learning in Morris water maze and delay but not trace eyeblink classical conditioning
    Diana S Woodruff-Pak
    Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
    Behav Neurosci 120:229-40. 2006
    ....
  97. pmc Newborn infants learn during sleep
    William P Fifer
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:10320-3. 2010
    ..Furthermore, because eyelid conditioning reflects functional cerebellar circuitry, this method potentially offers a unique approach for early ..
  98. pmc Delay eyeblink classical conditioning is impaired in Fragile X syndrome
    Michael J Tobia
    Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
    Behav Neurosci 123:665-76. 2009
    ..Fragile X impairs the acquisition and timing of conditioned eyeblink responses, but with repeated training adults with Fragile X syndrome show significant plasticity...
  99. ncbi Effects of early hippocampal lesions on trace, delay, and long-delay eyeblink conditioning in developing rats
    D Ivkovich
    U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 76:426-46. 2001
    ..The late development of conditioning over long ISIs may depend on a separate process such as protracted development of cerebellar cortex...
  100. ncbi Facilitated acquisition of the classically conditioned eyeblink response in women taking oral contraceptives
    Kevin D Beck
    Neurobehavioral Research Laboratory, VA New Jersey Health Care System, East Orange, New Jersey 07018, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 19:821-8. 2008
    ..Further research will need to distinguish whether the hormone influence is upon the associative processes or the sensory-motor pathways involved in nonassociative learning...
  101. ncbi Dissociaton of conditioned eye and limb responses in the cerebellar interpositus
    S Mojtahedian
    Program in Neuroscience, University Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 2529, USA
    Physiol Behav 91:9-14. 2007
    ..These results thus lend further support for the notion of the existence of a somatotopic map in the interpositus nucleus for learning...

Research Grants45

  1. Plasticity in deep cerebellar nuclei as a function of classical conditioning
    Bernard G Schreurs; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..learning-specific synaptic and membrane changes in Purkinje cells of the rabbit cerebellar cortex following eyelid conditioning. There are two limitations to this approach...
  2. Forebrain-Cerebellum Interactions in Trace Conditioning
    Michael D Mauk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We propose to use trace eyelid conditioning to study the neural mechanisms operating in prefrontal cortex to mediate working memory...
  3. Cerebellar mechanisms of motor learning
    Michael D Mauk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Eyelid conditioning in rabbits is an unusually direct and experimentally tractable way to study learning and information processing of the cerebellum...
  4. Neuronal Mechanisms for Working Memory in Prefrontal Cortex
    Michael D Mauk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The project will leverage the advantages of trace eyelid conditioning (TEC) and combine the systems-neuroscience expertise of the Mauk lab with the cellular- neuroscience ..
  5. NE Signal Transduction in Classical Conditioning
    Paula Bickford; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..NE in the cerebellum modulates the rate of acquisition of various motor learning tasks including classical eyelid conditioning. Studies in animal models from fruit flies, bees, and Aplysia, to mice and rats indicate a growing ..
  6. COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF CEREBELLAR MOTOR LEARNING
    Michael Mauk; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The specific aims build on previous work using the particular advantages of Pavlovian eyelid conditioning to build and test biologically detailed and accurate computer simulations of the cerebellum...
  7. Excitatory synapses in the deep cerebellar nuclei
    Jason Pugh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Behavioral studies of eyelid conditioning have suggested that at least a portion of cerebellar learning takes place or is stored outside the ..
  8. Roles of the Cerebellar Cortex and Nucleus in Learning
    Matthew Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..separate functions of the cerebellar cortex and nucleus in the acquisition of learned responses in rabbit eyelid conditioning. Then, building upon the technical knowledge gained from this first study, we propose to use multi-wire ..
  9. Neural Mechanisms of Inhibitory Classical Conditioning
    John Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results of these studies may also lead to a better understanding of the functional pathology associated with various psychiatric disorders that involve deficits in behavioral inhibition. ..
  10. Aging and Sites of Action of Cognition-Enhancing Drugs
    DIANA WOODRUFF PAK; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies will likely support hypotheses about ACh mechanisms in learning and memory and may identify the cerebellum as an additional site of drug action. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. NEURONAL PATHWAYS UNDERLYING IN VITRO MOTOR LEARNING
    Joyce Keifer; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  12. Moderate doses of alcohol and the developing cerebellum
    John Green; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This knowledge is important for developing effective interventions and therapies for children exposed to alcohol prenatally. ..
  13. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR
    Joyce Keifer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..For research focused on the changes to neural function induced by chronic social stress during adolescence, and to direct pharmacotherapy of associated psychiatric disorders. ..
  14. Mechanisms of Associative Learning in Aging: Mouse Models
    Diana S Woodruff Pak; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal has the potential to expand perspectives and devise treatments to facilitate learning and memory in older adults. ..
  15. Corticosterone and Hippocampal Learning During Development
    DRAGANA CLAFLIN; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Learning more about these differences may help us understand why certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., autism) are more prevalent in males vs. females. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  16. Conditioning-specific reflex modification
    BERNARD SCHREURS; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. Identification of FASD in South African Children
    Sandra Jacobson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  18. Neonatal Ethanol-Induced Memory Impairments in Rats
    Pamela Hunt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The potential for amelioration of these cognitive deficits using both behavioral and pharmacological strategies will provide important information regarding treatment approaches for afflicted individuals. ..
  19. Use-dependent intrinsic plasticity in the cerebellum
    David J Linden; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cerebellar nuclei (DON), a region which is central to memory storage for certain tasks such as associative eyelid conditioning. We have since performed an extensive parametric description of the induction requirements and the ..
  20. FETAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE AND SCHOOL AGE COGNITION
    Sandra Jacobson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. INTERMEDIATE CEREBELLUM IN ADAPTIVE REFLEX CONTROL
    Vlastislav Bracha; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  22. Hemispheric Lateralization of Emotional Memory Circuits in the Amygdala
    HUGH BLAIR; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. Cognitive Changes Associated with Chronic Alcohol Abuse
    Regina McGlinchey; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. The Effect of Cannabis Use on Human Cerebellar Function
    PATRICK SKOSNIK; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Project Narrative [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. SYNAPTIC SUBSTRATES OF AGE-DEPENDENT MEMORY DEFICITS
    Yuri Geinisman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Additionally, determining the nature and locus of deficient synaptic function in aged animals will facilitate the design of preventative measures intended to make aging more "succesful". ..
  26. Tobacco Smoking, Nicotine and Negative Affect Relief
    Kenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In sum, this research will help address the fundamental question of why cigarette smoking is reinforcing. ..
  27. Iron nutrition and impaired development of cerebellum-dependent motor learning
    MATTHEW MCECHRON; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Moreover, eyeblink conditioning is often used in humans; therefore, this animal learning proposal could be critical for future eyeblink conditioning studies with ID in humans. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS EFFECTS OF NICOTINE
    Kenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  29. LONG TERM POTENTIATION AND DEPRESSION IN THE CEREBELLUM
    David Linden; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In addition, these investigations have potential clinical relevance not only for cerebellar motor disorders, but also for disorders of learning and memory generally. ..
  30. MOTOR LEARNING IN CFS--NEURAL DYSFUNCTION IMPLICATION
    Richard Servatius; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We will then be in a position to relate learning abnormalities to brain pathology as measured in MRI scans and characterized by neuropsychological deficits. ..
  31. INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN NICOTINE SENSITIVITY IN HUMANS
    Kenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..e., in nicotine-naive individuals). Results will provide directions for future research on vulnerability to tobacco dependence and for targeted efforts to prevent smoking onset. ..
  32. SEX DIFFERENCES IN NICOTINE REINFORCEMENT: HUMAN/ANIMAL
    Kenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  33. SOCIAL LEARNING AND ALCOHOL INTAKE IN ADOLESCENT RATS
    Pamela Hunt; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The end result of this work will be an increased understanding of the neurochemical and behavioral factors underlying social acquisition of ethanol preferences. ..
  34. NEURONAL INFORMATION STORAGE IN CEREBELLAR DEEP NUCLEI
    David Linden; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In addition, they have potential clinical relevance for both cerebellar motor disorders and disorders of learning and memory generally. ..
  35. Iron deficiency, hippocampal development, and learning
    MATTHEW MCECHRON; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Experiment 3 will determine if ID during postnatal development produces long-term impairments in hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent learning in young adult rats. ..
  36. NEURONAL INTEGRATION IN CEREBELLAR SYSTEMS
    Vlastislav Bracha; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  37. FAS, SIDS and Stillbirths in Cape Town, South Africa
    Sandra Jacobson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  38. Affect, Context, and Placebo Responses to Nicotine
    Kenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Secondary analyses may identify important individual characteristics associated with placebo responses, aiding in the prediction of which smokers ultimately are likely to benefit most from manipulation of placebo effects. ..
  39. PERINATAL ASSESSMENT OF AT RISK POPULATIONS
    WILLIAM FIFER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  40. Novel therapeutics for learning and memory disorders
    Joseph Moskal; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  41. Sensory Processing Deficits in Cannabis Use
    PATRICK SKOSNIK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Taken together, this data may serve to elucidate whether the known cognitive dysfunction observed in cannabis use is in part related to disturbances in early sensory information processing and/or neural synchronization. ..
  42. COGNITIVE DEFICITS RELATED TO CHRONIC ALCOHOLISM
    Regina McGlinchey; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Then, an fMRI targeting frontal activity during an encoding and a retrieval task will be performed to determine the extent to which these behavioral deficits can be visualized on-line. ..