classical conditioning

Summary

Summary: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval
    K Nader
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 406:722-6. 2000
  2. ncbi Neurobiology of Pavlovian fear conditioning
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 24:897-931. 2001
  3. ncbi Fear conditioning induces associative long-term potentiation in the amygdala
    M T Rogan
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 390:604-7. 1997
  4. ncbi The relevance of recent developments in classical conditioning to understanding the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders
    Susan Mineka
    Northwestern University, Psychology Swift Hall, 2029 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, United States
    Acta Psychol (Amst) 127:567-80. 2008
  5. ncbi Hippocampus and context in classical conditioning
    P C Holland
    Department of Psychology Experimental, Duke University Box 90086, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 9:195-202. 1999
  6. ncbi The role of the cerebellum in classical conditioning of discrete behavioral responses
    R F Thompson
    University of Southern California, 3641 Watt Way, HNB 522, Los Angeles, CA 90089 2520, USA
    Neuroscience 162:732-55. 2009
  7. ncbi Rethinking the fear circuit: the central nucleus of the amygdala is required for the acquisition, consolidation, and expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning
    Ann E Wilensky
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 26:12387-96. 2006
  8. ncbi Midbrain dopaminergic neurons and striatal cholinergic interneurons encode the difference between reward and aversive events at different epochs of probabilistic classical conditioning trials
    Mati Joshua
    Department of Physiology, The Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    J Neurosci 28:11673-84. 2008
  9. ncbi Emotion and motivation: the role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex
    Rudolf N Cardinal
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26:321-52. 2002
  10. ncbi Parallel incentive processing: an integrated view of amygdala function
    Bernard W Balleine
    Department of Psychology and the Brain Research Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1563, USA
    Trends Neurosci 29:272-9. 2006

Detail Information

Publications293 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval
    K Nader
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 406:722-6. 2000
    ..Our data show that consolidated fear memories, when reactivated, return to a labile state that requires de novo protein synthesis for reconsolidation. These findings are not predicted by traditional theories of memory consolidation...
  2. ncbi Neurobiology of Pavlovian fear conditioning
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 24:897-931. 2001
    ..These advances represent an important step in understanding the neural substrates of a rapidly acquired and adaptive form of associative learning and memory in mammals...
  3. ncbi Fear conditioning induces associative long-term potentiation in the amygdala
    M T Rogan
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 390:604-7. 1997
    ..LTP-like associative processes thus occur during fear conditioning, and these may underlie the long-term associative plasticity that constitutes memory of the conditioning experience...
  4. ncbi The relevance of recent developments in classical conditioning to understanding the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders
    Susan Mineka
    Northwestern University, Psychology Swift Hall, 2029 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, United States
    Acta Psychol (Amst) 127:567-80. 2008
    ..Finally, we discuss recent developments in basic experimental research on fear conditioning and anxiety, with particular attention to research on contextual learning, and indicate the relevance of these findings to anxiety disorders...
  5. ncbi Hippocampus and context in classical conditioning
    P C Holland
    Department of Psychology Experimental, Duke University Box 90086, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 9:195-202. 1999
    ..Specialized functions proposed for the hippocampus in contextual learning include the construction and consolidation of contextual memory representations, incidental contextual learning, and inhibitory contextual learning...
  6. ncbi The role of the cerebellum in classical conditioning of discrete behavioral responses
    R F Thompson
    University of Southern California, 3641 Watt Way, HNB 522, Los Angeles, CA 90089 2520, USA
    Neuroscience 162:732-55. 2009
    The cerebellum and its associated circuitry constitutes the entire essential neuronal system for classical conditioning of eye-blink and other discrete responses (e.g...
  7. ncbi Rethinking the fear circuit: the central nucleus of the amygdala is required for the acquisition, consolidation, and expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning
    Ann E Wilensky
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 26:12387-96. 2006
    ..These findings indicate that CE is not only involved in fear expression but, like LA, is also involved in the learning and consolidation of pavlovian fear conditioning...
  8. ncbi Midbrain dopaminergic neurons and striatal cholinergic interneurons encode the difference between reward and aversive events at different epochs of probabilistic classical conditioning trials
    Mati Joshua
    Department of Physiology, The Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    J Neurosci 28:11673-84. 2008
    ..We studied the activity of 106 DANs and 180 TANs of two monkeys recorded during the performance of a classical conditioning task with cues predicting the probability of food, neutral, and air puff outcomes...
  9. ncbi Emotion and motivation: the role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex
    Rudolf N Cardinal
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26:321-52. 2002
    ....
  10. ncbi Parallel incentive processing: an integrated view of amygdala function
    Bernard W Balleine
    Department of Psychology and the Brain Research Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1563, USA
    Trends Neurosci 29:272-9. 2006
    ..Given that there is little if any direct behavioral evidence for the serial model, we suggest that more attention should be given to the claims of the parallel view...
  11. ncbi Behavioural and cardiovascular responses during latent inhibition of conditioned fear: measurement by telemetry and conditioned freezing
    Wei Ning Zhang
    Behavioral Neurobiology Laboratory, The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Schorenstrasse 16, CH 8603 Schwerzenbach, Switzerland
    Behav Brain Res 154:199-209. 2004
    ..g. NPE condition) activate both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, thus eliminating any CS-induced increase in heart rate in the NPE rats...
  12. pmc Extinction-reconsolidation boundaries: key to persistent attenuation of fear memories
    Marie H Monfils
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Science 324:951-5. 2009
    ..This procedure permanently attenuates the fear memory without the use of drugs...
  13. ncbi Genetic dissection of consolidated memory in Drosophila
    T Tully
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 11724
    Cell 79:35-47. 1994
    ..LTM showed no appreciable decay over 7 days, was sensitive to CXM, and was not disrupted by the radish mutation...
  14. ncbi Deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study
    Niels Birbaumer
    Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology and Section of Experimental Resonance Imaging of the CNS, Department of Neuroradiology, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:799-805. 2005
    ..It was hypothesized that this behavior might be the consequence of deficient fear conditioning...
  15. ncbi Arc/Arg3.1 is essential for the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and memories
    Niels Plath
    Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Biology Chemistry Pharmacy, Freie Universitat Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Neuron 52:437-44. 2006
    ..In addition, long-term depression is significantly impaired. Together, these results demonstrate a critical role for Arc/Arg3.1 in the consolidation of enduring synaptic plasticity and memory storage...
  16. ncbi Intra-accumbens amphetamine increases the conditioned incentive salience of sucrose reward: enhancement of reward "wanting" without enhanced "liking" or response reinforcement
    C L Wyvell
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Neurosci 20:8122-30. 2000
    ..We conclude that nucleus accumbens dopamine specifically mediates the ability of reward cues to trigger "wanting" (incentive salience) for their associated rewards, independent of both hedonic impact and response reinforcement...
  17. ncbi Dissociation of Pavlovian and instrumental incentive learning under dopamine antagonists
    A Dickinson
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Behav Neurosci 114:468-83. 2000
    ..These results suggest that Pavlovian and instrumental incentive learning are not mediated by a common process...
  18. ncbi New vistas on amygdala networks in conditioned fear
    DENIS PARE
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers State University, 197 University Ave, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    J Neurophysiol 92:1-9. 2004
    ..Thus plasticity in both LA and CE would be necessary for acquisition of conditioned fear. This revised model also accounts for inhibition of conditioned fear after extinction...
  19. ncbi Simple and complex spike firing patterns in Purkinje cells during classical conditioning
    Anders Rasmussen
    Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, BMC F10, Lund, Sweden
    Cerebellum 7:563-6. 2008
    ..This view has been dramatically confirmed by recent Purkinje cell recordings during training with a classical conditioning paradigm...
  20. ncbi Classical conditioning and retention in normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster
    T Tully
    J Comp Physiol A 157:263-77. 1985
    ..After this, the rates of decay slowed sharply; conditioned avoidance still was measureable at least three hours after training...
  21. ncbi Cellular imaging of zif268 expression in the hippocampus and amygdala during contextual and cued fear memory retrieval: selective activation of hippocampal CA1 neurons during the recall of contextual memories
    J Hall
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EB United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 21:2186-93. 2001
    ....
  22. ncbi Temporal difference models describe higher-order learning in humans
    Ben Seymour
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Nature 429:664-7. 2004
    ..Taken with existing data on reward learning, our results suggest a critical role for the ventral striatum in integrating complex appetitive and aversive predictions to coordinate behaviour...
  23. pmc Different mechanisms of fear extinction dependent on length of time since fear acquisition
    Karyn M Myers
    Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Emory University Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Learn Mem 13:216-23. 2006
    ..These data support a model in which different neural mechanisms are recruited depending on the temporal delay of fear extinction...
  24. ncbi Consolidation of extinction learning involves transfer from NMDA-independent to NMDA-dependent memory
    E Santini
    Department of Physiology, Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, Puerto Rico, 00732, USA
    J Neurosci 21:9009-17. 2001
    ..We suggest that consolidation of extinction involves off-line relearning that reinforces extinction memory through NMDA-mediated plasticity, perhaps in prefrontal-amygdala circuits...
  25. ncbi Associative learning and the control of human dietary behavior
    Jeffrey M Brunstrom
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, 12a Priory Road, Bristol, BS8 1TU, UK
    Appetite 49:268-71. 2007
    ..The second section briefly considers the effect of learning on meal size, and the author revisits the question of how learned associations might come to influence energy intake in humans...
  26. ncbi Neural substrates of eyeblink conditioning: acquisition and retention
    Kimberly M Christian
    Neuroscience Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 2520, USA
    Learn Mem 10:427-55. 2003
    b>Classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex to a neutral stimulus that predicts an aversive stimulus is a basic form of associative learning...
  27. pmc Which cue to "want?" Central amygdala opioid activation enhances and focuses incentive salience on a prepotent reward cue
    Stephen V Mahler
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Neurosci 29:6500-13. 2009
    ..We conclude that opioid neurotransmission in CeA helps determine which environmental stimuli become most "wanted," and how "wanted" they become. This may powerfully guide reward-seeking behavior...
  28. ncbi Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase- mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in the amygdala is required for memory reconsolidation of auditory fear conditioning
    Sevil Duvarci
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, NY, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 21:283-9. 2005
    ..Our data show that activation of ERK-MAPK signalling pathway and protein synthesis in the LA are required for reconsolidation of auditory fear memories...
  29. ncbi Incentive sensitization by previous amphetamine exposure: increased cue-triggered "wanting" for sucrose reward
    C L Wyvell
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Neurosci 21:7831-40. 2001
    ..g., investigatory sniffing) that interfered with goal-directed lever pressing. These results support the incentive-sensitization theory postulate that sensitization causes excessive cue-triggered "wanting" for an associated reward...
  30. ncbi Classical olfactory conditioning in the cockroach Periplaneta americana
    Hidehiro Watanabe
    Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
    Zoolog Sci 20:1447-54. 2003
    We established a classical conditioning procedure for the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, by which odors were associated with reward or punishment...
  31. ncbi Dopamine cells respond to predicted events during classical conditioning: evidence for eligibility traces in the reward-learning network
    Wei Xing Pan
    Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin 9001, New Zealand
    J Neurosci 25:6235-42. 2005
    ..Such properties enable rapid but stable initiation of learning when the number of stimulus-reward pairings is limited, conferring significant adaptive advantages in real-world environments...
  32. ncbi Olfactory classical conditioning in newborn mice
    Myriam Bouslama
    INSERM U676, Robert Debre Teaching Hospital, 48 Boulevard Serurier, 75019 Paris, France
    Behav Brain Res 161:102-6. 2005
    ..We used a two-odour-choice classical conditioning paradigm in mice from the day of birth (post-natal age 0, P0) to P6...
  33. ncbi Expectancy-learning and evaluative learning in human classical conditioning: affective priming as an indirect and unobtrusive measure of conditioned stimulus valence
    Dirk Hermans
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Learning Theories and Behaviour Therapy, University of Leuven, Belgium
    Behav Res Ther 40:217-34. 2002
    It has been argued that in classical conditioning two processes might be operative...
  34. ncbi Associative learning of likes and dislikes: a review of 25 years of research on human evaluative conditioning
    J De Houwer
    Department of Psychology, University of Southampton, England
    Psychol Bull 127:853-69. 2001
    ..In the present article, the authors summarize the available literature, draw conclusions where possible, and provide suggestions for future research...
  35. pmc Requirement of central ghrelin signaling for alcohol reward
    Elisabet Jerlhag
    Section for Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, SE 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:11318-23. 2009
    ..Our data suggest that central ghrelin signaling constitutes a potential target for treatment of alcohol-related disorders...
  36. pmc Protein kinase C-dependent and independent signaling pathways regulate synaptic GluR1 and GluR4 AMPAR subunits during in vitro classical conditioning
    Z Zheng
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
    Neuroscience 156:872-84. 2008
    ..Here, an in vitro model of classical conditioning in pond turtles, Pseudemys scripta elegans, was used to assess the role of PKC isoforms in mechanisms ..
  37. ncbi Noradrenaline and dopamine efflux in the prefrontal cortex in relation to appetitive classical conditioning
    Susana Mingote
    Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci 24:2475-80. 2004
    ..In the rewarded session, both NA and DA efflux were increased, but in extinction, only NA was activated. The data suggest that NA has a role in the reaction to reward-predicting stimuli, which complements that of DA...
  38. ncbi Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory
    P Waelti
    Institute of Physiology and Programme in Neuroscience, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Nature 412:43-8. 2001
    ..Our data indicate that the use of analytical tests derived from formal behavioural learning theory provides a powerful approach for studying the role of single neurons in learning...
  39. ncbi Memory processes in classical conditioning
    Mark E Bouton
    Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:663-74. 2004
    b>Classical conditioning provides a rich and powerful method for studying basic learning, memory, and emotion processes in animals...
  40. ncbi Genetic enhancement of learning and memory in mice
    Y P Tang
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 1014, USA
    Nature 401:63-9. 1999
    ..Our results suggest that genetic enhancement of mental and cognitive attributes such as intelligence and memory in mammals is feasible...
  41. pmc Dissociating the predictive and incentive motivational properties of reward-related cues through the study of individual differences
    Terry E Robinson
    Biopsychology Program, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, East Hall, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 65:869-73. 2009
    ..Thus, CSs can have both predictive and incentive properties. We ask here whether it is possible to dissociate the predictive versus incentive properties of a CS in rats by considering individual differences in the nature of the CR...
  42. ncbi Dopamine and drug addiction: the nucleus accumbens shell connection
    Gaetano Di Chiara
    Department of Toxicology, University of Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari, Italy
    Neuropharmacology 47:227-41. 2004
    ..It is speculated that drug addiction results from the impact exerted on behavior by the abnormal DA stimulant properties acquired by drug-conditioned stimuli as a result of their association with addictive drugs...
  43. pmc Individual differences in the attribution of incentive salience to a reward-related cue: influence on cocaine sensitization
    Shelly B Flagel
    Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, The University of Michigan, 205 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Behav Brain Res 186:48-56. 2008
    ....
  44. ncbi Recall of fear extinction in humans activates the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in concert
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:446-54. 2007
    ..The aim of the present study is to investigate the mediating anatomy of extinction recall in healthy humans...
  45. ncbi CREB required for the stability of new and reactivated fear memories
    Satoshi Kida
    Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Sakuragaoka, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo 156 8502, Japan
    Nat Neurosci 5:348-55. 2002
    ..The findings presented here delineate the memory processes that require CREB and demonstrate the power of LBD-inducible transgenic systems in the study of complex cognitive processes...
  46. ncbi Hippocampal inactivation disrupts contextual retrieval of fear memory after extinction
    K A Corcoran
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1109, USA
    J Neurosci 21:1720-6. 2001
    ..These results extend findings from other behavioral paradigms and provide additional support for a role for the hippocampus in contextual memory retrieval...
  47. pmc Prefrontal/accumbal catecholamine system determines motivational salience attribution to both reward- and aversion-related stimuli
    Rossella Ventura
    Santa Lucia Foundation, European Centre for Brain Research CERC, Via del Fosso di Fiorano 65, 00143 Rome, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:5181-6. 2007
    ....
  48. ncbi Induction of a dominant negative CREB transgene specifically blocks long-term memory in Drosophila
    J C Yin
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 11724
    Cell 79:49-58. 1994
    ..These results suggest that LTM formation requires de novo gene expression probably mediated by CREB family genes...
  49. pmc PKA has a critical role in synaptic delivery of GluR1- and GluR4-containing AMPARs during initial stages of acquisition of in vitro classical conditioning
    Zhaoqing Zheng
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, 414 E Clark St, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
    J Neurophysiol 101:2539-49. 2009
    ..Using an in vitro model of eyeblink classical conditioning, we report that PKA has a critical role in initiating a signaling cascade that results in synaptic ..
  50. ncbi Selective neurotoxic lesions of basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala produce differential effects on fear conditioning
    Ja Wook Koo
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8205, USA
    J Neurosci 24:7654-62. 2004
    ..Instead, the expression of conditioned fear appears to primarily involve BLA projections that course through the CeA en route to downstream fear response structures...
  51. ncbi Eyeblink classical conditioning: hippocampal formation is for neutral stimulus associations as cerebellum is for association-response
    J T Green
    Department of Psychology, Temple University, USA
    Psychol Bull 126:138-58. 2000
    ..evidence has been amassed that the cerebellum, hippocampus, and associated circuitry are activated during classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane/eyeblink response...
  52. ncbi Neural coding of reward-prediction error signals during classical conditioning with attractive faces
    Signe Bray
    Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    J Neurophysiol 97:3036-45. 2007
    ....
  53. ncbi Imagery in human classical conditioning
    M R Dadds
    School of Psychology, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia
    Psychol Bull 122:89-103. 1997
    ..authors examine the premise that mental images can potentiate and substitute for physical stimuli in human classical conditioning. The authors review empirical evidence to detail the role of images of conditioned stimuli (CS) and ..
  54. ncbi Appetitive behavior: impact of amygdala-dependent mechanisms of emotional learning
    Barry J Everitt
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 985:233-50. 2003
    ....
  55. ncbi The effects of ethanol on the developing cerebellum and eyeblink classical conditioning
    John T Green
    Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington 05405 0134, USA
    Cerebellum 3:178-87. 2004
    ..Eyeblink classical conditioning is known to engage a discrete brain stem-cerebellar circuit, making it an ideal test of cerebellar ..
  56. ncbi The misbehavior of value and the discipline of the will
    Peter Dayan
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, UCL, 17 Queen Square, London, UK
    Neural Netw 19:1153-60. 2006
    ..The misbehavior created by Pavlovian values can be quite debilitating; we discuss how it may be disciplined...
  57. ncbi Two different lateral amygdala cell populations contribute to the initiation and storage of memory
    J C Repa
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Room 809, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Nat Neurosci 4:724-31. 2001
    ..These anatomically distinct cells in LAd may be differentially involved in the initiation of learning and long-term memory storage...
  58. ncbi Ventral pallidal neurons code incentive motivation: amplification by mesolimbic sensitization and amphetamine
    Amy J Tindell
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0607, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 22:2617-34. 2005
    ..Our results support incentive-sensitization predictions and suggest why cues temporally proximal to drug presentation may precipitate cue-triggered relapse in human addicts...
  59. ncbi Temporal prediction errors in a passive learning task activate human striatum
    Samuel M McClure
    Human Neuroimaging Lab, Center for Theoretical Neuroscience, Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Neuron 38:339-46. 2003
    ....
  60. ncbi Immediate shock deficit in fear conditioning: effects of shock manipulations
    J Landeira-Fernandez
    Departamento de Psicologia, Pontificia Universidade Catolico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Behav Neurosci 120:873-9. 2006
    ..However, immediate shock seems to sensitize subsequent context conditioning (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the associative deficit produced by immediate shock is not related to the rat's ability to process the footshock US...
  61. pmc Hippocampal and extrahippocampal systems compete for control of contextual fear: role of ventral subiculum and amygdala
    Joseph C Biedenkapp
    Department of Psychology, Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
    Learn Mem 16:38-45. 2009
    ..These results are discussed in relationship to the idea that D1 agonists increase plasticity potential by increasing the pool of available extrasynaptic GluR1 receptors in the population of neurons supporting acquired fear...
  62. ncbi Inhibitory cerebello-olivary projections and blocking effect in classical conditioning
    J J Kim
    Neuroscience Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 2520, USA
    Science 279:570-3. 1998
    ..informational relationship between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus is essential in classical conditioning. The eyeblink conditioning paradigm is used to describe a neural mechanism that mediates blocking...
  63. ncbi Olfactory discrimination ability and odor structure-activity relationships in honeybees
    M Laska
    Institut fur Medizinische Psychologie, Ludwg Maximilians Universität München, Germany
    Chem Senses 24:429-38. 1999
    ..This strongly suggests that similar mechanisms of odor coding and discrimination may underlie olfaction in vertebrates and insects...
  64. ncbi Dopamine efflux in nucleus accumbens shell and core in response to appetitive classical conditioning
    J J Cheng
    Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, Meibergdreef 33, 1105 AZ Amsterdam ZO, The Netherlands
    Eur J Neurosci 18:1306-14. 2003
    ..We investigated the effect of appetitive classical conditioning on dopamine efflux in the rat nucleus accumbens shell and core, as dopamine may be differentially ..
  65. ncbi Appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of female sexual response
    Stephanie Both
    Department of Psychosomatic Gynaecology and Sexology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Sex Med 5:1386-401. 2008
    There is only limited evidence for appetitive classical conditioning of female sexual response, and to date modulation of female sexual response by aversive conditioning has not been studied.
  66. ncbi Odor discrimination in classical conditioning of proboscis extension in two stingless bee species in comparison to Africanized honeybees
    S I Mc Cabe
    Grupo de Estudio de Insectos Sociales, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biologia Experimental, IFIBYNE CONICET Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EHA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 193:1089-99. 2007
    ..quadrifasciata it was intermediate, and S. aff. depilis bees presented no discrimination. The differences found are discussed considering the putative different learning abilities and procedure effect for each species...
  67. ncbi Measuring reward with the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm: update of the last decade
    Thomas M Tzschentke
    Grunenthal GmbH, Preclinical Research and Development, Department of Pharmacology, Aachen, Germany
    Addict Biol 12:227-462. 2007
    ....
  68. ncbi Classical conditioning of sexual arousal in women and men: effects of varying awareness and biological relevance of the conditioned stimulus
    Heather Hoffmann
    Department of Psychology, Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois, USA
    Arch Sex Behav 33:43-53. 2004
    b>Classical conditioning of sexual arousal has previously been demonstrated in human males but not in females...
  69. ncbi Memory reconsolidation and extinction have distinct temporal and biochemical signatures
    Akinobu Suzuki
    Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156 8502, Japan
    J Neurosci 24:4787-95. 2004
    ..These studies demonstrate the dynamic nature of memory processing after retrieval and represent a first step toward a molecular dissection of underlying mechanisms...
  70. ncbi Skin conductance responses to masked conditioned stimuli: phylogenetic/ontogenetic factors versus direction of threat?
    Anders Flykt
    Psychology Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Biol Psychol 74:328-36. 2007
    ..These findings are discussed in relation to the previous finding by Ohman and co-workers and in relation to imminence of threat...
  71. ncbi Experimental challenges to theories of classical conditioning: application of an attentional model of storage and retrieval
    Nestor A Schmajuk
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 0086, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 32:1-20. 2006
    Several studies have recently challenged the accuracy of traditional models of classical conditioning that account for some experimental data in terms of a storage deficit...
  72. pmc Pavlov's cockroach: classical conditioning of salivation in an insect
    Hidehiro Watanabe
    Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
    PLoS ONE 2:e529. 2007
    ..Pavlov reported classical conditioning of salivation in dogs a century ago...
  73. ncbi Tracking short-term auditory cortical plasticity during classical conditioning using frequency-tagged stimuli
    Nathan Weisz
    Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Germany
    Cereb Cortex 17:1867-76. 2007
    Animal studies indicate that short-term plasticity during classical conditioning is a fast process. The temporal details of this process in humans are unknown...
  74. pmc Expression of the immediate-early gene-encoded protein Egr-1 (zif268) during in vitro classical conditioning
    Maxim Mokin
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069, USA
    Learn Mem 12:144-9. 2005
    ..induction and expression of the IEG-encoded protein Egr-1 during an in vitro neural correlate of eyeblink classical conditioning. The results showed that Egr-1 protein expression as determined by immunocytochemistry and Western blot ..
  75. ncbi Multimodal classical conditioning of fear: contributions of direct, observational, and verbal experiences to current fears
    Judith A Dygdon
    School of Psychology, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL 60605, USA
    Psychol Rep 95:133-53. 2004
    The authors propose that a multimodal classical conditioning model be considered when clinicians or clinical researchers study the etiology of fears and anxieties learned by human beings...
  76. ncbi The novel dopamine D4 receptor agonist (PD 168,077 maleate): doses with different effects on locomotor activity are without effect in classical conditioning
    Sahana Nayak
    School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 27:441-9. 2003
    ..Thus, we find no evidence that the D(4) receptor has any likely effect on associative learning or its disorder. Furthermore, D(4)-mediated hyperactivity was dissociable from cognitive effects...
  77. ncbi CaM kinase II and visual input modulate memory formation in the neuronal circuit controlling courtship conditioning
    - Joiner MlA
    Department of Biology and Volen Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02254 9110, USA
    J Neurosci 17:9384-91. 1997
    ..Our results suggest a model for courtship conditioning in which multiple sensory inputs are integrated at a CaM-kinase-dependent neuronal switch to modulate courtship behavior...
  78. ncbi Cortical spreading depression and involvement of the motor cortex, auditory cortex, and cerebellum in eyeblink classical conditioning of the rabbit
    Gilbert R Case
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 78:234-45. 2002
    ..2) The motor cortex appears to play little or no part in classical conditioning of the eyeblink in the rabbit in the delay paradigm...
  79. ncbi Auditory frequency discrimination in the squirrel monkey
    A Wienicke
    Neurobiology Department, German Primate Centre, , Germany
    J Comp Physiol A 187:189-95. 2001
    ..monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were tested for their frequency discrimination capacity using an eyeblink classical conditioning procedure, with air puff against the eye as unconditioned stimulus and 600-ms pure tones as conditioned ..
  80. pmc Prefrontal norepinephrine determines attribution of "high" motivational salience
    Rossella Ventura
    Santa Lucia Foundation, European Centre for Brain Research CERC, Rome, Italy
    PLoS ONE 3:e3044. 2008
    ..This affirms that prefrontal noradrenergic transmission determines motivational salience attribution selectively when intense motivational salience is processed, as in conditions that characterize psychopathological outcomes...
  81. ncbi Trace classical conditioning in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): what do they learn?
    Janicke Nordgreen
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway
    Anim Cogn 13:303-9. 2010
    ..Knowledge of these two systems in fish is scarce, and controlled laboratory studies are needed. Trace classical conditioning is an experimentally tractable model of declarative memory...
  82. ncbi The contribution of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity to classical conditioning in Aplysia
    I Antonov
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Neurosci 21:6413-22. 2001
    ..1999a). We have now used that preparation to assess the contribution of various cellular mechanisms to classical conditioning of the reflex with a siphon tap conditioned stimulus (CS) and tail shock unconditioned stimulus (US)...
  83. ncbi GABA immunoreactivity in mouse barrel field after aversive and appetitive classical conditioning training involving facial vibrissae
    E Siucinska
    Department of Neurophysiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology 3 Pasteur St 02 093, Warsaw, Poland
    Brain Res 843:62-70. 1999
    We have previously reported that a classical conditioning paradigm involving stimulation of a row of facial vibrissae produced an expansion of the cortical representation of the "trained row", labeled with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), in layer ..
  84. ncbi Association learning-dependent increases in acetylcholine release in the rat auditory cortex during auditory classical conditioning
    Allen E Butt
    Department of Psychology, California State University San Bernardino, San Bernardino, CA 92399, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 92:400-9. 2009
    ..Samples of ACh were collected via microdialysis during behavioral training in either an auditory classical conditioning task or in a non-associative control task...
  85. ncbi Learning of physiological responses: II. Classical conditioning of the baroreflex
    B R Dworkin
    Department of Behavioral Science, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey 17033, USA
    Behav Neurosci 109:1119-36. 1995
    ..blood pressure rise were effective unconditioned stimuli (UCS) for auditory discriminative classical conditioning. The conditioned response (CR) pattern (bradycardia, vasodilatation, and hypotension > 10 torr) closely ..
  86. ncbi Dopamine and octopamine differentiate between aversive and appetitive olfactory memories in Drosophila
    Martin Schwaerzel
    Lehrstuhl für Genetik und Neurobiologie, Biozentrum, Am Hubland, D 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 23:10495-502. 2003
    ..Our results suggest that in associative conditioning, different memories are formed of the same odor under different circumstances, and that they are linked to the respective motivational systems by their specific modulatory pathways...
  87. ncbi Startle reactivity and anxiety disorders: aversive conditioning, context, and neurobiology
    Christian Grillon
    National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 52:958-75. 2002
    ..Lacking a cue for threat, the organism cannot identify periods of danger and safety and remains in a chronic state of anxiety. Factors that may affect conditioning are discussed...
  88. ncbi Independent manipulation of emotion in an emotional stroop task using classical conditioning
    Anne Richards
    School of Psychology, Birkbeck College, University of London, England
    Emotion 4:275-81. 2004
    The effects of emotional connotation on emotional Stroop interference in anxiety were examined. First, a classical conditioning paradigm was used in which neutral words and nonwords were paired with either negative or neutral pictures...
  89. ncbi Identification of linotte, a new gene affecting learning and memory in Drosophila melanogaster
    J M Dura
    C N R S U R A D 1134, Lab Embrylogie Moléculaire, Universite Paris XI, Orsay, France
    J Neurogenet 9:1-14. 1993
    ..was derived from a PlacW transposon mutagenesis and was screened for three-hour memory deficits after classical conditioning of an olfactory avoidance response...
  90. ncbi Amygdalar unit activity during three learning tasks: eyeblink classical conditioning, Pavlovian fear conditioning, and signaled avoidance conditioning
    Linda M Rorick-Kehn
    Department of Psychology and Program in Neural Science, Indiana University, 1101 E 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Behav Neurosci 119:1254-76. 2005
    ..Results suggest the CeA mediates the Pavlovian association between sensory stimuli and the BLA mediates the modulation of instrumental responding through the assignment of motivational value to the unconditioned stimulus...
  91. ncbi Classical conditioning of breathing pattern after two acquisition trials in 2-day-old mice
    E Durand
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement, INSERM E9935, Hopital Robert Debre, 75019 Paris, France
    J Appl Physiol 94:812-8. 2003
    ..Our results confirm the sensitivity of breathing to conditioning and indirectly support the hypothesis that learned feedforward processes may complement feedback pathways during postnatal maturation of respiratory control...
  92. pmc Role of classical conditioning in learning gastrointestinal symptoms
    Ursula Stockhorst
    Institute of Psychology, General Psychology II and Biological Psychology, University of Osnabrueck, Osnabrueck, Seminarstrasse 20, D 49074 Osnabrueck, Germany
    World J Gastroenterol 13:3430-7. 2007
    ..b>Classical conditioning of nausea can develop with chemotherapy in cancer patients...
  93. ncbi Effects of classical conditioning on identification and cortical processing of speech syllables
    Sabine Heim
    Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, P O Box D23, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
    Exp Brain Res 175:411-24. 2006
    ..examine effects of learned motivational significance on processing of speech syllables in adults using a classical conditioning paradigm...
  94. pmc In vitro analog of classical conditioning of feeding behavior in aplysia
    Riccardo Mozzachiodi
    W M Keck Center for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, The University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Learn Mem 10:478-94. 2003
    ..Moreover, several neural correlates of classical conditioning have been identified...
  95. pmc High dietary cholesterol facilitates classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response
    Bernard G Schreurs
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute, Morgantown, WV, USA
    Nutr Neurosci 10:31-43. 2007
    ..12 ppm copper added to their drinking water received trace and then delay classical conditioning pairing tone with corneal air puff during which movement of the nictitating membrane (NM) across the eye ..
  96. pmc Cholesterol enhances classical conditioning of the rabbit heart rate response
    Bernard G Schreurs
    Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, P O Box 9302, Morgantown, WV, United States
    Behav Brain Res 181:52-63. 2007
    ..b>Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in cholesterol-fed rabbits is retarded in the presence of these ..
  97. ncbi Immediate-early gene-encoded protein Arc is associated with synaptic delivery of GluR4-containing AMPA receptors during in vitro classical conditioning
    Maxim Mokin
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, 414 E Clark St, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
    J Neurophysiol 95:215-24. 2006
    ..The present study demonstrates that during an in vitro neural correlate of eyeblink classical conditioning, there is a rapid and transient increase in levels of Arc protein that require activation of N-methyl-d-..
  98. ncbi The effects of scopolamine on changes in regional cerebral blood flow during classical conditioning of the human eyeblink response
    M Bahro
    Geriatric Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Neuropsychobiology 39:187-95. 1999
    We examined the effects of scopolamine on the functional anatomy of classical conditioning of the human eyeblink response. Ten healthy young normal female volunteers (mean age +/- SEM: 26.7 +/- 0.9 years) were administered 0...
  99. ncbi A discrete approach for a model of temporal learning by the cerebellum: in silico classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex
    André Garenne
    INSERM E358, Institut Magendie, 1 rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux Cedex, France
    J Integr Neurosci 3:301-18. 2004
    ..This network is then trained to produce simple or multiple eyeblink delays using (i) the classical conditioning paradigm and (ii) known data on cerebellar spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP)...
  100. ncbi The role of dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala NMDA receptors in the acquisition and retrieval of context and contextual fear memories
    Patricia Matus-Amat
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Behav Neurosci 121:721-31. 2007
    ..However, both DL-AP5 and L-AP5 reduced the expression of fear when they were injected into the amygdala prior to testing for contextual fear...
  101. pmc Classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response is a function of the duration of dietary cholesterol
    Bernard G Schreurs
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA
    Nutr Neurosci 10:159-68. 2007
    ..rabbits fed a normal diet without copper added to distilled water (0 weeks) were given a difficult trace classical conditioning task and an easy delay conditioning task pairing tone with corneal air puff...

Research Grants63

  1. Is Maternal Iron Status a Risk Factor in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?
    Susan M Smith; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Aim 2) Cerebellum-dependent learning is tested at P32 using eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC);brains are harvested for the P35 histology / stereology studies of Aim 1...
  2. Automated Analysis of Learning and Memory for Neuro-Developmental Studies
    Michael Levin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the reactions of a large number of subjects in parallel, but also train the animals in a variety of classical conditioning and other learning paradigms...
  3. Calcium-Stimulated Adenylyl Cyclase Activity's Role in Stress-Facilitated Memory
    LINDSAY ANN WIECZOREK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As a paradigm for stress-facilitated memory, we will use a classical conditioning test, which serves as a good model to investigate our hypothesis as both the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway ..
  4. Cholesterol and copper affect learning and memory
    Bernard G Schreurs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have established that cholesterol and copper affect classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response and heart rate...
  5. NEURONAL PATHWAYS UNDERLYING IN VITRO MOTOR LEARNING
    Joyce Keifer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Classical conditioning is an example of associative learning that occurs when a reinforcing unconditioned stimulus (US) is ..
  6. NONASSOCIATIVE AND ASSOCIATIVE NEUROPLASTICITY
    Thomas W Abrams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..signaling are non-associative, animals also alter their responsiveness to importance of stimuli during classical conditioning. Conditioning in Aplysia involves associative plasticity at the same sensory synapses...
  7. Translational Studies of FASD Using a Sheep Model-U01
    Shannon E Washburn; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Aim 2 will assess neurobehavioral outcomes using eyeblink classical conditioning and spatial working memory...
  8. HEBBIAN LONG-TERM POTENTIATION AND LEARNING IN APLYSIA
    David L Glanzman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One of the fundamental forms of associative learning is classical conditioning. During classical conditioning an animal learns to associate a neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) ..
  9. Neural organization of odor coding in human piriform cortex
    Jay A Gottfried; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..techniques will be combined with olfactory paradigms of cross-adaptation, perceptual learning, and classical conditioning to characterize the neural response properties of primary olfactory (piriform) cortex...
  10. MECHANISMS MEDIATING LONG-TERM SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY
    Samuel Schacher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..long-term facilitation (non-associative or associative LTF - cellular correlates of sensitization and classical conditioning of defensive reflexes) of variable duration that depends on the number of stimuli...
  11. Nicotine Addiction: Learning, Neural &Genetic Process
    Thomas J Gould; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..acute nicotine has been shown to enhance a long-lasting form of contextual fear conditioning, a type of classical conditioning that involves the hippocampus but withdrawal from chronic nicotine disrupts this learning...
  12. CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING
    John H Byrne; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..2. Characterize the signaling cascades in B51 that underlie short- and long-term appetitive classical conditioning. B51 is a locus of plasticity common to operant and classical conditioning...
  13. Manipulating the consolidation of fear memories during sleep
    KATHERINA KAROLINA YAYE HAUNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed research will require the applicant to complete new training in classical conditioning, physiological assessment of fear, olfaction, and advanced fMRI analysis-all highly relevant for her ..
  14. Plasticity in deep cerebellar nuclei as a function of classical conditioning
    Bernard G Schreurs; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..By identifying these changes, the proposed work has the potential to help understand the pathogenesis of failures in learning and memory and to develop intervention strategies for those failures. ..
  15. Fear Conditioning and the Onset of Social Anxiety
    RICHARD THOMAS LEBEAU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Participants will undergo a classical conditioning paradigm in which three neutral male faces are paired with an angry male face giving negative feedback ..
  16. Neural circuits that regulate dopamine neuron activity
    Naoshige Uchida; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To test this hypothesis, the spiking activity from VTA will be recorded while mice perform a classical conditioning paradigm in which they associate different odors with different outcomes (big water, small water, nothing ..
  17. Genomic Bases of Behavioral Learning: Single Cell Approaches
    Leonid L Moroz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..them during both a nonassociative form of learning (sensitization) and an associative form of learning (classical conditioning)...
  18. Implicit Learning in Osteocyte Network under Mechanical Loading
    X Edward Guo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..networks can be achieved by three elementary forms of implicit learning: habituation, sensitization, and classical conditioning"...
  19. Conditioned Pharmacotherapeutic Effects in Hypertension
    JOHN DAVID BISOGNANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This study will determine if principles of Pavlovian classical conditioning can be applied to the treatment of patients with hypertension...
  20. Developing Treatments for Hyperarousal in a Model System
    Bernard G Schreurs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CRM is detected by comparing responses to a range of US intensities by themselves before and after classical conditioning. We now have strong evidence we can "treat" CRM as well as extinguish CRs which uniquely positions us to ..
  21. Classical Associative Learning in Male and Female Alcoholics
    Regina McGlinchey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tensor imaging and have found associations between white matter integrity and performance on eyeblink classical conditioning. Preliminary data also reveal bilateral cortical thickness reductions in alcoholics compared to control ..
  22. Neural mechanisms of olfactory reward value processing in the human brain
    James D Howard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In a second experiment (Aim 2), we will implement an olfactory classical conditioning paradigm in which odors are paired with varying levels of reward...
  23. Neural Basis of Sensory Discrimination Learning
    DAVID TRUMBULL BLAKE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Then, as a classical conditioning experiment, target and distractor reward associations will be reversed...
  24. Social Mechanisms of Affective Learning
    ELIZABETH ANYA PHELPS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Specific Aim 1: Using simple affective learning paradigms modeled on classical conditioning, we will explore the neural mechanisms of social means of affective learning...
  25. Cue Reliability and Depth Calibration During Space Perception
    Benjamin T Backus; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This phenomenon can be studied in the laboratory using classical conditioning procedures that were previously developed to study learning in animals...
  26. Spatiotemporal dynamics of striatal dopamine release in reinforcement learning
    Paul E M Phillips; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Classical conditioning is arguably the most fundamental tool we possess for adapting our behavior to a changing environment...
  27. CONTROL OF VASCULAR TONE BY CONTINGENT CNS STIMULATION
    Barry Dworkin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..b>Classical conditioning, the most studied neural plasticity, is involved in drug tolerance, digestion, and quantitative adjustment ..
  28. The Role of Partial Reinforcement in the Long Term Management of Insomnia
    MICHAEL LLOYD PERLIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to advance from a descriptive to an experimental analysis of the placebo effect, taking into account classical conditioning effects, and 2) examines the clinical implications of partial reinforcement as it is applied to the ..
  29. Optical Augmentation of Implicit Timing
    John P Welsh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A paradigm of implicit timing for which the IO has been implicated is classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex, which we will use for our in vivo experiments...
  30. Associative learning and brain structure in individuals at risk for dementia
    Catherine Brawn Fortier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..imaging (DTI), and (3) the integration of these two areas with an experimental learning paradigm, eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), to better understand the nature of brain structure-function relationships...
  31. Neuroimaging of Eyeblink Conditioning in Subjects with Alcohol Use Disorders
    Dominic T Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of subjects with alcohol use disorders (AUD subjects) during a fundamental form of learning, eyeblink classical conditioning, which has been widely used as a model system to study associative learning...
  32. CNS MEDIATION OF CONDITIONED BRADYCARDIA
    PHILIP MC CABE; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The proposed behavioral experiments will explore the CNS pathways involved in the classical conditioning of heart rate responses in rabbits...
  33. PRINCIPLES OF REINFORCEMENT
    Peter Killeen; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..3) Derive mathematical models for contingency in the context of: 3a) Concurrent responses; 3b) Classical conditioning; 3c) Heterogeneous response classes; and 3d) Sequences of incentives of arbitrary number and spacing...
  34. COCAINE SELF-ADMINISTRATION/PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES
    Srihari Tella; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..administered cocaine with that of investigator-administered (yoked) cocaine; 3) to determine the role of classical conditioning mechanisms in the differential physiological responses to cocaine in self- administering versus yoked ..
  35. Conditioning-specific reflex modification
    BERNARD SCHREURS; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..the potential neural substrates of the conditioning-specific reflex modification that occurs after classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response (NMR)...
  36. NE Signal Transduction in Classical Conditioning
    Paula Bickford; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of b-adrenergic receptors or PKA in the cerebellum causes a significant deficit in acquisition of eyelid classical conditioning. This result has lead us to our current interest in this sparsely studied aspect of cerebellar function...
  37. Mechanisms of Emotional Stress Effects on Hypothalamus
    Paul Sawchenko; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..A classical conditioning paradigm will be used to determine whether and how the afferent mediation of PVH recruitment by acute ..
  38. CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING IN APLYSIA
    THOMAS CAREW; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..been proven to be an extremely useful preparation for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of classical conditioning. We have recently discovered that Aplysia is also capable of exhibiting a reliabale form of operant ..
  39. Classical conditioning in Pharmacotherapy of Psoriasis
    Francisco Tausk; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  40. fMRI of Pain in Cannabis Dependence
    SRINIVASAN PILLAY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The proposed investigation will apply a classical conditioning paradigm using galvanic skin response and fMRI to explore the neural correlates of pain perception and its anticipation in chronic cannabis users experiencing peak withdrawal...
  41. AFFECT, DEPRESSION AND BRAIN ASYMMETRY
    Richard Davidson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies will utilize emotion-modulated startle and classical conditioning to make inferences about emotional reactivity and recovery...
  42. Virtuality Reality Cue Exposure for Crack Cocaine
    Barbara Rothbaum; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..to precipitate craving and physiologic activity in drug dependent individuals is thought to be a result of classical conditioning in which drug related stimuli, through repeated pairing with drug use, acquire the ability to elicit ..
  43. TEMPORAL DISCRIMINATION LEARNING
    Russell Church; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These include procedures that involve classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and choice...
  44. CNS EFFECTS ON IFN PRODUCTION AND NK CELL ACTIVITY
    RAYMOND HIRAMOTO; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..studies from our laboratory have shown that we can achieve an enhancement of the NK activity using a classical conditioning paradigm...
  45. Goal Activation, Expectations, and Placebo Analgesia
    ANDREW GEERS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The research that has examined the mechanisms underlying placebo analgesia has focused almost solely on classical conditioning and expectations as the casual mechanisms...
  46. A Mouse Model of Learning and Memory in Aging and AD
    DIANA WOODRUFF PAK; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..develop a mouse model for aging using the neurobiologically and behaviorally well-characterized eyeblink classical conditioning paradigm...
  47. LEARNING MECHANISMS IN ABDOMINAL GANGLION
    Robert Hawkins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..the reflex is presynaptic facilitation of the siphon sensory neurons, and that a mechanism contribution to classical conditioning of the reflex is an amplification of this mechanism by sensitization by the occurrence of spike activity ..
  48. GLUTAMATERIC MECHANISMS OF DRUG-CONDITIONED BEHAVIOR
    Robert Balster; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..have been successfully used to isolate and study these learning phenomenon using principles of operant and classical conditioning. This project is focused on developing a better understanding of the neurobehavioral basis for classically ..
  49. Functional measure of 3rd trimester FASD: neonatal sheep
    TIMOTHY CUDD; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] The overall objective of this proposal is to establish eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC) as a functional measure of prenatal alcohol damage in the sheep model system...
  50. CONDITIONED DRUG EFFECTS: STEPS TOWARDS PRACTICAL USES
    Anthony Suchman; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..evidence in animal and human studies indicates that pharmacotherapeutic responses are amenable to classical conditioning. It may be possible to create highly specific and effective placebo responses by means of initial exposure ..
  51. CONTEXTUAL CONTROL OF OPIATE EFFECTS
    TORBJORN JARBE; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The analysis makes use of the powerful tool of drug discrimination learning applied to a classical conditioning procedure (discriminated conditioned taste aversion), as well as to an operant procedure (discriminated ..
  52. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF VTA NEURONS
    Ann Kosobud; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..In Aim 1, recordings will be obtained during 1) a free-choice novelty task; 2) classical conditioning of a tone-sucrose solution association and 3) acquisition and performance of lever-pressing for sucrose ..
  53. NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF LEARNING
    Amy Poremba; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The behavioral parameters of simple associative, i.e., classical conditioning, where one stimulus predicts the occurrence of another stimulus, have been well worked out...
  54. Postsynaptic Cellular Mechanisms of Learning in Aplysia
    Adam Roberts; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The central objective of this project is to elucidate the neuronal mechanisms of classical conditioning and sensitization...
  55. CEREBELLAR GABAERGIC PROCESSES IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
    John Madden; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..cerebellar GABAergic processes that appear critical for a form of simple associative learning namely, classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response...
  56. NEURAL AND MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF LEARNING
    John Byrne; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Previously Dr. Byrne found that a classical conditioning protocol applied directly to individual tail sensory neurons results in an associative modification of the ..
  57. ALCOHOL & DEVELOPMENT:EFFECTS ON CEREBELLAR SYSTEMS
    Charles Goodlett; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..early exposure to alcohol on the structure, function, and development of defined neural systems underlying classical conditioning. The IRPG thematically focuses on dose-related effects on cerebellar (Project 1) and hippocampal (Project ..
  58. NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF ASSOCIATIVE LONG TERM POTENTIATION
    German Barrionuevo; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..longer; and the conditions required for its induction bear a tantalizing similarity to some of the laws of classical conditioning. The fact that associative LTP occurs in the in vitro hippocampus is extremely important because this is ..
  59. ASSOCIATIVE SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY
    Thomas Abrams; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..b>Classical conditioning of the defensive withdrawal reflex of Aplysia resembles conditioning in vertebrates in a number of ..
  60. PHYSIOLOGY OF REFLEX MODIFICATION
    Donald Weisz; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..on the behavioral responses and neuronal activity elicited by the unconditioned stimulus (US) during classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane (NM) response in rabbit...
  61. TESTING FASD THERAPEUTIC AGENTS: NEONATAL RODENT MODELS
    Charles Goodlett; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..rat) and hippocampal (mouse) circuits that are known to mediate specific variants of Pavlovian eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC)...
  62. CONDITIONING MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ALCOHOL ABUSE
    DONALD OVERTON; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..of the mechanisms underlying alcohol abuse, experiments are proposed to test the possibility that classical conditioning, with the effects of ethanol acting as hte conditioned stimulus (CS), can temporarily modify the effects ..
  63. AMYGDALOID FUNCTION IN FEAR CONDITIONING
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The outcome of these experiments will have an important impact on current conceptions of both amygdaloid function and on clinical disorders of fear that depend on emotional learning and memory. ..