Summary: State of mind or behavior characterized by extreme skepticism and persistent opposition or resistance to outside suggestions or advice. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Understanding the lives of older gay people
    Reb Kean
    Marquis Court Care Home, Four Seasons Health Care
    Nurs Older People 18:31-6. 2006
  2. ncbi Negative affectivity and health-related quality of life
    N R Kressin
    Center for Health Quality, Outcomes and Economic Research, VAMC Bedford, Massachusetts 01730, USA
    Med Care 38:858-67. 2000
  3. ncbi The hopelessness theory of depression: a test of the diathesis-stress and causal mediation components in third and seventh grade children
    J R Abela
    Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Abnorm Child Psychol 29:241-54. 2001
  4. ncbi Independent and mediated contributions of personality, coping, social support, and depressive symptoms to physical functioning outcome among patients in cardiac rehabilitation
    Biing Jiun Shen
    University of Miami, Department of Psychology, P O Box 248185, Coral Gables, Florida 33124 2070, USA
    J Behav Med 27:39-62. 2004
  5. ncbi Why ruminators are poor problem solvers: clues from the phenomenology of dysphoric rumination
    S Lyubomirsky
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside 92521, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 77:1041-60. 1999
  6. ncbi What do mentors find difficult?
    Laurence G Moseley
    Health Services Research, Faculty of Health, Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, UK
    J Clin Nurs 17:1627-34. 2008
  7. ncbi Military women's menstrual experiences and interest in menstrual suppression during deployment
    Lori L Trego
    School of Nursing at University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 36:342-7. 2007
  8. ncbi Student nurses' experiences of the body in aged care
    Andrew Robinson
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania
    Contemp Nurse 19:41-51. 2005
  9. ncbi Male nurses' experiences of gender barriers: Irish and American perspectives
    Brian Keogh
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, The University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
    Nurse Educ 32:256-9. 2007
  10. ncbi 'I don't want to hate him forever': understanding daughter's experiences of father absence
    Leah East
    School of Nursing, Family and Community Health, College of Social and Health Sciences, University of Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Aust J Adv Nurs 24:14-8. 2007

Detail Information

Publications215 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Understanding the lives of older gay people
    Reb Kean
    Marquis Court Care Home, Four Seasons Health Care
    Nurs Older People 18:31-6. 2006
    ..It is also important for nurses to appreciate that older homosexuals have different health and social care needs from their heterosexual contemporaries...
  2. ncbi Negative affectivity and health-related quality of life
    N R Kressin
    Center for Health Quality, Outcomes and Economic Research, VAMC Bedford, Massachusetts 01730, USA
    Med Care 38:858-67. 2000
    ..We examined the relationship between a dimension of personality called negative affectivity (NA; a general disposition to experience negative mood states) and HRQOL, controlling for age and common chronic physical and mental diseases...
  3. ncbi The hopelessness theory of depression: a test of the diathesis-stress and causal mediation components in third and seventh grade children
    J R Abela
    Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Abnorm Child Psychol 29:241-54. 2001
    ..Last, a depressogenic inferential style about the self interacted with negative events to predict increases in depressive symptoms in third- and seventh-grade girls but not boys. None of these interactions were mediated by hopelessness...
  4. ncbi Independent and mediated contributions of personality, coping, social support, and depressive symptoms to physical functioning outcome among patients in cardiac rehabilitation
    Biing Jiun Shen
    University of Miami, Department of Psychology, P O Box 248185, Coral Gables, Florida 33124 2070, USA
    J Behav Med 27:39-62. 2004
    ..These findings highlighted the importance of addressing psychosocial issues and their interrelationships in cardiac rehabilitation...
  5. ncbi Why ruminators are poor problem solvers: clues from the phenomenology of dysphoric rumination
    S Lyubomirsky
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside 92521, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 77:1041-60. 1999
    ..Implications of these findings for the consequences of self-focused rumination are discussed...
  6. ncbi What do mentors find difficult?
    Laurence G Moseley
    Health Services Research, Faculty of Health, Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, UK
    J Clin Nurs 17:1627-34. 2008
    ..i) To assess whether mentors had a positive or negative attitude towards their role; and (ii) to discover what aspects of the role they found easy or difficult...
  7. ncbi Military women's menstrual experiences and interest in menstrual suppression during deployment
    Lori L Trego
    School of Nursing at University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 36:342-7. 2007
    ..To develop a preliminary description of military women's menstrual experiences and their awareness of menstrual suppression during deployment...
  8. ncbi Student nurses' experiences of the body in aged care
    Andrew Robinson
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania
    Contemp Nurse 19:41-51. 2005
    ..This was most evident in a significant positive shift in their attitude to working in the sector following graduation...
  9. ncbi Male nurses' experiences of gender barriers: Irish and American perspectives
    Brian Keogh
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, The University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
    Nurse Educ 32:256-9. 2007
    ..The authors describe male nurses' experiences of these barriers in Ireland and the United States. Mechanisms to recruit and retain male nurses are also discussed...
  10. ncbi 'I don't want to hate him forever': understanding daughter's experiences of father absence
    Leah East
    School of Nursing, Family and Community Health, College of Social and Health Sciences, University of Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Aust J Adv Nurs 24:14-8. 2007
  11. ncbi Views and approaches toward risks and benefits among doctors who become patients
    Robert Klitzman
    Center for Bioethics, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 29, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Patient Educ Couns 64:61-8. 2006
    ..To understand how views and approaches concerning risks and benefits may be affected by dynamic contexts and processes related to clinical roles and relationships...
  12. ncbi The mixed attitudes of nurse's to caring for people with mental illness in a rural general hospital
    Frances Reed
    Maldon Hospital, Maldon, Australia
    Int J Ment Health Nurs 14:249-57. 2005
    ..Notably, collaboration with mental health nurses was identified as helping nurses overcome fear and increase competence in caring for people with mental illness...
  13. ncbi Nurses' attitudes toward elderly people and knowledge of gerontic care in a mult-purpose health service (MPHS)
    Prue Mellor
    Age Concern Pty Ltd, Ormond, Victoria, Australia
    Aust J Adv Nurs 24:37-41. 2007
    ..As there are no previous studies in this area of nursing it is anticipated that this study will provide the basis for further exploration...
  14. ncbi Caring: the socialisation of pre-registration student nurses: a longitudinal qualitative descriptive study
    Carolyn Mackintosh
    Division of Nursing, University of Bradford, Unity Building, Trinity Road, Bradford, UK
    Int J Nurs Stud 43:953-62. 2006
    ..This study explores the impact of the process of socialisation on pre-registration student nurses views about care, and their personal ability to cope with becoming a nurse...
  15. ncbi Impact of cutaneous disease on the self-concept: an existential-phenomenological study of men and women with psoriasis
    Tracy Watson
    Community Service, Helen Joseph Hospital, Psychology Department, Puril, South Africa
    Dermatol Nurs 19:351-6, 361-4. 2007
    ..The findings have important implications for all within the health care profession in helping to effect positive change in their future endeavors with persons suffering from cutaneous disease...
  16. ncbi "It's the people that make the environment good or bad": the patient's experience of the acute care hospital environment
    Mona Shattell
    School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL 35294 1210, USA
    AACN Clin Issues 16:159-69. 2005
    ..Acute and critical care nurses and other caregivers can use the findings to create less noxious hospital environments...
  17. ncbi Perceived characteristics of psychiatric nurses: stigma by association
    Margaret J Halter
    College of Nursing, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA
    Arch Psychiatr Nurs 22:20-6. 2008
    ..The findings suggest that psychiatric nursing may be stigmatized by association. Implications, especially in terms of the role of health care professionals in perpetuating stigma, are explored...
  18. ncbi Women's experiences in connection with induced abortion - a feminist perspective
    Lena Alex
    Department of Nursing, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    Scand J Caring Sci 18:160-8. 2004
    ..One conclusion drawn from our study is that nurses and midwives need to be aware of women's complex experiences with abortions in order to support and empower women who seek an abortion...
  19. ncbi Attitudes of nursing and auxiliary hospital staff toward HIV infection and AIDS in Spain
    Salvador Pita-Fernández
    Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Juan Canalejo Hospital, A Coruna, Spain
    J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 15:62-9. 2004
    ..001) reported a negative attitude. After a logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, and occupations, the authors found that age and occupation were the variables with an independent effect on attitudes toward HIV...
  20. ncbi Adolescents with cancer: experience of life and how it could be made easier
    Hannele Hokkanen
    Helsinki Polytechnic Stadia, Tukholmankatu 10, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
    Cancer Nurs 27:325-35. 2004
    ..Finally, the adolescents' hopes for improvement were focused on staff activities, physical care facilities, chances to discuss and work through their experiences of the illness, and the support received from society...
  21. ncbi Maternal perspectives on postpartum return to the workplace
    Mary R Nichols
    Virginia Commonwealth University School of Nursing, Richmond, USA
    J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 33:463-71. 2004
    ..To describe maternal perceptions about postpartum return to the workplace...
  22. ncbi Hope and despair: the awakening of hope following acute spinal cord injury-an interpretative study
    Vibeke Lohne
    Institute of Nursing Science, University of Oslo, Norway
    Int J Nurs Stud 41:881-90. 2004
    ..Awakening hopes, even sometimes silent hopes, constituted a contextual background in the immediate aftermath of spinal cord injury...
  23. ncbi The pain experience and beliefs of Chinese patients who have sustained a traumatic limb fracture
    Eliza Mi Ling Wong
    Department of Nursing Studies, The University of Hong Kong, 4 F William MW Mong Building, 21 Sasoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
    Int Emerg Nurs 16:80-7. 2008
    ..To describe the pain experience and the pain belief of a group of Chinese patients with traumatic fracture of limb and surgery...
  24. ncbi Professional nurses' attitudes towards providing termination of pregnancy services in a tertiary hospital in the north west province of South Africa
    N E Mokgethi
    Department of Health Studies, University of South Africa
    Curationis 29:32-9. 2006
    ..Despite the legalisation of TOPs, these services remained stigmatised. Professional nurses did not want to work in these services and also did not want to be associated with them...
  25. ncbi Mediation of the relationship between inner voice experiences and health-related quality of life
    Margaret England
    University of Windsor, Faculty of Nursing, 303 Health Education Centre, P O Box 33830, Detroit, MI 49232, USA
    Perspect Psychiatr Care 41:22-34. 2005
    ..Appraisals tied to voice hearing and other subjective experiences pose serious challenges for nursing because of their implications for health and safety of voice hearers and others...
  26. ncbi Moral content and assignment marking: an exploratory study
    Martin Lipscomb
    Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of the West of England, Hartpury Campus, Gloucester GL19 3BE, United Kingdom
    Nurse Educ Today 26:457-64. 2006
    ..Further research is justified...
  27. ncbi The experience of hope for informal caregivers of palliative patients
    Lorraine F Holtslander
    College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
    J Palliat Care 21:285-91. 2005
    ..Health care professionals need to recognize and value the experience of hope for the informal caregivers of palliative patients...
  28. ncbi Developing an intervention to alter catastrophizing in persons with fibromyalgia
    Pamela J Nelson
    Mayo School of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA
    Orthop Nurs 25:205-14. 2006
    ..The purpose of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate a brief psychoeducational intervention to decrease pain catastrophizing, a focus on pain and its negative consequences in patients with fibromyalgia...
  29. ncbi Influence of registered nurses' attitudes toward bariatric patients on educational programming effectiveness
    Patti Rager Zuzelo
    La Salle University and Albert Einstein Healthcare Network, Nursing Administration, 2nd Floor Levy Building, 5501 Old York Road, Philadelphia, PA 19141, USA
    J Contin Educ Nurs 37:65-73. 2006
    ..This study describes registered nurses' (RNs') attitudes toward obese adult patients using the Attitudes Toward Obese Adult Patients Instrument...
  30. ncbi Scapegoating and the unpopular nurse
    Hannah F Cooke
    School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, University of Manchester, Coupland 3 Building, Coupland Street, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom
    Nurse Educ Today 27:177-84. 2007
    ..It describes a number of illustrative cases in which different types of scapegoating occurred. The paper argues that scapegoating is an ethical challenge which nurses must face...
  31. ncbi RN-to-MSN students' attitudes toward women experiencing homelessness: A focus group study
    Min Chung-Park
    Occupational and Community Health, Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton, Camp Pendleton, CA 92055 5191, USA
    J Nurs Educ 45:317-22. 2006
    ..This article suggests strategies for integrating clinical experiences with socioeconomically vulnerable individuals into undergraduate nursing curricula...
  32. ncbi The attitudes of casualty nurses in Taiwan to patients who have attempted suicide
    Fan Ko Sun
    Department of Nursing, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan
    J Clin Nurs 16:255-63. 2007
    ..The aims of this study were to investigate a sample group of casualty nurses' attitudes towards patients who have attempted suicide in the middle of Taiwan and to identify factors contributing to their attitudes towards attempted suicide...
  33. ncbi From symptom to diagnosis: illness experiences of multiple sclerosis patients
    Ann Kristin Isaksson
    University of Orebro, Sweden
    J Neurosci Nurs 38:229-37. 2006
    ..They managed the situation in a variety of ways to acquire strength. Nurses who encounter MS patients require specialized knowledge to understand the vulnerability of these patients and to provide support...
  34. ncbi Parents' experiences of collaboration with community healthcare professionals
    E S Jakobsen
    Diakonhjemmet University College Rogaland, Naerbø, Norway
    J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 13:498-505. 2006
    ..Further research on parents' experiences of collaboration is necessary. The value of parents as an important source of support can be enhanced by means of increased collaboration...
  35. ncbi RN as gatekeeper: student understanding of the RN buddy role in clinical practice experience
    Jillian D Brammer
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, Griffith University, Logan Campus, University Drive, Meadowbrook, Queensland 4152, Australia
    Nurse Educ Today 26:697-704. 2006
    ..Formal recognition of the complexity of the RN role is essential to ensure RNs have adequate preparation for their role with students...
  36. ncbi Surveying the attitudes of acute mental health nurses
    S Munro
    The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 14:196-202. 2007
    ..Significant differences were found between qualified and unqualified staff, and males and females for some questions. Recommendations are made for future attitudinal research of mental health staff...
  37. ncbi Stroke patients' experiences of sharing rooms with dementia patients in a nursing home
    Jinjoo Oh
    Dankook University, San29, Anseodong, Cheonan City, Choongnam, South Korea, 330 714
    Int J Nurs Stud 43:839-49. 2006
    ..Currently many special care nursing facilities have mixed units in Korea, suggesting a need to examine their effects especially on cognitively lucid patients...
  38. ncbi Knowing how to play the game: hospitalized substance abusers' strategies for obtaining pain relief
    Betty D Morgan
    University of Massachusetts Lowell School of Health and Environment, Department of Nursing, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854, USA
    Pain Manag Nurs 7:31-41. 2006
    ..Participants had many suggestions about nursing actions that were helpful or not helpful in assisting them to obtain pain relief. Nursing practice, education, research, and policy implications were discussed...
  39. ncbi Belongingness: a montage of nursing students' stories of their clinical placement experiences
    Tracy Levett-Jones
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW, Australia, and Honorary Research Associate, The University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
    Contemp Nurse 24:162-74. 2007
    ..Consequently, distress, detachment and disengagement occurred and students' capacity and motivation for learning was negatively impacted...
  40. ncbi Persistent family concerns in long-term care settings: meaning and management
    Elsa Marziali
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Am Med Dir Assoc 7:154-62. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to understand institutional and family caregiver characteristics that contribute to the failure to resolve families' persistent complaints about nursing home care of their relatives...
  41. ncbi Mobbing behaviors encountered by nurse teaching staff
    Dilek Yildirim
    Baskent University, Health Science Faculty, Nursing and Health Services Department, Baglica Campus, Ankara, Turkey
    Nurs Ethics 14:447-63; discussion 463-5. 2007
    ..They frequently 'worked harder and [were] more organized and worked very carefully to avoid criticism' to escape from mobbing. In addition, 9% of the participants stated that they 'thought about suicide occasionally'...
  42. ncbi Postmenopausal women with breast cancer: their experiences of the chemotherapy treatment period
    Maria Browall
    Faculty of Health and Caring Sciences, Institute of Nursing, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    Cancer Nurs 29:34-42. 2006
    ..For many, especially those in a leading position, this was experienced as very difficult. The women expressed a feeling of not being afraid of dying but wanted more time to prepare themselves...
  43. ncbi When a partner dies: lesbian widows
    Katherine N Bent
    VA Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, Colorado 80220, USA
    Issues Ment Health Nurs 27:447-59. 2006
    ..The study used a descriptive, qualitative design informed by feminist scholarship and phenomenology to access the depth of personal experiences, as well as internally interpreted meanings of those experiences, among lesbian widows...
  44. ncbi An exploration of factors which constrain nurses from research participation
    Michelle Roxburgh
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland
    J Clin Nurs 15:535-45. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to explore practising nurses' views on factors which they perceived constrained them from research participation...
  45. ncbi Experiences of self-determination by older persons living in sheltered housing
    Ulla W Hellström
    Tbc and Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden and Age Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Nurs Ethics 14:413-24. 2007
    ..In sheltered housing, more attention should be paid to residents' self-determination and sense of value...
  46. ncbi The relationship between student nurse and nurse clinician: impact on student learning
    Sharon Vallant
    School of Nursing, AUT University, Auckland
    Nurs Prax N Z 22:23-33. 2006
    ..This evidence forms the basis for recommending further complementary research into the clinician's attitudes and perceptions related to their teaching role...
  47. ncbi Negative thinking: a key factor in depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents
    Sukjai Charoensuk
    Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chon Buri, 69 1 M 2T Bansuan A Muang, Chon Buri 20000, Thailand
    Issues Ment Health Nurs 28:55-74. 2007
    ..Negative thinking was the best predictor of depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents. Negative thinking also mediated the effects of parental bonding, everyday stressors, and self-esteem on depressive symptoms...
  48. ncbi Lived experience of Korean women suffering from rheumatoid arthritis: a phenomenological approach
    Eun Jeong Hwang
    Pusan National University, Busan 602 739, South Korea
    Int J Nurs Stud 41:239-46. 2004
    ..The implications for nursing practice in this area of chronic illness such as RA, should be how patients can be empowered to believe they can take control of their disease and their lives...
  49. ncbi Living with experiences following a myocardial infarction
    Annelie Johansson
    Department of Cardiology, KSS Skövde, Sweden
    Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2:229-36. 2003
    ..It is through reconciliation with their bodies and their illnesses that the women can achieve a sense of well-being and harmony in life. In that process the women can re-establish a natural relationship with their bodies and lifeworlds...
  50. ncbi Seeing the cage: stigma and its potential to inform the concept of the difficult patient
    Marilyn Macdonald
    Nursing Services, SE Regional Health Authority, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada
    Clin Nurse Spec 17:305-10; quiz 311-2. 2003
    ..and discuss the utility of Goffman's work to further illuminate our understanding of the difficult patient. Particular emphasis was placed on the implications for nursing research. Clinical implications are also included...
  51. ncbi How do perioperative nurses cope with stress?
    Brigid M Gillespie
    Mater Health Services, South Brisbane, Queensland
    Contemp Nurse 16:20-9. 2003
    ..These findings support the eminent need for hospital organizations to take a more person-centered approach when dealing with workplace stress...
  52. ncbi Unbearable weight: young adult women's experiences of being overweight
    Chang Yu-Jen
    National Yang Ming University
    J Nurs Res 12:153-60. 2004
    ..To protect the public's mental and physical health, nurses should play an active role in weight education based on a deeper and more dynamic understanding of being overweight...
  53. ncbi How patients and staff view the use of seclusion
    Chris Stowers
    Windsor House, Leicester
    Nurs Times 98:38-9. 2002
    ..A key conclusion was that the quality of the relationship was maintained and not damaged by the act of secluding a patient, which may merit a wider study...
  54. ncbi Clonazepam withdrawal-induced catatonia
    Mark Brown
    Dept of Psychiatry, Univ of Arizona, 1501 N Campbell Ave, P O Box 245002, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
    Psychosomatics 50:289-92. 2009
    ..Catatonia is a often a complex syndrome. It has been divided into categories of simple and malignant, with the latter being a more severe form involving autonomic instability and/or fever and having a higher mortality rate...
  55. ncbi Schizophrenia with prominent catatonic features ('catatonic schizophrenia') III. Latent class analysis of the catatonic syndrome
    Gabor S Ungvari
    Department of Psychiatry, School of Public Health, Chinese University of Hong Kong, and Castle Peak Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33:81-5. 2009
    ..Class 4 consisted of 'agitated/resistive' patients, who displayed symptoms of excitement, impulsivity, negativism and combativeness...
  56. ncbi The many varieties of catatonia
    M Fink
    Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 251:I8-13. 2001
    About 10% of patients with severe acute psychiatric illness exhibit a cluster of motor signs (mutism, negativism, rigidity, posturing, stereotypy, staring, etc.) that are identified as the syndrome of catatonia...
  57. ncbi Buprenorphine treatment outcome in dually diagnosed heroin dependent patients: A retrospective study
    Gilberto Gerra
    Addiction Treatment Centre, AUSL Parma, Italy
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30:265-72. 2006
    ..affected by depression, probably due to the kappa opioid-receptors antagonist action, counteracting dysphoria, negativism and anxiety...
  58. ncbi Catatonia in obsessive-compulsive disorder: etiopathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and clinical management
    Leonardo F Fontenelle
    Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal of Rio de Janeiro IPUB UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Cogn Behav Neurol 20:21-4. 2007
  59. ncbi Motor features in psychotic disorders. II. Development of diagnostic criteria for catatonia
    V Peralta
    Psychiatric Unit, Virgen del Camino Hospital, Irunlarrea 4, E 31008 Pamplona, Spain
    Schizophr Res 47:117-26. 2001
    ..showed that 11 of the 14 potential diagnostic signs discriminated among groups: immobility/stupor, mutism, negativism, oppositionism, posturing, catalepsy, automatic obedience, echophenomena, rigidity, verbigeration and withdrawal...
  60. ncbi Association between low-activity serotonin transporter genotype and heroin dependence: behavioral and personality correlates
    G Gerra
    Centro Studi Farmaco tossicodipendenze, Ser T, AUSL, Via Spalato 2, 43100 Parma, Italy
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 126:37-42. 2004
    ..02). BDHI mean total scores and suspiciousness and negativism subscales scores were significantly higher in SS individuals, in comparison with LL subjects, among heroin ..
  61. ncbi Catatonia following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy
    Daniel Maixner
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Epilepsy Behav 19:528-32. 2010
    ..Verbal output was dramatically reduced. She exhibited waxy flexibility, stupor, mutism, posturing, rigidity, negativism, and grimacing. Video/EEG monitoring showed no evidence of ongoing seizure activity...
  62. ncbi Treatment of catatonia with olanzapine and amantadine
    Parker W Babington
    Eastern Virginia Medical School, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Norfolk, VA 23507, USA
    Psychosomatics 48:534-6. 2007
    Catatonia is a disorder characterized by mutism, posturing, echophenomena, and negativism. The preferred treatment for non-malignant catatonia is benzodiazepines, which often produce a reduction in symptoms within 24 hours...
  63. ncbi Successful use of olanzapine in adolescent monozygotic twins with catatonic schizophrenia resistant to electroconvulsive therapy: case report
    Iva Dudova
    Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University, 2nd Medical School, V Uvalu 84, Prague, Czech Republic
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 29:47-50. 2008
    ..On admission, the principal symptoms of the brothers were stupor, mutism, catatonic posturing, rigidity, negativism, and refusal of food and liquids...
  64. ncbi Psychological assessment of catatonic schizophrenia
    V Curran
    Developmental Institute Michael Reese Hospital and Medical Center
    J Pers Assess 55:432-44. 1990
    ..In accordance with previous theory, test findings indicated frequent constriction, rigidity, and negativism in conjunction with compulsive traits...
  65. ncbi Malignant catatonia with severe bronchorrhea and its response to electroconvulsive therapy
    Hiroshi Hayashi
    Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30:310-1. 2006
    ..intensive care unit where she was transferred, catatonic symptoms such as stupor or excitement, catalepsy, and negativism were prominent. In addition, severe bronchorrhea causing respiratory failure was observed...
  66. ncbi Aggression and 5HTT polymorphism in females: study of synchronized swimming and control groups
    Olga V Sysoeva
    Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    Int J Psychophysiol 72:173-8. 2009
    ..5-HTT polymorphism (SS) was associated with increased scores on Indirect Hostility scale and decreased scores on Negativism scale, compared to LL genotype. No interaction effect between sport and 5-HTT polymorphism was found...
  67. pmc Gender, personality, and serotonin-2A receptor binding in healthy subjects
    Paul H Soloff
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Psychiatry Res 181:77-84. 2010
    ..MFC, and Suspiciousness positively correlated in LOF, Lt. LOF and Lt. MFC. Among female subjects alone, Negativism was positively correlated with BP(P) values in HIP, and Verbal Hostility in Lt. HIP. Altanserin binding in Lt...
  68. ncbi Schizophrenia, brain disease and meta-analyses: integrating the pieces and testing Fusar-Poli's hypothesis
    Alvaro Machado Dias
    Department of Neuroscience and Behavior, Institute of Psychology, University of Sao Paulo, Butantan, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Med Hypotheses 74:142-4. 2010
    ..For example, chronification is associated with negativism while the first psychotic episode is not; in that sense, the same person living with schizophrenia may reveal ..
  69. ncbi Electroconvulsive therapy for pediatric malignant catatonia with cerebellar dysgenesis
    Lee E Wachtel
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Pediatr Neurol 43:427-30. 2010
    ..years, when he developed rigidity, posturing, stupor, unresponsiveness, repetitive self-injurious behaviors, and negativism, as well as autonomic abnormalities including profuse diaphoresis and flushing episodes, thus meeting criteria ..
  70. ncbi Factor analysis of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory in three large samples of nursing home patients with dementia and behavioral disturbance
    Jonathan Rabinowitz
    Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 13:991-8. 2005
    ..The authors tested the CMAI factor structure by use of data from three samples of nursing home patients categorized a priori as having at least mild behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia...
  71. ncbi Trait aggression and hostility in recovered alcoholics
    Slavko Ziherl
    University Psychiatric Hospital, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Eur Addict Res 13:89-93. 2007
    ..There were statistically significant differences in the BDHI scales for indirect aggression, irritability, negativism, suspicion, resentment, and guilt...
  72. pmc Aggressive/hostile personality traits and injury accidents: an eight-year prospective study of a large cohort of French employees -- the GAZEL cohort
    Hermann Nabi
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM, U687, Saint Maurice, F 94415 France
    Psychol Med 36:365-73. 2006
    ..An I-A was defined as a traffic accident in which someone was injured, that is required medical care...
  73. ncbi The thrall of the negative and how to analyze it
    Stanley J Coen
    Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research, USA
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 51:465-89. 2003
    ..pairs caught up in negativistic transference-countertransference enmeshment, the defensive functions of negativism are explored for both patient and analyst...
  74. ncbi Schizophrenia-like illness in velo-cardio-facial syndrome: a genetic subsyndrome of schizophrenia?
    Perminder Sachdev
    Neuropsychiatric Institute, Euroa Centre, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Psychosom Res 53:721-7. 2002
    ..An important example of such a genetic disorder is the velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) associated with 22q11 microdeletion...
  75. ncbi Predeployment personality traits and exposure to trauma as predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms: a prospective study of former peacekeepers
    I Bramsen
    Department of Medical Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Am J Psychiatry 157:1115-9. 2000
  76. ncbi Variations in psychosocial functioning associated with patterns of progression in cocaine-dependent men
    N D Kasarabada
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Addict Behav 23:179-89. 1998
    ..grouping revealed significant differences among cocaine users with different patterns of progression in terms of negativism, problem index for situations involving unpleasant emotions, problem index for situations involving urges, ..
  77. ncbi Confirmatory factorial analysis of the Brazilian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2)
    Eduarda Maria Coelho
    Universidade de Tras os Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal
    Span J Psychol 13:453-60. 2010
    ..37 years; athletic experience 11.11 +/- 4.78 years) were used. The CSAI-2 is a 27-item inventory that measures negativism, physiological activation and self-confidence in a competitive setting...
  78. ncbi Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a large sample of Dutch nursing home patients with dementia
    Sytse U Zuidema
    Kalorama, Beek Ubbergen, The Netherlands
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 22:632-8. 2007
    ..To estimate the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia patients in Dutch nursing homes...
  79. ncbi Negativism in evaluative judgments of words among depressed outpatients with borderline personality disorder
    J E Kurtz
    Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, USA
    J Pers Disord 12:351-61. 1998
    ..As a whole, these data indicate that the presence of borderline features in patients with MDD can be an important qualifier in terms of patients attitudinal dispositions...
  80. ncbi Contribution of psychosis and depression to behavioral disturbances in geropsychiatric inpatients with dementia
    M E Kunik
    Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Affairs Medical Center Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 54:M157-61. 1999
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the association of depression and psychosis with behavioral disturbances in geropsychiatric inpatients with dementia...
  81. ncbi No correlation between aggression and platelet (3)H-paroxetine binding in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients
    D Marazziti
    Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Italy
    Neuropsychobiology 43:117-22. 2001
    ..The irritability, resentment, guilt, negativism and suspiciousness factors were significantly more pronounced in depressed patients...
  82. ncbi Development and psychometric evaluation of the Benzodiazepine Craving Questionnaire
    A J J Mol
    Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Centre St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Addiction 98:1143-52. 2003
    ..To assess the scalability, reliability and validity of a newly constructed self-report questionnaire on craving for benzodiazepines (BZs), the Benzodiazepine Craving Questionnaire (BCQ)...
  83. ncbi Anatomic basis of notch deformity in open rhinoplasty
    Mabel Gamboa
    Section of Plastic Surgery, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    Ann Plast Surg 50:282-5; discussion 285. 2003
    Notch deformity at the columella after the stairstep incision is an unsightly sequel that fuels negativism for open rhinoplasty critics...
  84. ncbi [Conduct disorders in seven-year-old children--results of ELSPAC study. 3. Postnatal development]
    L Kukla
    Výzkumné pracovisté preventivní a sociální pediatrie LF MU, Brno
    Cas Lek Cesk 147:387-91. 2008
    ..In the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC), the pediatric observation of the cohort of 6100 7-year-old children described 4.4% of them as having conduct disorders...
  85. ncbi Professionalism in medicine: an A-Z primer
    Patrick Duff
    University of Florida, College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610 0294, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 99:1127-8. 2002
    ..We must strive to be thoughtful, kind, and sensitive. We must avoid arrogance, dogmatism, and negativism. We must be honest, moral, tolerant, trustworthy, and above all else, humble and compassionate...
  86. ncbi Pleiotropic effect of the TPH A779C polymorphism on nicotine dependence and personality
    M Reuter
    Department of Psychology, Center of Psychobiology and Behavioral Medicine, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 134:20-4. 2005
    ..genotype was significantly associated with a personality trait of neurotic aggression (indirect hostility, negativism), as measured by the Buss-Durkee-Hostility-Inventory (BDHI)...
  87. ncbi Predicting borderline and antisocial personality disorder features in nonclinical subjects using measures of impulsivity and aggressiveness
    Andrea Fossati
    Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Unit, Faculty of Psychology, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, via Stamira D Ancona, 20, 20127, Milan, Italy
    Psychiatry Res 125:161-70. 2004
    ..ASPD symptoms were predicted by motor impulsiveness, physical aggression, indirect aggression, and negativism. These results indicate that in nonclinical subjects BPD and ASPD symptoms share a common impulsivity dimension ..
  88. ncbi Empirical correlates of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in a nonclinical setting
    Johnathan D Forbey
    Department of Psychological Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306, USA
    J Pers Assess 90:136-41. 2008
    ..Criteria included measures of somatization, depression, Machiavellian negativism, drug and alcohol abuse, anger, anxiety, social phobias, obsessive-compulsive tendencies, magical ideation, ..
  89. ncbi Comparative efficacy of risperidone versus haloperidol on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia
    Guk Hee Suh
    Department of Psychiatry, Hallym University Medical Center, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 21:654-60. 2006
    ..Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) cannot be regarded as a single clinical syndrome, but rather as a heterogeneous group of symptoms, each of which can be considered as possible targets for therapy...
  90. ncbi Factor analysis of responses to the Irrational Beliefs Scale in a sample of Iraqi university students
    Namir Hassan
    College of Education, Al Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
    Psychol Rep 94:775-81. 2004
    ..Analysis suggested six dimensions could explain 39.5% of the variance. These dimensions were Perfectionism, Negativism, Blame Proneness, Escapism, Anxious Over Concern, and Absolute Demands.
  91. ncbi The experience of living with faecal incontinence
    Mary Wilson
    Specialist Services for Bladder and Bowel Health, Westwood Hospital, East Yorkshire
    Nurs Times 103:46-9. 2007
  92. ncbi Stigmatization by nurses against schizophrenia in Turkey: a questionnaire survey
    K Kukulu
    Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey
    J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 14:302-9. 2007
    ..It is important for nurses to avoid stigmatizing patients in order to promote a therapeutic environment--particularly on the wards--and also to improve individual awareness and perceptions in society...
  93. ncbi [What do health professionals think about parents' participation in care for children?]
    Jocelyne Tourigny
    de l Université d Ottawa
    Perspect Infirm 3:19-22. 2006
    ..The professionals surveyed see many advantages in such participation, including less stress for parents and children, but they also see some obstacles, most of them related to the parents themselves and the hospital environment...
  94. ncbi A randomized controlled trial of sequentially bilateral prefrontal cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia
    Mera S Barr
    Schizophrenia Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Brain Stimul 5:337-46. 2012
    ..Results of such studies have been inconsistent, while high-frequency rTMS has shown greatest promise...
  95. ncbi Relatives in the resuscitation room: a review of benefits and risks
    Louise Clift
    PICU, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff
    Paediatr Nurs 18:14-8. 2006
    ..Scenarios used in resuscitation training need to include the presence of family members and local policies should be developed based on the available evidence...
  96. ncbi Living with a body separate from the self. The experience of the body in chronic benign low back pain: an interpretative phenomenological analysis
    Mike Osborn
    Pain Clinic, Royal United Hospital, Combe Park, Bath, UK Mike Osborn ruh bath swest nhs uk
    Scand J Caring Sci 20:216-22. 2006
    ..The results are considered in relation to relevant themes in the extant literature...
  97. ncbi Cluster analysis of MCMI scores of suicidal psychiatric patients: four personality profiles
    T E Ellis
    West Virginia University School of Medicine, Charleston, USA
    J Clin Psychol 52:411-22. 1996
    ..Implications for tailoring interventions for subtypes of suicidal patients are discussed...
  98. ncbi Factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory among Finnish nursing staff
    Outi Kanste
    Department of Nursing Science and Health Administration, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    Nurs Health Sci 8:201-7. 2006
    ..The MBI-HSS is a highly suitable instrument for measuring burnout among nursing staff and it is very applicable to Finnish health-care research...
  99. ncbi Understanding disgust in nursing: abjection, self, and the other
    Dave Holmes
    Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Ottawa Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Res Theory Nurs Pract 20:305-15. 2006
    ..Using a theoretical approach, the objective of this paper is to demonstrate how fruitful the concept of abjection is in understanding nurses' reactions of disgust and repulsion regarding particular patients or clinical situations...
  100. ncbi Thinking styles and emotional states of male and female prison inmates by mental disorder status
    Nancy Wolff
    The Center for Behavioral Health Services and Criminal Justice Research, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 62:1485-93. 2011
    ..This study explored criminal thinking styles and feelings of aggression and hopelessness among male and female inmates who reported mental disorders and those who did not...
  101. ncbi Intolerance of uncertainty and negative metacognitive beliefs as transdiagnostic mediators of repetitive negative thinking in a clinical sample with anxiety disorders
    Peter M McEvoy
    Centre for Clinical Interventions, Perth, Australia
    J Anxiety Disord 27:216-24. 2013
    ..Implications for theory, treatment, and nosology are discussed...

Research Grants40

    Deborah White; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..child play sessions/how to follow the child's lead in play; (b) using praise and rewards effectively/avoiding negativism; and (c) using strategies for setting and enforcing limits in maladaptive behavior...
    Ann Peden; Fiscal Year: 2002
  3. Development of limited contact CBT treatment for IBS
    JEFFREY LACKNER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
    Roger Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2001
  5. Pilot Study of Sibling Prevention Program
    MARK ETHAN FEINBERG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Developing and disseminating new, effective preventive programs such as the one proposed would have substantial public health benefits for individuals, families, and society. ..
    John March; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. Psychological and Biological Antecedents of Health Behavior Decisions
    Shelley Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..As such, the research brings a lifespan approach to an integration of genetics, psychoneuroimmunology, health psychology, and social neuroscience. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  8. A Developmental Multi-Informant Measurement Model of Temperament
    Kirby Deater Deckard; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  9. A Cohort-Sequential Study of Self-Esteem Development
    Richard Robins; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Finally, by examining patterns of results across developmental periods and across three life domains, we will use the findings to develop an overarching theory of the life course trajectory of self-esteem. ..
  10. Vision Loss, Coping Tendencies, and Mental Health
    Kathrin Boerner; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..50-middle aged and 50 older adults will be recruited from a community- based rehabilitation agency. Regression analyses will be conducted to test the effects of independent variables on mental health outcomes. ..
    Mark Feinberg; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. Hypertension Control & Therapy Adherence
    Nancy Kressin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Evaluate the relative efficacy of the patient-centered counseling intervention compared to patient-centered counseling augmented by cultural competency training on clinicians' communication patterns. ..
  13. Using Social Risk to Guide Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Preventive Treatment
    Kevin Fiscella; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Implementation of such a global risk tool could ultimately help justify implementation of more intensive behavioral interventions focusing on diet, exercise, smoking cessation and medication adherence for those at highest social risk. ..
  14. Randomized Control Trial of Mifepristone for Fibroids
    Kevin Fiscella; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The study may also offer valuable insight into a mechanism by which mifepristone reduces fibroid size. ..
  15. The Impact of HMO's on Disparties
    Kevin Fiscella; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..If the study hypotheses are confirmed, the findings will underscore the need for HMOs to track and address disparities among their members if the Healthy People 2010 for the elimination of disparities is to be achieved. ..
  16. Persisting Effects of Prenatal Anxiety on Child Outcomes
    THOMAS G O CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2010
  17. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN)
    John March; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  18. Child and Adolescent Anxiety Multisite Study (CAMS)
    John March; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  19. Do Reporting Biases Mitigate Disparity Estimates?
    Kevin Fiscella; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. Modifying Group Therapy for Bipolar Abusers
    Roger Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..If warranted by the results, effect sizes from the proposed study will be used to help in the preparation of a larger-scale subsequent Stage II study. ..
  21. Neural & Dispositional Correlates of Emotion Regulation
    STACEY SCHAEFER; Fiscal Year: 2004
  22. Neighborhood Social Capital, Health, and Aging
    Yvonne Michael; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  23. Environmental Influences on Change in Elderly Walking
    Yvonne Michael; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. Marital Adjustment, Depression and Myocardial Infarction
    Linda Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  25. Views of Privacy of Genetic Information
    Robert Klitzman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The findings of this study can enhance further policy, professional and public education, and future research in this area. ..
  26. A New Method to Study the Care Receiver-Caregiver Dyad
    Karen Lyons; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. A Couples Approach to Enhance Breast Cancer Survirorship
    Donald Baucom; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..If successful, it will enlarge our repertoire of methods for effectively enhancing the well being of both cancer patients and their partners. ..
  28. Late-life depression masked by low sadness
    RICHARD FRANCOEUR; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The proposed study is based on secondary analysis of the first wave from the New Haven site of the EPESE community survey. The empirical model will be replicated on targeted sub-samples (i.e., blacks, white females, white males). ..
  29. Psychotherapy for Depressed Primary Care Patients
    LISA UEBELACKER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These data will be used to estimate an effect size, which in turn will be used to justify an R01 application for a full-scale clinical trial. ..
    Patricia McGovern; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Knowledge of these factors will facilitate the design and testing of policy and programmatic interventions relevant to employers, policy makers and occupational health providers. ..
    Shelley Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The overall goal of the research is to provide an integrative understanding of how mental health, social relations, and biological responses to stress are interrelated and whether those interrelations extend across cultures. ..
  32. Family Check-Up for Depression Prevention
    LISA UEBELACKER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Secondary outcome variables include incidence of major depressive episodes and change in family functioning. The purpose of Phase 2 is to gain an estimate of effect size for a larger randomized controlled trial. ..
  33. Youths' Emotion Regulation: Mediators and Moderators
    IRENE PARK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  34. Neighborhoods and physical activity among older men
    Yvonne Michael; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The results of this research are an important first step in quantifying the relation between neighborhood accessibility and physical activity, especially walking, among the elderly. ..
  35. Psychosocial factors and breast cancer screening
    Yvonne Michael; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Cardiovascular Risk Disparities: Socioemotional Pathways
    Linda Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..By examining potentially modifiable psychosocial variables as a pathway underlying CVD disparities, this study seeks to inform efforts to understand and eliminate health disparities. ..
  37. Views and Approaches Toward Research Integrity Among IRBs
    Robert Klitzman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We anticipate that the data from this study will serve as a significant foundation in assisting future research and the improvement of Rl through guidelines, education and other capacity building. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. Parental Illness Representations and Asthma Management
    HANNELORE YOOS; Fiscal Year: 2005
  39. Mechanisms of Risk in Children of Depressed Mothers
    BRANDON GIBB; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..A secondary goal of the proposed study is to examine the specificity of the links in the mediational model to children's depression versus other disorders (e.g., anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders). ..