child language

Summary

Summary: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Verb schema use and input dependence in 5-year-old children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)
    N G Riches
    University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Int J Lang Commun Disord 41:117-35. 2006
  2. ncbi The articulatory basis of babbling
    B L Davis
    Department of Speech Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Texas at Austin 78712 1089, USA
    J Speech Hear Res 38:1199-211. 1995
  3. ncbi Early parental depression and child language development
    James F Paulson
    Eastern Virginia Medical School, USA
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 50:254-62. 2009
  4. ncbi Parenting stress in parents of children with cochlear implants: relationships among parent stress, child language, and unilateral versus bilateral implants
    Julia Sarant
    Audiology and Speech Pathology, The University of Melbourne, 550 Swanston Street, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ 19:85-106. 2014
  5. ncbi A crosslinguistic study of the relationship between grammar and lexical development
    Antonella Devescovi
    Department of Development and Socialization Processes, University of Rome La Sapienza, Via dei Marsi 78, Rome, Italy
    J Child Lang 32:759-86. 2005
  6. ncbi Late onset canonical babbling: a possible early marker of abnormal development
    D K Oller
    University of Maine, Orono 04469, USA
    Am J Ment Retard 103:249-63. 1998
  7. ncbi Word order and information status in child language
    Bhuvana Narasimhan
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, PB 310, 6500 AH Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Cognition 107:317-29. 2008
  8. ncbi Associations between lexicon and grammar at the end of the second year in Finnish children
    Suvi Stolt
    University of Helsinki and Turku University Central Hospital, Finland
    J Child Lang 36:779-806. 2009
  9. ncbi Measuring variability in early child language: don't shoot the messenger
    L Fenson
    Developmental Psychology Laboratory, San Diego State University, CA 92182, USA
    Child Dev 71:323-8. 2000
  10. ncbi Development of the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test to assess key markers of specific language and literacy difficulties in young children
    Hilary Gardner
    Department of Human Communication Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
    Int J Lang Commun Disord 41:513-40. 2006

Detail Information

Publications232 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Verb schema use and input dependence in 5-year-old children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)
    N G Riches
    University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Int J Lang Commun Disord 41:117-35. 2006
    ..In addition, there is evidence to suggest that their utterances replicate lexical and syntactic material from the immediate language environment...
  2. ncbi The articulatory basis of babbling
    B L Davis
    Department of Speech Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Texas at Austin 78712 1089, USA
    J Speech Hear Res 38:1199-211. 1995
    ..All 30 individual predictions from both hypotheses were confirmed, leading to a conception of the articulatory basis of babbling as "Frame Dominance."..
  3. ncbi Early parental depression and child language development
    James F Paulson
    Eastern Virginia Medical School, USA
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 50:254-62. 2009
    ..To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway...
  4. ncbi Parenting stress in parents of children with cochlear implants: relationships among parent stress, child language, and unilateral versus bilateral implants
    Julia Sarant
    Audiology and Speech Pathology, The University of Melbourne, 550 Swanston Street, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ 19:85-106. 2014
    ..without disabilities, identifying primary stressors, examining the relationship between parent stress and child language, and comparing stress in parents of children with bilateral and unilateral CIs...
  5. ncbi A crosslinguistic study of the relationship between grammar and lexical development
    Antonella Devescovi
    Department of Development and Socialization Processes, University of Rome La Sapienza, Via dei Marsi 78, Rome, Italy
    J Child Lang 32:759-86. 2005
    ..A possible mechanism to account for this difference is discussed...
  6. ncbi Late onset canonical babbling: a possible early marker of abnormal development
    D K Oller
    University of Maine, Orono 04469, USA
    Am J Ment Retard 103:249-63. 1998
    ..Late canonical-babbling onset may be a predictor of later developmental disabilities, including problems in speech, language, and reading...
  7. ncbi Word order and information status in child language
    Bhuvana Narasimhan
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, PB 310, 6500 AH Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Cognition 107:317-29. 2008
    ..Our findings demonstrate that a key principle governing ordering preferences in adults does not originate in early childhood, but develops: from new-to-old to old-to-new...
  8. ncbi Associations between lexicon and grammar at the end of the second year in Finnish children
    Suvi Stolt
    University of Helsinki and Turku University Central Hospital, Finland
    J Child Lang 36:779-806. 2009
    ..g. Bates & Goodman, 1999). The results suggest that different grammatical structures display different degrees and types of lexical dependency...
  9. ncbi Measuring variability in early child language: don't shoot the messenger
    L Fenson
    Developmental Psychology Laboratory, San Diego State University, CA 92182, USA
    Child Dev 71:323-8. 2000
    ..We also respond to their critical assertions concerning sociodemographic influences on the CDI scores...
  10. ncbi Development of the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test to assess key markers of specific language and literacy difficulties in young children
    Hilary Gardner
    Department of Human Communication Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
    Int J Lang Commun Disord 41:513-40. 2006
    ..The Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test was therefore designed as a short, reliable assessment of young children's language abilities...
  11. ncbi Feasibility and benefit of parent participation in a program emphasizing preschool child language development while homeless
    THERESE M O'NEIL-PIROZZI
    Northeastern University Speech Language Pathology and Audiology, West Roxbury, MA, USA
    Am J Speech Lang Pathol 18:252-63. 2009
    ..This study also examined the intervention's impact on the parents' use of facilitating language strategies, regardless of parent performance on a single-word receptive vocabulary test...
  12. ncbi The behaviors of parents of children with autism predict the subsequent development of their children's communication
    Michael Siller
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles 90024 1759, USA
    J Autism Dev Disord 32:77-89. 2002
    ..These findings suggest a developmental link between parental sensitivity and the child's subsequent development of communication skills in children with autism. Implications for parent training interventions are discussed...
  13. ncbi Cross-linguistic analysis of vocabulary in young children: spanish, dutch, French, hebrew, italian, korean, and american english
    Marc H Bornstein
    Child and Family Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892 7971, USA
    Child Dev 75:1115-39. 2004
    ..Noun prevalence in the vocabularies of young children and the merits of several theories that may account for this pattern are discussed...
  14. ncbi Communication development in children who receive the cochlear implant younger than 12 months: risks versus benefits
    Shani J Dettman
    The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia
    Ear Hear 28:11S-18S. 2007
    ..The current study hypothesized that earlier implantation would lead to increased rates of language acquisition as the children were still in the critical period for their development...
  15. ncbi Form is easy, meaning is hard: resolving a paradox in early child language
    Letitia R Naigles
    Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, U 20, Storrs, CT 06269 1020, USA
    Cognition 86:157-99. 2002
    ..It is argued that in language acquisition, learning form is easy but learning meaning, and especially linking meanings and forms, is hard...
  16. ncbi Babbling and first words in children with slow expressive development
    Mirco Fasolo
    Universita di Milano Bicocca, Piazza dell Ateneo Nuovo, 1, 20126 Milano, Italy
    Clin Linguist Phon 22:83-94. 2008
    ..Overall, it can be said that LTs development is similar to (but slower than) TDs, as opposed to having an atypical pattern of phonological development...
  17. ncbi The relationship between prosodic and syntactic organization in early multiword speech
    Heike Behrens
    Albert Ludwigs Universitat, Freiburg
    J Child Lang 32:1-34. 2005
    ..Consequently, fluency or disfluency of individual examples should not be used as a reliable criterion for their syntactic status and we recommend caution when taking prosody as a cue for syntactic development...
  18. ncbi Crosslinguistic influence in bilingual acquisition: subject omission in learners of Inuktitut and English
    Elizabeth E Zwanziger
    Price Laboratory School, University of Northern Iowa, 19th and Campus Streets, Cedar Falls, IA 50613, USA
    J Child Lang 32:893-909. 2005
    ..The data indicate that these bilingual children possessed knowledge of the target languages that was language-specific and that previously identified triggers for crosslinguistic influence do not operate universally...
  19. pmc A comparison of homonym and novel word learning: the role of phonotactic probability and word frequency
    Holly L Storkel
    University of Kansas, Speech Language Hearing Department, Dole Human Development Center, 1000 Sunnyside Ave, Room 3001, Lawrence, KS 66045 7555, USA
    J Child Lang 32:827-53. 2005
    ..The influence of word frequency was less straightforward. These results may be inconsistent with a one-to-one form-referent bias in word learning...
  20. ncbi Splitting the notion of 'agent': case-marking in early child Hindi
    Bhuvana Narasimhan
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, PB 310, 6500 AH Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Child Lang 32:787-803. 2005
    ..Longitudinal data from three children acquiring Hindi (1;7 to 3;9) reveal no overextension errors, suggesting early sensitivity to distributional patterns in the input...
  21. ncbi Object name learning and object perception: a deficit in late talkers
    Susan S Jones
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    J Child Lang 32:223-40. 2005
    ..The findings imply a relation between the growth of productive vocabulary and the emergence of the ability to represent object categories by abstract shape...
  22. ncbi A preliminary examination of vocabulary and word learning in African American toddlers from middle and low socioeconomic status homes
    RaMonda Horton-Ikard
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA
    Am J Speech Lang Pathol 16:381-92. 2007
    ..This study examined the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on the early lexical performance of African American children...
  23. ncbi 'Frame dominance' and the serial organization of babbling, and first words in Korean-Learning infants
    Soyoung Lee
    The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex, USA
    Phonetica 64:217-36. 2007
    ..Some implications of the results for generative phonology are considered...
  24. ncbi [Use and comprehension of prepositions by children with Specific Language Impairment]
    Leite Puglisi Marina
    Curso de Fonoaudiologia, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Fonaudiologia e Terapia Ocupacionial, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo
    Pro Fono 17:331-43. 2005
    ..The ability of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) to use and comprehend closed-class words...
  25. ncbi Conveying information about adjective meanings in spoken discourse
    Roberta Corrigan
    Department of Educational Psychology, Enderis 749, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 5321, USA
    J Child Lang 35:159-84. 2008
    ..Findings highlight the importance of looking at adult input in situations where teaching word meaning is not an explicit goal...
  26. ncbi Notes on Ingram's whole-word measures for phonological development
    Helena Taelman
    University of Antwerp, Dept of Linguistics, CNTS, Universiteitsplein 1, B 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
    J Child Lang 32:391-405. 2005
    ..The assessment is accomplished using a computational tool for measuring pMLU on two large Dutch CHILDES corpora. We propose minimal sample sizes for reliable measurements relative to the stage of phonological development...
  27. ncbi Language-specific effects on number computation in toddlers
    Célia Hodent
    UMR 6194, CNRS, CEA, Universities of Caen and Paris 5 Sorbonne, Institute of Psychology, France
    Dev Sci 8:420-3. 2005
    ....
  28. ncbi Toddlers recognize verbs in novel situations and sentences
    Letitia R Naigles
    Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut 06269 1020, USA
    Dev Sci 8:424-31. 2005
    ..We conclude that even 22-month-olds demonstrate considerable context independence in their verb representations...
  29. ncbi Two-year-olds' productivity with verbal inflections
    Jill Hohenstein
    Department of Education and Professional Studies, King s College London, Waterloo Road, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom
    J Child Lang 34:861-73. 2007
    ..In Experiment 2, they dropped -ing from verbs, but not from nouns, suggesting that when young children drop inflections they tend to do so appropriately, and not simply for ease of pronunciation...
  30. ncbi Conceptual versus monolingual scoring: when does it make a difference?
    Lisa M Bedore
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, The University of Texas, Austin, 78712, USA
    Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 36:188-200. 2005
    ....
  31. ncbi The acquisition of auxiliaries BE and HAVE: an elicitation study
    Anna L Theakston
    Department of Psychology, University of Manchester, UK
    J Child Lang 32:587-616. 2005
    ..The implications of these findings for different models of auxiliary syntax in children's early utterances are discussed...
  32. pmc The acquisition of tense and agreement morphemes by children with specific language impairment during intervention: phase 3
    Laurence B Leonard
    Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, Heavilon Hall, 500 Oval Drive, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 51:120-5. 2008
    ....
  33. ncbi Sentence repetition as a measure of early grammatical development in Italian
    Antonella Devescovi
    University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
    Int J Lang Commun Disord 42:187-208. 2007
    ....
  34. pmc Individual differences in the influence of phonological characteristics on expressive vocabulary development by young children
    Junko Maekawa
    University of Kansas, Lawrence 66045 7555, USA
    J Child Lang 33:439-59. 2006
    ..The implications of these findings for models of expressive vocabulary development are discussed...
  35. ncbi Priming overgeneralizations in two- and four-year-old children
    Lisa Gershkoff-Stowe
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    J Child Lang 33:461-86. 2006
    ....
  36. ncbi Facilitation and practice in verb acquisition
    Tamar Keren-Portnoy
    School of Psychology, University of Wales Bangor, Gwynedd, UK
    J Child Lang 33:487-518. 2006
    ....
  37. ncbi The effect of sampling on estimates of lexical specificity and error rates
    Caroline F Rowland
    School of Psychology, University of Liverpool, Bedford Street South, Liverpool, L69 7ZA, UK
    J Child Lang 33:859-77. 2006
    ..We concluded that caution must be used when basing arguments about the scope and nature of errors in children's early multi-word productions on analyses of samples of spontaneous speech...
  38. ncbi Investigating the abstractness of children's early knowledge of argument structure
    Kathleen McClure
    Lehman College, CUNY, Department of Speech Language Hearing Sciences, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468, USA
    J Child Lang 33:693-720. 2006
    ..The implication is that children may have some verb-general knowledge of the transitive construction as early as Stage I, but that this knowledge is still far from being fully abstract knowledge...
  39. pmc Lexical competition in young children's word learning
    Daniel Swingley
    Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Cogn Psychol 54:99-132. 2007
    ..These results suggest that word learning in young children, as in adults, relies not only on the discrimination and identification of phonetic categories, but also on evaluating the likelihood that an utterance conveys a new word...
  40. ncbi Predicting lexical density growth rate in young children with autism spectrum disorders
    Paul J Yoder
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203 5701, USA
    Am J Speech Lang Pathol 15:378-88. 2006
    ..The purpose of this longitudinal correlational study was to test whether an environmental variable and 4 child variables predicted growth rate of number of different nonimitative words used (i.e., lexical density)...
  41. pmc Children hear the forest
    Susan Nittrouer
    Ohio State University, USA
    J Acoust Soc Am 120:1799-802. 2006
    ..Only by maintaining this perspective of acoustic speech structure can we ensure that we design stimuli that provide valid tests of our hypotheses and interpret results in a meaningful way...
  42. ncbi African American preschoolers' language, emergent literacy skills, and use of African American English: a complex relation
    Carol McDonald Connor
    Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 49:771-92. 2006
    ....
  43. ncbi Influence of phonology on morpho-syntax in Romance languages in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)
    Eva Aguilar-Mediavilla
    Department of Applied Pedagogy and Educational Psychology, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
    Int J Lang Commun Disord 42:325-47. 2007
    ....
  44. ncbi The use of nouns and verbs by Japanese children and their caregivers in book-reading and toy-playing contexts
    Tamiko Ogura
    Kobe University, Faculty of Letters, Japan
    J Child Lang 33:1-29. 2006
    Japanese provides a valuable contrast for crosslinguistic studies of noun and verb dominance in early child language, and the effect of input on the early lexicon...
  45. ncbi Patterns of intra-word phonological variability during the second year of life
    Anna Vogel Sosa
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle 98105, USA
    J Child Lang 33:31-50. 2006
    ..Results show high overall rates of variability, as well as a peak in variability corresponding to the onset of combinatorial speech, suggesting that phonological reorganization may commence somewhat later than previously thought...
  46. ncbi Modeling continuity and discontinuity in utterance length: a quantitative approach to changes, transitions and intra-individual variability in early grammatical development
    Dominique Bassano
    Laboratoire Structures Formelles du Langage, CNRS Université Paris 8, France
    Dev Sci 10:588-612. 2007
    ..Our results emphasize the relevance of time-serial data and of intra-individual variability in the study of developmental transitions in general...
  47. ncbi Facilitating the acquisition of UNDER by means of IN and ON--a training study in Polish
    Katharina J Rohlfing
    Angewandte Informatik, Technische Fakultat, Universitat Bielefeld, Germany
    J Child Lang 33:51-69. 2006
    ..The results further suggest that depending on the type of a situation, the linguistic task requires different word learning abilities from a child...
  48. ncbi Getting there faster: 18- and 24-month-old infants' use of function words to determine reference
    Yarden Kedar
    Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Child Dev 77:325-38. 2006
    ..The results suggest that by 18 months of age, infants use their knowledge of determiners in sentence computation and in establishing reference...
  49. ncbi Nonword repetition and sentence repetition as clinical markers of specific language impairment: the case of Cantonese
    Stephanie F Stokes
    School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, University of Reading, Reading, England
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 49:219-36. 2006
    ..Recent research suggests that nonword repetition (NWR) and sentence repetition (SR) tasks can be used to discriminate between children with SLI and their typically developing age-matched (TDAM) and younger (TDY) peers...
  50. ncbi Vocalizations of infants with hearing loss compared with infants with normal hearing: Part II--transition to words
    Mary Pat Moeller
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, Nebraska 68131, USA
    Ear Hear 28:628-42. 2007
    ..A secondary goal was to identify measures of early phonetic development that are predictors of later speech production outcomes...
  51. ncbi Action naming in Spanish and English by sequential bilingual children and adolescents
    Gisela Jia
    Department of Psychology, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 49:588-602. 2006
    ....
  52. ncbi What part of no do children not understand? A usage-based account of multiword negation
    Thea Cameron-Faulkner
    Linguistics and English Language, School of Languages, Linguistics and Cultures, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, MI3 9PL, UK
    J Child Lang 34:251-82. 2007
    ..However the findings also indicate creative learning on the part of the child from the earliest stages of multiword negation...
  53. ncbi Individual differences in the onset of tense marking: a growth-curve analysis
    Pamela A Hadley
    Department of Communicative Disorders, Northern Illinois University, 323 Wirtz Hall, DeKalb, IL 60115, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 49:984-1000. 2006
    ..Systematic use of familial risk data is recommended in future investigations examining the relationship between late-talking children and children at risk for SLI...
  54. ncbi Gold's theorems and the logical problem of language acquisition
    Barbara C Scholz
    Philosophy Department, San Jose State University, and Linguistics Research Center, University of California Santa Cruz, USA
    J Child Lang 31:959-61; discussion 963-8. 2004
  55. ncbi Grammatical morpheme production in 4-year-old children
    Denise V Balason
    University of Pittsburgh and Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Department of Communication Science and Disorders, PA 15260, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 45:961-9. 2002
    ..of grammatical morpheme (GM) production for both clinical decision-making and theoretical accounts of child language impairment, evidence concerning developmental expectations for GM use is inadequate...
  56. ncbi Patterns of spontaneous production of novel words and gestures within an experimental setting in children ages 1;6 and 2;2
    Laura L Namy
    Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Child Lang 29:911-21. 2002
    ..These findings are consistent with the argument that over time, words supplant gestures as a symbolic medium...
  57. ncbi The development of regular and irregular verb inflection in Spanish child language
    Harald Clahsen
    Department of Linguistics, University of Essex, Colchester CO4 3SQ, UK
    J Child Lang 29:591-622. 2002
    ..These findings are explained in terms of the dual-mechanism model of inflection...
  58. ncbi Language disorders in young children: when is speech therapy recommended?
    Siena M Goorhuis-Brouwer
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen University Hospital, P O Box 30 001, The Netherlands
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 67:525-9. 2003
    ..Analysis of treatment recommendation given by speech therapists. Evaluation of the language abilities in the examined children and re-examination of those abilities after 12 months...
  59. ncbi Phonological neighbourhoods in the developing lexicon
    Jeffry A Coady
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin Madison, 53706, USA
    J Child Lang 30:441-69. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that positing fundamentally different lexical representations for children may be premature...
  60. ncbi Productive vocabulary size predicts event-related potential correlates of fast mapping in 20-month-olds
    Janne von Koss Torkildsen
    Department of Linguistics and Scandinavian Studies, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    J Cogn Neurosci 20:1266-82. 2008
    ....
  61. ncbi Acquisition of serial complexity in speech production: a comparison of phonetic and phonological approaches to first word production
    Barbara L Davis
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, The University of Texas at Austin, Tex 78712, USA
    Phonetica 59:75-107. 2002
    ....
  62. ncbi What's in a name? Coming to terms with the child's linguistic environment
    Matthew Saxton
    Department of Psychology and Human Development, Institute of Education, University of London, London, UK
    J Child Lang 35:677-86. 2008
    ..It is further suggested that just three of the dozen or more available terms meet the needs of child language researchers in most instances: CHILD-DIRECTED SPEECH, INFANT-DIRECTED SPEECH AND EXPOSURE LANGUAGE...
  63. ncbi Perceptual complexity and form class cues in novel word extension tasks: how 4-year-old children interpret adjectives and count nouns
    Catherine M Sandhofer
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, 90095 1563, USA
    Dev Sci 7:378-88. 2004
    ..Thus the results suggest that the perceptual properties of the objects presented to children coupled with the particular lexical form class cue determine which features of objects children attend to when interpreting novel words...
  64. ncbi Comprehension matters: a commentary on 'A multiple process solution to the logical problem of language acquisition'
    Letitia R Naigles
    Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, USA
    J Child Lang 31:936-40; discussion 963-8. 2004
  65. ncbi Overgeneralizations, competition, and recovery: solving the logical problem with positive evidence
    Ping Li
    Department of Psychology, University of Richmond, USA
    J Child Lang 31:931-3; discussion 963-8. 2004
  66. ncbi What can be learned from positive data? Insights from an 'ideal learner'. Commentary on 'A multiple process solution to the logical problem of language acquisition' by Brian MacWhinney
    Nick Chater
    Institute for Applied Cognitive Science, Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, UK
    J Child Lang 31:915-8; discussion 963-8. 2004
  67. pmc A multiple process solution to the logical problem of language acquisition
    Brian MacWhinney
    Departmnet of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Child Lang 31:883-914. 2004
    ..Careful analysis of child language corpora has cast doubt on claims regarding the absence of positive exemplars...
  68. ncbi Young German children's early syntactic competence: a preferential looking study
    Miriam Dittmar
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Germany, and Institute of Psychology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Dev Sci 11:575-82. 2008
    ....
  69. ncbi Child speech and language assessment and measurement
    C Chevrie-Muller
    , , Paris, France
    Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 54:419-25. 2000
    ..Diagnosticians are advised to be aware of the principles to respect when assessing child language.
  70. ncbi An empirical generative framework for computational modeling of language acquisition
    Heidi R Waterfall
    Department of Psychology, Cornell University and Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, IL, USA
    J Child Lang 37:671-703. 2010
    ..Finally, we suggest how our computational results, behavioral findings, and corpus-based insights can be integrated into a next-generation model aimed at meeting the four requirements of our modeling framework...
  71. pmc Improving oral reading fluency with a peer-mediated intervention
    Kristi L Hofstadter-Duke
    University of Nebraska Lincoln, USA
    J Appl Behav Anal 44:641-6. 2011
    ..Results indicated that reading improvements were obtained and are discussed in terms of selecting efficient interventions for use by peers...
  72. ncbi Spoken word classification in children and adults
    Julia M Carroll
    Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 54:127-47. 2011
    ..In this study, the authors examined whether there is a progression from feature-based to phoneme-based processing across age groups and whether responses are consistent across tasks and stimuli...
  73. ncbi An analysis of noun definition in Cantonese
    Carol Kit Sum To
    Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, 5 F Prince Philip Dental Hospital, 34 Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong SAR
    Lang Speech 56:105-24. 2013
    ..In general, developmental trends accorded with the trends observed in other languages, but typological features played a role in framing the development of the syntactic form...
  74. ncbi Trochaic template use in early words and phrases
    K K McGregor
    Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 40:1220-31. 1997
    ..The trochaic template is invoked when the complexity of an intended utterance exceeds the child's resources for planning and production...
  75. ncbi Predicting language outcomes at 4 years of age: findings from Early Language in Victoria Study
    Sheena Reilly
    Murdoch Children s Research Institute, Royal Children s Hospital, Speech Pathology Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052, Australia
    Pediatrics 126:e1530-7. 2010
    ..To quantify the contributions of child, family, and environmental predictors to language ability at 4 years...
  76. ncbi Object properties and object kind: twenty-one-month-old infants' extension of novel adjectives
    S R Waxman
    Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 2710, USA
    Child Dev 69:1313-29. 1998
    ..Infants extended novel adjectives to the matching test object when all objects were all drawn from the same basic level category; they failed to do so when the objects were drawn from different basic level categories...
  77. ncbi Effect of clinical and histological chorioamnionitis on the outcome of preterm infants
    Nehad Nasef
    Women and Babies Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Perinatol 30:59-68. 2013
    ..01; 92 ± 15, p < 0.05; and 97 ± 13, p < 0.05, respectively). Clinical chorioamnionitis is associated with developmental delay in preterm infants despite adequate treatment...
  78. pmc The formulation of argument structure in SLI: an eye-movement study
    Llorenc Andreu
    Cognitive Neuroscience and Information Technologies Research Program, IN3, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona, Catalunya
    Clin Linguist Phon 27:111-33. 2013
    ..We suggest that both processing limitations and deficits in the semantic representation of verbs may play a role in these difficulties...
  79. ncbi Concordance rates between parent and teacher clinical evaluation of language fundamentals observational rating scale
    Jacqueline Massa
    City College of New York, New York, NY 10031, USA
    Int J Lang Commun Disord 43:99-110. 2008
    ..The use of parent-completed rating scales, especially in urban, minority populations, might improve early identification if parent ratings are found to be reliable and valid...
  80. ncbi Gendered language and sexist thought
    Campbell Leaper
    Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 69:128-42. 2004
  81. ncbi Development of functional synergies for speech motor coordination in childhood and adolescence
    Anne Smith
    Department of Audiology and Speech Sciences, West Lafayette, IN 47907 1353, USA
    Dev Psychobiol 45:22-33. 2004
    ....
  82. ncbi Early intervention critical to autism treatment
    Eric M Butter
    Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University, Columbus Children s Hospital, Ohio, USA
    Pediatr Ann 32:677-84. 2003
    ..Children and families have been able to achieve much more than many would ever have believed before EIBI became a realistic possibility...
  83. ncbi Age- and ability-related differences in young readers' use of conjunctions
    Kate Cain
    Department of Psychology, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, CO4 3SQ, UK
    J Child Lang 32:877-92. 2005
    ..The findings are discussed in relation to the role of conjunctions in text comprehension...
  84. pmc Expressive and receptive language functioning in preschool children with prenatal cocaine exposure
    Connie E Morrow
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA
    J Pediatr Psychol 29:543-54. 2004
    ..To estimate the relationship between severity of prenatal cocaine exposure and expressive and receptive language skills in full-term, African American children at age 3 years...
  85. ncbi At 11 months, prosody still outranks statistics
    Elizabeth K Johnson
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Canada
    Dev Sci 12:131-41. 2009
    ....
  86. ncbi Oral language expectations for African American children in grades 1 through 5
    Holly K Craig
    University Center for the Development of Language and Literacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 2054, USA
    Am J Speech Lang Pathol 14:119-30. 2005
    ..These measures are recommended for inclusion in culturally fair assessment protocols designed to characterize the language abilities of elementary-grade African American students...
  87. ncbi Verbal and spatial information processing constraints in children with specific language impairment
    LaVae M Hoffman
    The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 47:114-25. 2004
    ..It appears that limitations in general cognitive capacity and central executive functions in working memory work synergistically with response modality to constrain information processing in children with SLI...
  88. ncbi [Comparison of vocalization development between normal and congenitally hearing impaired infants during pre-language period]
    Li hui Huang
    Beijing Institute of Otolaryngology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100005, China
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 85:765-8. 2005
    ..To compare the characteristics of vocalization and relevant perceptual characteristics between normal hearing infants and congenitally hearing impaired infants during pre-language period...
  89. pmc Word learning by preschoolers with SLI: effect of phonotactic probability and object familiarity
    Shelley Gray
    Arizona State University, Tempe, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 55:1289-300. 2012
    ....
  90. ncbi Tense marking and spontaneous speech measures in Spanish specific language impairment: a discriminant function analysis
    John Grinstead
    The Ohio State University, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 56:352-63. 2013
    ....
  91. ncbi The acquisition of German relative clauses: a case study
    Silke Brandt
    Max Planck Institut für evolutionaere Anthropologie, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    J Child Lang 35:325-48. 2008
    ..We argue that German relative clauses develop in an incremental fashion from simple non-embedded sentences that gradually evolve into complex sentence constructions...
  92. ncbi Effects of robust vocabulary instruction and multicultural text on the development of word knowledge among African American children
    Sherri Lovelace
    Arkansas State University, Department of Communication Disorders, 106 Rose Street, Jonesboro, AR 73567 0910, USA
    Am J Speech Lang Pathol 18:168-79. 2009
    ..An additional goal was to examine the role of book type in the retention of novel vocabulary words...
  93. ncbi The effects of expansions, questions and cloze procedures on children's conversational skills
    Tze Peng Wong
    Department of Communication Disorders, New Zealand Institute of Language, Brain and Behavior, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Clin Linguist Phon 26:273-87. 2012
    ..The positive effects of each technique on the pragmatic appropriateness in conversations suggest that they could be used strategically in language intervention to ensure greater therapeutic effect...
  94. ncbi Temperamental profiles and linguistic development: differences in the quality of linguistic production in relation to temperament in children of 28 months
    M Carmen Usai
    Department of Anthropological Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy
    Infant Behav Dev 32:322-30. 2009
    ....
  95. ncbi The use of definite and indefinite articles by children with specific language impairment
    Elgustus J Polite
    Department of Audiology, Speech Language Pathology and Deaf Studies, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252 0001, USA
    Int J Speech Lang Pathol 13:291-300. 2011
    ..Substitutions as well as omissions were seen. The findings suggest that the article limitations of the children with SLI were attributable in part to an incomplete understanding of how definite articles are to be used...
  96. ncbi Taxometric analyses of specific language impairment in 6-year-old children
    Christine A Dollaghan
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Texas, Dallas, TX, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 54:1361-71. 2011
    ..To determine whether language scores at age 6 years suggest that specific language impairments (SLIs) distribute in a categorical or in a dimensional fashion...
  97. ncbi Using aided AAC models, recasts, and contrastive targets to teach grammatical morphemes to children who use AAC
    Cathy Binger
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, 1700 Lomas NE, MSC01 1195, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 54:160-76. 2011
    ..The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the effects of using aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) modeling and recasting on the expression of grammatical morphemes with children who used AAC...
  98. pmc Acoustic evidence for positional and complexity effects on children's production of plural -s
    Rachel M Theodore
    Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 54:539-48. 2011
    ..In this study, the authors examined the generality of these effects by determining whether position and coda complexity influence production of plural -s, which phonologically manifests the same as 3rd person singular -s...
  99. ncbi Measuring preschool attainment of print-concept knowledge: a study of typical and at-risk 3- to 5-year-old children using item response theory
    Laura M Justice
    Preschool Language and Literacy Lab, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4873, USA
    Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 37:224-35. 2006
    ..This research determined the psychometric quality of a criterion-referenced measure that was thought to measure preschoolers' print-concept knowledge (PCK)...
  100. ncbi Bilingual children and communication disorders: a 30-year research retrospective
    Kathryn Kohnert
    Speech Language Hearing Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Semin Speech Lang 30:219-33. 2009
    ..Spanish and English were the most frequent combination of languages for bilingual participants. Collective study findings are presented with respect to trends, clinical implications, and areas for future research...
  101. ncbi Knowing how we know: evidentiality and cognitive development
    Tomoko Matsui
    Kyoto University, Japan
    New Dir Child Adolesc Dev 2009:1-11. 2009
    ..We also consider the study of evidentiality in relation to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis about the influence of language on thought...

Research Grants62

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL DEFICITS IN SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT
    Laurence Leonard; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such a finding could lead to a uniform theory of how language impairment might develop and persist among children acquiring English. ..
  2. GRAMMATICAL MORPHOLOGY IN SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT
    Laurence Leonard; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. EARLY VOCAL DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG CHILDREN WITH COCHLEAR
    DAVID ERTMER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..18). ..
  4. Speech Development in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients
    David J Ertmer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Comparisons with typically developing toddlers and among children implanted at different ages are undertaken through a prospective longitudinal research design. ..
  5. EARLY COMMUNICATION INTERVENTION IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN
    Paul Yoder; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Assessments of communication, vocabulary, and motor imitation will occur at the pre-treatment, port-treatment, and 6 month follow-up periods. Examiners and coders will be blind to treatment assignment. ..
  6. ERP & Behavioral Predictors of Language Intervention
    Paul Yoder; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Multiple regression, multivariate permutation tests, and growth curve analyses will be used to test the research questions. Five years of funding are requested. ..
  7. Speech Production in Phonological Impairment
    Benjamin Munson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  8. Word Learning in Children: Normal Development and Language Impairment
    Holly L Storkel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, effective word learning instruction is critical in preventing reading and academic failure. Theoretically motivated diagnostic and treatment methods may minimize this risk. ..
  9. The Mental Lexicon of Children with Phonological Delays
    HOLLY STORKEL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  10. THE MENTAL LEXICON IN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
    HOLLY STORKEL; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The findings to emerge hold potential for theories of word learning and the relationship between perception and production in language acquisition. ..
  11. Cognitive-linguistic processing in L1 and L2
    Kathryn Kohnert; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This explicit theoretical processing model of language learning by L2 learners with and without LI is needed in order to develop clinical measures which can be used to identify LI in the highly variable population of L2 learners. ..
  12. Vocal-Motor and Speech-Gesture Coordinations in Infancy
    Jana Iverson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Identification of the typical pattern and normal range of variation in early vocal-manual coordination will provide normative information required for future diagnostic research. ..
  13. The Development of Word Meaning
    KARLA MCGREGOR; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..It will also reveal sources of lexical deficits associated with SLI and autism, impairments affecting 7% and .3% of the U.S. population, respectively. ..
  14. Phonological memory and language in young monolingual and bilingual children
    Erika Hoff; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  15. INTONATION IN CHILDREN'S EARLY LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
    David Snow; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  16. Constraints of Prosodic and Morphological Development
    Katherine Demuth; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. Sentence Production and Developmental Error
    Matthew Rispoli; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The deviation has a predicted direction; high error rates should be accompanied by increased fluency. That is, entrenchment contributes to the sacrificing of grammatical accuracy for increased fluency. ..
  18. BILINGUAL CHILDREN'S USE OF SPANISH GENDER AGREEMENT
    RAQUEL ANDERSON; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These results will also be utilized to extend the research to examine other Spanish grammatical aspects in similar populations. ..
  19. Psycholinguistic and Socioemotional Profiling of SLI and ADHD
    Sean Redmond; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Given the academic and social risks associated with misdiagnosis and the poor prognosis associated with untreated comorbidity, this research impacts upon several key public health concerns. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  20. DISCRIMINATING SLI AND APD IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN
    Carol Miller; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results will form the foundation for further research employing larger, more stringently selected samples and both behavioral and electrophysiological measures. ..
  21. Collaboration on Specific Language Impairment
    JAMES TOMBLIN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. EVALUATING GRAMMATICAL ASYNCHRONY IN CHILDREN WITH SLI
    Pamela Hadley; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  23. The Genetics of Specific Language Impairment
    JAMES TOMBLIN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The phenotypes and endophenotypes from these individuals will then be used in conjunction with the existing genotyping for additional genome-wide screens and further follow-up fine mapping studies. ..
  24. Effects of Fast ForWord on Language Processing
    Marc Fey; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. LEXICAL DEFICIT--YOUNG CHILD W/ SPECIFIC LANG IMPAIRMENT
    Shelley Gray; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. RESOURCES FOR INFANTS WITH NEWLY INDENTIFIED HEARING LOS
    Mary Pat Moeller; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..A media advocacy program will also be implemented. The results should promote parental self-advocacy and independence in decision making. ..
  27. EARLY OTITIS AND LITERACY AND ATTENTION AT 9 TO 11 YEARS
    JACK PARADISE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. RESOURCES FOR INFANTS WITH NEWLY IDENTIFIED HEARING LOSS
    Mary Pat Moeller; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Information also will be re-purposed and expanded to meet the needs of the target professional audiences. The results of this effort should promote parent self-advocacy and independence in decision making. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. WORD LEARNING IN INFANTS WITH HEARING LOSS
    Mary Pat Moeller; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The outcomes should provide direction for early interventionists in their efforts to promote nurturing caregiver-child interactions. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. Treatment of Lexical Deficits in Young Children with SLI
    SHELLEY I GRAY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  31. CONCEPTS AND THEORIES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
    SUSAN GELMAN; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. MINORITY PREDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM
    Amber Franklin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  33. Long-term Outcomes of Cochlear Implantation in Early Childhood
    Ann Geers; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition we will document the incidence and outcomes associated with discontinued use of a cochlear implant. ..
  34. Partial Word Knowledge Growth in Children with LLD
    STACY WAGOVICH; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. Complex Syntax Production of Children with SLI
    C Schuele; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Cross-modal processing and lexical development
    Vladimir M Sloutsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This knowledge may also have broader impact on the clinical community by elucidating factors underlying Specific Language Impairments (SLI). ..
  37. Children's Conceptions of Lying: East-West Comparisons
    GAIL HEYMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In the legal domain, our findings can assist legal practitioners in developing culturally sensitive procedures to assess child witnesses'competence and credibility in courts of law. ..
  38. Early Grammar Productivity: Three Languages, Comprehension
    Letitia Naigles; Fiscal Year: 2008
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This project seeks to investigate two critical questions in child language acquisition: (1) WHEN do toddlers show evidence of grammatical productivity in comprehension? (2) HOW does this ..
  39. Influencing Children's Beliefs Through Language
    VIKRAM JASWAL; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..It also has important public health implications in terms of how parents, caregivers, and educators can craft their messages to children to effect changes in behaviors and beliefs. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  40. Output & Phonological Skills in Bilingual Children
    Brian Goldstein; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  41. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ABILITY CONCEPTIONS
    GAIL HEYMAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Together, these studies should provide a nuanced picture of the way in which children of different ages reason about ability, the factors affecting their reasoning, and the motivational consequences. ..
  42. ASSESSING BILINGUAL PHONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG CHILDREN
    Carol Scheffner Hammer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Measures that accurately assess the needs of bilingual chidlren are critically important in order to assure accurate diagnosis of disorders in young children. ..
  43. Non-Sensory factors in children's speech perception
    RACHAEL HOLT; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  44. EARLY IDENTIFICATION OF RISK FOR LANGUAGE DISORDER
    Donna Thal; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. BILINGUAL PRESCHOOLERS--PRECURSORS TO LITERACY
    Carol Hammer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  46. Influences on preschoolers' visual attention to print
    Laura Justice; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..e., questions and comments about pictures versus print, verbal versus nonverbal print cues) upon children's visual attention to print in this early literacy context. ..
  47. Early literacy intervention
    Laura Justice; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  48. Infants' and Mothers' Responses to being Imitated
    ELISE MASUR; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  49. PERCEPTUAL COHERENCE IN LISTENERS WITH HEARING LOSS
    Andrea Pittman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These results may improve our understanding of why hearing-impaired listeners have difficulty perceiving speech in degraded listening environments. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  50. Assessing the Impact of Function on Early Categorization
    Amy Booth; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Not only will they highlight the value of better understanding this phenomenon, but they will establish the viability of new stimuli and methods for pursuing that understanding. ..
  51. Do Labels Help Infants Form Non-Obvious Categories?
    VIKRAM JASWAL; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..By considering the role of labeling in the formation of categories, this research will make important contributions to the fields of cognitive and language development. ..
  52. Accounting for variations in parental speech and gesture
    MEREDITH ROWE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Finally, analysis of variance will be used to compare the two groups of parents on input measures. ..
  53. DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY OROFACIAL MOTILITY AND CONTROL
    Jordan Green; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  54. THOUGHT DISORDER: A DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY IN EPILEPSY
    Rochelle Caplan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Weekly seizure frequency data will be obtained on a monthly basis from the parent during the 2 years. ..
  55. Learning mechanisms in language acquisition
    LouAnn Gerken; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The findings also have the potential to provide new insights into the role of learning in language disorders. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. Children's questions: Insight into cognitive development
    MICHELLE CHOUINARD; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..other information. Exploration of these issues will make important contributions to the long-form understanding of how children's conceptual development proceeds. ..
  57. EFFECTS OF PRACTICE ON SPEECH OUTPUT FOR CHILDREN
    Kathryn Drager; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The dependent measures will include intelligibility of single words and comprehension of commands. ..
  58. Identifying Communicative Signals in Dysarthric Speech
    Rupal Patel; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  59. Effects of Intensity of Early Communication Intervention
    STEVEN WARREN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Analyses will include t-tests, 2x2 ANOVA, and multi-level analysis (HLM). Multiple regression or ANCOVA will be used if statistical control of pre-treatment differences are necessary. Five years of funding is requested. ..