fear

Summary

Summary: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Emotion circuits in the brain
    J E Ledoux
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 23:155-84. 2000
  2. ncbi Altered histone acetylation is associated with age-dependent memory impairment in mice
    Shahaf Peleg
    Laboratory for Aging and Cognitive Diseases, European Neuroscience Institute, Grisebach Str 5, D 37077 Goettingen, Germany
    Science 328:753-6. 2010
  3. pmc The neurocircuitry of fear, stress, and anxiety disorders
    Lisa M Shin
    Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:169-91. 2010
  4. ncbi Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala
    Ahmad R Hariri
    Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 297:400-3. 2002
  5. ncbi Requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis for the behavioral effects of antidepressants
    Luca Santarelli
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Science 301:805-9. 2003
  6. ncbi Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval
    K Nader
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 406:722-6. 2000
  7. ncbi Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: from animal models to human behavior
    Elizabeth A Phelps
    Department of Psychology, New York University, 4 6 Washington Place, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Neuron 48:175-87. 2005
  8. pmc Inhibitors of class 1 histone deacetylases reverse contextual memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    Mark Kilgore
    Department of Neurobiology, Evelyn F McKnight Brain Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:870-80. 2010
  9. ncbi Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a state of the art
    J W Vlaeyen
    Department of Medical, Clinical and Experimental Psychology, Maastricht University, P O Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Pain 85:317-32. 2000
  10. pmc Optogenetic stimulation of a hippocampal engram activates fear memory recall
    Xu Liu
    RIKEN MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics at The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Biology and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nature 484:381-5. 2012

Detail Information

Publications368 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Emotion circuits in the brain
    J E Ledoux
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 23:155-84. 2000
    ..Much of the progress has come from studies of fear, and especially fear conditioning...
  2. ncbi Altered histone acetylation is associated with age-dependent memory impairment in mice
    Shahaf Peleg
    Laboratory for Aging and Cognitive Diseases, European Neuroscience Institute, Grisebach Str 5, D 37077 Goettingen, Germany
    Science 328:753-6. 2010
    ..Our data suggest that deregulated H4K12 acetylation may represent an early biomarker of an impaired genome-environment interaction in the aging mouse brain...
  3. pmc The neurocircuitry of fear, stress, and anxiety disorders
    Lisa M Shin
    Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:169-91. 2010
    ..Research on the neurocircuitry of anxiety disorders has its roots in the study of fear circuits in animal models and the study of brain responses to emotional stimuli in healthy humans...
  4. ncbi Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala
    Ahmad R Hariri
    Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 297:400-3. 2002
    ..Serotonin [5- hydroxytryptamine, (5-HT)] function influences normal fear as well as pathological anxiety, behaviors critically dependent on the amygdala in animal models and in clinical ..
  5. ncbi Requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis for the behavioral effects of antidepressants
    Luca Santarelli
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Science 301:805-9. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that the behavioral effects of chronic antidepressants may be mediated by the stimulation of neurogenesis in the hippocampus...
  6. ncbi Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval
    K Nader
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 406:722-6. 2000
    ..The lateral and basal nuclei of the amygdala (LBA) are believed to be a site of memory storage in fear learning...
  7. ncbi Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: from animal models to human behavior
    Elizabeth A Phelps
    Department of Psychology, New York University, 4 6 Washington Place, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Neuron 48:175-87. 2005
    ..on the neural systems underlying emotion in animal models over the past two decades has implicated the amygdala in fear and other emotional processes. This work stimulated interest in pursuing the brain mechanisms of emotion in humans...
  8. pmc Inhibitors of class 1 histone deacetylases reverse contextual memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    Mark Kilgore
    Department of Neurobiology, Evelyn F McKnight Brain Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:870-80. 2010
    ..These preclinical results indicate that targeted inhibition of class I HDAC isoforms is a promising avenue for treating the cognitive deficits associated with early stage AD...
  9. ncbi Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a state of the art
    J W Vlaeyen
    Department of Medical, Clinical and Experimental Psychology, Maastricht University, P O Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Pain 85:317-32. 2000
    ..Lethem J, Slade PD, Troup JDG, Bentley G. Outline of fear-avoidance model of exaggerated pain perceptions. Behav Res Ther 1983; 21: 401-408)...
  10. pmc Optogenetic stimulation of a hippocampal engram activates fear memory recall
    Xu Liu
    RIKEN MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics at The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Biology and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nature 484:381-5. 2012
    ..Here we show in mice that optogenetic reactivation of hippocampal neurons activated during fear conditioning is sufficient to induce freezing behaviour...
  11. pmc Plastic synaptic networks of the amygdala for the acquisition, expression, and extinction of conditioned fear
    Hans Christian Pape
    Institute of Physiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms University, Muenster, Germany and Rutgers State University, Newark, New Jersey, USA
    Physiol Rev 90:419-63. 2010
    ..a surge of interest for the mechanisms underlying the acquisition and extinction of classically conditioned fear responses...
  12. ncbi Encoding of conditioned fear in central amygdala inhibitory circuits
    Stephane Ciocchi
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Nature 468:277-82. 2010
    The central amygdala (CEA), a nucleus predominantly composed of GABAergic inhibitory neurons, is essential for fear conditioning...
  13. ncbi Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Physiology, Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00732, USA
    Nature 420:70-4. 2002
    Conditioned fear responses to a tone previously paired with a shock diminish if the tone is repeatedly presented without the shock, a process known as extinction...
  14. ncbi Effects of attention and emotion on face processing in the human brain: an event-related fMRI study
    P Vuilleumier
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, England, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 30:829-41. 2001
    ....
  15. ncbi Extinction learning in humans: role of the amygdala and vmPFC
    Elizabeth A Phelps
    Department of Psychology and New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuron 43:897-905. 2004
    Understanding how fears are acquired is an important step in translating basic research to the treatment of fear-related disorders. However, understanding how learned fears are diminished may be even more valuable...
  16. pmc Ablation of hippocampal neurogenesis impairs contextual fear conditioning and synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus
    Michael D Saxe
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:17501-6. 2006
    ..or genetic ablation of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive neural progenitor cells impaired contextual fear conditioning but not cued conditioning...
  17. pmc Epigenetic regulation of BDNF gene transcription in the consolidation of fear memory
    Farah D Lubin
    Department of Neurobiology, The Evelyn F McKnight Brain Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    J Neurosci 28:10576-86. 2008
    ..Contextual fear learning induced differential regulation of exon-specific bdnf mRNAs (I, IV, VI, IX) that was associated with ..
  18. ncbi Development and initial validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I)
    Lucy Yardley
    School of Psychology, University of Southampton, UK
    Age Ageing 34:614-9. 2005
    There is a need for a measure of fear of falling that assesses both easy and difficult physical activities and social activities and is suitable for use in a range of languages and cultural contexts, permitting direct comparison between ..
  19. ncbi Fears, phobias, and preparedness: toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning
    A Ohman
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychol Rev 108:483-522. 2001
    An evolved module for fear elicitation and fear learning with 4 characteristics is proposed. (a) The fear module is preferentially activated in aversive contexts by stimuli that are fear relevant in an evolutionary perspective...
  20. pmc Genetic dissection of an amygdala microcircuit that gates conditioned fear
    Wulf Haubensak
    Division of Biology 216 76, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Nature 468:270-6. 2010
    The role of different amygdala nuclei (neuroanatomical subdivisions) in processing Pavlovian conditioned fear has been studied extensively, but the function of the heterogeneous neuronal subtypes within these nuclei remains poorly ..
  21. ncbi The amygdaloid complex: anatomy and physiology
    P Sah
    School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
    Physiol Rev 83:803-34. 2003
    ..In particular, the amygdala has been shown to be an essential component of the circuitry underlying fear-related responses...
  22. ncbi Neural systems for recognizing emotion
    Ralph Adolphs
    Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, 200 Hawkins Drive, University of Iowa College of Medicine, 52242, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 12:169-77. 2002
    ..Recognition of fear may draw especially on the amygdala and the detection of disgust may rely on the insula and basal ganglia...
  23. ncbi A disinhibitory microcircuit for associative fear learning in the auditory cortex
    Johannes J Letzkus
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Nature 480:331-5. 2011
    ..Here we show that acquisition of associative fear memories depends on the recruitment of a disinhibitory microcircuit in the mouse auditory cortex...
  24. pmc Molecular mechanisms of fear learning and memory
    Joshua P Johansen
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Cell 147:509-24. 2011
    Pavlovian fear conditioning is a particularly useful behavioral paradigm for exploring the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory because a well-defined response to a specific environmental stimulus is produced through associative ..
  25. pmc Fear erasure in mice requires synergy between antidepressant drugs and extinction training
    Nina N Karpova
    Sigrid Jusélius Laboratory, Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Science 334:1731-4. 2011
    ..investigate how antidepressants influence the response of mood-related systems to behavioral experience, we used a fear-conditioning and extinction paradigm in mice...
  26. ncbi Hippocampus and contextual fear conditioning: recent controversies and advances
    S G Anagnostaras
    Department of Psychology and Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles 90095-1563, USA
    Hippocampus 11:8-17. 2001
    Dorsal hippocampal (DH) lesions produce a severe deficit in recently, but not remotely, acquired contextual fear without impairing memory of discrete training stimuli, i.e...
  27. pmc Extinction-reconsolidation boundaries: key to persistent attenuation of fear memories
    Marie H Monfils
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Science 324:951-5. 2009
    Dysregulation of the fear system is at the core of many psychiatric disorders...
  28. ncbi Electrophysiological correlates of rapid spatial orienting towards fearful faces
    Gilles Pourtois
    Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    Cereb Cortex 14:619-33. 2004
    ..These data suggest that activity in primary visual cortex might be enhanced by fear cues as early as 90 ms post-stimulus, and that such effects might result in a subsequent facilitation of sensory ..
  29. ncbi Amygdalar and hippocampal theta rhythm synchronization during fear memory retrieval
    Thomas Seidenbecher
    Institut fur Physiologie, Otto von Guericke Universitat, Leipziger Strasse 44, Magdeburg D 39120, Germany
    Science 301:846-50. 2003
    The amygdalohippocampal circuit plays a pivotal role in Pavlovian fear memory. We simultaneously recorded electrical activity in the lateral amygdala (LA) and the CA1 area of the hippocampus in freely behaving fear-conditioned mice...
  30. ncbi Different fear states engage distinct networks within the intercalated cell clusters of the amygdala
    Daniela Busti
    Department of Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    J Neurosci 31:5131-44. 2011
    ..extinction-based therapies are among the most effective treatments for anxiety disorders, the neural bases of fear extinction remain still essentially unclear...
  31. pmc Gating of fear in prelimbic cortex by hippocampal and amygdala inputs
    Francisco Sotres-Bayon
    Departments of Psychiatry and Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, P O Box 365067, San Juan, PR 00936 5067, USA
    Neuron 76:804-12. 2012
    ..We therefore evaluated the contribution of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ventral hippocampus (vHPC) inputs to fear signaling in the prelimbic (PL) cortex, a PFC region critical for the expression of conditioned fear...
  32. ncbi Women's fear of childbirth and preference for cesarean section--a cross-sectional study at various stages of pregnancy in Sweden
    Katri Nieminen
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Motala Hospital, Motala, Sweden
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 88:807-13. 2009
    To investigate Swedish women's level of antenatal fear of childbirth at various gestational ages, and factors associated with intense fear and with preference for cesarean section.
  33. ncbi Amygdala inhibitory circuits and the control of fear memory
    Ingrid Ehrlich
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Neuron 62:757-71. 2009
    Classical fear conditioning is a powerful behavioral paradigm that is widely used to study the neuronal substrates of learning and memory...
  34. ncbi Neuronal signalling of fear memory
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:844-52. 2004
    The learning and remembering of fearful events depends on the integrity of the amygdala, but how are fear memories represented in the activity of amygdala neurons? Here, we review recent electrophysiological studies indicating that ..
  35. ncbi Dynamics of retrieval strategies for remote memories
    Inbal Goshen
    Department of Bioengineering, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, CNC Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Cell 147:678-89. 2011
    ..Contextual fear memories in rodents rely on the hippocampus immediately following training but are unaffected by hippocampal ..
  36. pmc Dissociable roles of prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, ventral hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala in the expression and extinction of conditioned fear
    Demetrio Sierra-Mercado
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, PR 00936 5067, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:529-38. 2011
    Current models of conditioned fear expression and extinction involve the basolateral amygdala (BLA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and the hippocampus (HPC)...
  37. pmc Presence and acquired origin of reduced recall for fear extinction in PTSD: results of a twin study
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, United States
    J Psychiatr Res 42:515-20. 2008
    Recall of fear extinction, which is thought to aid in recovery from a psychologically traumatic event, is hypothesized to be deficient in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but this has not yet been demonstrated in the laboratory, nor ..
  38. pmc Phasic vs sustained fear in rats and humans: role of the extended amygdala in fear vs anxiety
    Michael Davis
    Department of Psychiatry, Yerkes National Primate Center, Emory University, and The Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:105-35. 2010
    ..will be reviewed using the acoustic startle reflex in rats and humans based on our attempts to operationally define fear vs anxiety. Although the symptoms of fear and anxiety are very similar, they also differ...
  39. ncbi Regulation of histone acetylation during memory formation in the hippocampus
    Jonathan M Levenson
    Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:40545-59. 2004
    ..histone acetylation during the initial stages of consolidation of long term association memories in a contextual fear conditioning paradigm...
  40. ncbi PKMzeta maintains memories by regulating GluR2-dependent AMPA receptor trafficking
    Paola Virginia Migues
    Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Nat Neurosci 13:630-4. 2010
    ..We found that inactivating PKMzeta in the amygdala impaired fear memory in rats and that the extent of the impairment was positively correlated with a decrease in postsynaptic ..
  41. ncbi Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and extinction: human neuroimaging research--past, present, and future
    Scott L Rauch
    Psychiatric Neuroscience Division, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:376-82. 2006
    ..one current model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been highly influenced by knowledge from rodent fear conditioning research...
  42. ncbi Neuronal circuits of fear extinction
    Cyril Herry
    INSERM U862, Neurocentre Magendie, Bordeaux, France
    Eur J Neurosci 31:599-612. 2010
    b>Fear extinction is a form of inhibitory learning that allows for the adaptive control of conditioned fear responses...
  43. ncbi A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses to overtly presented fearful faces in posttraumatic stress disorder
    Lisa M Shin
    Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, Mass, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:273-81. 2005
    ..Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated exaggerated amygdala responses and diminished medial prefrontal cortex responses during the symptomatic state in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
  44. ncbi Chromatin acetylation, memory, and LTP are impaired in CBP+/- mice: a model for the cognitive deficit in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome and its amelioration
    Juan M Alarcon
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 42:947-59. 2004
    ..Inhibition of HDAC also reversed the memory defect observed in fear conditioning...
  45. pmc Fear conditioning, synaptic plasticity and the amygdala: implications for posttraumatic stress disorder
    Amy L Mahan
    Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University School of Medicine, 954 Gatewood Drive, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Trends Neurosci 35:24-35. 2012
    ..this article, we review how the neural circuitry implicated in PTSD in humans is related to the neural circuitry of fear. We then discuss how fear conditioning is a suitable model for studying the molecular mechanisms of the fear ..
  46. ncbi Oxytocin modulates neural circuitry for social cognition and fear in humans
    Peter Kirsch
    Cognitive Neuroscience Group, Center for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Justus Liebig University, D 35385 Giessen, Germany
    J Neurosci 25:11489-93. 2005
    ..Oxytocin reduces anxiety and impacts on fear conditioning and extinction...
  47. ncbi The influence of personality on neural mechanisms of observational fear and reward learning
    Christine I Hooker
    Department of Psychology, Harvard University, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Neuropsychologia 46:2709-24. 2008
    b>Fear and reward learning can occur through direct experience or observation. Both channels can enhance survival or create maladaptive behavior...
  48. ncbi Mechanisms of fear extinction
    K M Myers
    Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 12:120-50. 2007
    Excessive fear and anxiety are hallmarks of a variety of disabling anxiety disorders that affect millions of people throughout the world...
  49. ncbi Adult neurogenesis modulates the hippocampus-dependent period of associative fear memory
    Takashi Kitamura
    Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences, MITILS, 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo, 194 8511, Japan
    Cell 139:814-27. 2009
    ..suppressed, we show that decreased neurogenesis is accompanied by a prolonged HPC-dependent period of associative fear memory...
  50. ncbi Antenatal fear of childbirth and its association with subsequent caesarean section and experience of childbirth
    U Waldenström
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    BJOG 113:638-46. 2006
    To investigate the prevalence of fear of childbirth in a nationwide sample and its association with subsequent rates of caesarean section and overall experience of childbirth.
  51. ncbi Fear conditioning induces associative long-term potentiation in the amygdala
    M T Rogan
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 390:604-7. 1997
    ..Here we explore the relation between LTP and memory in fear conditioning, an amygdala-dependent form of learning in which an innocuous conditioned stimulus (CS) elicits fear ..
  52. pmc Social defeat: impact on fear extinction and amygdala-prefrontal cortical theta synchrony in 5-HTT deficient mice
    Venu Narayanan
    Institute of Physiology I, Westfalische Wilhelms University, Munster, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e22600. 2011
    Emotions, such as fear and anxiety, can be modulated by both environmental and genetic factors. One genetic factor is for example the genetically encoded variation of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) expression...
  53. pmc Gene networks associated with conditional fear in mice identified using a systems genetics approach
    Christopher C Park
    Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    BMC Syst Biol 5:43. 2011
    ..To explore the genetic networks governing the biology of conditional fear, we used a systems genetics approach to analyze a hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) with high mapping resolution.
  54. ncbi Selective erasure of a fear memory
    Jin Hee Han
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada
    Science 323:1492-6. 2009
    ..increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) are preferentially activated by fear memory expression, which suggests that they are selectively recruited into the memory trace...
  55. ncbi Pain-related fear is more disabling than pain itself: evidence on the role of pain-related fear in chronic back pain disability
    G Crombez
    Vakgroep Gedragstherapie en Psychologische Begeleiding, Universiteit te Gent, Belgium
    Pain 80:329-39. 1999
    There is growing evidence for the idea that in back pain patients, pain-related fear (fear of pain/physical activity/(re)injury) may be more disabling than pain itself...
  56. ncbi Neurocognitive mechanisms of anxiety: an integrative account
    Sonia J Bishop
    Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK
    Trends Cogn Sci 11:307-16. 2007
    ..By contrast, animal models have focused upon the mechanisms underlying acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear, guiding exposure-based therapies for anxiety disorders...
  57. pmc Calcium-permeable AMPA receptor dynamics mediate fear memory erasure
    Roger L Clem
    Department of Neuroscience and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Science 330:1108-12. 2010
    Traumatic fear memories can be inhibited by behavioral therapy for humans, or by extinction training in rodent models, but are prone to recur...
  58. ncbi The habenula is crucial for experience-dependent modification of fear responses in zebrafish
    Masakazu Agetsuma
    RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, Japan
    Nat Neurosci 13:1354-6. 2010
    ..subnucleus of dHb (dHbL) biased fish towards freezing rather than the normal flight response to a conditioned fear stimulus, suggesting that the dHbL-IPN pathway is important for controlling experience-dependent modification of ..
  59. ncbi A mechanism for impaired fear recognition after amygdala damage
    Ralph Adolphs
    Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Nature 433:68-72. 2005
    ..that SM, a patient with rare bilateral amygdala damage, showed an intriguing impairment in her ability to recognize fear from facial expressions...
  60. pmc Neurobiological basis of failure to recall extinction memory in posttraumatic stress disorder
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 66:1075-82. 2009
    A clinical characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is persistently elevated fear responses to stimuli associated with the traumatic event...
  61. ncbi Prospective assessment of falls in Parkinson's disease
    B R Bloem
    MRC Human Movement and Balance Unit, Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    J Neurol 248:950-8. 2001
    ..01). Sixty-two percent of the falls in patients caused soft tissue injuries, but no fractures occurred. A fear of future falls was common (45.8 % of patients) and was accompanied by restriction of daily activities (44...
  62. pmc Human fear conditioning and extinction in neuroimaging: a systematic review
    Christina Sehlmeyer
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e5865. 2009
    b>Fear conditioning and extinction are basic forms of associative learning that have gained considerable clinical relevance in enhancing our understanding of anxiety disorders and facilitating their treatment...
  63. pmc Histone modifications around individual BDNF gene promoters in prefrontal cortex are associated with extinction of conditioned fear
    Timothy W Bredy
    Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Brain Research Institute, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Learn Mem 14:268-76. 2007
    Extinction of conditioned fear is an important model both of inhibitory learning and of behavior therapy for human anxiety disorders...
  64. pmc Adult-born hippocampal dentate granule cells undergoing maturation modulate learning and memory in the brain
    Wei Deng
    Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 29:13532-42. 2009
    ..These results suggest that immature DGCs that undergo maturation make important contributions to learning and memory...
  65. ncbi Control of memory formation through regulated expression of a CaMKII transgene
    M Mayford
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 722 West 168 Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Science 274:1678-83. 1996
    ..at high levels in the lateral amygdala and the striatum but not other forebrain structures, there was a deficit in fear conditioning, an implicit memory task, that also was reversible...
  66. ncbi Stimulation of medial prefrontal cortex decreases the responsiveness of central amygdala output neurons
    Gregory J Quirk
    Department of Physiology, Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00732, USA
    J Neurosci 23:8800-7. 2003
    In extinction of auditory fear conditioning, rats learn that a tone no longer predicts the occurrence of a footshock...
  67. ncbi Fear of falling and associated activity curtailment among middle aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis
    E W Peterson
    Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 7250, USA
    Mult Scler 13:1168-75. 2007
    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with increased likelihood of reporting fear of falling (FoF) among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and factors associated with activity curtailment among the subset of ..
  68. ncbi Neurobiology of Pavlovian fear conditioning
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 24:897-931. 2001
    ..Pavlovian fear conditioning is an exemplar of this form of learning that is exhibited by both rats and humans...
  69. ncbi Fear of falling: measurement strategy, prevalence, risk factors and consequences among older persons
    Alice C Scheffer
    Department of Geriatrics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Age Ageing 37:19-24. 2008
    b>fear of falling (FOF) is a major health problem among the elderly living in communities, present in older people who have fallen but also in older people who have never experienced a fall...
  70. pmc Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms
    Daniela Schiller
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 463:49-53. 2010
    ..Here we introduce a non-invasive technique to target the reconsolidation of fear memories in humans...
  71. ncbi The fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain: current state of scientific evidence
    Maaike Leeuw
    Department of Medical, Clinical, and Experimental Psychology, Maastricht University, P O Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    J Behav Med 30:77-94. 2007
    Research studies focusing on the fear-avoidance model have expanded considerably since the review by Vlaeyen and Linton (Vlaeyen J. W. S. & Linton, S. J. (2000)...
  72. ncbi The contextual brain: implications for fear conditioning, extinction and psychopathology
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Institute for Neuroscience, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 3474, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 14:417-28. 2013
    ..Studies of Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction in rodents and humans suggest that a neural circuit including the hippocampus, amygdala ..
  73. ncbi Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge
    P J Whalen
    Psychiatric Neuroimaging Research Group and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 18:411-8. 1998
    ..This study, using fMRI in conjunction with masked stimulus presentations, represents an initial step toward determining the role of the amygdala in nonconscious processing...
  74. ncbi Genetic dissection of the zebrafish habenula, a possible switching board for selection of behavioral strategy to cope with fear and anxiety
    Hitoshi Okamoto
    RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama, Japan
    Dev Neurobiol 72:386-94. 2012
    ..Our observation supports that the habenula may act as the multimodal switching board for controlling emotional behaviors and/or memory inexperience dependent manners...
  75. ncbi Enrichment induces structural changes and recovery from nonspatial memory deficits in CA1 NMDAR1-knockout mice
    C Rampon
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Washington Road, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 1014, USA
    Nat Neurosci 3:238-44. 2000
    ..CA1-KO mice were profoundly impaired in object recognition, olfactory discrimination and contextual fear memories. Surprisingly, these deficits could be rescued by enriching experience...
  76. pmc Facial expression recognition, fear conditioning, and startle modulation in female subjects with conduct disorder
    Graeme Fairchild
    Developmental Psychiatry Section, Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK
    Biol Psychiatry 68:272-9. 2010
    ..Our primary aim was to characterize explicit and implicit aspects of emotion function to determine whether deficits in these processes are present in girls with CD...
  77. ncbi Reduced amygdala response to fearful expressions in children and adolescents with callous-unemotional traits and disruptive behavior disorders
    Abigail A Marsh
    Mood and Anxiety Program, NIMH, 15K North Dr, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:712-20. 2008
    ..Moreover, despite high comorbidity of callous-unemotional traits and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), no research has attempted to distinguish neural correlates of pediatric callous-unemotional traits and ADHD...
  78. ncbi Neural systems involved in fear and anxiety measured with fear-potentiated startle
    Michael Davis
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Am Psychol 61:741-56. 2006
    A good deal is now known about the neural circuitry involved in how conditioned fear can augment a simple reflex (fear-potentiated startle)...
  79. ncbi Persistence of long-term memory storage requires a late protein synthesis- and BDNF- dependent phase in the hippocampus
    Pedro Bekinschtein
    Instituto de Biologia Celular y Neurociencias, UBA, Buenos Aires C1121ABG, Argentina
    Neuron 53:261-77. 2007
    ..We propose that memory formation and memory persistence share some of the same molecular mechanisms and that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place in the hippocampus for maintenance of the memory trace...
  80. ncbi Evoked axonal oxytocin release in the central amygdala attenuates fear response
    H Sophie Knobloch
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
    Neuron 73:553-66. 2012
    ..majority of forebrain regions, including the central amygdala (CeA), a structure critically involved in OT-mediated fear suppression...
  81. ncbi Fear extinction as a model for translational neuroscience: ten years of progress
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, 02129, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 63:129-51. 2012
    ..10 years ago, however, there began a concerted effort to understand the neural circuits of extinction of fear conditioning, in both animals and humans...
  82. ncbi Retrieval per se is not sufficient to trigger reconsolidation of human fear memory
    Dieuwke Sevenster
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Weesperplein 4, 1018 XA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 97:338-45. 2012
    ..Thus, updating of a fear memory trace should not occur under retrieval conditions in which the outcome is fully predictable (no prediction ..
  83. ncbi Fear is only as deep as the mind allows: a coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on the regulation of negative affect
    Esther Kristina Diekhof
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Georg August University Gottingen, Germany
    Neuroimage 58:275-85. 2011
    Humans have the ability to control negative affect and perceived fear. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether this affect regulation capacity relies on a common neural mechanism in different experimental domains...
  84. ncbi Beyond extinction: erasing human fear responses and preventing the return of fear
    Merel Kindt
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Neurosci 12:256-8. 2009
    Animal studies have shown that fear memories can change when recalled, a process referred to as reconsolidation...
  85. pmc Epigenetic alterations are critical for fear memory consolidation and synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala
    Melissa S Monsey
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e19958. 2011
    ..Here, we have examined the role of epigenetic alterations in amygdala-dependent auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning and associated synaptic plasticity in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) in the rat...
  86. ncbi Reduced hippocampus volume in the mouse model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    Yulia Golub
    Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Research Group Neuronal Plasticity, Kraepelinstr 2, 80804 Munich, Germany
    J Psychiatr Res 45:650-9. 2011
    ..Enriched housing decreased the intensity of trauma-associated contextual fear, independently of whether it was provided before or after the shock...
  87. ncbi Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations
    Marieke Soeter
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Learn Mem 18:357-66. 2011
    ..that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans...
  88. pmc Dynorphin, stress, and depression
    Allison T Knoll
    Behavioral Genetics Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital, MRC 217, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Brain Res 1314:56-73. 2010
    ....
  89. ncbi Smile through your fear and sadness: transmitting and identifying facial expression signals over a range of viewing distances
    Fraser W Smith
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging and Department of Psychology, 58 Hillhead St, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QB, United Kingdom
    Psychol Sci 20:1202-8. 2009
    ..composition of the facial features signaling each of the six universal expressions of emotion (happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, anger, and surprise)...
  90. pmc Reciprocal patterns of c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala after extinction and renewal of conditioned fear
    Ewelina Knapska
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Learn Mem 16:486-93. 2009
    After extinction of conditioned fear, memory for the conditioning and extinction experiences becomes context dependent. Fear is suppressed in the extinction context, but renews in other contexts...
  91. pmc Impaired Pavlovian fear extinction is a common phenotype across genetic lineages of the 129 inbred mouse strain
    M Camp
    Section on Behavioral Science and Genetics, Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 8:744-52. 2009
    b>Fear extinction is impaired in psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia, which have a major genetic component...
  92. ncbi Switching on and off fear by distinct neuronal circuits
    Cyril Herry
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Nature 454:600-6. 2008
    ..Here, using the converse behavioural states of fear extinction and its context-dependent renewal as a model in mice, we show that bi-directional transitions between ..
  93. ncbi Brain region-specific gene expression activation required for reconsolidation and extinction of contextual fear memory
    Nori Mamiya
    Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan
    J Neurosci 29:402-13. 2009
    During fear conditioning, animals learn an association between a previously neutral or conditioned stimulus (CS) and an aversive or unconditioned stimulus (US). Subsequent reexposure to the CS alone triggers two competing processes...
  94. pmc Cortical DNA methylation maintains remote memory
    Courtney A Miller
    Department of Neurobiology and Evelyn F McKnight Brain Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:664-6. 2010
    ..We propose that the adult brain utilizes DNA methylation to preserve long-lasting memories...
  95. ncbi Perineuronal nets protect fear memories from erasure
    Nadine Gogolla
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Science 325:1258-61. 2009
    In adult animals, fear conditioning induces a permanent memory that is resilient to erasure by extinction...
  96. ncbi Deficiency of the 65 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase impairs extinction of cued but not contextual fear memory
    Susan Sangha
    Institute of Physiology I, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Neurosci 29:15713-20. 2009
    Extinction procedures are clinically relevant for reducing pathological fear, and the mechanisms of fear regulation are a subject of intense research...
  97. pmc Do threatening stimuli draw or hold visual attention in subclinical anxiety?
    E Fox
    Department of Psychology, University of Essex, Colchester, England
    J Exp Psychol Gen 130:681-700. 2001
    ..It is concluded that threat-related stimuli affect attentional dwell time and the disengage component of attention, leaving the question of whether threat stimuli affect the shift component of attention open to debate...
  98. ncbi Memory reconsolidation and extinction have distinct temporal and biochemical signatures
    Akinobu Suzuki
    Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156 8502, Japan
    J Neurosci 24:4787-95. 2004
    ..These studies demonstrate the dynamic nature of memory processing after retrieval and represent a first step toward a molecular dissection of underlying mechanisms...
  99. pmc Behavioral changes induced by Toxoplasma infection of rodents are highly specific to aversion of cat odors
    Ajai Vyas
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6442-7. 2007
    ..However, the neural circuits implicated in innate fear, anxiety, and learned fear all overlap considerably, raising the possibility that Toxoplasma may disrupt all of ..
  100. ncbi Cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory response patterns to fear- and sadness-inducing films
    Sylvia D Kreibig
    Department of Psychology, Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    Psychophysiology 44:787-806. 2007
    Responses to fear- and sadness-inducing films were assessed using a broad range of cardiovascular (heart rate, T-wave amplitude, low- and high-frequency heart rate variability, stroke volume, preejection period, left-ventricular ejection ..
  101. ncbi Graded exposure in vivo in the treatment of pain-related fear: a replicated single-case experimental design in four patients with chronic low back pain
    J W Vlaeyen
    Institute for Rehabilitation Research, Hoensbroek, The Netherlands
    Behav Res Ther 39:151-66. 2001
    ..pain-related fears, catastrophising and pain disability in chronic low back pain patients reporting substantial fear of movement/(re)injury...

Research Grants84

  1. Parasite/Host Interactions and the Neurobiology of Fear
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This proposal concerns an example relevant to understanding fear and anxiety. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii reproduces sexually in a two-species life cycle...
  2. Understanding Pain of Gastrointestinal Origin in Women that Serve in OEF/OIF
    Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..corticosterone-induced stimulation of the amygdala, a key central nuclei involved in the emotional expression of fear and anxiety, enhances anxiety-like behavior and colonic hypersensitivity in rats through both glucocorticoid ..
  3. Modulation of host immune defense by Pneumocystis beta-glucans
    EVA MARIA CARMONA PORQUERA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, the duration of therapy, fear of secondary effects from the preventive drugs, drug allergies and patient compliance have all contributed to the ..
  4. Addressing Psychosocial Disparities in Rural Hispanic Cancer Survivors
    Rachel M Ceballos; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., fatigue), financial (i.e., job loss), and socio-emotional (i.e., fear of recurrence) burdens of survivorship well beyond completion of primary treatment...
  5. Safety signal learning in Rhesus monkeys following early life stressChallenge Ar
    MICHAEL NMN DAVIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..depressive disorder in patients who had early life stress, is the inability of these patients to inhibit their fear to stimuli reminiscent of their traumatic experience, even in safe conditions...
  6. Link of beta cell proliferation and type 2 diabetes to epigenetic regulation
    Xianxin Hua; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to enhance beta cell regeneration and ameliorate diabetes, this was once thought problematic or unfeasible for fear of the potential tumorigenic effect from menin inhibition...
  7. Pathogenesis of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction
    Zhongcong Xie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A[unreadable] levels), and employ Western blot, ELISA, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, microdialysis, RNAi, the Fear Conditioning Test, and an intra-dimensional/extra-dimensional digging task...
  8. Transplantation of Reduced-Size Fatty Livers
    Zhi Zhong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Fatty livers are rarely used for partial liver transplantation due to the fear of primary non-function. These studies are to elucidate mechanisms and to develop strategies to prevent failure of fatty partial grafts...
  9. Neuroendocrine Mechanisms and Therapeutics in an Animal Model of PTSD
    DAVID MARK DIAMOND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will examine molecular mechanisms involved in the formation and remote memory retrieval of the fear conditioning component of our PTSD model...
  10. FUNCTIONAL AND TARGETING POLYMERIC GENE CARRIERS
    Sung Wan Kim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..There is no integration of the therapeutic genes within the cellular genome to raise the fear of unrestricted growth...
  11. A Pilot Study of Yoga for Breathing and Quality of Life of Lung Cancer Patients
    JUDITH MARIE FOULADBAKHSH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Fear and anxiety is further intensified due to respiratory compromise, increasing stress, and impairing sleep and mood...
  12. Integrated PTSD and Smoking Treatment
    Mark B Powers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..may contribute to smokers'progression to nicotine dependence and cessation relapse include negative affect, fear, increased arousal, irritability, anger, distress intolerance, and anxiety sensitivity...
  13. Effect of D-cycloserine on treatment of PTSD in youth
    Michael S Scheeringa; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..DCS also produces a dose-dependent facilitation of extinction of fear-potentiated startle in the rat. However, DCS only produces an extinction effect as an adjunct, i.e...
  14. Role of histone acetyltransferases in memory storage and synaptic plasticity
    MARCEL ANDRE ESTEVEZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to look at the behavioral phenotypes of these animals, especially in hippocampus-dependent tasks such as contextual fear conditioning, and spatial object recognition...
  15. Link of beta cell proliferation and type 2 diabetes to epigenetic regulation.
    Xianxin Hua; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to enhance beta cell regeneration and ameliorate diabetes, this was once thought problematic or unfeasible for fear of the potential tumorigenic effect from menin inhibition...
  16. Human VGF Polymorphisms and Depression
    Stephen R Salton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..behavior, and a large number of studies demonstrate additional roles for BDNF/TrkB pathways in contextual fear conditioning and spatial memory, as well as in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and the induction of long term ..
  17. Improving pain and function in hip fracture
    R Sean Morrison; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Physicians are reluctant to prescribe opioid analgesics to geriatric patients for fear of precipitating side effects (e.g...
  18. A translational model of neuro-immune therapy for PTSD in veterans of the OEF/OIF
    Leonardo H Tonelli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..T cells will be evaluated in the exposure to predator odor paradigm or in the extinction of conditioned Pavlovian fear responses...
  19. Integrated Treatment for Smoking Cessation &Anxiety in People with HIV
    Michael J Zvolensky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..suggests that anxiety disorders and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (or fear of somatic arousal), negatively impact cessation...
  20. Reducing Care-Resistant Behaviors During Oral Hygiene in Persons with Dementia
    Rita A Jablonski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..through the application of an intervention based on the neurobiological principles of threat perception and fear response. When faced with a threat, all organisms react with "flight-fight" responses...
  21. Encapsidation of the poxvirus genome
    Paula Traktman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The fear that smallpox might be used as a bioterrorist weapon, and the recognition that monkeypox virus is a cause of human ..
  22. Exercise Intervention for Smoking
    Michael J Zvolensky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal), negatively impact cessation...
  23. Treatment Implications of Trauma Memory Modulation for PTSD & Alcohol Dependence
    Michael E Saladin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the strategic administration of the [unreadable]-adrenergic blocker propranolol after recalling the memory of a fear-inducing event(s) can result in an attenuation of the negative emotion and arousal of memories for the fear-..
  24. Web-Based Program to Improve Antidepressant Medication Adherence
    Rebekah K Hersch; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..for non-adherence range from adverse side effects, clinical improvement prior to completing treatment course, fear of dependence, discomfort with taking psychotropic medications, lack of treatment effectiveness, and desire to ..
  25. Arrestin Regulation of CRF1 Signaling: Mechanisms for Stress Resilience and PTSD
    Richard L Hauger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hypervigiliance, stimuli avoidance, startle hyperreactivity, persistent anxiety, and consolidation of contextual fear memories...
  26. Adherence intervention to promote optimal use of insulin pumps in adolescents wit
    Kimberly Driscoll; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..study also explores modifiable barriers that could potentially interfere with effective insulin pump use including fear of hypoglycemia, adolescent responsibility, and depression, and could be incorporated into future interventions...
  27. The role of BNST CGRP in stress-enhanced anxiety behavior and HPA-axis function
    Kelly S Sink; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Individuals exposed to fear-evoking stressors are at increased risk for a number of psychiatric illnesses including post-traumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety ..
  28. Development of Cross Protective H5 Hemagglutinin Antigens
    Susan C Bock; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..There is also fear that vaccines directed against past and currently circulating H5 influenzas may not be effective against future ..
  29. Impaired hippocampal function as a risk factor for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
    Almira Vazdarjanova; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..phenotype (impaired extinction, lasting elevated startle response) before they experience emotional trauma (fear conditioning)...
  30. Mechanisms of regulation of ethanol intake by lateral habenula
    Jiang Hong Ye; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aversive, negative sensory input is processed by the habenular complex, an epithalamic structure involved in fear, anxiety, depression, stress and reward...
  31. TWIN STUDY OF BIOLOGIC MARKERS FOR PTSD
    Lisa M Shin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In contrast, pilot data suggest that c.) impaired retention of extinction of a psychophysiologic conditioned fear response may be an acquired PTSD sign...
  32. Low energy ventricular defibrillator
    Qun Sha; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..First, high voltage shocks produce substantial pain, which is often associated with anxiety, fear, depression, and reduced quality of life...
  33. Sun protection Internet-based program for kidney transplant recipients
    June K Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of life from disfigurement and loss of function from the many surgical procedures, and reduce the anxiety and fear about the return or spread of SCC and MM...
  34. The ISCHEMIA-CKD Trial-CCC-Lead Application
    Sripal Bangalore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..studies have suggested a possible survival benefit of revascularization but yet it is rarely (10-45%) performed for fear of acute complications including contrast induced acute kidney injury, indicating substantial equipoise in current ..
  35. Role of LXR and ABCA1 in Abeta Aggregation and Toxicity
    NICHOLAS FRANCIS FITZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Specifically, following LXR ligand treatment spatial working memory, reference memory, and fear conditioning will be examined...
  36. The Effects of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters on the Developing Lung
    SOWMYA S MOHAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..obstacles in this field of research is the under-reporting, by mothers, of alcohol use during pregnancy due to the fear of repercussions and social stigma...
  37. A Mouse Model for Emotional Disorder Caused by Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
    ANTON J REINER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose to use our blast model of mild TBI to characterize anxiety, fear, depression and memory loss in male C57BL/6 mice over the 9-month period following single or multiple blasts...
  38. ANATOMY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF FEAR-POTENTIATED STARTLE
    MICHAEL NMN DAVIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The overall goals of this project are to understand neural systems involved in conditioned fear using the fear potentiated startle test as a measure...
  39. Developing Radiological Risk Communication Materials for Low-Literacy Populations
    SARAH B BASS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..whether tailored communication for those with low literacy increases overall understanding of RTEs as well as eases fear and increases self efficacy compared to existing risk messages, and 2...
  40. Phosphoproteomics of Extinction and Reconsolidation of Drug Memories
    Mary M Torregrossa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..activity of specific proteins known to be differentially activated/inhibited by reconsolidation and extinction of fear memories are also regulated by drug memories...
  41. Neurobiology of Social Support
    CAROL SUE CARTER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pup exposure, focusing on neural systems, such as the amygdala, that are associated with social behavior and fear, and that are targets for OT, and a related neurohormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP)...
  42. Regulation of Cardiac Calcium Channels by an Autoinhibitory Signalling Complex
    William A Catterall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..activity, which contributes to increased beating rate and contractile force in response to exercise, stress, and fear. Cav1...
  43. Screening New Therapeutics for the Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
    NEAL GORDON SIMON; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Alterations in HPA axis function are widely documented in PTSD patients. In a newly developed model of predatory fear conditioning, we have shown using fMRI that rats exposed to a natural predator, a ferret, while experiencing the ..
  44. Neuroimmune Factors and Co-Morbid Fear, Depression and Alcohol Consumption
    Michael S Fanselow; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will also determine if pharmacologically interfering with these neuroimmune pathways mitigate the symptoms of PTSD. ..
  45. GABA-active neurosteroids in contextual fear responses
    Graziano Pinna; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..biosynthesis downregulation in the medial frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala, excessive contextual fear responses can be normalized by administering neurosteroidogenic drugs, including fluoxetine (FLX) (PNAS 105, 5567-..
  46. Live imaging of brain circuitry in mouse models of PTSD
    Elaine L Bearer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..psychopathologies comes from three lines of research: 1) Rodent models, with genetic alterations of SERT or after fear provocation with predator odor;2) Genetic dissection of human SERT, SLC6A4, and association of alleles with ..
  47. Regulation of AKAP79 Postsynaptic Targeting and Signaling
    MARK L DELL'ACQUA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 3 will extend studies of AKAP150-PKA/CaN control of AMPAR phosphorylation and subunit composition to regulation of LTP by [unreadable]-adrenergic receptor activation of PKA and regulation of contextual fear memory extinction in vivo.
  48. Anxiety Sensitivity, Menstrual Cycle Phase, and Panic-Relevant Responding
    Yael Nillni; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..e., anxiety sensitivity or fear of fear) and a cyclical, gender-specific stressor (i.e...
  49. Mechanisms of Stress-Enhanced Aversive Conditioning
    Jelena Radulovic; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..stress disorder (PTSD) and autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) are marked by persistent and intense contextual fear and anxiety that are often caused (PTSD) or notably exacerbated (ASD) by acute social stress...
  50. Extinction is mediated by the infralimbic cortex and protein kinase C epsilon
    Philip M Newton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..we are using RNA-interference to identify the anatomical site of action for PKC5 in the extinction of conditioned fear as well as testing PKC5 activators to determine if they can accelerate the extinction of conditioned fear...
  51. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes Among Childhood Cancer Survivors
    Melissa M Hudson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..survivors'baseline measures of knowledge, beliefs, readiness for follow-up, motivation, self-efficacy, affect, fear, and survivor-provider interaction...
  52. VGF function in depression and antidepressant treatment
    Stephen R Salton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..behavior, and a large number of studies demonstrate additional roles for BDNF/TrkB pathways in contextual fear conditioning and spatial memory, as well as in the regulation of synaptic plasticity...
  53. Daily Mouth Care to Prevent Pneumonia in Nursing Homes: A Systems-Level Approach
    Sheryl Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..time, other priorities, existing procedures, perceptions that oral health is not vital to overall health, and fear of resistant residents. Evidence is emerging that improved oral care can prevent pneumonia...
  54. MBSR Symptom Cluster Trial for Breast Cancer Survivors
    Cecile A Lengacher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..frequently experience residual symptoms including pain, fatigue, sleep dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and fear of recurrence...
  55. Predict Near Future Bed Exit for Effective Intervention to Avoid Nighttime Falls
    THOMAS HENRY WHALEN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..falls from attempted or successful bed exits among the elderly include hip fractures, soft tissue or head injuries, fear of falling, anxiety, depression and death...
  56. Validity of Self-Reported Adult Vaccination Status
    SHARON L ROLNICK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally, a number of patients may provide inaccurate self reports for fear of affirming risky behaviors linked to certain vaccinations...
  57. PETS-D: Parent Education Through Simulation-Diabetes
    Susan Sullivan-Bolyai; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the education with HPS having improved knowledge, problem-solving, confidence scores, and lower anxiety, and fear of hypoglycemia scores...
  58. Malaria treatment outcomes and pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant women
    MYAING MYAING NYUNT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Pregnant women, with or without HIV, are typically excluded from clinical drug trials for fear of harm to the fetus, resulting in an almost complete lack of scientific evidence to guide drug treatment in ..
  59. Postnatal Serotonin Deficits in Behavioral Pathogenesis: A Novel Genetic Approach
    MEREDITH SORENSON WHITNEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..during adolescence, stressed and unstressed Tph2CKO mice will be evaluated for changes in anxiety like behaviors, fear conditioning, and inter-male aggression...
  60. Function of NALT in nasal immunization to heterotypic strains of influenza
    Troy D Randall; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..use of these vaccines to elicit immunity to zoonotic viruses, such as H5N1 avian influenza, is limited due to the fear of recombination between contemporary influenza strains and the vaccine strain...
  61. Genetic and estrogen-dependent regulation of the human PAC1R receptor and PTSD
    Kerry J Ressler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..stress disorder (PTSD) is a maladaptive and debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by an extreme sense of fear at the time of trauma occurrence, with characteristic re- experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms in the ..
  62. Cytokine Signaling as a Mediator of Fear and Anxiety After Myocardial Infarction
    NATALIE CELIA TRONSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..primarily used my behavioral and molecular neuroscience training to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying fear memory and the role of external environmental stressors in the modulation of these processes...
  63. Development of a Urine Test for the Early Detection of Colon Cancer
    Wei Song; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..second leading cause of cancer mortality because of the low compliance (<40%) due to inconvenience, fear of discomfort, and the risk involved in the invasive screening test...
  64. Extinction of Fear Memories with Glucocorticoids in Veterans with PTSD
    Alina Suris; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..study based on our work with animal models of PTSD in which coricosterone augmented extinction of contextual fear memories...
  65. Risk Factors for Late Life Anxiety
    JOHN CALAMARI; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Associations were found between fear of anxiety and panic symptoms in preliminary study 1...
  66. Role of novel pH-sensing receptor TDAG8 in panic
    Renu Sah; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..mechanisms of vulnerability: a) a dysfunction in central metabolically driven alarm system, or b) a supersensitive fear/anxiety system...
  67. CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF EMOTION AND ATTENTION
    Peter Lang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    We have found in the fear potentiated startle test that bilateral local infusion of morphine into the medial nucleus of the amygdala (Me) completely blocks the expression of conditioned fear whereas infusion of comparable doses into the ..
  68. Developing Web Delivered Coping Skills Training for Women with Alcoholic Partners
    Robert G Rychtarik; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These barriers include: (a) inadequate third party coverage, (b) inability to pay, (c) fear of stigmatization, (d) fear of the partner's reaction, (e) competing job, childcare and other demands, (f) ..
  69. Amygdalar Modulation of Fear-Conditioned Changes in REM Sleep
    ADRIAN MORRISON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We propose to use cued fear conditioning (CFC) as an experimental paradigm for studying the more general role of the amygdala (AMY) in ..
  70. Cellular mechanisms mediating extinction of conditioned fear
    Vadim Bolshakov; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It was suggested that at least some anxiety disorders involve the fear system of the brain...
  71. Phenotypic and Functional Determination of Central Extended Amygdala Cell Groups
    HEIDI E DAY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The CEA is involved in a number of responses to fear, stress and anxiety and contains distinct cell populations...
  72. Anxiety and Alcohol Drinking in a Genetic Animal Model of Alcoholism
    JULIA ANN CHESTER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This goal will be achieved by examining the relationship between susceptibility toward learned fear/anxiety and innate propensity toward alcohol drinking behavior in mouse lines that have been selectively bred for ..
  73. The Role of Amygdala GABAergic Transmission in Fear and Anxiety
    Scott A Heldt; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..in the amygdala play a major role in neural processes involved in the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. However, there are converging lines of evidence suggesting that changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may also ..
  74. MODULATION OF FEAR-POTENTIATED STARTLE IN HUMANS
    Christian Grillon; Fiscal Year: 1999
    This application proposes a 4-year study to examine fear excitation and fear inhibition processes in healthy individuals using conditioning procedures derived from infra-human studies...
  75. Murine model of CRF effects on fear extinction: relevance to PTSD
    Victoria Risbrough; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is hypothesized to involve disruption of fear extinction processes, perhaps specifically the loss of extinction learning and habituation...
  76. AMYGDALOID FUNCTION IN FEAR CONDITIONING
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract): Pavlovian fear conditioning is a ubiquitous form of learning that may underlie disorders of fear and anxiety (e.g., panic and post-traumatic stress disorder) in humans...
  77. Predicting anxiety symptoms in patients with implantable defibrillators
    Julia Betensky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Several theories of anxiety and associated empirical support suggest that fear of anxiety (i.e., anxiety sensitivity;AS), fear of being shocked (i.e...
  78. Role of Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nurr1 in Fear Conditioning
    Jonathan Ploski; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and studies aimed at identifying novel genes involved in fear learning may lead to more effective treatments for these disorders...
  79. Complete Fear Conditioning Suite for Rats and Mice
    Michael S Fanselow; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The BTC is requesting one-time equipment funding to greatly improve the fear conditioning setup which is widely used to study learning and memory mechanisms, drug and gene effects on fear and ..
  80. Neural Analysis of Maternal Aggression
    STEPHEN GAMMIE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..lactation, decreases in corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) neurotransmission have been linked to decreases in fear and anxiety...
  81. Trait Fear and Disinhibition in Impulse Control Disorders
    CHRISTOPHER JOHN PATRICK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..indicators of two key dispositional constructs that have direct referents in neurobiology as well as behavior: (1) fear/fearlessness, and (2) inhibitory control...
  82. Role of CREB function in the BNST in fear and anxiety-like behaviors
    Edward Meloni; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..role of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the acquisition and expression of fear and anxiety- like behaviors...
  83. Translating Extinction of Fear to Anxiety Disorder Treatment
    Mark Barad; Fiscal Year: 2006
    b>Fear extinction, the reduction of conditional fear by repeated cue (CS) exposure, has long been the explicit model of behavior therapy for human anxiety disorders...
  84. Neural mechanisms of heightened fear during glucocorticoid excess
    Jack D Shepard; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Pathology within the neural systems that mediate fear has been proposed as a mechanism for many forms of anxiety disorders...