defense mechanisms


Summary: Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi How to bite your tongue without blowing your top: implicit evaluation of emotion regulation predicts affective responding to anger provocation
    Iris B Mauss
    Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA
    Pers Soc Psychol Bull 32:589-602. 2006
  2. ncbi Adaptive elements of aging: Self-image discrepancy, perfectionism, and eating problems
    Carrie E Landa
    Department of Psychology, Suffolk University, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Dev Psychol 43:83-93. 2007
  3. ncbi Stress, depression and immunity: the role of defense and coping styles
    M Olff
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Groningen, Academic Hospital, The Netherlands
    Psychiatry Res 85:7-15. 1999
  4. ncbi Change in defense mechanisms during long-term dynamic psychotherapy and five-year outcome
    J Christopher Perry
    Institute of Community and Family Psychiatry, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal
    Am J Psychiatry 169:916-25. 2012
  5. ncbi Change in defense mechanisms during short-term dynamic and cognitive therapy in patients with cluster C personality disorders
    Pål Ørjan Johansen
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
    J Nerv Ment Dis 199:712-5. 2011
  6. ncbi [Standardized and clinical evaluation of defense mechanisms: a critical review of 6 quantitative tools]
    Charlotte Soultanian
    Service du Professeur Ferreri, Hopital Saint Antoine, Paris, France
    Can J Psychiatry 50:792-801. 2005
  7. ncbi Defense mechanisms and psychological adjustment in childhood
    Marlene J Sandstrom
    Department of Psychology, Williams College, Bronfman Science Center, Williamstown, MA 01267, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 191:487-95. 2003
  8. ncbi Borderline personality organization and psychopathic traits in nonclinical adolescents: relationships of identity diffusion, primitive defense mechanisms and reality testing with callousness and impulsivity traits
    Henri Chabrol
    Psychopathology at the University of Toulouse Le Mirail, France
    Bull Menninger Clin 70:160-70. 2006
  9. ncbi Defense mechanisms in ethics consultation
    George J Agich
    Department of Social Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    HEC Forum 23:269-79. 2011
  10. ncbi How does our brain constitute defense mechanisms? First-person neuroscience and psychoanalysis
    Georg Northoff
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University of Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany
    Psychother Psychosom 76:141-53. 2007

Detail Information

Publications267 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi How to bite your tongue without blowing your top: implicit evaluation of emotion regulation predicts affective responding to anger provocation
    Iris B Mauss
    Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA
    Pers Soc Psychol Bull 32:589-602. 2006
    ..These findings suggest that implicit positive evaluation of emotion regulation is associated with successful, automatic, and physiologically adaptive down-regulation of anger...
  2. ncbi Adaptive elements of aging: Self-image discrepancy, perfectionism, and eating problems
    Carrie E Landa
    Department of Psychology, Suffolk University, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Dev Psychol 43:83-93. 2007
    ..Specific content domains of the real and ideal self-image and different facets of perfectionism showed distinctive age-related changes and differential relationships with eating pathology...
  3. ncbi Stress, depression and immunity: the role of defense and coping styles
    M Olff
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Groningen, Academic Hospital, The Netherlands
    Psychiatry Res 85:7-15. 1999
    ..Increasing the subject's abilities to cope with stress and to reduce the negative affect by psychological interventions may on the other hand have a beneficial effect on the immune system...
  4. ncbi Change in defense mechanisms during long-term dynamic psychotherapy and five-year outcome
    J Christopher Perry
    Institute of Community and Family Psychiatry, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal
    Am J Psychiatry 169:916-25. 2012
    Research suggests that defense mechanisms may underlie other aspects of functioning and psychiatric symptoms...
  5. ncbi Change in defense mechanisms during short-term dynamic and cognitive therapy in patients with cluster C personality disorders
    Pål Ørjan Johansen
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
    J Nerv Ment Dis 199:712-5. 2011
    ..Video recordings of a pretreatment interview and therapy session 36 were evaluated using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Symptom distress was measured using the revised version of Symptom Checklist-90...
  6. ncbi [Standardized and clinical evaluation of defense mechanisms: a critical review of 6 quantitative tools]
    Charlotte Soultanian
    Service du Professeur Ferreri, Hopital Saint Antoine, Paris, France
    Can J Psychiatry 50:792-801. 2005
    The defense mechanisms (DM) concept goes back to the foundation of psychoanalysis and is one of its theoretical cornerstones...
  7. ncbi Defense mechanisms and psychological adjustment in childhood
    Marlene J Sandstrom
    Department of Psychology, Williams College, Bronfman Science Center, Williamstown, MA 01267, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 191:487-95. 2003
    ..b>Defense mechanisms were measured using a valid and reliable storytelling task, and psychological adjustment was assessed ..
  8. ncbi Borderline personality organization and psychopathic traits in nonclinical adolescents: relationships of identity diffusion, primitive defense mechanisms and reality testing with callousness and impulsivity traits
    Henri Chabrol
    Psychopathology at the University of Toulouse Le Mirail, France
    Bull Menninger Clin 70:160-70. 2006
    ..Significant correlations were found between the BPI scales of identity diffusion, primitive defense mechanisms, impaired reality testing, and psychopathic traits of callousness and impulsivity, suggesting that BPO may ..
  9. ncbi Defense mechanisms in ethics consultation
    George J Agich
    Department of Social Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    HEC Forum 23:269-79. 2011
    ..can play an important interpretive role in clinical ethics consultation and why attention to the role of defense mechanisms can be helpful...
  10. ncbi How does our brain constitute defense mechanisms? First-person neuroscience and psychoanalysis
    Georg Northoff
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University of Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany
    Psychother Psychosom 76:141-53. 2007
    ..between neuroscience and psychoanalysis, the neuronal processes underlying psychoanalytic constructs such as defense mechanisms remain unclear...
  11. ncbi Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem: implications for narcissism and self-esteem instability
    Virgil Zeigler-Hill
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern Mississippi Hattiesburg, MS 39406, USA
    J Pers 74:119-44. 2006
    ..Second, participants with high explicit self-esteem and high implicit self-esteem displayed the most stable self-esteem. Findings are discussed in terms of secure and fragile high self-esteem...
  12. ncbi Adaptive mental mechanisms. Their role in a positive psychology
    G E Vaillant
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am Psychol 55:89-98. 2000
    ..Last, evidence is offered to illustrate the validity of mature defenses and their contribution to positive psychology...
  13. ncbi Personality, personality disorders, and defense mechanisms
    P Cramer
    Department of Psychology, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267, USA
    J Pers 67:535-54. 1999
    ..These personality prototypes were found to be related to the use of denial and projection, and especially to the immature manifestations of those defenses, in ways consistent with theory...
  14. ncbi Avoidant coping as a predictor of mortality in veterans with end-stage renal disease
    Erika J Wolf
    National Center for PTSD, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA
    Health Psychol 28:330-7. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the role of active and avoidant coping strategies in predicting mortality in 61 veterans with end-stage renal disease...
  15. ncbi Differences between matched heterosexual and non-heterosexual college students on defense mechanisms and psychopathological symptoms
    Mark A Biernbaum
    Department of Child Development, California State University, Sacramento, CA 95819, USA
    J Homosex 48:125-41. 2004
    Differences between heterosexual and non-heterosexual college students on measures of defense mechanisms and psychopathological symptoms were examined...
  16. ncbi A study of stability and change in defense mechanisms during a brief psychodynamic investigation
    Martin Drapeau
    Unité de Recherche en Psychothérapie, Adult Psychiatry Department of the University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Nerv Ment Dis 191:496-502. 2003
    ..Future studies will need to use designs that allow estimation of state changes while taking sufficient measurements to estimate potential changes in trait levels of defenses...
  17. ncbi Elevated blood pressure and personality: a meta-analytic review
    R S Jorgensen
    Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, New York 13244 2340, USA
    Psychol Bull 120:293-320. 1996
  18. ncbi Defense mechanisms and suicide risk in major depression
    Shushan Hovanesian
    Jamaica Hospital Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Jamaica, NY 11418, USA
    Arch Suicide Res 13:74-86. 2009
    ..The need to identify predictors that can be targets of therapy is of great importance. Coping styles and defense mechanisms have now been linked to suicide in numerous reports...
  19. ncbi Anxiety disorders: why they persist and how to treat them
    D M Clark
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, UK
    Behav Res Ther 37:S5-27. 1999
    ..Finally, ways of identifying the effective ingredients in cognitive therapy programmes are discussed...
  20. ncbi Predictors of mental distress in early adulthood: a five-year follow-up of 709 high-school students
    Terhi Aalto-Setälä
    National Public Health Institute, Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, Mannerheimintie 166, FI 00300 Helsinki, Finland
    Nord J Psychiatry 56:121-5. 2002
    ..Males with low trait anxiety in adolescence had less distress. The results indicate trait anxiety as an important predictor of mental distress. Gender differences in other predictors suggest gender differences in coping...
  21. ncbi The effects of temperament, character, and defense mechanisms on grief severity among the elderly
    Kamel Gana
    Department of Psychology, University of Bordeaux 2, 33000 Bordeaux, France
    J Affect Disord 128:128-34. 2011
  22. ncbi Evaluation of defense mechanisms in adult patients with panic disorder: before and after treatment
    Leticia Kipper
    Post Graduate Program in Medical Science, Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    J Nerv Ment Dis 193:619-24. 2005
    Patients with acute panic disorder (PD) use a more maladaptive pattern of defense mechanisms. This study investigated the use of defense mechanisms by patients with acute symptomatic PD and those in complete remission...
  23. ncbi Defense mechanisms in psychology today. Further processes for adaptation
    P Cramer
    Department of Psychology, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267, USA
    Am Psychol 55:637-46. 2000
    ..Developmental, personality, and social psychologists have all found evidence for defense mechanisms that explicate psychological functioning...
  24. ncbi Brazilian patients with panic disorder: the use of defense mechanisms and their association with severity
    Leticia Kipper
    Post Graduate Program in Medical Science Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul and Anxiety Disorder Program, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil
    J Nerv Ment Dis 192:58-64. 2004
    This study aims to evaluate the defense mechanisms most frequently used by Brazilian patients with panic disorder when compared with a control group...
  25. ncbi Hopelessness and suicide risk emerge in psychiatric nurses suffering from burnout and using specific defense mechanisms
    Maurizio Pompili
    McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Arch Psychiatr Nurs 20:135-43. 2006
    ..medicine/rehabilitation, and critical care/surgery wards to explore the correlations of level of burnout and defense mechanisms with hopelessness...
  26. ncbi Emotional exhaustion and defense mechanisms in intensive therapy unit nurses
    Anna Regan
    Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Bordesley Green East, Birmingham 89 5SS, England
    J Nerv Ment Dis 197:330-6. 2009
    ..According to psychoanalytic theory, unconscious defense mechanisms may protect nurses from conscious awareness of work-related anxiety...
  27. ncbi The relationship between emotional intelligence and ego defense mechanisms
    John Pellitteri
    Department of Educational and Community Programs, Queens College, City University of New York, Flushing 11367, USA
    J Psychol 136:182-94. 2002
    ..knowledge) and personality factors associated with adaptation, represented by the hierarchical model of defense mechanisms (M. Bond, S. Gardner, J. Christian, & J. Sigal, 1983)...
  28. pmc Defense mechanisms associated with borderline personality disorder
    Mary C Zanarini
    McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, USA
    J Pers Disord 23:113-21. 2009
    ..They also had significantly higher scores than axis II comparison subjects on eight of the 19 defense mechanisms studied...
  29. ncbi Psychological defenses of Danish medical students
    Peter la Cour
    Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Panum Institute, Denmark
    J Nerv Ment Dis 190:22-6. 2002
    ..When defense mechanisms were labeled into mature, neurotic, and immature categories, there were no differences between the groups or ..
  30. ncbi Long-term changes in defense styles with psychodynamic psychotherapy for depressive, anxiety, and personality disorders
    Michael Bond
    Department of Psychiatry, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital and McGill University, Quebec, Canada
    Am J Psychiatry 161:1665-71. 2004
  31. ncbi [Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) for defense mechanisms measure: a preliminary study]
    Carolina Blaya
    Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre
    Rev Bras Psiquiatr 26:255-8. 2004
    ..The aim of this study is to describe the translation and adaptation process of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) into Brazilian-Portuguese version. The instrument has also contended validation evaluation...
  32. ncbi Do defense mechanisms vary according to the psychiatric disorder?
    Carolina Blaya
    Post Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    Rev Bras Psiquiatr 28:179-83. 2006
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the defense mechanisms used by depressive and anxious patients without comorbidities compared to those used by controls and to determine whether these patterns differ between diagnoses.
  33. ncbi Defense mechanisms and personality in depression
    L S Mullen
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA
    Depress Anxiety 10:168-74. 1999 the dynamic concept of character, that is, a predictable pattern of both adaptive and pathological defense mechanisms, and personality organization comprised of object relations, ego strengths, and superego development...
  34. ncbi There is more to anger coping than "in" or "out"
    Wolfgang Linden
    Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Emotion 3:12-29. 2003
    ..Women reported use of a wider range of anger coping styles, especially more social support-seeking and more use of anger diffusion strategies than men...
  35. ncbi Cognitive schemas, defence mechanisms and post-traumatic stress symptomatology
    Jason P Price
    South Tees Hospitals NHS Trust, Middlesbrough, UK
    Psychol Psychother 80:343-53. 2007
    ..To identify specific ego defences and core schemas involved in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology...
  36. ncbi Cognitive processes underlying coping flexibility: differentiation and integration
    Cecilia Cheng
    Division of Social Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong
    J Pers 73:859-86. 2005
    ..Individuals who cope more flexibly display a greater extent of differentiation and integration than do those who cope less flexibly. These findings are translated into strategies for stress management workshops...
  37. ncbi Unbearable shame, splitting, and forgiveness in the resolution of vengefulness
    Melvin R Lansky
    New Center for Psychoanalysis, Los Angeles, USA
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 55:571-93. 2007
    ..Forgiveness is seen as the working through of that splitting and as an important feature in the working through of vengefulness...
  38. ncbi A motivational analysis of defensive pessimism and self-handicapping
    Andrew J Elliot
    Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in Psychology, University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    J Pers 71:369-96. 2003
    ..Issues regarding the functional nature of the two cognitive strategies are discussed...
  39. ncbi Falling forever: the price of chronic shock
    Kathleen A Adams
    Int J Group Psychother 56:127-72. 2006
    ..The ability to recognize subtle dissociative states is a valuable tool in the repertoire of the group psychotherapist...
  40. ncbi Testing the stress-buffering effects of self engagement among soldiers on a military operation
    Thomas W Britt
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, USA
    J Pers 71:245-65. 2003
    ..The results are discussed in terms of the potential mechanisms by which self engagement might protect individuals from stressful circumstances...
  41. ncbi Understanding adolescent worry: the application of a cognitive model
    Nina Laugesen
    Centre for Research in Human Development, Department of Psychology, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Abnorm Child Psychol 31:55-64. 2003
    ..These results suggest that intolerance of uncertainty plays a key role in our understanding of adolescent worry...
  42. ncbi Longitudinal effects of hope on depression and anxiety: a latent variable analysis
    Randolph C Arnau
    Department of Psychology, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg 39406, USA
    J Pers 75:43-64. 2007
    ..In both cases, neither depression nor anxiety demonstrated any longitudinal effects on either the Agency or Pathways components of hope. Implications of these findings are discussed, along with potential directions for future research...
  43. ncbi Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among Israeli ex-pows
    Zahava Solomon
    Adler Research Center, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel
    J Trauma Stress 20:303-12. 2007
    ..In addition, both linear and quadratic associations between PTSD and PTG were found. The authors discuss some unresolved issues related to assessment of PTG and salutary outcomes, and outline directions for future research...
  44. ncbi Self-reported defence mechanisms as an outcome measure in psychotherapy: a study on the German version of the Defence Style Questionnaire DSQ 40
    Henning Schauenburg
    Department of Psychosomatic and General Clinical Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    Psychol Psychother 80:355-66. 2007
    ..Our design did not permit an assessment of whether or not the change in defence mechanisms was due to the therapeutic treatment...
  45. ncbi Urban adolescent stress and hopelessness
    Dana Landis
    Department of Psychology, DePaul University, 2219 N Kenmore Ave, Chicago, IL 60614, USA
    J Adolesc 30:1051-70. 2007
    ..An analogous moderating effect was found for ruminative coping for girls. Ruminative coping also emerged as a mediator of the relation between uncontrollable stressors and hopelessness for girls...
  46. ncbi The dynamics of empirically derived factors in the therapeutic relationship
    Eric J Nuetzel
    St Louis Psychoanalytic Institute, MO 63124, USA
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 55:1321-53. 2007
    ..Results indicate that the therapeutic alliance, transference, and resistance are central components of the psychotherapeutic relationship, which in turn predict the ongoing life experience of the patient...
  47. ncbi Worry and use of coping strategies among older and younger adults
    Sandra Hunt
    Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Tobin Hall, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    J Anxiety Disord 17:547-60. 2003
    ..Explanations for these differences are discussed along with implications for the function of worry across the life span...
  48. ncbi Cognitive content and process in eating-disordered patients with obsessive-compulsive features
    Rachel Lawson
    South Island Eating Disorders Service, Canterbury District Health Board, Princess Margaret Hospital, Private Bag 4710, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Eat Behav 8:305-10. 2007
    ..This study examined the schema-level cognitive content and processes that might explain the presence of compulsive behaviours among patients with eating disorders...
  49. ncbi Variations on the concept of traumatism: traumatism, traumatic, trauma
    Thierry Bokanowski
    Int J Psychoanal 86:251-65. 2005
    ..The author illustrates his hypotheses with a clinical example...
  50. ncbi Psychodynamic assessment of changes in children with autism under psychoanalytic treatment
    Geneviève Haag
    Department of Child Psychiatry, 154 rue de Chatillon, F 35000 Rennes, France
    Int J Psychoanal 86:335-52. 2005
    ..First, the authors describe the principal psychoanalytic approaches to autism and reflect on the links possible with non-psychoanalytic work...
  51. ncbi Envy: one or many?
    Eduardo Laverde-Rubio
    Int J Psychoanal 85:401-18. 2004
    ..To answer the question posed in the title, the conclusion is that envy presents a central nucleus with different elaborative branches...
  52. ncbi Borderline attributions
    Robert J Gregory
    SUNY Upstate Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
    Am J Psychother 61:131-47. 2007
  53. ncbi Relation of perfectionism with athletes' burnout: further examination
    Lung Hung Chen
    National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan County
    Percept Mot Skills 106:811-20. 2008
    ..In terms of practical implications in intervention work, coaches and sport psychologists should try to reduce athletes' maladaptive perfectionism and increase adaptive perfectionism...
  54. ncbi Perceived parental psychological control and eating-disordered symptoms: maladaptive perfectionism as a possible intervening variable
    Bart Soenens
    Department of Psychology, Ghent University, Belgium
    J Nerv Ment Dis 196:144-52. 2008
    ..Directions for future research on controlling parenting, perfectionism, and ED are outlined...
  55. ncbi Initial psychometric properties of the experiences questionnaire: validation of a self-report measure of decentering
    David M Fresco
    Department of Psychology, 226 Kent Hall Annex, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA
    Behav Ther 38:234-46. 2007
    ..Findings from this series of studies offer initial support for the EQ as a measure of decentering...
  56. ncbi Confirmatory factor analysis of a short form of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations
    Sharon L Cohan
    San Diego State University, and VA San Diego Healthcare System, CA, USA
    J Clin Psychol 62:273-83. 2006
    ..It was concluded that the task-oriented and emotional scales have potential as measures of two types of responses to routine stressors...
  57. ncbi Suicide Resilience Inventory-25: development and preliminary psychometric properties
    Augustine Osman
    University of Northern Iowa, Department of Psychology, Cedar Falls, 50614 0505, USA
    Psychol Rep 94:1349-60. 2004
    ..Results of the two studies suggest the inventory is useful for assessing the construct of suicide resilience in terms of these three operationally defined dimensions...
  58. ncbi Self-regulation and recovery: approaching an understanding of the process of recovery from stress
    Jürgen Beckmann
    University of Potsdam, Department of Sport Science, Germany
    Psychol Rep 95:1135-53. 2004
    ..g., self-determination, self-motivation, emotion control, whereas state orientation furthers a perseverance of stress through rumination and self-discipline...
  59. ncbi Adolescents' emotion regulation in daily life: links to depressive symptoms and problem behavior
    Jennifer S Silk
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, USA
    Child Dev 74:1869-80. 2003
    ..g., denial) or involuntary engagement (e.g., rumination) was less effective in regulating negative affect, and greater use of these strategies was related to higher levels of depressive symptoms and problem behavior...
  60. ncbi Possible variances of blood urea nitrogen, serum potassium and phosphorus levels and interdialytic weight gain accounted for compliance of hemodialysis patients
    Jiro Takaki
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Tokyo University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, 113 8655, Tokyo, Japan
    J Psychosom Res 55:525-9. 2003
  61. ncbi [How do conflict and structure present themselves in relationships?]
    Tilman Grande
    Klinik für Psychosomatische und Allgemeine Klinische Medizin der Universität Heidelberg, Germany
    Z Psychosom Med Psychother 53:144-62. 2007
    ..Furthermore, the connections between the OPD axes relationship, conflict, and structure are conceptualized...
  62. ncbi Partners in adversity. IV. Coping and mood
    P G Surtees
    MRC Biostatistics Unit, University Forvie Site, Cambridge, UK
    Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 243:319-27. 1994
    ..Details are provided of the construction of a summary measure of coping response based upon the above domains and of its relationship with follow-up mood state after allowance for mood levels at initial interview...
  63. ncbi [Hysterical symptoms and the body in old age]
    J Kipp
    Ludwig-Noll-Krankenhaus, , Klinikum Kassel, , 34134 Kassel
    Z Psychosom Med Psychother 47:167-78. 2001
    ..Since the conversion requires the body scheme to portray psychic conflicts the somatogenic organization function (Heuft) is repealed and as a result the aging processes of the body and therefore aging are not dealt with adequately...
  64. ncbi Sense of reality, reality testing and reality processing in borderline patients
    Luis Claudio Figueiredo
    Int J Psychoanal 87:769-87. 2006
  65. ncbi The influence of extreme traumatization on body, mind and social relations
    Bent Rosenbaum
    University of Copenhagen
    Int J Psychoanal 88:1527-42. 2007
    ..Extreme trauma causes disturbances in each of these dimensions. The authors present clinical material from a traumatized refugee to illustrate the analytic work...
  66. ncbi Development of a measure to assess invalidating childhood environments in the eating disorders
    Victoria Mountford
    South West London and St George s Mental Health NHS Trust, London, UK
    Eat Behav 8:48-58. 2007
    ..It also investigated the relationship between childhood experiences, levels of distress tolerance and eating pathology...
  67. ncbi Validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS): mothers' and children's responses to the stresses of missile attacks
    L Wolmer
    Tel Aviv-Brull Community Mental Health Center, Israel
    J Nerv Ment Dis 189:369-76. 2001
    ..The CADS factors correlated with the defenses of the Defense Mechanisms Manual...
  68. ncbi Treating the "wise baby"
    Judith E Vida
    Judith E Vida, 301 S Fair Oaks Ave, Suite 406A, Pasadena, CA 91105, USA
    Am J Psychoanal 65:3-12. 2005
    ..This return visit to the territory of the "wise baby" extends Ferenczi's ideas about the "origin" and use of the intellect to include a consideration of what may constitute effective "treatment" for those who suffer from giftedness...
  69. ncbi Analysis of lifestyle and behavioral characteristics in Meniere's disease patients and a control population
    M Takahashi
    Department of Otolaryngology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa-ken, Japan
    Acta Otolaryngol 121:254-6. 2001
    ..A tendency towards stress-causative behavioral characteristics in Meniere's disease patients may be important in the genesis of endolymphatic hydrops...
  70. ncbi Day-to-day body-image states: prospective predictors of intra-individual level and variability
    Jonathan A Rudiger
    Virginia Consortium Program in Clinical Psychology, Virginia Beach, VA, United States
    Body Image 4:1-9. 2007
    ..Implications and future directions for research are discussed...
  71. ncbi A cluster analysis of perfectionism among competitive athletes
    Guillaume Martinent
    Centre de Recherche et d Innovation sur le Sport, UFRSTAPS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 27 29 Boulevard du 11 Novembre, 69622 Villeurbanne, France
    Psychol Rep 99:723-38. 2006
    ..The importance of considering all dimensions of perfectionism simultaneously when examining the functional nature of this construct in sport is discussed...
  72. ncbi Distress tolerance in the eating disorders
    Emma Corstorphine
    Outpatient Eating Disorders Service, South West London and St George s Mental Health NHS Trust, Harewood House, Springfield University Hospital, London SW17 7DJ, UK
    Eat Behav 8:91-7. 2007
    ..This study aimed to develop a measure of distress tolerance, and to validate it clinically with the eating disorders...
  73. ncbi Stress, appraisal, and coping: a comparison of HIV-infected women in the pre-HAART and HAART eras
    Karolynn Siegel
    Center for the Psychosocial Study of Health and Illness, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 100 Haven Avenue, Suite 6A, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Psychosom Res 58:225-33. 2005
    ..It has been widely suggested that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the psychosocial aspects of living with HIV/AIDS...
  74. ncbi An experimental manipulation of retrospectively defined earned and continuous attachment security
    Glenn I Roisman
    Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, IL 61820, USA
    Child Dev 77:59-71. 2006
    ..Induced mood was unrelated to security versus insecurity...
  75. ncbi Negative appraisals and cognitive avoidance of intrusive memories in depression: a replication and extension
    Alishia D Williams
    School of Psychology, The University of New South Wales, New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Depress Anxiety 25:E26-33. 2008
    ..The results support the validity of borrowing from PTSD models to elucidate the cognitive mechanisms that maintain intrusive memories in depressed samples...
  76. ncbi Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: the implications of treating oneself kindly
    Mark R Leary
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 92:887-904. 2007
    ..In general, these studies suggest that self-compassion attenuates people's reactions to negative events in ways that are distinct from and, in some cases, more beneficial than self-esteem...
  77. ncbi Psychosocial factors associated with perceived disease severity in patients with chronic hepatitis C: relationship with information sources and attentional coping styles
    Aymery Constant
    Laboratoire de Psychologie de la Santé EA 3662, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, France
    Psychosomatics 46:25-33. 2005
    ..These results suggest that information processing and psychological features play a key role in the way patients with chronic hepatitis C perceive their disease...
  78. ncbi Latent variable analysis of coping, anxiety/depression, and somatic symptoms in adolescents with chronic pain
    Bruce E Compas
    Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 74:1132-42. 2006
    ..Implications for understanding child and adolescent coping with pain are highlighted...
  79. ncbi Resolving attachment injuries in couples using emotionally focused therapy: steps toward forgiveness and reconciliation
    Judy A Makinen
    Department of PsychologyUniversity of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    J Consult Clin Psychol 74:1055-64. 2006
    ..They also showed significant improvements in dyadic satisfaction and forgiveness than nonresolved couples. The results support the attachment injury resolution model and suggest that resolution during EFT is beneficial to couples...
  80. ncbi Perceptions of stress and coping strategies among adults with mild mental retardation: insight into psychological distress
    Sigan L Hartley
    Department of Psychology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
    Am J Ment Retard 110:285-97. 2005
    ..Decreasing opportunities for stress and increasing accurate perceptions of control and subsequently active coping may reduce psychological distress among people with mild mental retardation...
  81. ncbi Self-regulatory processes defend against the threat of death: Effects of self-control depletion and trait self-control on thoughts and fears of dying
    Matthew T Gailliot
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 1270, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 91:49-62. 2006
    ..These results suggest that self-regulation is a key intrapsychic mechanism for alleviating troublesome thoughts and feelings about mortality...
  82. ncbi Temperament types are associated with weak self-construct, elevated distress and emotion-oriented coping in schizophrenia: evidence for a complex vulnerability marker?
    Michael Ritsner
    Sha ar Menashe Mental Health Center, Mobile Post Hefer 38814, Israel
    Psychiatry Res 128:219-28. 2004
  83. ncbi Using the impact of event scale to evaluate psychological response to being a phenylketonuria gene carrier
    Catherine Y Read
    William F Connell School of Nursing at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, USA
    J Genet Couns 13:207-19. 2004
    ..As more tests become available for detecting the presence of disease-related genes, instruments such as the IES may prove useful in the evaluation of psychological responses to genetic information...
  84. ncbi The cognitive nature of forgiveness: using cognitive strategies of primary appraisal and coping to describe the process of forgiving
    John Maltby
    University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    J Clin Psychol 63:555-66. 2007
    ..Crucial differences in the ways that men and women appraise and cope with situations involving forgiveness are discussed...
  85. ncbi Seeing and being seen: narcissistic pride and narcissistic humiliation
    John Steiner
    Int J Psychoanal 87:939-51. 2006
    ..An understanding of the mechanisms involved seemed to enable some development to proceed...
  86. ncbi Les Enfants de Duplessis: perspectives on trauma and resiliency
    Jon A Shaw
    Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, USA
    Psychiatry 69:328-32. 2006
  87. ncbi Body checking in the eating disorders: association with narcissistic characteristics
    Glenn Waller
    Eating Disorders Section, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, United Kingdom
    Eat Behav 9:163-9. 2008
    ..These patterns are compatible with a model where body checking serves the defensive function of maintaining self-esteem, rather than promoting positive levels of narcissistic self-esteem...
  88. ncbi Psychological adjustment following diagnosis and treatment of cancer: an examination of the moderating role of positive and negative emotional expressivity
    Phillip J Quartana
    Department of Psychology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, Illinois 60064, USA
    J Behav Med 29:487-98. 2006
    ..These findings underscore the importance of examining the impact of individual differences in negative, as well as positive, emotional expression on cognitive processing and psychological adjustment...
  89. ncbi Ostracism
    Kipling D Williams
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 58:425-52. 2007
    ..Available research on chronic exposure to ostracism appears to deplete coping resources, resulting in depression and helplessness...
  90. ncbi Coping by redefinition: cognitive appraisals in mothers of children with autism and children without autism
    Belgin Tunali
    University of Houston, Texas, USA
    J Autism Dev Disord 32:25-34. 2002
    ..Moreover, mothers of children with autism who showed these characteristics had the greatest life satisfaction overall...
  91. ncbi Why do anal wounds heal adequately? A study of the local immunoinflammatory defense mechanisms
    Pedro Roberto de Paula
    Departamento de Medicina, Universidade de Taubate, Taubate, Brazil
    Dis Colon Rectum 47:1861-7. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to identify the tissue defense immunoinflammatory mechanisms present in the healing process of anal region wounds resulting from hemorrhoidectomy by the open technique...
  92. ncbi Candidate's thesis: enhancing intrinsic cochlear stress defenses to reduce noise-induced hearing loss
    Richard D Kopke
    Department of Defence Spatial Orientation Center, Naval Medical Center San Diego, California 92134, USA
    Laryngoscope 112:1515-32. 2002
    ..We present the results of three different approaches to enhance intrinsic cochlear defense mechanisms against oxidative stress...
  93. ncbi Serine proteinase inhibitors in the Compositae: distribution, polymorphism and properties
    Alexander V Konarev
    All Russian Institute of Plant Protection VIZR, Podbelsky 3, St Petersburg, 189620 Russia
    Phytochemistry 59:279-91. 2002
    ..subtilisin and trypsin and/or chymotrypsin (T/C/SI) had the widest distribution and may be involved in plant defense mechanisms. They were found in many species of the subfamilies Carduoideae (genera Carthamus, Centaurea, Cirsium), ..
  94. ncbi Role of circadian rhythm and endogenous melatonin in pathogenesis of acute gastric bleeding erosions induced by stress
    T Brzozowski
    Department of Physiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 16 Grzegorzecka Street, Cracow, Poland
    J Physiol Pharmacol 58:53-64. 2007 response to the imbalance between the aggressive factors promoting mucosal damage and the gastric mucosal defense mechanisms including predominantly gastric blood flow (GBF), biosynthesis of gastroprotective prostaglandins (PG) and ..
  95. ncbi [Granulomatous diseases and pathogenic microorganism]
    Yoshikazu Inoue
    Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Kinki chuo Chest Medical Center, Osaka, Japan
    Kekkaku 83:115-30. 2008
    ..Balance between pathogenic microorganisms and defense mechanisms of the host might be important in the special immunologic reaction...
  96. ncbi [Susceptibility to miconazole and itraconazole of Candida strains isolated from hospitalized and outpatient clinic patients]
    Agnieszka K Kurnatowska
    Zakład Leczenia Chorób Pasozytniczych i Grzybic, Katedra Biologii i Parazytologii Lekarskiej, Uniwersytet Medyczny, Pl Gen J Hallera 1, 90 647 Łódź
    Wiad Parazytol 55:415-23. 2009
    ..different genera and species can cause organ-limited or systemic infections after disrupting of the natural defense mechanisms in a human organism. The treatment of mycoses still encounters considerable difficulties...
  97. ncbi Commensal bacteria (normal microflora), mucosal immunity and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases
    Helena Tlaskalova-Hogenova
    Department of Immunology and Gnotobiology, Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic
    Immunol Lett 93:97-108. 2004
    ..However, at the same time the mucosal immune system must provide local defense mechanisms against environmental threats (e.g. invading pathogens)...
  98. ncbi Role of capsaicin-sensitive nerves and histamine H1, H2, and H3 receptors in the gastroprotective effect of histamine against stress ulcers in rats
    Artur Dembinski
    Department of Physiology, Jagiellonian University Medical School, 16 Grzegorzecka Street, Krakow 31 531, Poland
    Eur J Pharmacol 508:211-21. 2005
    ..However, it has been also demonstrated that gastric defense mechanisms, which prevent mucosal injury, are enhanced by the same factors that increase acid secretion...
  99. pmc Responses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis hemoglobin promoters to in vitro and in vivo growth conditions
    Sudesh Pawaria
    Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39 A, Chandigarh 160036, India
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:3512-22. 2008
    ..of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as one of the dreaded human pathogens lies in its ability to utilize different defense mechanisms in response to the varied environmental challenges during the course of its intracellular infection, latency,..
  100. ncbi Functional mimics of glutathione peroxidase: bioinspired synthetic antioxidants
    Krishna P Bhabak
    Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
    Acc Chem Res 43:1408-19. 2010
    ..Mammalian cells have elaborate antioxidant defense mechanisms to control the damaging effects of ROS...
  101. ncbi Circadian rhythms, oxidative stress, and antioxidative defense mechanisms
    Rudiger Hardeland
    Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    Chronobiol Int 20:921-62. 2003

Research Grants66

  1. Enzymatic Regulation of S-Glutathionylation : Role in Apoptosis and Disease
    John J Mieyal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The neurons are lost through deterioration of their antioxidant defense mechanisms and the adverse effects of inflammation...
  2. Novel Peptide MPO Inhibitors for Treating Atherosclerosis
    Kirkwood A Pritchard; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..MPO is highly expressed in inflammatory phagocytes and is considered to play an important role in host defense mechanisms. However, phagocytes are also activated by oxidized biomolecules that are found in the vessel wall...
  3. Global regulatory interactions in bacterial pathogenesis
    BRIAN AKERLEY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Aim#2. Delineate host defense mechanisms that target regulated bacterial surface structures...
  4. Pilot Studies of the Effect of Aging on Mucociliary Clearance
    Lawrence E Ostrowski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One of the most important innate defense mechanisms against respiratory infections is the mucociliary clearance (MCC) system...
    David R Brown; Fiscal Year: 2010
  6. Low level exposure to PBDEs: testing the hormetic and epigenetic hypotheses
    Lucio G Costa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A lo level of oxidative stress caused by BDE-47 would stimulate defense mechanisms in the cell, which would protect them from the toxicity of higher exposures...
  7. Host Defense Mechanisms in Polyaromatic Hydrogen Carcinogenesis
    Craig A Elmets; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have developed novel reagents and we utilize them as a vaccine to determine if they augment immunity to PAHs and can be used to prevent tumors from developing in the first place. ..
  8. Characterization of the thioredoxins system in the diabetic retina
    Folami Lamoke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..stress in the retinal hyperglycemic milieu can result from the impairment of endogenous anti-oxidant defense mechanisms. The overall goal of this proposal is to investigate the effects of diabetes on the activity of the ..
  9. Regulation of HIV-1 by Rad51 in CNS cells
    Kamel Khalili; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Infection of the central nervous system with HIV-1 can trigger a cascade of defense mechanisms that are aimed at blocking expression of the viral genome at various stages of its life cycle...
  10. Stem cell mutagenesis mediated by age and niche
    VIVIENNE ILONA REBEL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..It is known that natural defense mechanisms serve to protect against accumulation of DNA mutations and to diminish the risk of developing cancer...
  11. Genetic Determinants of Lung Injury
    Beverly H Koller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Defense mechanisms capable of detoxification and reduction of ROS and neutralizing the deleterious effects of oxidative stress ..
  12. Antimicrobial Peptides and Innate Immunity in Otitis Media
    Lauren O Bakaletz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..understanding of how the body defends the uppermost airway, and that methods to potentially augment these defense mechanisms be identified and developed further as a novel approach for the treatment and/or prevention of OM...
  13. Otitis media-associated pneumococcal genes
    Honggao Yan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Successful growth of S. pneumoniae in the host environments depends on bacterial ability to withstand host defense mechanisms (immune evasion). However, the precise mechanisms underlying S...
  14. Host defense against poxviruses and viral immune evasion
    Liang Deng; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Our long-term goal has been to understand host antiviral defense mechanisms and viral immune evasion strategies...
  15. The consequences of loricrin deficiency on epidermal barrier function
    DENNIS ROOP; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have obtained genetic evidence suggesting that the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway, one of the major cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative and xenobiotic stress, is involved in sensing the barrier defect in LKO mice, and ..
  16. Discovery of Critical Host Genes Enabling Resistance to HIV-1 Infection as Therap
    Leyla S Diaz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..targeted by monoclonal antibodies to block HIV life cycle and/or to eliminate infected cells via normal host defense mechanisms such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and/or complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC)...
    Julian H Lombard; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..receptor transactivation and the ERK 1/2 pathway in maintaining vascular relaxation and normal antioxidant defense mechanisms)...
  18. Syk in Mitochondrial Stress Signaling and Insulin Resistance
    Heide Christine Patterson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project will determine whether Syk mediates activation of cellular defense mechanisms such as insulin resistance in response to mitochondrial stressors and excessive ROS release using in vitro ..
  19. Biomarkers of Aggressive Oral Cancer
    ..Krebs cycle, and altered energy metabolism, membrane choline phospholipid metabolism, and oxidative/osmotic defense mechanisms. Using NMR spectroscopy, several groups also generated a list of similar metabolites differentially ..
  20. Gonococcal resistance to peroxynitrite
    Virginia L Clark; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..RNS), especially peroxynitrite, and we propose that this characteristic allows this organism to escape host defense mechanisms. We also propose that N...
  21. Genetic determinants of susceptibility to mycobacterial infections
    Philippe Gros; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The host defense mechanisms against these infections, including the effector functions of macrophages and parameters of protective ..
  22. Chronic stress-induced gene expression in colonic circular smooth muscle cells.
    Sushil K Sarna; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Stress and immune systems are a body's defense mechanisms against psychosomatic and pathogenic challenges...
  23. Neutrophil Accumulation in Bacterial Pneumonia
    Samithamby Jeyaseelan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Understanding the innate defense mechanisms in the lower respiratory tract is critical for the development of novel treatment and/or prevention ..
  24. Mechanisms by which VZV IE proteins interact with cell antiviral proteins to prev
    MARIA ACENA NAGEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are unclear, but likely involve cell type-specific interactions of viral proteins and host cell antiviral defense mechanisms. Recent studies on herpesviruses show that viral proteins interact with antiviral promyelocytic leukemia ..
  25. Augmentation of Innate Anti-Microbial Immunity by TLR4 Agonists
    Edward R Sherwood; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Large surface area burns cause loss of the protective skin barrier and dysregulation of antimicrobial defense mechanisms resulting in ideal conditions for colonization of burn wounds and dissemination of bacteria into blood, lung ..
  26. GCL-M Regulation of Angiogenesis
    ..As reduced GSH levels are altered other anti-oxidant defense mechanisms are activated, among these are E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) which binds to DNA antioxidant response elements (..
  27. Antimicrobial Phototherapy of Antibiotic Resistant Chronic Sinusitis
    MERRILL ABRAHAM BIEL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..including CRS biofilms, are notoriously resistant to standard antibiotic therapy as well as host immunologic defense mechanisms therefore contributing to the dismal cure rates of CRS and to increased antibiotic resistance...
  28. Structure and Function of Endothelial Fenestrae
    RADU VIRGIL STAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is also an important contributor to the defense mechanisms that occur in inflammation...
  29. Reactivity epitopes of ribonuclease III substrates
    ALLEN WHITALL NICHOLSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..specificity is achieved in dsRNA processing by RNase III, and ultimately determine the role of dsRNA processing in the cellular defense mechanisms, including RNAi and in specific disease states, including cancer and infectious diseases.
    SANDRA KAY ARMSTRONG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Iron that is essential for virtually all bacterial growth is actively withheld by mammalian defense mechanisms. Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica are highly genetically related bacterial species that ..
  31. Regulation of Antioxidant Genes and Oxidative Stress
    Yoshiaki Tsuji; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This proposal will also investigate the common regulatory mechanism of ferritin and other antioxidant genes that are involved in cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress.
  32. Reducing wound bioburden and biofilm formation using a nanoscale wound surface en
    Jonathan F McAnulty; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..biofilms present two distinct challenges: 1) the biofilm must be removed or dispersed to reduce bacterial defense mechanisms;and 2) effective antimicrobial agents applied to suppress the resident bacteria...
  33. Analyses of two RNA helicases that affect intercellular transport via plasmodesma
    Patricia C Zambryski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..these studies will impact how transport of RNA and protein controls complex developmental programs, and also have application to plant defense mechanisms (as PD function to limit virus spread and transport of gene silencing signals).
  34. Host-pathogen competition in IFN mediated antiviral defense
    Jae U Jung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..patterns and activate signal transduction cascades, thereby triggering interferon (IFN)-mediated anti-viral defense mechanisms. Key virus-detecting receptors include the nucleic acid recognizing Toll-like receptors and the cytosolic ..
  35. Genetic Variations and Development of Vesicoureteral Reflux and Sequelae
    DAVID SULLIVAN HAINS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Recently, investigators have begun to identify formidable host defense mechanisms, notably antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which protect against UTIs...
  36. Cell-mediated protection against pneumonic plague
    Jr Shiuan Lin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..generate powerful new tools for deciphering the fascinating interplay between Yp virulence factors and host defense mechanisms, thereby advancing basic research aimed at exploiting cellular immunity for defense against virulent ..
  37. Novel Inhibitors of Viral Replication
    Michael G Roth; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Many viruses evade host defense mechanisms by targeting specific host vulnerabilities, revealing critical points in host pathways regulating antiviral responses...
  38. Endogenous and exogenous protection of the BBB in stroke
    Richard F Keep; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This proposal examines natural defense mechanisms that may protect the blood-brain barrier, how to activate those mechanisms or prevent their inactivation ..
  39. Initiation of the Immune Response to Aspergillus fumigatus
    Tobias M Hohl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To interrogate monocyte-mediated host defense mechanisms triggered by the direct encounter with fungal cells, we developed a novel fluorescent A...
  40. Novel components of iron sulfur cluster biosynthesis pathways
    Gareth P Butland; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This susceptibility has been leveraged by host defense mechanisms, which target FeS clusters as components through which to promote cell death...
  41. Viral Immunomodulation and Rational CMV Vaccine Design
    Mark R Schleiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..approach to generate an immunogenic, yet safe live vaccine is the deletion of viral genes that subvert host defense mechanisms to infection...
  42. Genetic Disorder of Mucocilary Clearance
    Michael R Knowles; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the broader view, better definition of pathobiology and/or molecular etiologies of these disorders will enhance our understanding of normal airway defense mechanisms.
  43. Non-CD4 Host defense against P. carinii Pneumonia
    Jay K Kolls; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Therefore, we have been seeking to better understand how CD4+ T cell independent (CD4IND) host defense mechanisms might defend against PC...
  44. Identification of novel DNA repair mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Pallavi Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..During the course of infection M. tuberculosis is challenged with a variety of host defense mechanisms which the pathogen has to overcome...
  45. Homogenous HTS Assays to Screen for Inhibitors of Keap1-Nrf2 Interaction
    Longqin Hu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Keap1-Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) system regulates cellular defense mechanisms that protect cells from oxidative stress...
  46. Polyamine-dependent regulation of Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation
    Ece Karatan; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..human host in microbial communities called biofilms, which can make this organism highly tolerant to host defense mechanisms and potentially aid in disease progression (Hang et al., 2003, Xu et al., 2003)...
  47. Differential Redox &Electrophilic Toxicities of Modified Tobacco Products
    Norbert Staimer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the differential effects of cigarette smoke components from modified tobacco products on the antioxidant defense mechanisms of cultivated primary small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) This will be among the first studies to compare ..
  48. Host Cell JAK-STAT Activation and Pathogenesis of Spotted Fever Rickettsioses
    Sanjeev K Sahni; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..proteins and modulate their functions via ISGylation, the second aim will determine its role in host defense mechanisms against pathogenic rickettsiae...
  49. Collectins and Innate Defense against Inhaled Pathogens
    Barbara A Seaton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The central theme of the Program Project is to understand the innate host defense mechanisms against inhaled pathogens by the two pulmonary collectins, surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A, SP-D)...
  50. Ecological triggers to exploit antibiotic and virulence factor regulation
    JASON MICHAEL CRAWFORD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..molecules that signal for the IJ worms to become reproducing adults, small molecules that counter insect defense mechanisms, and antibiotics to protect their prey from competing bacteria and fungi...
  51. Th17 Cytokines and Lung Immunity
    Jay K Kolls; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bacterial pneumonia is an important clinical problem and host defense mechanisms against pneumonia are not fully understood...
    Theodore J Standiford; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..range of research topics is available to trainees including the pathobiology of fibrotic lung disease, host defense mechanisms, lymphocyte-macrophage interactions, epithelial cell biology, fibroblast biology, tumor biology, eicosanoid ..
    MARC L PETERS-GOLDEN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The proposed research aims to understand the intracellular events that underlie these eicosanoid effects on alveolar macrophages, thereby providing new clinically relevant insights into regulation of lung defense mechanisms.
  54. Regulation of Oral Bacteria by Pattern Recognition Receptors
    Naohiro Inohara; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..receptors (PRRs), including Nod proteins and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), initiates antibacterial defense mechanisms and modulates the homeostasis of host-bacterial interactions...
  55. Virulence Mechanisms of Viral Bcl-2 Homologs
    Shu Ichi Matsuzawa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the vBcl-2 homologs are multifunctional proteins that utilize 3 discrete mechanisms to thwart host defense mechanisms: (a) suppression of apoptosis;(b) inhibition of autophagy;and (c) interference with NLR-mediated innate ..
  56. Inhibitors of Mycobacterial Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase B (mPTPB) for therapy of
    Francis Burrows; Fiscal Year: 2013 actively secreted into the cytoplasm of infected macrophages, where it undermines host antibacterial defense mechanisms by blocking the production of inflammatory cytokines and preventing the execution of the infected macrophage&..
  57. MAVS protein: A role of mitochondria in innate immunity and cardioprotection
    Kirk Peterson; Fiscal Year: 2013 be a key molecule in innate antiviral defense and highlighted a novel function of mitochondria in host defense mechanisms. Since mitochondria have been implicated in cardioprotection against various stresses, the discovery of MAVS ..
  58. Activated Targeted Killer (ATAK) Cells for Invasive Fungal Infections
    Brad J Spellberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Definition of the mechanism of protection and toxicities of ATAK cells will elucidate phagocytic host defense mechanisms against fungi in general, and is critical to future enhancement of ATAK efficacy...
  59. Determining the role of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) in HIV-1 infection
    Devi SenGupta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, they can be reactivated in HIV infection as a result of dysregulated host defense mechanisms. The extent and consequences of HERV-K reactivation during HIV infection are incompletely understood. Dr...
  60. Pathway Modeling of Complex Toxin Response and Energy Balance Systems in Cancer
    Nora L Nock; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Moreover, because exercise of sufficient intensity can upregulate antioxidant and other toxin defense mechanisms and lipophilic toxins (PAHs) can bioaccumulate in body fat, physical activity and other components of energy ..
  61. Host Defense Mechanisms in Chronic Lung Disease
    Jo Rae Wright; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  62. Modulation of host innate immune response by Francisella tularensis
    Chandra Shekhar Bakshi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have demonstrated that Ft SchuS4 possesses robust antioxidant defense mechanisms which render it extremely resistant to oxidants...
  63. Investigations of the role of house flies as vectors for bacterial pathogens
    Dana Nayduch; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Ingested bacteria face an onslaught of defense mechanisms in the midgut including physical barriers (peritrophic matrix) and secreted humoral defenses (lysozyme and ..
  64. Immunity to Oral Candidiasis
    SARAH GAFFEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The defense mechanisms that limit oral Candida in normal individuals cover the spectrum of innate and acquired immunity...
  65. Use of Probiotic Conditioned Media to Protect Against Necrotizing Enterocolitis
    ERIKA CLAUD; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum can decrease the incidence and severity of NEC by improving intestinal host defense mechanisms, including (A) enhancement of intestinal barrier function, (B) induction of cytoprotective heat shock ..
  66. Host-Pathogen Interactions in the Mammalian Airway
    Gill Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Deficiencies in these defenses may result in recurrent airway infections. One of these defense mechanisms is the inducible production of beta-defensins, a class of homologous antibiotic peptides highly abundant in ..