Genomes and Genes
Summary: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Publications272 found, 100 shown here
- Female competition and its evolutionary consequences in mammalsPaula Stockley
Mammalian Behaviour and Evolution Group, School of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Neston, UK
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 86:341-66. 2011..We conclude that future research in this field offers much exciting potential to address new and fundamentally important questions relating to social and mating-system evolution...
- Cooperation and competition between relativesStuart A West
Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
Science 296:72-5. 2002..Recent theoretical work has clarified the processes and selective forces underlying this effect and has demonstrated the generality of the effect of competition between relatives...
- Cooperation and competition in pathogenic bacteriaAshleigh S Griffin
Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
Nature 430:1024-7. 2004....
- Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruismSamuel Bowles
Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA, and Universitá di Siena, 17 Piazza San Francesco, Siena, Italy
Science 314:1569-72. 2006..These culturally transmitted practices presuppose advanced cognitive and linguistic capacities, possibly accounting for the distinctive forms of altruism found in our species...
- The evolution of female ornaments and weaponry: social selection, sexual selection and ecological competitionJoseph A Tobias
Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:2274-93. 2012..We conclude that the evolution of these traits in both sexes is best understood within the unifying framework of social selection...
- Who is the best player ever? A complex network analysis of the history of professional tennisFilippo Radicchi
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States of America
PLoS ONE 6:e17249. 2011..The present work provides novel evidence of the utility of tools and methods of network theory in real applications...
- Evolutionary establishment of moral and double moral standards through spatial interactionsDirk Helbing
ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
PLoS Comput Biol 6:e1000758. 2010..The complex dynamics of certain social behaviors become understandable as the result of an evolutionary competition between different behavioral strategies...
- Sophisticated sperm allocation in male fowlTommaso Pizzari
Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara PO Box 234, SE 532 23, Sweden
Nature 426:70-4. 2003..Our results indicate that female promiscuity leads to the evolution of sophisticated male sexual behaviour...
- Dehydration and rehydration in competative sportR J Maughan
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
Scand J Med Sci Sports 20:40-7. 2010..An appropriate, individualized drinking strategy will take account of pre-exercise hydration status and of fluid, electrolyte and substrate needs before, during and after a period of exercise...
- Male-male competition, female mate choice and their interaction: determining total sexual selectionJohn Hunt
Centre for Ecology and Conservation, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK
J Evol Biol 22:13-26. 2009..We discuss the evolutionary consequences of combining the mechanisms of sexual selection and interpreting total sexual selection. We suggest how this approach may result in empirical progress in the field of sexual selection...
- Effects of implicit power motivation on men's and women's implicit learning and testosterone changes after social victory or defeatOliver C Schultheiss
Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
J Pers Soc Psychol 88:174-88. 2005..In both men and women, self-reported affective states were influenced only by contest outcome and were unrelated to participants' testosterone changes or implicit learning...
- Perception of male-male competition influences Drosophila copulation behaviour even in species where females rarely remateAnne Lizé
Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
Biol Lett 8:35-8. 2012..These results are discussed in relation to the adaptive basis of plasticity in these species...
- Obligate vertebrate scavengers must be large soaring fliersGraeme D Ruxton
Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Graham Kerr Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
J Theor Biol 228:431-6. 2004..Indeed it will perhaps always be more advantageous to retain the flexibility of obtaining food by either predation or scavenging...
- Ecological competition favours cooperation in termite societiesJudith Korb
University of Osnabrueck, Germany
Ecol Lett 13:754-60. 2010..domesticus than in C. secundus. Our data suggest that ecological competition among species can greatly exacerbate the impact of internal conflicts, thereby promoting the evolution of within-species cooperation...
- Previous experience and contest outcome: winner effects persist in absence of evident loser effects in a parasitoid waspMarlène Goubault
Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l Insecte, Unité Mixte de Recherche CNRS 6035, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, 37200 Tours, France
Am Nat 180:364-71. 2012..We suggest an alternative explanation for the evolution of only winner effects that is based on the modification of contestants' subjective value of the resource rather than on a reestimation of their fighting abilities...
- The coevolution of altruism and punishment: role of the selfish punisherMayuko Nakamaru
Department of Value and Decision Science, Graduate School of Decision Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2 12 1, O Okayama, Meguro ku, Tokyo, 152 8552, Japan
J Theor Biol 240:475-88. 2006..These results can be understood that punishment is a form of spite behavior, paying a cost to reduce the fitness of the opponents, and that different models give different magnitude of advantage to spite behavior...
- Sperm wars and the evolution of male fertilityLeigh W Simmons
Centre for Evolutionary Biology, School of Animal Biology M092, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia
Reproduction 144:519-34. 2012..We argue that future research must consider sperm and seminal fluid components of the ejaculate as a functional unity. Research at the genomic level will identify the genes that ultimately control male fertility...
- Male contest competition and the coevolution of weaponry and testes in pinnipedsJohn L Fitzpatrick
Centre for Evolutionary Biology, School of Animal Biology M092, University of Western Australia, WA 6009, Australia
Evolution 66:3595-604. 2012..Thus, our results are congruent with recent theoretical predictions of contest-based sperm competition models. We discuss the possible role of trade-offs and allometry in influencing patterns of reproductive trait evolution in pinnipeds...
- Experience of mating rivals causes males to modulate sperm transfer in the fly Drosophila pseudoobscuraTom A R Price
Biosciences, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, UK
J Insect Physiol 58:1669-75. 2012..This suggests that the evolution of parasperm in flies was not driven by sperm competition and adds to the increasing evidence that males can make extremely sophisticated responses to mating competition...
- Extreme reversed sexual dichromatism in a bird without sex role reversalRobert Heinsohn
Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 Australia
Science 309:617-9. 2005..Females are liberated from the need for camouflage but compete for rare nest hollows...
- Salivary cortisol changes in humans after winning or losing a dominance contest depend on implicit power motivationMichelle M Wirth
Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109, USA
Horm Behav 49:346-52. 2006..These studies add to the evidence that individual differences greatly influence whether a social stressor like losing a contest activates the HPA axis in humans...
- Gaping displays reveal and amplify a mechanically based index of weapon performanceA Kristopher Lappin
Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA
Am Nat 168:100-13. 2006..Indexes that transmit information through mechanistic links to performance are expected to be widespread among animals...
- K-selection, alpha-selection, effectiveness, and tolerance in competition: density-dependent selection revisitedA Joshi
Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary and Organismal Biology Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, P O Box No 6436, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 064, India
J Genet 80:63-75. 2001....
- Faster development does not lead to correlated evolution of greater pre-adult competitive ability in Drosophila melanogasterMallikarjun Shakarad
Behaviour, Ecology and Evolution Laboratory, Biology Department, Poornaprajna Institute of Scientific Research, P O Box 18, Devanahalli 562 110, Bangalore, India
Biol Lett 1:91-4. 2005..We briefly discuss these results in the context of different formulations of density-dependent selection theory...
- Rapid evolution drives ecological dynamics in a predator-prey systemTakehito Yoshida
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Nature 424:303-6. 2003..These results confirm that prey evolution can substantially alter predator-prey dynamics, and therefore that attempts to understand population oscillations in nature cannot neglect potential effects from ongoing rapid evolution...
- Oxytocin modulates cooperation within and competition between groups: an integrative review and research agendaCarsten K W De Dreu
Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Horm Behav 61:419-28. 2012..This review concludes with avenues for new research on oxytocin's functions in within-group cooperation and between-group competition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior...
- Staying alive: evolution, culture, and women's intrasexual aggressionA Campbell
Psychology Department, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, England
Behav Brain Sci 22:203-14; discussion 214-52. 1999....
- Life history trade-offs assemble ecological guildsMichael B Bonsall
Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK
Science 306:111-4. 2004..This leads us to argue that evolutionary processes (life-history trait trade-offs) are fundamental to the understanding of the structure of ecological communities...
- Different action patterns for cooperative and competitive behaviourIoanna Georgiou
Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway University of London, UK
Cognition 102:415-33. 2007..In accordance with evidence from neuroimaging, developmental and social psychology our results suggest the existence of motor patterns which reflect the intention to act in a social context...
- Density-dependent intraspecific competition in the larval stage of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): revisiting the current paradigmMathieu Legros
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
J Med Entomol 46:409-19. 2009..We review other empirical studies on larval competition, discuss the need for further dedicated studies, and provide a few simple guidelines for the design of such studies...
- Asymmetrical competition and patterns of abundance of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)Katie S Costanzo
Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790 4120, USA
J Med Entomol 42:559-70. 2005..We expect Cx. pipiens to suffer from the effects of interspecific competition in tires in which it encounters Ae. albopictus. Interspecific competition between these species may be of both ecological and medical importance...
- Male mammals respond to a risk of sperm competition conveyed by odours of conspecific malesJavier Delbarco-Trillo
Department of Biology, University of Memphis, Ellington Hall, Memphis, Tennessee 38152, USA
Nature 431:446-9. 2004..Such an increase in sperm investment does not occur by augmenting the frequency of ejaculations, but by increasing the amount of sperm in a similar number of ejaculations...
- Evolution of character displacement in Darwin's finchesPeter R Grant
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 1003, USA
Science 313:224-6. 2006..These findings support the role of competition in models of community assembly, speciation, and adaptive radiations...
- Sexual and social competition: broadening perspectives by defining female rolesDustin R Rubenstein
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology, Columbia University, 10th Floor Schermerhorn Extension, 1200 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:2248-52. 2012....
- Species clustering in competitive Lotka-Volterra modelsSimone Pigolotti
Instituto de Física Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos IFISC CSIC UIB, Campus de la Universitat de les Illes Balears, E 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Phys Rev Lett 98:258101. 2007..We estimate properties of the species distributions, such as the steady number of species and their spacings, for different types of interactions, including stretched exponential and constant kernels...
- Middleborns disadvantaged? Testing birth-order effects on fitness in pre-industrial FinnsCharlotte Faurie
Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
PLoS ONE 4:e5680. 2009..Therefore, our results suggest that parents invest differentially in their offspring in order to both preferentially favour particular offspring or reduce offspring inequalities arising from sibling competition...
- Applied physiology of rugby leagueTim Gabbett
Brisbane Broncos Rugby League Club, Red Hill, Queensland, Australia
Sports Med 38:119-38. 2008..A test that assesses repeated effort performance and employs distances, tackles and intensities specific to rugby league, while also simulating work-to-rest ratios similar to rugby league competition, is warranted...
- Infanticide by subordinates influences reproductive sharing in cooperatively breeding meerkatsAndrew J Young
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
Biol Lett 2:385-7. 2006..We discuss the broad implications of subordinates having a degree of control over reproductive sharing for future attempts to understand the distribution of reproduction in animal societies...
- Biotic interactions, rapid evolution, and the establishment of introduced speciesEmily I Jones
School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, P O Box 644236, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA
Am Nat 179:E28-36. 2012....
- How do endurance runners actually train? Relationship with competition performanceJonathan Esteve-Lanao
Exercise Physiology Laboratory, European University of Madrid, Spain
Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:496-504. 2005..To quantify the relationship between total training load and running performance during the most important competitions of the season (national cross-country championships, 4.175- and 10.130-km races)...
- The significance of ratios of detritus types and micro-organism productivity to competitive interactions between aquatic insect detritivoresDonald A Yee
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N W Calgary, AB, T2N 1 N4, Canada
J Anim Ecol 76:1105-15. 2007..Seasonal variation in ratios of plant and animal detritus indicated that temporal as well as spatial variation in inputs may be important for potential coexistence...
- Intrafamilial resource competition and mate competition shaped social-group-specific natal dispersal in the 18th and 19th century Krummhörn populationJan Beise
Zentrum für Philosophie und Grundlagen der Wissenschaft der, Justus Liebig Universität D 35394 Giessen, Germany
Am J Hum Biol 20:325-36. 2008....
- Timing of resource input and larval competition between invasive and native container-inhabiting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)Sarah N Bevins
Department of Biology and Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 1878, USA
J Vector Ecol 32:252-62. 2007..Timing of resource availability in container habitats can impact mosquito survival via competitive interactions, which can ultimately influence vector population size and behavior, possibly influencing vector-borne disease transmission...
- Are there limits to swimming world records?A M Nevill
School of Sport, Performing Arts and Leisure, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
Int J Sports Med 28:1012-7. 2007..9, similar to those observed in middle and long distance running performances. These finding supports the notion that a 10 % gender inequality exists for both swimming and running...
- Features of the early juvenile development predict competitive performance in male European rabbitsHeiko G Rödel
Department of Animal Physiology, University of Bayreuth, D 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
Physiol Behav 97:495-502. 2009..In conclusion our study points out, that parameters of the early development are involved in shaping the competitive performance during later life via other mechanisms than just by promoting a high adult body mass...
- The influence of operational sex ratio on the intensity of competition for matesLaura K Weir
Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada
Am Nat 177:167-76. 2011..These results suggest considerable flexibility of mating system structure within species, which can be predicted by OSR and likely results in variation in the strength of sexual selection...
- Progression and variability of competitive performance of Olympic swimmersDavid Pyne
Department of Physiology, Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra, Australia
J Sports Sci 22:613-20. 2004..4% (one-half the between-competition variability) would substantially increase the swimmer's chances of a medal...
- Competition and habitat suitability: small-scale segregation underpins large-scale coexistence of key species on temperate rocky shoresLouise Bridget Firth
School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
Oecologia 162:163-74. 2010..Conflicting results in the short-term and long-term experiments highlight the importance of considering the correct temporal extent for experimental tests of hypotheses...
- Coping with competition: neuroendocrine responses and cognitive variablesAlicia Salvador
Department of Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Valencia, Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33:160-70. 2009....
- Coping with competitive situations in humansAlicia Salvador
Department of Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Valencia, Apartado 22109, 46071 Valencia, Spain
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:195-205. 2005..More important than winning or losing is the coping pattern displayed by the subject, which determines the hormonal changes experienced when facing competition and its outcome...
- Salinity mediates the competitive interactions between invasive mosquitofish and an endangered fishCarles Alcaraz
Institute of Aquatic Ecology, University of Girona, 17071 Girona, Spain
Oecologia 155:205-13. 2008..Condition-specific competition of mosquitofish might be expected with other species and ecosystems worldwide and illustrates the importance of integrating biotic and abiotic factors in the study of interspecific interactions...
- Spatial and temporal patterns of coexistence between competing Aedes mosquitoes in urban FloridaPaul T Leisnham
Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 2315, USA
Oecologia 160:343-52. 2009..These results suggest that both temporal and spatial variation may contribute to local coexistence between these Aedes in urban areas...
- Resistance to extreme strategies, rather than prosocial preferences, can explain human cooperation in public goods gamesRolf Kümmerli
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:10125-30. 2010..More generally, our results illustrate the caution that must be exercised when interpreting the evolutionary implications of economic experiments, especially the absolute level of cooperation in a particular treatment...
- Buddy up: the Köhler effect applied to health gamesDeborah L Feltz
Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
J Sport Exerc Psychol 33:506-26. 2011..The conjunctive condition was no more motivating than either the additive or coactive conditions. Results suggest that working out with virtually present, superior partners can improve persistence motivation on exercise game tasks...
- Opposing selection on a sexually dimorphic trait through female choice and male competition in a water boatmanUlrika Candolin
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Evolution 58:1861-4. 2004..This conflicting selection through female choice and male competition could be one of the forces that contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation in sexually selected traits...
- Match-to-match variability of high-speed activities in premier league soccerW Gregson
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Int J Sports Med 31:237-42. 2010..This inherent variability means that research requires large sample sizes in order to detect real systematic changes in performance characteristics...
- Species interactions among larval mosquitoes: context dependence across habitat gradientsSteven A Juliano
Department of Biological Sciences, Behavior, Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics Section, Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois 61790 4120, USA
Annu Rev Entomol 54:37-56. 2009..Investigations of context-dependent interactions among mosquito larvae will yield greater understanding of mosquito population dynamics and provide useful model systems for testing theories of context dependence in communities...
- Experimental evidence of competitive release in sympatric carnivoresIain D Trewby
Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK
Biol Lett 4:170-2. 2008..6-2.3 foxes km-2. This unique experiment demonstrates the importance of intraguild relations in determining species abundance and of assessing the wider consequences of intervention in predator populations...
- A linear dominance hierarchy among clones in chimeras of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideumA Fortunato
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 1892, USA
J Evol Biol 16:438-45. 2003..These results suggest that there is either a single principal mechanism or additive effects for differential contribution to the spore, and that it involves more than spore/stalk competition...
- Intrasexual competition and sexual selection in cooperative mammalsT H Clutton-Brock
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
Nature 444:1065-8. 2006....
- A dynamical analysis of tennis: concepts and dataYannick Palut
Laboratoire Adaptation Perceptivo Motrice et Apprentissage, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France
J Sports Sci 23:1021-32. 2005..Such a finding opens new avenues for investigating dual sports...
- Anticipatory cortisol, testosterone and psychological responses to judo competition in young menA Salvador
Departamento de Psicobiologia y Psicologia Social, Facultad de Psicologia, Universidad de Valencia, Apartado 22109 Blasco Ibanez, Spain
Psychoneuroendocrinology 28:364-75. 2003..Results are discussed in the context that neuroendocrine response to competition is associated with cognitive appraisal...
- Evolutionary branching under asymmetric competitionE Kisdi
Department of Zoology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
J Theor Biol 197:149-62. 1999..I discuss whether the evolution of several haploid strategies from a single initial strategy may correspond to the evolution of several sympatric species in a diploid outbreeding population...
- On the origin of species by sympatric speciationU Dieckmann
Adaptive Dynamics Network, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria
Nature 400:354-7. 1999..Our theory conforms well with mounting empirical evidence for the sympatric origin of many species...
- How is female mate choice affected by male competition?Bob B M Wong
School of Botany and Zoology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 80:559-71. 2005..We conclude by offering researchers several potentially rewarding avenues for future research...
- Condition-specific competition allows coexistence of competitively superior exotic oysters with native oystersFrederick R Krassoi
Institute for Water and Environmental Resource Management and Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 Australia
J Anim Ecol 77:5-15. 2008..gigas and S. glomerata strengthen the claim that these may be a useful tool in the quest to produce general predictive models of invasion success...
- A critical interpersonal distance switches between two coordination modes in kendo matchesMotoki Okumura
Faculty of Education, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan
PLoS ONE 7:e51877. 2012..These dynamics are profoundly affected by the task constraints of kendo and the physical constraints of the players. Thus, the current study identifies the clear behavioral dynamics that emerge in a sport setting...
- Self-organized similarity, the evolutionary emergence of groups of similar speciesMarten Scheffer
Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, P O Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:6230-5. 2006....
- Indoor 16.1-km time-trial performance in cyclists aged 25- 63 yearsJames Balmer
School of Science and Social Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool, UK
J Sports Sci 26:57-62. 2008..95) and for maximal heart rate and time-trial heart rate (r= 0.95). Our results show that indoor 16.1-km time-trial performance declines with age but relative exercise intensity (%RMPmax and %HRmax) does not change...
- The influence of group size on children's competitive behaviorJ F Benenson
Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Child Dev 72:921-8. 2001..The causes and consequences of interaction in different sized social groups are discussed...
- Sexual selection is a form of social selectionBruce E Lyon
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:2266-73. 2012..However, social selection theory encompasses much more than female reproductive competition. Our goal here was to provide that broader perspective...
- The upper limit of aerobic power in humansMartin Burtscher
Department of Sport Science, Medical Section, University of Innsbruck, Fürstenweg 185, Innsbruck, Austria
Eur J Appl Physiol 111:2625-8. 2011..6 mmol/L. At the self-selected maximal lactate steady state he consumed 78 mLO(2)/min/kg (85.7% V'O(2)max) with a corresponding lactate level of 4.4 mmol/L. These values rank among the highest ever demonstrated in human beings...
- Resolving social conflict among females without overt aggressionMichael A Cant
Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Tremough Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 8BG, UK
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368:20130076. 2013..The main need now is for empirical work to test whether the mechanisms described here can indeed explain how social conflict can be resolved without overt aggression. ..
- On the evolution of sportMichael P Lombardo
Department of Biology, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI, USA
Evol Psychol 10:1-28. 2012..The characteristics of primitive and modern sports are more consistent with these predictions than those generated by intersexual sexual selection theories of sport...
- Effects of within-colony competition on body size asymmetries and reproductive skew in a social spiderL Grinsted
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark
J Evol Biol 26:553-61. 2013..We suggest that reproductive skew in social spiders may be an adaptation to sociality selected through inclusive fitness benefits of allo-maternal care as well as colony-level benefits maximizing colony survival and production...
- Familiarity breeds progeny: sociality increases reproductive success in adult male ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua)Ben T Hirsch
Center for Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC 20008, USA
Mol Ecol 20:409-19. 2011..The resident male's reproductive advantage may reflect female preference for a resident male strong enough to fend off competing males...
- Spite and virulence in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosaR Fredrik Inglis
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5703-7. 2009..These results suggest that spiteful interactions may play an important role in the population dynamics and virulence of natural bacterial infections...
- When does "economic man" dominate social behavior?Colin F Camerer
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
Science 311:47-52. 2006..Recently developed theories of other-regarding preferences and bounded rationality explain these findings and provide better predictions of actual aggregate behavior than does traditional economic theory...
- Plasticity in singing effort and its relationship with monoamine metabolism in the songbird telencephalonKatrina G Salvante
Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 3280, USA
Dev Neurobiol 70:41-57. 2010..This raises the hypothesis that serotonin and norepinephrine secretion in the telencephalon help mediate the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on signaling effort...
- Till death (or an intruder) do us part: intrasexual-competition in a monogamous primateEduardo Fernandez-Duque
Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
PLoS ONE 8:e53724. 2013..Instead, we suggest that sexual selection models must assume not equal, but flexible, context-specific, OSR in monogamous species...
- Socially mediated trade-offs between aggression and parental effort in competing color morphsSarah R Pryke
Department of Brain, Behaviour, and Evolution, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2019, Australia
Am Nat 174:455-64. 2009..These opposing effects of frequency-dependent competitive environments on red and black males underlie their differential trade-offs between the costs and the benefits of aggression and parental effort...
- The physiology and biomechanics of competitive swimmingJ P Troup
Novartis Consumer Health SA, Nyon Switzerland
Clin Sports Med 18:267-85. 1999..Physiology and biomechanics are the present tools used by sports scientists to determine which factors are important to fast swimming and, subsequently, to determine how the swimmer may maximize these factors to improve performance...
- Strategic self-promotion and competitor derogation: sex and context effects on the perceived effectiveness of mate attraction tacticsD P Schmitt
Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109, USA
J Pers Soc Psychol 70:1185-204. 1996..Discussion focuses on the context-specificity of human mating psychology and on linking evolutionary and traditional approaches to romantic attraction...
- Darwinism and the cultural evolution of sportsAndreas De Block
Institute of Philosophy, University of Leuven, Kardinaal Mercierplein2, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Perspect Biol Med 52:1-16. 2009..Social learning underlies many aspects of the cultural control of sports, and sports have evolved new cultural functions more-or-less unrelated to mate choice as cultural evolution itself became important in humans...
- More men run relatively fast in U.S. road races, 1981-2006: a stable sex difference in non-elite runnersRobert O Deaner
Department of Psychology, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI, USA
Evol Psychol 9:600-21. 2011..The stable sex difference in relative performance shown here for non-elites constitutes new support for the hypothesis of an evolved male predisposition for enduring competitiveness...
- Experimental evidence that competition and habitat use shape the individual fitness surfaceR Calsbeek
Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
J Evol Biol 22:97-108. 2009..Results provide empirical support for the long-standing hypothesis that density-dependent natural selection shapes the fitness surface of Greater Antilles anoles...
- Dispersal-mediated coexistence of competing predatorsToshiyuki Namba
Department of Environmental Sciences, Osaka Women s University, Daisen cho 2 1, Sakai, Osaka 590 0035, Japan
Theor Popul Biol 66:53-70. 2004....
- Human aggression in evolutionary psychological perspectiveD M Buss
Department of Psychology, University of Texas, Austin 78712, USA
Clin Psychol Rev 17:605-19. 1997..The article concludes with a limited review of the empirical evidence surrounding each of the seven hypothesized functions of aggression and discusses the status and limitations of the current evolutionary psychological account...
- Interpopulation differences in competitive effect and response of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and resistance to invasion by a superior competitorPaul T Leisnham
School of Biological Sciences, Behavior, Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics Section, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61761 4120, USA
Oecologia 164:221-30. 2010..Geographic variation in competitive ability may be common and one general cause of variation in invasion success and impact...
- Costs and benefits of within-group spatial position: a feeding competition modelBen T Hirsch
Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
Q Rev Biol 82:9-27. 2007....
- Determinants of the strength of disruptive and/or divergent selection arising from resource competitionPeter A Abrams
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Harbord St, Toronto, ON M5S 3G5 Canada
Evolution 62:1571-86. 2008..The results may explain some contradictory experimental findings regarding the effect of consumer mortality on the strength of disruptive selection...
- Good genes and sexual selection in dung beetles (Onthophagus taurus): genetic variance in egg-to-adult and adult viabilityFrancisco Garcia-Gonzalez
Centre for Evolutionary Biology, School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Australia
PLoS ONE 6:e16233. 2011..Our results are consistent with good genes sexual selection, and suggest that both pre- and postcopulatory mate choice, and male competition could provide indirect benefits to females...
- Competitive helping increases with the size of biological markets and invades defectionPat Barclay
Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada
J Theor Biol 281:47-55. 2011..This framework of competitive helping demonstrates how high helping can be achieved and why different populations may differ in helping levels...
- Evolution of niche width and adaptive diversificationMartin Ackermann
Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA
Evolution 58:2599-612. 2004..These results refine the conditions for adaptive diversification due to competition and formulate them in a way that might be more amenable for experimental investigations...
- Does genetic diversity reduce sibling competition?J David Aguirre
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, Australia
Evolution 66:94-102. 2012..Our results show that when siblings are likely to interact, genetic variation among individuals can decrease competition for resources and generate substantial fitness benefits within a single generation...
- Female reproductive competition within families in rural GambiaRuth Mace
Department of Anthropology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Proc Biol Sci 279:2219-27. 2012..We argue that cultural norms surrounding residence and marriage are themselves cultural adaptations to reduce reproductive conflict between generations in human families...
- An exploration of competitiveness and caring in relation to psychopathologyKirsten McEwan
Mental Health Research Unit, Kingsway Hospital, Derby, UK
Br J Clin Psychol 51:19-36. 2012..We hypothesized therefore that depression, in both clinical and non-clinical populations, would be primarily linked to competitive and rank focused sense of self rather than a caring sense of self...
- A multilevel model analysis of expertise in chess across the life spanRoy W Roring
Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 1270, USA
Psychol Aging 22:291-9. 2007..The authors discuss implications of these findings for lifetime changes in skilled performance...
- Hearts in the fire, heads in the fridge: a qualitative investigation into the temporal patterning of the precompetitive psychological response in elite performersStephen D Mellalieu
Department of Sports Science, Swansea University, Swansea, UK
J Sports Sci 26:811-24. 2008..Implications are discussed in the context of the type and timing of intervention for developing individual and team preparatory routines...
- Friend or foe: subjective expected relative similarity as a determinant of cooperationIlan Fischer
Department of Psychology, University of Haifa, Israel
J Exp Psychol Gen 138:341-50. 2009..The study's findings suggest that perceived similarity and its application in SERS play an important role in the evolution of cooperation underlying both kin and group selection mechanisms...
- Repression of competition favours cooperation: experimental evidence from bacteriaR Kümmerli
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
J Evol Biol 23:699-706. 2010..This confirms that RC per se, as opposed to increased relatedness, has driven the observed increase in bacterial cooperation...
- Improving Quality and Reducing Disparities: Complementary or Competing GoalsDavid Blumenthal; Fiscal Year: 2007..The Harvard interfaculty Program for Health Systems Improvement will be responsible for the planning and execution of the meeting. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Social Security Privatization: Investment Choice and Field Experiments in MexicoJUSTINE HASTINGS; Fiscal Year: 2012..examine if the high equilibrium fees in the Mexican pension fund market are due to inelastic demand or non-competitive behavior by firms...
- Strategic Liver Allocation by Stochastic Game Models- Competition vs. CooperationZhe Li; Fiscal Year: 2012..The proposal aims include: 1.1. construct game-theoretic models of multi-center competitive behavior;1.2 identify the Nash equilibria;and 2...
- Genomic Resources for an Animal Model of Social BehaviorJames Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2009..studies have established that individuals with a white-stripe (WS) on the crown tend to exhibit a more competitive behavior strategy, engaging in more territorial aggression and mate-finding, whereas birds with a tan stripe (TS) ..
- Fundamental Goals and Risky Decision-MakingJON MANER; Fiscal Year: 2005..g., substance use disorders), as well as exaggerated risk-aversion. ..
- Reward and reinforcement in implicit power motivationOLIVER SCHULTHEISS; Fiscal Year: 2002..In addition, the role of facial aflective expressions as indicators of power motivation reward and the time course of the hypothesized power motivation reward and reinforcement effects will be explored in these studies. ..
- Center for the Study of ViolenceCraig Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract not provided ..
- The Senior Odyssey: A Lab-to-Life TranslationElizabeth A L Stine Morrow; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- The Lee-Carter Method for Forecasting MortalityRonald Lee; Fiscal Year: 2005..Software will be produced to implement these procedures and made publicly available on a web site. Work will be closely coordinated with the Population Division of the United Nations to ensure that it meets its needs. ..
- Task Dependence of Muscle Fatigue in Older AdultsSandra Hunter; Fiscal Year: 2005..These preliminary findings will form the foundation for an RO 1 application that will further explore the mechanisms and task dependency of muscle fatigue in older adults. ..
- Estrogens and Insulin Resistance in WomenJerrold Olefsky; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- Self-concordant goals, self-regulation, and personalityKENNON SHELDON; Fiscal Year: 2005..In the process we hope to develop new understanding of personality differentiation and adult identity formation. ..
- Neuromuscular Fatigue in Older AdultsSandra Hunter; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Ecology and Evolution of Disease InterferencePejman Rohani; Fiscal Year: 2007..The analytical tools developed will be applied to numerous long-term disease records to explore the ubiquity of the interference phenomenon. ..
- Comparison of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant usersHELEN CULLINGTON; Fiscal Year: 2007..More information on the relative benefits of bilateral and bimodal stimulation is required to aid thousands of patients and parents considering a second cochlear implant surgery. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Age, Physical Activity, Genotype and Cognitive FunctionBRADLEY HATFIELD; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- DEVELOPING FAMILY-FOCUSED PREVENTIONS: COPARENTINGMark Feinberg; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- The Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in Primate Maternal BehaviorWendy Saltzman; Fiscal Year: 2007..Ultimately, this research will have implications for the understanding and treatment of stress-related psychopathology in women. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Cognitive and Emotional Processes in Decision-MakingALAN SANFEY; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- MODULATION OF ALCOHOL REINFORCEMENTChristopher Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2007..These studies could prove to be especially useful in the evaluation of putative pharmacotherapies intended to reduce alcohol craving and in the design of behavioral interventions to decrease ethanol-seeking behavior. ..
- Molecular epidemiology of Barretts esophagus and cancerDavid Whiteman; Fiscal Year: 2006..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- NEURAL MECHANISMS OF SOCIAL RECOGNITION AND MEMORYRobert Johnston; Fiscal Year: 2009..These mechanisms are essential building blocks in the social behavior of non-human animals and humans. ..
- Mechanisms of vocal communicationMarc D Hauser; Fiscal Year: 2005..Results from this project will set the stage for future research on the underlying neurobiological circuitry and the extent to which it is homologous with humans. ..
- Validation of an Innovative Approach To Error ReductionDavid Blumenthal; Fiscal Year: 2004..The team has experience in survey research, chart review, safety-related research, ED research and quality improvement. ..
- INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND MODERATORS OF ADJUSTMENTWILLIAM GRAZIANO; Fiscal Year: 2002..The fourth module examines interpersonal interaction. The four modules are designed to build basic empirical bridges toward an understanding of individual differences in adaptation in social environments. ..
- INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PERCEPTUAL AND CONCEPTUAL LEARNINGRobert Goldstone; Fiscal Year: 2002..abstract_text> ..
- Mathematical Modeling of the Superspreaders of Antibiotic-Resistante BacteriaShigui Ruan; Fiscal Year: 2010..The proposed work will lead to a better understanding of the factors which contribute to the spread of ARB, and will allow the development and implementation of effective public health policies. ..
- AGE DIFFERENCES IN RESOURCE ALLOCATION DURING READINGElizabeth A L Stine Morrow; Fiscal Year: 2010..g., process-based models of health literacy, reading as a form of intellectual engagement to maintain cognitive vitality through the life span). ..
- EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN MUSMATTHEW DEAN; Fiscal Year: 2006..These studies will help uncover the genetic basis of male reproductive fitness in a natural population of house mice. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- NEUROBIOLOGY OF PERSONALITY AND EMOTIONRICHARD DEPUE; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- NEUROIMAGING OF HIV AND COMORBID DISORDERSLance Bauer; Fiscal Year: 2003..An analysis of change scores across groups will permit a formal test of the effects of antiviral treatment on neurophysiological status. ..
- VENLAFAXINE FOR HOT FLASHES FOLLOWING BREAST CANCERJANET CARPENTER; Fiscal Year: 2003..e., t-tests, linear regression, GEE, mixed model). Study findings will significantly contribute to the scientific basis of hot flash management in women following treatment for breast cancer. ..
- Extensions of self-presentation effectsCAMILLE JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- DNA-based Arrays of Cross-reactive Molecular SensorsMilan Stojanovic; Fiscal Year: 2004..In the next phase, DNA-based cross-reactive sensors for oligosaccharides will be incorporated into arrays to expand the panel of metabolites that could be profiled in a single-step assay. ..
- Genetic Versus Phenotypic Markers of Relapse RiskLance Bauer; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Neuromuscular control of flightDOUGLAS ALTSHULER; Fiscal Year: 2005..Improved understanding of the neural control of the regulation of complex motor behaviors would have direct relevance to studies of human motor control diseases and motor control degeneration that accompanies ageing. ..
- Pilot Study of Sibling Prevention ProgramMARK ETHAN FEINBERG; Fiscal Year: 2010..Developing and disseminating new, effective preventive programs such as the one proposed would have substantial public health benefits for individuals, families, and society. ..
- HEALTH/SAFETY IMPACT OF ONTARIOS DRINKING HOURSEvelyn Vingilis; Fiscal Year: 2001..Alcohol-related casualties for both cities will be subjected to time-series analyses. In addition, Detroit data will be disaggregated to analyze the trends of alcohol-related casualties involving Ontario drivers. ..
- Tailored Web Program to Reduce At-Risk College DrinkingC Raymond Bingham; Fiscal Year: 2009..If effective, the proposed intervention could be inexpensively modified to deliver effective interventions to large numbers of university students, members of other populations, and to target other health risk behaviors. ..
- DIVERGENT CAUSAL PATHWAYS TO MELANOMA: A COMBINED ANALYSIS OF 12 CASE-CONTROL STUDavid Whiteman; Fiscal Year: 2008..Ultimately, the results of this research may contribute to better preventive strategies to reduce the number of people who die from melanoma (currently 8000 people each year in the United States). [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Principles of Behavior Change: Choice and ContextEdmund Fantino; Fiscal Year: 2010..The outcomes of these studies are expected to influence the development of improved and individualized forms of behavioral and cognitive therapy as well as guide future research on the neural bases of choice. ..
- Neurobiology of Social Attraction and PreferenceAras Petrulis; Fiscal Year: 2009..This data will provide novel insights into how sexual attraction and preference is generated by the nervous system and how sensory and internal state cues interact to regulate motivated behavior. ..
- Estrogen Effects in Insulin Target and Granulosa CellsJerrold Olefsky; Fiscal Year: 2004..These studies should also highlight the role of inflammatory pathway activation in these pathophysiologic events and this may have potential therapeutic implications for new treatment approaches. ..
- Female mate choice and cultural transmissionLEE DUGATKIN; Fiscal Year: 2005..Here, I propose to continue my work with Dr. Cunningham, and examine mate copying in an experimental scenario that moves away from a written survey, and provides a more realistic evaluation of human mate copying. ..
- Computerized Assessment of Cancer SymptomsJANET CARPENTER; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Noradrenergic Integration of Social InformationKeith W Sockman; Fiscal Year: 2010..The predicted basis for social mediation in this model involves noradrenergic systems, which are thought to be highly conserved across vertebrates. ..
- EXERCISE EFFECTS ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN CANCER PATIENTSKerry Courneya; Fiscal Year: 2001..Fitness will be re-assessed immediately after the intervention period. ..
- Work-Strain, Career Course and Research IntegrityBrian Martinson; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- COCAINE AND MATERNAL NEGLECT: INTERGENERATIONAL EFFECTSJOSEPHINE JOHNS; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- Procedural Justice, Identity, and Research IntegrityBrian Martinson; Fiscal Year: 2006....
- The Effect of Statins on Skeletal Muscle FunctionPAUL DAVIS THOMPSON; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Effects of Alcohol on Human Self-Aggressive BehaviorMitchell Berman; Fiscal Year: 2006..08, and compared to yoked controls. Because the ascending limb is associated with greater cognitive impairment, we expect greater levels of self-aggression at that point of the biphasic curve. ..
- CLINICAL PROCESSES IN DRUG ABUSE PREVENTIONJ Coatsworth; Fiscal Year: 2003..Microsequential analyses will be used to elucidate the immediate (speech act level) relationships between in-session clinician interventions and participant behaviors. ..
- COCAINE & MATERNAL AGGRESSION--OXYTOCINERGIC MECHANISMSJOSEPHINE JOHNS; Fiscal Year: 2005..OXY levels in the amygdala will be assessed following the behavioral testing. ..
- Maintaining Physical Activity in Older Adult MCO MembersBrian Martinson; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- Container mosquitoes and microorganism productivitySTEVEN JULIANO; Fiscal Year: 2003..This research will increase our knowledge of determinants of vector mosquito production and distribution and abundance. ..