altruism

Summary

Summary: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Altruistic punishment in humans
    Ernst Fehr
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 415:137-40. 2002
  2. ncbi The nature of human altruism
    Ernst Fehr
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 425:785-91. 2003
  3. ncbi Evolution of indirect reciprocity
    Martin A Nowak
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 437:1291-8. 2005
  4. ncbi Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring
    M A Nowak
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Nature 393:573-7. 1998
  5. pmc Winners don't punish
    Anna Dreber
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 452:348-51. 2008
  6. ncbi "Economic man" in cross-cultural perspective: behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies
    Joseph Henrich
    Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Behav Brain Sci 28:795-815; discussion 815-55. 2005
  7. ncbi Costly punishment across human societies
    Joseph Henrich
    Department of Anthropology, Emory University, 1557 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Science 312:1767-70. 2006
  8. ncbi Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group selection
    S A West
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Edinburgh, UK
    J Evol Biol 20:415-32. 2007
  9. ncbi The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates parochial altruism in intergroup conflict among humans
    Carsten K W De Dreu
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Science 328:1408-11. 2010
  10. ncbi Egalitarianism in young children
    Ernst Fehr
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 454:1079-83. 2008

Detail Information

Publications341 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Altruistic punishment in humans
    Ernst Fehr
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 415:137-40. 2002
    ..theory of kin selection and the selfish motives associated with signalling theory or the theory of reciprocal altruism. Here we show experimentally that the altruistic punishment of defectors is a key motive for the explanation of ..
  2. ncbi The nature of human altruism
    Ernst Fehr
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 425:785-91. 2003
    ..our evolutionary origins, our social relations, and the organization of society are centred around issues of altruism and selfishness...
  3. ncbi Evolution of indirect reciprocity
    Martin A Nowak
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 437:1291-8. 2005
    ..The evolution of cooperation by indirect reciprocity leads to reputation building, morality judgement and complex social interactions with ever-increasing cognitive demands...
  4. ncbi Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring
    M A Nowak
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Nature 393:573-7. 1998
    ..of cooperation are based on kin selection (dependent on genetic relatedness), group selection and reciprocal altruism. The idea of reciprocal altruism usually involves direct reciprocity: repeated encounters between the same ..
  5. pmc Winners don't punish
    Anna Dreber
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 452:348-51. 2008
    ..Those people who gain the highest total payoff tend not to use costly punishment: winners don't punish. This suggests that costly punishment behaviour is maladaptive in cooperation games and might have evolved for other reasons...
  6. ncbi "Economic man" in cross-cultural perspective: behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies
    Joseph Henrich
    Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Behav Brain Sci 28:795-815; discussion 815-55. 2005
    ..Fifth, in many cases experimental play appears to reflect the common interactional patterns of everyday life...
  7. ncbi Costly punishment across human societies
    Joseph Henrich
    Department of Anthropology, Emory University, 1557 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Science 312:1767-70. 2006
    ..These findings are consistent with models of the gene-culture coevolution of human altruism and further sharpen what any theory of human cooperation needs to explain.
  8. ncbi Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group selection
    S A West
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Edinburgh, UK
    J Evol Biol 20:415-32. 2007
    ..In particular, we: (i) discuss confusion over the terms kin selection, mutualism, mutual benefit, cooperation, altruism, reciprocal altruism, weak altruism, altruistic punishment, strong reciprocity, group selection and direct ..
  9. ncbi The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates parochial altruism in intergroup conflict among humans
    Carsten K W De Dreu
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Science 328:1408-11. 2010
    Humans regulate intergroup conflict through parochial altruism; they self-sacrifice to contribute to in-group welfare and to aggress against competing out-groups...
  10. ncbi Egalitarianism in young children
    Ernst Fehr
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 454:1079-83. 2008
    ..the simultaneous emergence of altruistic sharing and parochialism during childhood is intriguing in view of recent evolutionary theories which predict that the same evolutionary process jointly drives both human altruism and parochialism.
  11. ncbi Cooperation between non-kin in animal societies
    Tim Clutton-Brock
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB3 9EJ, UK
    Nature 462:51-7. 2009
    ....
  12. pmc Oxytocin increases generosity in humans
    Paul J Zak
    Center for Neuroeconomics Studies and Department of Economics, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e1128. 2007
    ..OT had no effect on a unilateral monetary transfer task dissociating generosity from altruism. OT and altruism together predicted almost half the interpersonal variation in generosity...
  13. ncbi Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy
    Frans B M de Waal
    Living Links, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, and Psychology Department, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 59:279-300. 2008
    ..Empathy is an ideal candidate mechanism to underlie so-called directed altruism, i.e., altruism in response to anothers's pain, need, or distress...
  14. pmc Human fronto-mesolimbic networks guide decisions about charitable donation
    Jorge Moll
    Cognitive Neuroscience Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1440, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:15623-8. 2006
    ..Yet the neural bases of this unique aspect of human altruism, which extends beyond interpersonal interactions, remain obscure...
  15. pmc Chimpanzees help each other upon request
    Shinya Yamamoto
    Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi, Japan
    PLoS ONE 4:e7416. 2009
    The evolution of altruism has been explained mainly from ultimate perspectives. However, it remains to be investigated from a proximate point of view how and in which situations such social propensity is achieved...
  16. ncbi Cooperation and competition between relatives
    Stuart A West
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Science 296:72-5. 2002
    ..Nevertheless, competition between relatives can reduce, and even totally negate, the kin-selected benefits of altruism toward relatives...
  17. pmc Reasons for participating in randomised controlled trials: conditional altruism and considerations for self
    Sharon K McCann
    Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
    Trials 11:31. 2010
    ..The idea that altruistic-type motives are important for trial participation is understandably widespread, but recent studies suggest considerations of personal benefit can influence participation decisions in various ways...
  18. ncbi Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzees
    Felix Warneken
    Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Science 311:1301-3. 2006
    ..This requires both an understanding of others' goals and an altruistic motivation to help. In addition, we demonstrate similar though less robust skills and motivations in three young chimpanzees...
  19. ncbi Oxytocin infusion increases charitable donations regardless of monetary resources
    Jorge A Barraza
    Center for Neuroeconomics Studies, Claremont Graduate University, USA
    Horm Behav 60:148-51. 2011
    ..This is the first study showing that OT increases generosity in unilateral exchanges directed toward philanthropic social institutions, as opposed to immediate benefits directed at individuals or groups...
  20. ncbi Breeding together: kin selection and mutualism in cooperative vertebrates
    Tim Clutton-Brock
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    Science 296:69-72. 2002
    ....
  21. ncbi Cooperation and competition in pathogenic bacteria
    Ashleigh S Griffin
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Nature 430:1024-7. 2004
    ....
  22. ncbi Neural responses to taxation and voluntary giving reveal motives for charitable donations
    William T Harbaugh
    Department of Economics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 1285, USA
    Science 316:1622-5. 2007
    ..One possible motive for charitable contributions, called "pure altruism," is satisfied by increases in the public good no matter the source or intent...
  23. pmc Altruistic punishment and the origin of cooperation
    James H Fowler
    Department of Political Science, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:7047-9. 2005
    ..It also suggests that punishment can only enforce payoff-improving strategies, contrary to a widely cited "folk theorem" result that suggests that punishment can allow the evolution of any strategy...
  24. ncbi Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism
    Samuel Bowles
    Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA, and Universitá di Siena, 17 Piazza San Francesco, Siena, Italy
    Science 314:1569-72. 2006
    ..are likely to have been great enough so that lethal intergroup competition could account for the evolution of altruism. Crucial to this process were distinctive human practices such as sharing food beyond the immediate family, ..
  25. pmc Origins of altruism diversity II: Runaway coevolution of altruistic strategies via "reciprocal niche construction"
    J David Van Dyken
    Indiana University, Indiana 47405, USA
    Evolution 66:2498-513. 2012
    Understanding the evolution of altruism requires knowledge of both its constraints and its drivers. Here we show that, paradoxically, ecological constraints on altruism may ultimately be its strongest driver...
  26. ncbi Linking brain structure and activation in temporoparietal junction to explain the neurobiology of human altruism
    Yosuke Morishima
    Laboratory for Social and Neural Systems Research, Department of Economics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Neuron 75:73-9. 2012
    Human altruism shaped our evolutionary history and pervades social and political life. There are, however, enormous individual differences in altruism...
  27. pmc Investigating the genetic basis of altruism: the role of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism
    Martin Reuter
    Department of Psychology, University of Bonn Kaiser Karl Ring 9, D 53111 Bonn, Germany
    Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 6:662-8. 2011
    ..50 for prosocial behaviours like empathy, cooperativeness and altruism. First molecular genetic studies underline the influence of polymorphisms located on genes coding for the ..
  28. ncbi The long-term benefits of human generosity in indirect reciprocity
    Claus Wedekind
    Institute of Cell, Animal, and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 12:1012-5. 2002
    Among the theories that have been proposed to explain the evolution of altruism are direct reciprocity and indirect reciprocity...
  29. ncbi Avian behaviour: Altruism and infidelity among warblers
    David S Richardson
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
    Nature 422:580. 2003
  30. ncbi From territoriality to altruism in interprofessional collaboration and leadership
    Susanna Bihari Axelsson
    Nordic School of Public Health, Goteborg, Sweden
    J Interprof Care 23:320-30. 2009
    ..In order to overcome that barrier, the concept of altruism is explored as an alternative to territoriality...
  31. ncbi The evolution of strong reciprocity: cooperation in heterogeneous populations
    Samuel Bowles
    Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA
    Theor Popul Biol 65:17-28. 2004
    ..As a result, high levels of cooperation are sustained. Our results do not require that group members be related or that group extinctions occur...
  32. pmc Punishing and abstaining for public goods
    Hannelore Brandt
    Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:495-7. 2006
    ..Evolutionary dynamics can lead either to a Nash equilibrium of punishing and nonpunishing cooperators or to an oscillating state without punishers...
  33. ncbi Why be nice? Psychological constraints on the evolution of cooperation
    Jeffrey R Stevens
    Department of Psychology and Primate Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 8:60-5. 2004
    ..Donors typically help because they or their kin receive future benefits or avoid costly punishment. Reciprocal altruism--alternating the roles of donor and recipient--has been a well-studied form of cooperation among non-kin because ..
  34. ncbi Game theory and human evolution: a critique of some recent interpretations of experimental games
    Edward H Hagen
    Institute for Theoretical Biology, Humboldt University, Invalidenstr 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany
    Theor Popul Biol 69:339-48. 2006
    ..We critically review this explanation. We conclude that experimental results reveal limits in two implicit models of cognitive structure commonly employed by economists and evolutionary biologists...
  35. ncbi Altruism, spite, and greenbeards
    Stuart A West
    Department of Zoology, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Science 327:1341-4. 2010
    ..selection could lead to behaviors that decrease the relative fitness of the actor and also either benefit (altruism) or harm (spite) other individuals...
  36. ncbi Altruism through beard chromodynamics
    Vincent A A Jansen
    School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK
    Nature 440:663-6. 2006
    The evolution of altruism, a behaviour that benefits others at one's own fitness expense, poses a darwinian paradox...
  37. ncbi Cooperation through image scoring in humans
    C Wedekind
    Abteilung Verhaltensökologie, Zoologisches Institut, Universitat Bern, 3032 Hinterkappelen, Switzerland
    Science 288:850-2. 2000
    ..Donations were more frequent to receivers who had been generous to others in earlier interactions. This shows that image scoring promotes cooperative behavior in situations where direct reciprocity is unlikely...
  38. pmc Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment
    Hisashi Ohtsuki
    Department of Value and Decision Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152 8552, Japan
    Nature 457:79-82. 2009
    ..In most cases the population does better by not using costly punishment. The efficient strategy for indirect reciprocity is to withhold help for defectors rather than punishing them...
  39. pmc Cooperators benefit through reputation-based partner choice in economic games
    Karolina Sylwester
    Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Henry Wellcome Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
    Biol Lett 6:659-62. 2010
    ..that makes one more likely to be chosen for a profitable cooperative partnership, a process termed competitive altruism (CA) or reputation-based partner choice...
  40. ncbi A neural basis for social cooperation
    James Rilling
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Neuron 35:395-405. 2002
    Cooperation based on reciprocal altruism has evolved in only a small number of species, yet it constitutes the core behavioral principle of human social life...
  41. ncbi The coevolution of altruism and punishment: role of the selfish punisher
    Mayuko Nakamaru
    Department of Value and Decision Science, Graduate School of Decision Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2 12 1, O Okayama, Meguro ku, Tokyo, 152 8552, Japan
    J Theor Biol 240:475-88. 2006
    Punishment is an important mechanism promoting the evolution of altruism among non-relatives...
  42. ncbi Nice guys finish first: the competitive altruism hypothesis
    Charlie L Hardy
    Department of Psychology, University of Kent at Canterbury, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NP, United Kingdom
    Pers Soc Psychol Bull 32:1402-13. 2006
    ..Study 3 showed that as the costs of altruism increase, the status rewards also increase...
  43. ncbi Second to fourth digit ratio and cooperative behavior
    Kobe Millet
    Department of Marketing, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Naamsestraat 69, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Biol Psychol 71:111-5. 2006
    ..We therefore predicted that a low 2D:4D would be associated with high levels of egoism and altruism and low levels of common cooperativeness (i.e. contributing exactly one's fair share)...
  44. ncbi Natural selection of altruism in inelastic viscous homogeneous populations
    Alan Grafen
    Zoology Department, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    J Theor Biol 252:694-710. 2008
    Biological explanations are given of three main uninterpreted theoretical results on the selection of altruism in inelastic viscous homogeneous populations, namely that non-overlapping generations hinder the evolution of altruism, ..
  45. pmc A simple and general explanation for the evolution of altruism
    Jeffrey A Fletcher
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, No 2370 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Proc Biol Sci 276:13-9. 2009
    We present a simple framework that highlights the most fundamental requirement for the evolution of altruism: assortment between individuals carrying the cooperative genotype and the helping behaviours of others with which these ..
  46. ncbi Motivators of enrolment in HIV vaccine trials: a review of HIV vaccine preparedness studies
    Shayesta Dhalla
    School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    AIDS Care 23:1430-47. 2011
    ..Motivators can take the form of altruism and a desire for social benefits...
  47. ncbi Alexithymia decreases altruism in real social decisions
    Oriel FeldmanHall
    Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Cortex 49:899-904. 2013
    ..We combined a distressing real-time altruism task with functional magnetic resonance imagining to explore the brain behaviour relationship between alexithymia ..
  48. ncbi Chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group members
    Joan B Silk
    Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Nature 437:1357-9. 2005
    ....
  49. ncbi Do humans prefer altruistic mates? Testing a link between sexual selection and altruism towards non-relatives
    Tim Phillips
    School of Biology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Br J Psychol 99:555-72. 2008
    ..Both sets of results are consistent with the hypothesized link between human altruism towards non-relatives and sexual selection.
  50. ncbi Children's moral motivation, sympathy, and prosocial behavior
    Tina Malti
    Harvard University, USA
    Child Dev 80:442-60. 2009
    ..The results are discussed in regard to the precursors of the moral self in childhood...
  51. ncbi Depletion makes the heart grow less helpful: helping as a function of self-regulatory energy and genetic relatedness
    C Nathan DeWall
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Pers Soc Psychol Bull 34:1653-62. 2008
    ..Helping requires self-regulatory energy to manage conflict between selfish and prosocial motivations-a metabolically expensive process-and thus depleted energy reduces helping and increased energy (glucose) increases helping...
  52. doi Human behaviour: punisher pays
    Manfred Milinski
    Nature 452:297-8. 2008
  53. ncbi Extrinsic rewards undermine altruistic tendencies in 20-month-olds
    Felix Warneken
    Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
    Dev Psychol 44:1785-8. 2008
    ..This so-called overjustification effect suggests that even the earliest helping behaviors of young children are intrinsically motivated and that socialization practices involving extrinsic rewards can undermine this tendency...
  54. ncbi Participating in research: exploring participation and engagement in a study of self-management for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Karen F Willis
    School of Sociology and Social Work, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Australia
    Qual Health Res 21:1273-82. 2011
    ..We argue that motivation based on dominant voluntaristic or altruistic values can be problematic for researchers attempting to demonstrate the benefits of CDSM strategies...
  55. ncbi The relative roles of kinship and reciprocity in explaining primate altruism
    Gabriele Schino
    Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 00197 Rome, Italy
    Ecol Lett 13:45-50. 2010
    ..Their relative roles in explaining actual cases of animal altruism are, however, unclear...
  56. ncbi Differential susceptibility to rearing environment depending on dopamine-related genes: new evidence and a meta-analysis
    Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
    Centre for Child and Family Studies, Leiden University, P O Box 9555, Leiden 2300 RB, The Netherlands
    Dev Psychopathol 23:39-52. 2011
    ..Findings are discussed in light of evolutionary theory, and illustrated with some practical implications of differential susceptibility...
  57. ncbi Human altruism: economic, neural, and evolutionary perspectives
    Ernst Fehr
    Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, University of Zurich, Bluemlisalpstrasse 10, 8006 Zuerich, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 14:784-90. 2004
    ....
  58. ncbi The coevolution of parochial altruism and war
    Jung Kyoo Choi
    School of Economics and Trade, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk Dong, Buk Gu, Daegu 702 701, Korea
    Science 318:636-40. 2007
    b>Altruism-benefiting fellow group members at a cost to oneself-and parochialism-hostility toward individuals not of one's own ethnic, racial, or other group-are common human behaviors...
  59. ncbi Parochial altruism in humans
    Helen Bernhard
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 442:912-5. 2006
    ....
  60. ncbi Kin discrimination and the benefit of helping in cooperatively breeding vertebrates
    Ashleigh S Griffin
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Science 302:634-6. 2003
    ..These results suggest a general role for kin selection and that the relative importance of kin selection varies across species, as predicted by Hamilton's rule...
  61. pmc Foundations of cooperation in young children
    Kristina R Olson
    Psychology Department, Harvard University, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Cognition 108:222-31. 2008
    ..5-year-old children, despite their limited experience with complex cooperative networks. Three pillars of mature cooperative behavior therefore appear to have roots extending deep into human development...
  62. ncbi Altruism is associated with an increased neural response to agency
    Dharol Tankersley
    Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Box 3918, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:150-1. 2007
    Although the neural mechanisms underlying altruism remain unknown, empathy and its component abilities, such as the perception of the actions and intentions of others, have been proposed as key contributors...
  63. ncbi Enforced altruism in insect societies
    Tom Wenseleers
    Institute for Advanced Study, 14193 Berlin, Germany
    Nature 444:50. 2006
    Cooperation among workers and their seeming altruism result from strict policing by nestmates.
  64. ncbi Reinterpreting the empathy-altruism relationship: when one into one equals oneness
    R B Cialdini
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 73:481-94. 1997
    ..The authors use this insight to reinterpret data previously said to support the empathy-altruism model of helping, which asserts that empathic concern for another results in selflessness and true altruism...
  65. pmc Generous leaders and selfish underdogs: pro-sociality in despotic macaques
    Jorg J M Massen
    Behavioural Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 5:e9734. 2010
    Actively granting food to a companion is called pro-social behavior and is considered to be part of altruism. Recent findings show that some non-human primates behave pro-socially...
  66. ncbi The evolution of cooperation and altruism--a general framework and a classification of models
    L Lehmann
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Biophore, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Evol Biol 19:1365-76. 2006
    ..puzzles in biology and the social sciences is the origin and persistence of intraspecific cooperation and altruism in humans and other species...
  67. ncbi Genetics of human social behavior
    Richard P Ebstein
    Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
    Neuron 65:831-44. 2010
    ..Twin and family studies suggest that uniquely human characteristics such as empathy, altruism, sense of equity, love, trust, music, economic behavior, and even politics are partially hardwired...
  68. pmc Selfishness as second-order altruism
    Omar Tonsi Eldakar
    Department of Biological Sciences, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902 6000, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:6982-6. 2008
    Selfishness is seldom considered a group-beneficial strategy. In the typical evolutionary formulation, altruism benefits the group, selfishness undermines altruism, and the purpose of the model is to identify mechanisms, such as kinship ..
  69. ncbi Individual differences in allocation of funds in the dictator game associated with length of the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor RS3 promoter region and correlation between RS3 length and hippocampal mRNA
    A Knafo
    Psychology Department, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
    Genes Brain Behav 7:266-75. 2008
    Human altruism is a widespread phenomenon that puzzled evolutionary biologists since Darwin. Economic games illustrate human altruism by showing that behavior deviates from economic predictions of profit maximization...
  70. ncbi The hitchhiker's guide to altruism: gene-culture coevolution, and the internalization of norms
    Herbert Gintis
    Santa Fe Institute and Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, 15 Forbes Avenue, Northampton, MA 01060, USA
    J Theor Biol 220:407-18. 2003
    ..This framework can be used to model Herbert Simon's (1990) explanation of altruism, showing that altruistic norms can "hitchhike" on the general tendency of internal norms to be personally fitness-..
  71. ncbi Unifying the theories of inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism
    Jeffrey A Fletcher
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Am Nat 168:252-62. 2006
    Inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism are widely thought to be distinct explanations for how altruism evolves. Here we show that they rely on the same underlying mechanism...
  72. pmc Altruism in forest chimpanzees: the case of adoption
    Christophe Boesch
    Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e8901. 2010
    In recent years, extended altruism towards unrelated group members has been proposed to be a unique characteristic of human societies...
  73. pmc Altruism in networks: the effect of connections
    Oliver Curry
    Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Oxford, 64 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 6PN, UK
    Biol Lett 7:651-3. 2011
    ..their friends? Theory suggests that individual, relationship and network factors will all influence the levels of altruism; but to date, the effects of social network structure have received relatively little attention...
  74. ncbi The legacy of altruism in health care: the promotion of empathy, prosociality and humanism
    Derek J Burks
    Department of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center and VISN 20 Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, Portland, Oregon, USA
    Med Educ 46:317-25. 2012
    This study aimed to examine concepts of altruism and empathy among medical students and professionals in conjunction with health care initiatives designed to support the maintenance of these qualities.
  75. ncbi Chimpanzee social intelligence: selfishness, altruism, and the mother-infant bond
    Satoshi Hirata
    Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc, Great Ape Research Institute, 952 2 Nu, Tamano, Okayama, 706 0316, Japan
    Primates 50:3-11. 2009
    ..Mother-infant interactions appear to be particularly important to understanding the manifestation of social intelligence from an evolutionary perspective...
  76. ncbi Altruism born of suffering: the roots of caring and helping after victimization and other trauma
    Ervin Staub
    University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    Am J Orthopsychiatry 78:267-80. 2008
    Research on altruism has focused on its positive roots, whereas research on the effects of victimization and suffering has focused on aggression and difficulties in functioning...
  77. pmc Origins of altruism diversity I: The diverse ecological roles of altruistic strategies and their evolutionary responses to local competition
    J David Van Dyken
    Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
    Evolution 66:2484-97. 2012
    ..greater ecological realism into social evolution theory and find evidence of at least four distinct modes of altruism. Contrary to existing theory, we find that altruistic traits contributing to "resource-enhancement" (e.g...
  78. ncbi Altruism as a courtship display: some effects of third-party generosity on audience perceptions
    Pat Barclay
    Department of Neurobiology and Behaviour, Cornell University, New York 14853, USA
    Br J Psychol 101:123-35. 2010
    ..Few studies have tested this prediction, and these showed mixed results. Some studies have found that altruism is not particularly attractive; other studies showed that altruism is attractive by contrasting descriptions of '..
  79. ncbi Exploring donors' and recipients' attitudes about living donor kidney transplantation
    Francoise G Pradel
    School of Pharmacy, Center on Drugs and Public Policy, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Prog Transplant 13:203-10. 2003
    ..There is a growing interest in living donor kidney transplantation because of its potential to reduce the current kidney shortage...
  80. pmc Second-to-fourth digit ratio has a non-monotonic impact on altruism
    Pablo Brañas-Garza
    Business School, Middlesex University London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e60419. 2013
    ..However, these approaches cannot assess which biological traits determine altruism or how...
  81. ncbi The roots of human altruism
    Felix Warneken
    Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
    Br J Psychol 100:455-71. 2009
    ..and very likely with no concern for such things as reciprocation and reputation, which serve to maintain altruism in older children and adults...
  82. ncbi Selfish punishment: altruism can be maintained by competition among cheaters
    Omar Tonsi Eldakar
    Department of Biological Sciences, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902 6000, USA
    J Theor Biol 249:198-205. 2007
    ..refers to a class of behaviors that deters cheating at a cost to the punisher, making it a form of second-order altruism. Usually, it is assumed that the punishers are themselves "solid citizens" who refrain from cheating...
  83. pmc Partner choice creates competitive altruism in humans
    Pat Barclay
    Department of Neurobiology and Behaviour, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 274:749-53. 2007
    Reciprocal altruism has been the backbone of research on the evolution of altruistic behaviour towards non-kin, but recent research has begun to apply costly signalling theory to this problem...
  84. ncbi Attachment, caregiving, and altruism: boosting attachment security increases compassion and helping
    Mario Mikulincer
    Department of Psychology, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel
    J Pers Soc Psychol 89:817-39. 2005
    ..As expected, attachment security provides a foundation for care-oriented feelings and caregiving behaviors, whereas various forms of insecurity suppress or interfere with compassionate caregiving...
  85. ncbi Detrimental effects of sanctions on human altruism
    Ernst Fehr
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 422:137-40. 2003
    ..Fairness-based altruism is, however, a powerful source of human cooperation...
  86. pmc Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare
    Sarah Mathew
    Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:11375-80. 2011
    ..Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species...
  87. ncbi The mentalizing network orchestrates the impact of parochial altruism on social norm enforcement
    Thomas Baumgartner
    Department of Psychology, Laboratory for Social and Affective Neuroscience, University of Basel, Switzerland
    Hum Brain Mapp 33:1452-69. 2012
    Parochial altruism--a preference for altruistic behavior towards ingroup members and mistrust or hostility towards outgroup members--is a pervasive feature in human society and strongly shapes the enforcement of social norms...
  88. ncbi Altruism may arise from individual selection
    Angel Sanchez
    Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos GISC, Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes, Madrid, Spain
    J Theor Biol 235:233-40. 2005
    ..b>Altruism, the capacity to perform costly acts that confer benefits on others, is at the core of cooperative behavior...
  89. pmc Fairness expectations and altruistic sharing in 15-month-old human infants
    Marco F H Schmidt
    Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e23223. 2011
    ..social scientists have identified other-regarding preferences--such as fairness based on egalitarian motives, and altruism--as likely candidates for fostering large-scale cooperation...
  90. ncbi Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, increases both parochial and universal altruism
    Salomon Israel
    Department of Psychology and Center for the Study of Rationality, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91501, Israel
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 37:1341-4. 2012
    ..In contrast, participants receiving vasopressin did not differ from those receiving placebo in their cooperative behavior. Our results highlight the selective role of oxytocin in intergroup cooperative behavior...
  91. pmc Altruism among relatives and non-relatives
    Howard Rachlin
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA
    Behav Processes 79:120-3. 2008
    ..The genetical evolution of social behavior, I, II. J. Theor. Biol. 7, 1-52] kin-selection theory predicts that altruism will be greater with greater genetic overlap (degree of kinship) between giver and receiver...
  92. pmc Spontaneous prosocial choice by chimpanzees
    Victoria Horner
    Living Links, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30043, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13847-51. 2011
    The study of human and primate altruism faces an evolutionary anomaly: There is ample evidence for altruistic preferences in our own species and growing evidence in monkeys, but one of our closest relatives, the chimpanzee (Pan ..
  93. ncbi When helping helps: autonomous motivation for prosocial behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient
    Netta Weinstein
    Department of Psychology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY14627, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 98:222-44. 2010
    ..Findings support the idea that autonomous motivation for helping yields benefits for both helper and recipient through greater need satisfaction. Limitations and implications are discussed...
  94. ncbi Evolution of indirect reciprocity by social information: the role of trust and reputation in evolution of altruism
    Mojdeh Mohtashemi
    Laboratory for Computer Science, MIT, 200 Technology Square, Room 419, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    J Theor Biol 223:523-31. 2003
    ..If reciprocal altruism is to provide an explanation for altruistic behavior, it would have to depart from direct reciprocity, which ..
  95. ncbi Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction
    Kathryn E Buchanan
    University of Kent
    J Soc Psychol 150:235-7. 2010
    ..Their life satisfaction was measured before and after the 10-day experiment. As expected, performing acts of kindness or acts of novelty resulted in an increase in life satisfaction...
  96. ncbi Cooperation among unrelated individuals: reciprocal altruism, by-product mutualism and group selection in fishes
    L A Dugatkin
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia 65211, USA
    Biosystems 37:19-30. 1996
    Cooperation among unrelated individuals can evolve not only via reciprocal altruism but also via trait-group selection or by-product mutualism (or some combination of all three categories)...
  97. ncbi Kinship and altruism: a cross-cultural experimental study
    Elainie A Madsen
    University College London, UK
    Br J Psychol 98:339-59. 2007
    ..All previous reports of the influence of kin selection on human altruism have, however, used correlational (rather than experimental) designs, or imposed only a hypothetical or ..
  98. ncbi An inclusive fitness analysis of altruism on a cyclical network
    A Grafen
    Zoology Department, Oxford University, Oxford, UK
    J Evol Biol 20:2278-83. 2007
    ..The inclusive fitness analysis explains hitherto puzzling features of the results...
  99. ncbi Indirect reciprocity among imperfect individuals
    Michael A Fishman
    Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    J Theor Biol 225:285-92. 2003
    ..e. reciprocal altruism that is directed toward all the cooperative members of the community) due to Nowak and Sigmund (J. Theor. Biol...
  100. ncbi Molecular genetic studies of the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a) and the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) in human behaviour: from autism to altruism with some notes in between
    Salomon Israel
    Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
    Prog Brain Res 170:435-49. 2008
    ..suggests that repeat variations in AVPR1a are associated with two other social domains in Homo sapiens: music and altruism. AVPR1a was associated with dance and musical cognition which we theorize as reflecting the ancient role of this ..
  101. ncbi Promoting research participation: why not advertise altruism?
    Brian Williams
    Social Dimensions of Health Institute, Universities of Dundee and St Andrews, Dundee, UK
    Soc Sci Med 66:1451-6. 2008
    ..Consideration should be given to the use of similar persuasive communications to promote wider participation in health research generally...

Research Grants62

  1. Improving blood safety and HIV testing in Brazil: a randomized controlled trial
    THELMA THEREZINHA GONCALEZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., test-seeking vs. altruism), donor deferral rates, use of confidential unit exclusion, satisfaction with procedures of the blood bank and ..
  2. Deterring Drunk Driving: Beliefs, Preferences, Outcomes, and Welfare Implications
    Frank Sloan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g., time and risk preference, internal cost of personal injury, altruism toward others, cognitive ability, demographic characteristics and income on drinking/driving behaviors...
  3. Ontogeny of sociality in a mouse model
    Jeffrey R Alberts; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that represent phenomena such group affiliation, mate choice, parental behaviors, information exchange, and altruism. Sociality exists on the level of the individual and on the level of the group, and each has a separable, but ..
  4. Ethical issues in Dementia Research involving Surrogates and Study Partners
    BETTY E BLACK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to enroll persons with dementia in research and show that their decisions are often motivated by altruism, trust in the investigators, hope for benefits to the patient, caregiver or the patient's descendents, or ..
  5. Complex and Self-serving Altruism in Research
    Dan Ariely; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..First, we examine a phenomenon called self-serving altruism, which occurs when people cheat for the benefit of others...
  6. Aging and Altruism: Towards a Neuroeconomic Model of Age-Related Changes in Givin
    Ulrich Mayr; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Recent neuroeconomic work has provided initial evidence that charitable giving may be driven by both "pure altruism" from experiencing increases to the public good regardless of their cause (Harbaugh, Mayr, &Burghart, under ..
  7. Today's Truth - Research Brings Hope: Ethical Issues in Health Disparities and Ac
    SANDRA META SWAIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..patient education video on three variables: 1) attitudes toward therapeutic clinical trials (Trust in doctors, Altruism, Perceived personal benefits, perceived negative aspects, Inconvenience factors);2) likely participation in ..
  8. Do attributional feedback and self-concept influence child prosocial behavior in
    Julie C Dunsmore; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..public schools, and the recent positive psychology movement toward understanding how character strengths such as altruism may promote resilience and well- being, findings from the proposed research may have important direct relevance ..
  9. CHILD SUPPORT, CHILD WELFARE & EFFECTS OF WELFARE REFORM
    H Peters; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..An NCP's willingness to pay will depend on the level of altruism towards his children and on any agreement regarding the level of total expenditures on the children that he can ..
  10. OPINIONS OF BLOOD DONATION: A U.S. POPULATION SURVEY
    George Schreiber; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The survey will also provide the opportunity to objectively assess altruism and determine its importance in donating blood...
  11. WEALTH, SAVINGS & FINANCIAL SECURITY IN OLDER HOUSEHOLDS
    Matthew Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..projects include: (1) preference parameter project (continuing Project) will develop new measures quantifying the altruism and labor supply of individuals and extend the analysis of the existing parameters relating to risk tolerance...
  12. SELF-IMAGE AND QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER TRANSPLANTATION
    ROBERTA SIMMONS; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..psychological adjustment; the study of family roles in illness and in help giving; the analysis of interpersonal altruism and gift-exchange; the exploration of the consequences of conflict and communication blockages for family ..
  13. Microbial altruists: Helping cohorts survive lethal drugs
    Michael Perlin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..to shaking liquid or planktonic populations in order to examine the dynamics of such unrewarded protection or altruism. We have developed a family of mathematical models that have examined antibiotic resistance in such systems and ..
  14. Spiritual Self-Reevaluation Therapy for HIV+ Drug Users
    Arthur Margolin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..from the "addict" to the activation of a "spiritual" self-schema that is more compatible with acts of altruism, feelings of optimism, and an increased sense of personal worth and agency...
  15. The Neurobiological basis of altruism
    DANIEL BURGHART; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Because values for health care research can come from selfish and altruistic motives, this study seeks to better characterize the brain mechanisms associated with these two motives. ..
  16. ALTRUISM AND FAMILY: AN EXPERIMENTAL ECONOMICS APPROACH
    H Peters; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the Applicant's Abstract): Altruism is one of the central features that distinguishes the family from other institutions in society...
  17. Social Relations, Aging and Health: Competing Theories and Emerging Complexities
    TONI CLAUDETTE ANTONUCCI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These unique data will permit an unparalleled examination of competing exchange theories, e.g. altruism, developmental stake, support bank, and their association with health innovation...
  18. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF INTERGENERATIONAL-TRANSFER MOTIVES
    Donald Cox; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..the motivation for intergenerational income transfers among family members? Two possible motives are considered--altruism and exchange. Parents might give to their adult children out of altruism...
  19. Family Background and Subsequent Helping Behavior
    MARK WILHELM; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Finally, evidence indicating which stages of childhood are important for these domains of helping behaviors would suggest ages at which interventions promoting altruism should be targeted.
  20. ECONOMIC REFORMS AND INTERGENERATIONAL SUPPORT IN CHINA
    Yu Xie; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..based on three standard explanations for intergenerational support: the power model, the exchange model, and the altruism model. Next, it will develop a new model of cultural beliefs...
  21. Operant Analysis of Self-Control
    Howard Rachlin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. Alcohol Use Reduction in Methadone Individuals with HCV
    Adeline Nyamathi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. The evolution of parasitism in rhizobial bacteria
    JOEL SACHS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  24. Evolutionary Graph Theory and Its Applications
    Martin Nowak; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The results promise a new structuralevolutionary framework for understanding processes that are of vital importance to medicine. ..
  25. Community-Based Approach to Designing an AIDS Program for HIV+ Mothers in India
    Adeline Nyamathi; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These findings will lead to future funding to actually develop and test a newly designed program. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  26. TB/HIV RISK REDUCTION WITH HOMELESS AND DRUG ADDICTED
    Adeline Nyamathi; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  27. DETERMINING/UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS TO ADULT IMMUNIZATION
    Richard Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This project will furnish relevant, up-to-date to enhance policy planning, practice management and medical education. ..
  28. SLEEP, FATIGUE, AND DEXAMETHOSONE IN CHILDHOOD CANCER
    Pamela Hinds; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Our study findings will explicate the relationship between sleep efficiency and fatigue, and between sleep, fatigue, and systemic exposure to dexamethasone. ..
  29. Religious Organizations and HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care
    Victor Agadjanian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The recommendations resulting from the project will be disseminated for possible applications in various parts of Mozambique. ..
  30. Trajectories of Subjective Well-being and Ethnicity in Old Age
    Jersey Liang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The analytical strategies will include a combination of multi-level analysis, cluster analysis, multinomial logit analysis, and structural equation modeling. ..
  31. FAS-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS IN PROSTATE CANCER
    Michael Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  32. Ethics of Surrogate Consent for Dementia Research
    Scott Y Kim; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  33. PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH ETHICS: SCIENCE AND SAFEGUARDS
    Laura Roberts; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Through the plan for development of my research career, I hope to contribute to the advancement of vital, ethically sound research involving mentally ill people and members of other special and potentially vulnerable, populations. ..
  34. Stroke Recovery in Underserved Populations
    Glenn Ostir; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The work is also important as it has the potential to "contribute important insights into why some do well and others do poorly in the face of persistent challenges." ..
  35. Archiving the Retirement History Longitudinal Survey
    James McNally; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Additionally we will attempt to identify and add additional technical material on the use, potential applications, and history of the RHLS to the database. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. Genes Influencing Social Behaviors
    DONALD WELLS PFAFF; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Impact: OT may be involved in postpartum depression. OT systems certainly facilitate social recognition, disorders of which are prominent in autism and in schizophrenia. ..
  37. BRAIN MECHANISMS OF REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR
    Donald Pfaff; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..More generally, discovering in neurobiological detail how hormonal or environmental alterations quite separate from ovarian changes influence a female s reproductive status will be important for fostering women s health. ..
  38. Aripiprazole Treatment for Methamphetamine Dependence Among High-Risk MSM
    Grant Colfax; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  39. Health and Well-Being Among Older-Old in U.S. and Japan
    Jersey Liang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..As all three institutions are strongly committed to this research initiative, the responsibility of financing will be shared, making it an extremely attractive investment for the National Institutes of Health. ..
  40. MATHEMATICAL TOOLS AND MODELING FOR BIOLOGISTS
    David Krakauer; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The proposal describes a series of short courses and workshops across both disciplines and details the plan for the first of three workshops that are concerned with issues at the interface of theoretical and experimental biology. ..
  41. Case Study of Hosp Based Center for Integrative Medicine
    Ian Coulter; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..A detailed case study, using qualitative and quantitative research methods will yield a rich description that can facilitate future quantitative studies over a broader range of organizational models of integrative medicine. ..
  42. Prostate Cancer Screening: Fostering Informed Decisions
    Kathryn Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..If found to be effective, the long-term goal of this research program is to disseminate this informational decision aid to mass screening programs throughout the United States. ..
  43. Ethnicity, Marriage, and Fertility in Kazakhstan
    Victor Agadjanian; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The proposed project will constitute a necessary initial step toward a more comprehensive study of sociodemographic adjustments to dramatic societal changes and will therefore lead to a subsequent NIH application. ..
  44. Functional Health CAT in Diabetes
    Carolyn Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. The Caring~web: Web-based Support for Stroke Caregivers
    Linda Pierce; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Study outcomes have the potential to direct healthcare professionals in designing programs of care for persons with stroke and their caregivers. ..
  46. Neuroscience probes of cigarette craving & consumption
    Brian Knutson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Methods developed in this application may also provide a useful index of addiction and individual proclivity towards relapse. ..
  47. Positive Emotions and Exceptional Healthy Aging
    Glenn Ostir; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..S. Findings from this R03 application will generate data for an R01 application examining cross-national differences and similarities in healthy aging for older Hispanics in the U.S., Mexico, and Latin America. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  48. LTC Policies and Elderly Living and Care Arrangements
    Liliana Pezzin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  49. LIFE COURSE, MENTAL HEALTH AND LATER DEVELOPMENT
    George Vaillant; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Parallel data (including daily diary data) will be collected on husbands and wives. ..
  50. Men's Migration and Women's HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique
    Victor Agadjanian; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..They will also provide invaluable information for interventions aimed at reducing HIV/AIDS risks among rural African women. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  51. Archiving the National Long Term Care Survey 1982-2004
    James McNally; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The study looks at health, economic and family impacts on aging and the transitions into nursing homes and other institutional settings [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  52. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF GENERATIONS AND MENTAL HEALTH
    Merril Silverstein; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These issues have important implications for health care and social policy: if the functions of the family have declined, then the burden on public services to the elderly will likely increase. ..
  53. Mirtazapine to Reduce Methamphetamine Use Among MSM with High-Risk HIV Behaviors
    Grant Colfax; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  54. Innate Cellular Lectin-Mediated Binding of Xenogeneic Antigens
    Michael Rees; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This work will advance our understanding of macrophage recognition of foreign sugars from other species and make ECLP a more useful tool in treating fulminant hepatic failure. ..