observation

Summary

Summary: The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Modulation of activity in medial frontal and motor cortices during error observation
    Hein T van Schie
    Nijmegen Institute for Cognition and Information, University of Nijmegen, Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Nat Neurosci 7:549-54. 2004
  2. ncbi The use of direct clinician observation and vignettes for health services quality evaluation in developing countries
    Kenneth L Leonard
    University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Maryland, USA
    Soc Sci Med 61:1944-51. 2005
  3. pmc A randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone with observation to treat vision loss associated with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: the Standard Care vs Corticosteroid for Retinal Vein Occlus
    Michael S Ip
    EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 127:1101-14. 2009
  4. ncbi Tools for direct observation and assessment of clinical skills of medical trainees: a systematic review
    Jennifer R Kogan
    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Health System, 3701 Market St, Ste 640, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    JAMA 302:1316-26. 2009
  5. pmc How words can and cannot be learned by observation
    Tamara Nicol Medina
    Department of Psychology and Institute for Research in Cognitive Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:9014-9. 2011
  6. ncbi Motor corticospinal excitability during the observation of interactive hand gestures
    Peter G Enticott
    Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University and the Alfred, Level 1, Old Baker Building, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria, 3004, Australia
    Brain Res Bull 85:89-95. 2011
  7. ncbi Insulin glargine use and short-term incidence of malignancies - a three-year population-based observation
    Rickard Ljung
    Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden
    Acta Oncol 50:685-93. 2011
  8. ncbi Learning by observation in rhesus monkeys
    Martine Meunier
    Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives de la Mediterranee, UMR6193, CNRS Université de la Méditerranée and Aix Marseille Université, 31, Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 88:243-8. 2007
  9. ncbi The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity
    Katherine Gotham
    University of Michigan Autism and Communication Disorders Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 2054, USA
    J Autism Dev Disord 37:613-27. 2007
  10. ncbi Motor facilitation during action observation: topographic mapping of the target muscle and influence of the onlooker's posture
    Cosimo Urgesi
    Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche e della Visione, Sezione di Fisiologia Umana, Universita di Verona, I 37134 Verona, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 23:2522-30. 2006

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications289 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Modulation of activity in medial frontal and motor cortices during error observation
    Hein T van Schie
    Nijmegen Institute for Cognition and Information, University of Nijmegen, Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Nat Neurosci 7:549-54. 2004
    ..brain potential (ERP) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying error processing during action observation. Participants took part in two conditions, a task execution condition and a task observation condition...
  2. ncbi The use of direct clinician observation and vignettes for health services quality evaluation in developing countries
    Kenneth L Leonard
    University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Maryland, USA
    Soc Sci Med 61:1944-51. 2005
    ..Data from rural and urban Tanzania are used to compare the measures of quality collected by direct clinician observation (DCO) (where clinicians are observed in the course of their normal consultations) and vignettes (unblind case ..
  3. pmc A randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone with observation to treat vision loss associated with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: the Standard Care vs Corticosteroid for Retinal Vein Occlus
    Michael S Ip
    EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 127:1101-14. 2009
    To compare the efficacy and safety of 1-mg and 4-mg doses of preservative-free intravitreal triamcinolone with observation for eyes with vision loss associated with macular edema secondary to perfused central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).
  4. ncbi Tools for direct observation and assessment of clinical skills of medical trainees: a systematic review
    Jennifer R Kogan
    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Health System, 3701 Market St, Ste 640, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    JAMA 302:1316-26. 2009
    Direct observation of medical trainees with actual patients is important for performance-based clinical skills assessment...
  5. pmc How words can and cannot be learned by observation
    Tamara Nicol Medina
    Department of Psychology and Institute for Research in Cognitive Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:9014-9. 2011
    ..Learners appear to use a one-trial "fast-mapping" procedure, even under conditions of referential uncertainty...
  6. ncbi Motor corticospinal excitability during the observation of interactive hand gestures
    Peter G Enticott
    Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University and the Alfred, Level 1, Old Baker Building, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria, 3004, Australia
    Brain Res Bull 85:89-95. 2011
    The observation of other's behaviour results in increased corticospinal excitability (CSE) within the primary motor cortex, a phenomenon that has typically been interpreted in the context of motor resonance and human "mirror systems"...
  7. ncbi Insulin glargine use and short-term incidence of malignancies - a three-year population-based observation
    Rickard Ljung
    Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden
    Acta Oncol 50:685-93. 2011
    ..To further investigate the association of cancer occurrence with the use of insulin glargine...
  8. ncbi Learning by observation in rhesus monkeys
    Martine Meunier
    Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives de la Mediterranee, UMR6193, CNRS Université de la Méditerranée and Aix Marseille Université, 31, Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 88:243-8. 2007
    ..Humans, however, can learn new rules at a lower cost via observation of conspecifics...
  9. ncbi The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity
    Katherine Gotham
    University of Michigan Autism and Communication Disorders Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 2054, USA
    J Autism Dev Disord 37:613-27. 2007
    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Modules 1-3 item and domain total distributions were reviewed for 1,630 assessments of children aged 14 months to 16 years with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or with heterogeneous non-..
  10. ncbi Motor facilitation during action observation: topographic mapping of the target muscle and influence of the onlooker's posture
    Cosimo Urgesi
    Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche e della Visione, Sezione di Fisiologia Umana, Universita di Verona, I 37134 Verona, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 23:2522-30. 2006
    ..Here we sought to determine whether this mirror observation-execution facilitation reflects only muscular specificity or whether it is also influenced by postural ..
  11. ncbi Differential cerebral activation during observation of expressive gestures and motor acts
    M Lotze
    Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioural Neurobiology, University of Tubingen, Germany
    Neuropsychologia 44:1787-95. 2006
    We compared brain activation involved in the observation of isolated right hand movements (e.g. twisting a lid), body-referred movements (e.g. brushing teeth) and expressive gestures (e.g...
  12. ncbi A virtual reality-based system integrated with fmri to study neural mechanisms of action observation-execution: a proof of concept study
    S V Adamovich
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ, USA
    Restor Neurol Neurosci 27:209-23. 2009
    ..However, the potential of VEs to recruit action observation-execution neural networks is largely unknown...
  13. pmc Variability of intraocular pressure measurements in observation participants in the ocular hypertension treatment study
    Anjali M Bhorade
    Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Ophthalmology 116:717-24. 2009
    ..To describe variability of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements within the same eye and between right and left eyes over a 60-month period in participants in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study...
  14. ncbi Prospective randomized study of selective neck dissection versus observation for N0 neck of early tongue carcinoma
    Anthony Po Wing Yuen
    Department of Surgery, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Head Neck 31:765-72. 2009
    ..There are controversies on the benefits of elective neck dissection (END) for oral tongue carcinoma...
  15. ncbi The early development of object knowledge: a study of infants' visual anticipations during action observation
    Sabine Hunnius
    Center for Cognition, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, P O Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Dev Psychol 46:446-54. 2010
    ..the developing object knowledge of infants through their visual anticipation of action targets during action observation. Infants (6, 8, 12, 14, and 16 months) and adults watched short movies of a person using 3 different everyday ..
  16. ncbi The cortical motor system
    G Rizzolatti
    Istituto di Fisiologia Umana, Universita di Parma, Via Volturno 39, I43100 Parma, Italy
    Neuron 31:889-901. 2001
    ..We submit that generating internal representations of actions is central to cortical motor function. External contingencies and motivational factors determine then whether these action representations are transformed into actual actions...
  17. ncbi Mirror neurons: action observation treatment as a tool in stroke rehabilitation
    M Franceschini
    Department of Neurorehabilitation, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy
    Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 46:517-23. 2010
    The observation of actions performed by others activate in an observer the same neural structures (including mirror neurons) as when he/she actually performs the same actions.
  18. ncbi Understanding mirror neurons: evidence for enhanced corticospinal excitability during the observation of transitive but not intransitive hand gestures
    Peter G Enticott
    Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University and the Alfred, Australia
    Neuropsychologia 48:2675-80. 2010
    ..to biological motion, but it remains unclear whether enhanced cortical activity occurs during the observation of any behaviour, or whether that behaviour needs to be associated with a particular object or goal...
  19. ncbi Direct observation of stepwise movement of a synthetic molecular transporter
    Shelley F J Wickham
    University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK
    Nat Nanotechnol 6:166-9. 2011
    ..Real-time atomic force microscopy allows direct observation of individual steps of a single motor, revealing mechanistic details of its operation...
  20. pmc Motor imagery and action observation: cognitive tools for rehabilitation
    Th Mulder
    Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neural Transm 114:1265-78. 2007
    ..Furthermore, it will be discussed to what extent the observation of a movement performed by another subject may play a similar role in learning...
  21. ncbi Resonance of cortico-cortical connections of the motor system with the observation of goal directed grasping movements
    Giacomo Koch
    Laboratorio di Neurologia Clinica e Comportamentale, Fondazione Santa Lucia IRCCS, Rome, Italy
    Neuropsychologia 48:3513-20. 2010
    ..In monkeys, neurons of these areas become active also during the observation of movements performed by others, especially for coding the goal of the action (mirror system)...
  22. ncbi Effects of different viewing perspectives on somatosensory activations during observation of touch
    Michael Schaefer
    Human Cortical Physiology Section and Stroke Neurorehabilitation Clinic, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 30:2722-30. 2009
    ..These findings suggest a mirror system for action observation. Recently, bimodal neurons, sensitive both to visual and tactile stimulation, were reported in the parietal ..
  23. ncbi Epoch length and accelerometer outputs in children: comparison to direct observation
    James J McClain
    Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program, Office of Preventive Oncology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:2080-7. 2008
    ..Health Services, Pensacola, FL) accelerometer estimates of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in fifth-grade children monitored during physical education (PE) compared with a direct observation (DO) criterion standard.
  24. pmc Social network determinants of depression
    J N Rosenquist
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 16:273-81. 2011
    ..The results are robust to multiple network simulation and estimation methods, suggesting that network phenomena appear relevant to the epidemiology of depression and would benefit from further study...
  25. ncbi The influence of observation and setting on community health workers' practices
    S Y Rowe
    Department of Epidemiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Int J Qual Health Care 18:299-305. 2006
    To determine whether results from an evaluation that involved observation of community health workers while they performed patient consultations in a hospital reflected normal everyday practices.
  26. pmc Observation of static pictures of dynamic actions enhances the activity of movement-related brain areas
    Alice Mado Proverbio
    Department of Psychology, University of Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy
    PLoS ONE 4:e5389. 2009
    ..ERPs were recorded from 128 sites in young male and female adults engaged in a secondary perceptual task...
  27. pmc Adjuvant paclitaxel plus carboplatin compared with observation in stage IB non-small-cell lung cancer: CALGB 9633 with the Cancer and Leukemia Group B, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, and North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study Groups
    Gary M Strauss
    Tufts Medical Center, Division of Medical Oncology, Tufts NEMC, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Clin Oncol 26:5043-51. 2008
    ..This report provides a mature analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9633, the only RCT designed specifically for stage IB NSCLC...
  28. pmc Analysis of queries sent to PubMed at the point of care: observation of search behaviour in a medical teaching hospital
    Arjen Hoogendam
    Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 8:42. 2008
    ..The objectives of our study were to identify queries that are likely to retrieve relevant articles by relating PubMed search techniques and tools to the number of articles retrieved and the selection of articles for further reading...
  29. ncbi The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC): an observational measure of the intentional communication of children with autism in an unstructured classroom setting
    Greg Pasco
    Department of Community Health Science, St George s University of London, London, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 38:1807-18. 2008
    The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC) was devised to provide ecologically valid outcome measures for a communication-focused intervention trial...
  30. ncbi Effects of training in direct observation of medical residents' clinical competence: a randomized trial
    Eric S Holmboe
    Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Ann Intern Med 140:874-81. 2004
    Faculty observation of residents and students performing clinical skills is essential for reliable and valid evaluation of trainees.
  31. ncbi Development of an observational measure of healthcare worker hand-hygiene behaviour: the hand-hygiene observation tool (HHOT)
    J McAteer
    Department of Psychology, University College London, London, UK
    J Hosp Infect 68:222-9. 2008
    ..Inter-observer agreement for each category was assessed by observation of 298 HHOs and HHBs by two independent observers on acute elderly and intensive care units...
  32. ncbi Poor quality of reporting confounding bias in observational intervention studies: a systematic review
    Rolf H H Groenwold
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Ann Epidemiol 18:746-51. 2008
    ..To systematically review observational studies on medical interventions to determine the quality of reporting of confounding...
  33. ncbi Influence of male morphology on male mating status and behavior during interunit encounters in western lowland gorillas
    Damien Caillaud
    Université de Montpellier 2, France
    Am J Phys Anthropol 135:379-88. 2008
    ..We discuss the mechanisms through which males with more exaggerated traits could obtain a mating advantage, namely male-male fights or female mate choice...
  34. ncbi Lateralization of motor excitability during observation of bimanual signs
    Riikka Möttönen
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3UD, United Kingdom
    Neuropsychologia 48:3173-7. 2010
    ..TMS-induced motor evoked potentials were recorded from hand muscles during sign observation before and after teaching the participants to associate meanings with half of the signs...
  35. ncbi Using bar-code technology and medication observation methodology for safer medication administration
    Richard D Paoletti
    Pharmacy Services, Lancaster General Hospital LGH, 555 North Duke Street, Lancaster, PA 17604, USA
    Am J Health Syst Pharm 64:536-43. 2007
    ..implementation of a multidisciplinary approach to systematically decrease medication errors through the use of observation methodology and the deployment of electronic medication administration records (EMARs) and bar-coded-medication ..
  36. ncbi Development and reliability of an observation method to assess food intake of young children in child care
    Sarah C Ball
    Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 27599 7461, USA
    J Am Diet Assoc 107:656-61. 2007
    To our knowledge, a direct observation protocol for assessing dietary intake among young children in child care has not been published...
  37. ncbi Measuring rates of hand hygiene adherence in the intensive care setting: a comparative study of direct observation, product usage, and electronic counting devices
    Alexandre R Marra
    Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Statistics Department, Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 31:796-801. 2010
    To compare 3 measures of hand hygiene adherence-direct observation, product usage, and electronic counting devices-in an intensive care unit.
  38. ncbi General motor representations are developed during action-observation
    Spencer J Hayes
    Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Tom Reilly Building, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK
    Exp Brain Res 204:199-206. 2010
    This study was designed to examine the generality of motor learning by action-observation. During practice, action-observation participants watched a learning model (e.g...
  39. pmc Participant observation of time allocation, direct patient contact and simultaneous activities in hospital physicians
    Matthias Weigl
    Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social, and Environmental Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    BMC Health Serv Res 9:110. 2009
    ..Therefore an observation instrument for time-motion-studies in hospital settings was developed and tested.
  40. ncbi Clinical relevance of action observation in upper-limb stroke rehabilitation: a possible role in recovery of functional dexterity. A randomized clinical trial
    Marco Franceschini
    Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy
    Neurorehabil Neural Repair 26:456-62. 2012
    A randomized controlled observer-blind trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of action observation as an add-on treatment to the standard rehabilitation of upper-limb function, early after stroke.
  41. ncbi Opening the black box of clinical skills assessment via observation: a conceptual model
    Jennifer R Kogan
    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Med Educ 45:1048-60. 2011
    This study was intended to develop a conceptual framework of the factors impacting on faculty members' judgements and ratings of resident doctors (residents) after direct observation with patients.
  42. ncbi Analysis of binary outcomes with missing data: missing = smoking, last observation carried forward, and a little multiple imputation
    Donald Hedeker
    University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 4336, USA
    Addiction 102:1564-73. 2007
    ..We consider this problem in a simple two-group design where interest centers on comparing the groups in terms of the binary outcome at a single timepoint...
  43. ncbi Hand movement observation by individuals born without hands: phantom limb experience constrains visual limb perception
    Marion Funk
    Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland
    Exp Brain Res 164:341-6. 2005
    ..Instead, neural systems matching action observation, action execution and motor imagery likely contribute to the definition of body schema in profound ways...
  44. ncbi What do faculty observe of medical students' clinical performance?
    Andrew R Pulito
    Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, 40536, USA
    Teach Learn Med 18:99-104. 2006
    ..An earlier study of our faculty's evaluation of junior medical students indicated that performance ratings were unreliable and reflected 1 underlying dimension. Other researchers have obtained similar results...
  45. pmc Gossip as an alternative for direct observation in games of indirect reciprocity
    Ralf D Sommerfeld
    Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, 24306 Plön, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:17435-40. 2007
    ..e., direct observation) as well as gossip about the same information...
  46. ncbi Reduced ventrolateral fMRI response during observation of emotional gestures related to the degree of dopaminergic impairment in Parkinson disease
    Martin Lotze
    Functional Imaging Group, Center for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
    J Cogn Neurosci 21:1321-31. 2009
    ..In comparison to HC, PD patients showed a specific decrease in activation related to emotional gesture observation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and the right superior temporal sulcus...
  47. ncbi Sequence learning by action and observation: evidence for separate mechanisms
    S W Kelly
    Department of Psychology, University of Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK
    Br J Psychol 94:355-72. 2003
    ..Some researchers have claimed that this learning may take place by observation alone...
  48. pmc Action observation can prime visual object recognition
    Hannah Barbara Helbig
    Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Spemannstr 41, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Exp Brain Res 200:251-8. 2010
    ..Here, we investigated whether action observation can facilitate object recognition using an action priming paradigm...
  49. ncbi Neuronal encoding of human kinematic invariants during action observation
    Antonino Casile
    Department of Cognitive Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tubingen, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Cereb Cortex 20:1647-55. 2010
    ..this issue by dissociating, by means of computer-generated characters, form and motion information during the observation of human movements...
  50. ncbi The Delirium Observation Screening Scale: a screening instrument for delirium
    Marieke J Schuurmans
    Department of Nursing Science, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Res Theory Nurs Pract 17:31-50. 2003
    The Delirium Observation Screening (DOS) scale, a 25-item scale, was developed to facilitate early recognition of delirium, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV criteria, based on nurses' observations during regular care...
  51. ncbi When are observational studies as credible as randomised trials?
    Jan P Vandenbroucke
    Department of Clinical Epidemioloy, Leiden University Medical Centre, Bldg 1 C9 P, 2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands
    Lancet 363:1728-31. 2004
  52. ncbi Comparing the performance of indicators of hand-washing practices in rural Indian households
    A Biran
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 13:278-85. 2008
    ..from 26 proxy indicators of domestic hand-washing practices with those obtained from direct, 'structured' observation of hand-washing in a sample of 387 households and to assess the potential of these indicators for use in the ..
  53. ncbi The Autism Observation Scale for Infants: scale development and reliability data
    Susan E Bryson
    Departments of Pediatrics and Psychology, Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Autism Dev Disord 38:731-8. 2008
    The Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI) was developed to detect and monitor early signs of autism as they emerge in high-risk infants (all with an older sibling with an autistic spectrum disorder)...
  54. ncbi Clinical applications of analogue behavioral observation: dimensions of psychometric evaluation
    S N Haynes
    Department of Psychology, University of Hawai i, 2430 Campus Road, Honolulu, Hawai i 96822, USA
    Psychol Assess 13:73-85. 2001
    Clinical assessment applications of analogue behavioral observation are discussed in the context of psychometric principles...
  55. ncbi Goals and means in action observation: a computational approach
    Raymond H Cuijpers
    Nijmegen Institute for Cognition and Information, Radboud University, 6500 HE Nijmegen, P O Box 9104, The Netherlands
    Neural Netw 19:311-22. 2006
    ..Goals are considered to be important for action observation since they allow the observer to copy the goal of the action without the need to use the exact same means...
  56. ncbi Natural course and treatment efficacy: one-year observation in diabetic and idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome
    Nefati Kiylioglu
    Department of Neurology, Adnan Menderes University, Medical Faculty, Aydin, Turkiye
    J Clin Neurophysiol 26:446-53. 2009
    ..A repeated nerve conduction study was not meaningful if the diagnosis was definite. Treatment of CTS was definitely superior to spontaneous improvements. Rehabilitation was ineffective in diabetic CTS...
  57. ncbi Modulation of the response to a somatosensory stimulation of the hand during the observation of manual actions
    Julien I A Voisin
    Institut de Réadaptation en Déficience Physique de Québec, Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Réadaptation et en Intégration sociale, 525 Boul Hamel, Quebec, QC G1M 2S8, Canada
    Exp Brain Res 208:11-9. 2011
    b>Observation of hand movements has been repeatedly demonstrated to increase the excitability of the motor cortical representation of the hand. Little attention, however, has been devoted to its effect on somatosensory processing...
  58. pmc Problem formulation by medical students: an observation study
    Francois Auclair
    Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Canada
    BMC Med Educ 7:16. 2007
    ..In this observation study, we describe how medical students formulate the problem of a complex case.
  59. ncbi Medication errors in critically ill adults: a review of direct observation evidence
    Panagiotis Kiekkas
    Nursing Department, Highest Technological Educational Institute of Patras, Greece
    Am J Crit Care 20:36-44. 2011
    To systematically review clinical evidence gathered by direct observation of medication errors in adult patients in intensive care units.
  60. ncbi Learning to look: developing clinical observational skills at an art museum
    C L Bardes
    Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Med Educ 35:1157-61. 2001
    Clinical diagnosis involves the observation, description, and interpretation of visual information. These skills are also the special province of the visual arts...
  61. ncbi The role of behavior observation in measurement systems for randomized prevention trials
    James Snyder
    Department of Psychology, Wichita State University, Box 34, Wichita, Kansas 67260 0034, USA
    Prev Sci 7:43-56. 2006
    The role of behavior observation in theory-driven prevention intervention trials is examined...
  62. ncbi Videotaped recording as a method of participant observation in psychiatric nursing research
    E Latvala
    Department of Nursing and Health Administration, University of Oulu and Psychiatric Clinic, University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
    J Adv Nurs 31:1252-7. 2000
    This paper describes videotaped recording as a data collection method when conducting participant observation in a psychiatric nursing study...
  63. ncbi A passive acoustic monitoring method applied to observation and group size estimation of finless porpoises
    Kexiong Wang
    Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, People s Republic of China
    J Acoust Soc Am 118:1180-5. 2005
    The present study aimed at determining the detection capabilities of an acoustic observation system to recognize porpoises under local riverine conditions and compare the results with sighting observations...
  64. ncbi Acute appendicitis: the continuing role for active observation
    P Bachoo
    Department of Surgical Paediatrics, Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital, Cornhill Road, Aberdeen AB25 2ZG, UK
    Pediatr Surg Int 17:125-8. 2001
    We present the results of a 6-year review of appendicitis. In the event of diagnostic doubt, a policy of active observation was instituted...
  65. ncbi Predictors of emergency department observation unit outcomes
    John Burkhardt
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 12:869-74. 2005
    ..In some of these, the use of a short-stay emergency department observation unit (EDOU) decreases 90-day ED revisits and 90-day rehospitalizations and, if subsequent hospitalization is ..
  66. ncbi Human gaze behaviour during action execution and observation
    Benno Gesierich
    Center for Mind Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Corso Bettini, Rovereto, Italy
    Acta Psychol (Amst) 128:324-30. 2008
    Gaze shifts and fixations appear to be proactive in both action execution and observation. We investigated a dependency of anticipatory gaze behaviour by using a block stacking task...
  67. ncbi Is hospital admission and observation required after a normal abdominal computed tomography scan in children with blunt abdominal trauma?
    Smita Awasthi
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California Davis, School of Medicine, Davis, CA, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 15:895-9. 2008
    The objective was to determine if hospital admission of children with blunt abdominal trauma for observation of possible intraabdominal injury (IAI) is necessary after a normal abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan in the emergency ..
  68. ncbi An observation on the spontaneous noticing of prospective memory event-based cues
    Justin B Knight
    Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, USA
    J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 37:298-307. 2011
    ..The findings have implications for the theoretical debate over whether preparatory attention must always be relied upon to notice intention-related material...
  69. ncbi Effects of group dynamics and diet on the ranging patterns of a western gorilla group (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic
    Chloe Cipolletta
    WWF, Bangui, Central African Republic
    Am J Primatol 64:193-205. 2004
    ..In the last 14 months of the study, when the group numbered only three individuals and was ranging in a restricted area, the average DPL, but not the monthly range, increased when the gorillas were consuming more fruit...
  70. ncbi Medical students' clinical performance in general practice - Triangulating assessments from patients, teachers and students
    Anja Maria Braend
    University of Oslo, Blindern, N 0318 Oslo, Norway
    Med Teach 32:333-9. 2010
    ..Formative assessment of medical students' clinical performance during general practice clerkship is necessary to learn consultation skills...
  71. ncbi Using observation and self-report to predict mean, 90th percentile, and cumulative low back muscle activity in heavy industry workers
    Catherine Trask
    CBF, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gavle, SE 801 76 Gävle, Sweden
    Ann Occup Hyg 54:595-606. 2010
    ..b>Observation-based models performed better than self-report-based models and may provide an alternative to direct ..
  72. ncbi Methodology of therapeutic trials: lessons from the late evidence of the cardiovascular toxicity of some coxibs
    Philippe Ravaud
    INSERM U738, Département d Epidémiologie, de Biostatistique et de Recherche Clinique, Groupe Hospitalier Bichat Claude Bernard, Faculte Xavier Bichat, Universite Paris 7, Paris Cedex 18, France
    Joint Bone Spine 72:451-5. 2005
    ..The advantages and drawbacks of observational studies and randomized trials are reviewed. Emphasis is put on the usefulness of independent steering committees for therapeutic trials and on the value of cumulative meta-analyses...
  73. pmc Comparison of effects in randomized controlled trials with observational studies in digestive surgery
    Satoru Shikata
    Department of Digestive Surgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
    Ann Surg 244:668-76. 2006
    ..To compare the results of randomized controlled trials versus observational studies in meta-analyses of digestive surgical topics...
  74. ncbi Methodological issues in the direct observation of parent-child interaction: do observational findings reflect the natural behavior of participants?
    F Gardner
    University of Oxford, Department of Social Policy and Social Work, UK
    Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 3:185-98. 2000
    ..However, the small number of studies in this area suggest that interactions in structured or artificial settings are not necessarily representative of those normally taking place at home...
  75. ncbi Direct observation of children's preferences and activity levels during interactive and online electronic games
    Cindy H P Sit
    Institute of Human Performance, University of Hong Kong
    J Phys Act Health 7:484-9. 2010
    ..The purpose of the study was to examine preferences and PA levels during interactive and online electronic games among overweight and nonoverweight boys and girls...
  76. ncbi Observation of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) problems in three natural classroom contexts
    G W Lauth
    Heilpädagogische Fakultät, University of Cologne, Germany
    Br J Educ Psychol 76:385-404. 2006
    b>Observation studies of students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) problems in natural classroom situations are costly and relatively rare.
  77. ncbi A Respiratory Distress Observation Scale for patients unable to self-report dyspnea
    Margaret L Campbell
    Department of Nursing Administration, Detroit Receiving Hospital, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    J Palliat Med 13:285-90. 2010
    ..Previous psychometric testing of the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale (RDOS) demonstrated internal consistency and convergent validity with dyspnea self-report and ..
  78. ncbi Variability in the effector-specific pattern of motor facilitation during the observation of everyday actions: implications for the clinical use of action observation
    S Hétu
    Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Réadaptation et en Intégration Sociale CIRRIS, Quebec, Canada
    Neuroscience 170:589-98. 2010
    Action observation is increasingly considered as a rehabilitation tool as it can increase the cortical excitability of muscles involved in the observed movements and therefore produce effector-specific motor facilitation...
  79. ncbi Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cardiac failure: meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials
    Paul A Scott
    Department of Cardiology, Southampton University Hospital, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK
    Eur J Heart Fail 10:1102-7. 2008
    ..To determine the risks of cardiac failure with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the specific risks with Cox-2 specific NSAIDs (COXIBs)...
  80. pmc The information seeking of on-duty critical care nurses: evidence from participant observation and in-context interviews
    Michelynn McKnight
    School of Library and Information Science, Louisiana State University, 269 Coates Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA
    J Med Libr Assoc 94:145-51. 2006
    ..It reveals their information sources, the kinds of information they seek, and their barriers to information acquisition...
  81. ncbi Efficacy of topiramate in adult patients with symptomatic epilepsy: an open-label, long-term, retrospective observation
    Yang Lu
    The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People s Republic of China
    CNS Drugs 23:351-9. 2009
    ..However, there have been few reports on the efficacy of topiramate in the treatment of symptomatic epilepsy of varying aetiologies...
  82. pmc Developmental trends in mother-infant interaction from 4-months to 42-months: using an observation technique
    Masatoshi Kawai
    Japan Science and Technology Agency JST Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society RISTEX, Japan
    J Epidemiol 20:S427-34. 2010
    ..But the method applied to evaluate this interaction mainly comes from the evaluation of the whole observation situation and is dependent upon the coder...
  83. ncbi Identifying the what, why, and how of an observed action: an fMRI study of mentalizing and mechanizing during action observation
    Robert P Spunt
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 23:63-74. 2011
    ....
  84. ncbi Sex and individual differences in induced and evoked EEG measures of action observation
    Jonathan Silas
    Department of Psychology, Roehampton University, London, UK
    Neuropsychologia 48:2417-26. 2010
    ..methods for analysing the EEG response of the neurotypical adult human brain to examine the execution and observation of simple motor actions...
  85. ncbi A long-term visual outcome comparison in patients with optic nerve sheath meningioma managed with observation, surgery, radiotherapy, or surgery and radiotherapy
    Roger E Turbin
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA
    Ophthalmology 109:890-9; discussion 899-900. 2002
    ..Comparison of treatment outcome in patients with primary optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM)...
  86. ncbi An emergency department observation unit protocol for acute-onset atrial fibrillation is feasible
    Benjamin O Koenig
    Department of Emergency Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 39:374-81. 2002
    We sought to describe the feasibility of an emergency department observation unit (EDOU) treatment protocol for the management of uncomplicated acute-onset atrial fibrillation (AAF).
  87. ncbi Observation of hearing loss in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media tubotympanic type
    M Maharjan
    Department of Ear Nose and Throat, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital, Sinamangal, Nepal
    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 7:397-401. 2009
    ..This study is carried out to find out the relation between size and site of tympanic membrane perforation and duration of ear discharge on hearing loss...
  88. ncbi Direct observation as a tool for needs assessment of resident teaching skills in the ambulatory setting
    Nadine T Katz
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Women s Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:684-7. 2003
    This study was undertaken to develop and test a tool for direct observation of resident clinical teaching skills as a needs assessment before designing programs to improve teaching.
  89. ncbi A national survey of observation units in the United States
    Sharon E Mace
    Department of Emergency Medicine, E 19, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    Am J Emerg Med 21:529-33. 2003
    The objective of this study was to survey the use of observation units (OUs) in the United States. A written survey was mailed to every third hospital (sequential by zip code) in the United States. There was a 32...
  90. ncbi Outcome and view of the player modulate motor area activity during observation of a competitive game
    Sotaro Shimada
    Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1 1 1 Higashi Mita, Tama ku, Kawasaki 214 8571, Japan
    Neuropsychologia 48:1930-4. 2010
    ..amp; Abe, R. (2009). Modulation of the motor area activity during observation of a competitive game. NeuroReport, 20, 979-983]...
  91. pmc Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for assessing parent and child behaviours in clinical trials
    Cynthia R Johnson
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Autism Center, 3705 5th Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Intellect Dev Disabil 34:230-8. 2009
    ..We report on the use of this procedure in a pilot study of 12 participants with PDD...
  92. ncbi Indicators of hearing protection use: self-report and researcher observation
    Stephanie C Griffin
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Occup Environ Hyg 6:639-47. 2009
    ..The findings demonstrate the potential importance of noise exposure variability as a factor influencing reporting accuracy...
  93. pmc The "OBS" chart: an evidence based approach to re-design of the patient observation chart in a district general hospital setting
    M T Chatterjee
    Department of Medicine, North West London Hospitals NHS Trust, Central Middlesex Hospital, London, UK
    Postgrad Med J 81:663-6. 2005
    The primary role of the patient bedside observation chart is to make clinicians aware of the deteriorating patient. Despite this, its performance has not been scrutinised...
  94. ncbi Direct observation of procedural skills in radiology
    Vaqar Bari
    Radiology Department, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 195:W14-8. 2010
    The purpose of this perspective is to describe the reliability and feasibility of methods such as direct observation of procedural skills and multisource feedback in assessment of the performance of radiology residents.
  95. ncbi Challenges in using observational studies to evaluate adverse effects of treatment
    Michael D Hughes
    Center for Biostatistics in AIDS Research at the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA
    N Engl J Med 356:1705-7. 2007
  96. ncbi Experience-based priming of body parts: a study of action imitation
    Helge Gillmeister
    University College London, UK
    Brain Res 1217:157-70. 2008
    ..We found that hand and foot movements were selectively primed by observation of a corresponding, task-irrelevant effector in motion...
  97. ncbi An adjuvant autologous therapeutic vaccine (HSPPC-96; vitespen) versus observation alone for patients at high risk of recurrence after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase III trial
    Christopher Wood
    M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Lancet 372:145-54. 2008
    ....
  98. ncbi Adjuvant therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b versus observation alone in resected stage III melanoma: final results of EORTC 18991, a randomised phase III trial
    Alexander M M Eggermont
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet 372:117-26. 2008
    ..Any benefit of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b for melanoma could depend on dose and duration of treatment. Our aim was to determine whether pegylated interferon alfa-2b can facilitate prolonged exposure while maintaining tolerability...
  99. ncbi A comparison of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) measurement approach with direct observation of outpatient visits
    Valerie J Gilchrist
    Department of Family Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH 44272 0095, USA
    Med Care 42:276-80. 2004
    ..However, the validity of the NAMCS methods has not been compared with a reference standard...
  100. ncbi Long-term observation of a pollination network: fluctuation in species and interactions, relative invariance of network structure and implications for estimates of specialization
    Theodora Petanidou
    Laboratory of Biogeography and Ecology, Department of Geography, University of the Aegean, University Hill, 81100 Mytilene, Greece
    Ecol Lett 11:564-75. 2008
    ..We suggest that this may be due to the opportunistic nature of plant and animal species regarding the available partner resources they depend upon at any particular time...
  101. ncbi Action observation and execution: what is shared?
    F de Vignemont
    CNRS EHESS ENS, Paris, France
    Soc Neurosci 3:421-33. 2008
    ..We shed new light on SRA by highlighting the causal efficacy of intentions in action. This in turn explains phenomena such as inhibition of imitation...

Research Grants14

  1. Bi-functional Therapeutics for Allergy-BFTA
    Swey Shen Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Herein, we propose a pan-IgE therapeutics (PIT) based on recent laboratory observation in that the receptor-binding CH(2 and CH(3 linker loop (C(2-3L) of human IgE, spanning the (-barrel of GFP is, ..
  2. Therapeutic intervention for Brucella
    AMY RAMBOW LARSEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Now, we have exciting data demonstrating ? that TFX can inhibit Brucella in culture. This opportune observation provides the first new therapeutic approach in decades to treat Brucella infected individuals where resistance ..
  3. Therapeutic for Intracerebral Hemorrhage
    Dale Christensen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Suppression of MAPK activation is consistent with the observation of reduced inflammation and may reduce the occurrence of neurodegeneration following ICH...
  4. SUBMACULAR SURGERY TRIALS--PHOTOGRAPH READING CENTER
    Susan Bressler; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Patients assigned at random to the control arm will be managed by either observation (no treatment) or laser photocoagulation, depending upon the type of lesion and the findings from earlier ..
  5. LIGHT STIMULATED CARDIAC PACING AND DEFIBRILLATION
    JULIET MORGAN; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..This idea is based on the observation that light can increase the beating rate of neonatal rat and embryonic chick cardiac myocytes...
  6. CHROMOSOME STRUCTURES AND MEIOTIC MECHANISMS
    MARJORIE MAGUIRE; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..include cytogenetic engineering, laboratory experimental treatment, and cytological and ultrastructural observation. The organism selected for study offers a unique combination of excellence of meiotic cytology, an array of ..
  7. Regulation of caspase-1 by Sod2 in the heart
    Kumuda C Das; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We recently made the novel observation that downregulation of basal level of MnSOD (also known as Sod2) by RNA interference upregulated caspase-1 ..
  8. The Daily Interactions of Couples Coping With Breast Cancer: With Whom, About Wha
    Matthias R Mehl; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The EAR is an unobtrusive observation sampling method that operates by periodically recording snippets of ambient sounds from participants'..
  9. Etiologic and therapeutic studies of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)
    Mortimer Poncz; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..What is the molecular basis of this observation? We have recently made two important findings that we believe enhance our understanding the pathophysiology of ..
  10. Randomized observation study of biologic therapy for rheumatoid arthritis
    LARRY W contact MORELAND; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Randomization is needed to distribute patients evenly and remove biases, and real world observation is needed to capture accurate information on actual costs and therapeutic effectiveness...
  11. 2012 Intrinsically Disordered Proteins Gordon Research Conference
    Rohit V Pappu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This view has been challenged by the observation that roughly 30% of eukaryotic proteins fail to fold autonomously and their inability to fold is required for ..
  12. Dosimetry of Lipid-Derived Amino Acid Adducts by LC/MS
    Ian Blair; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We have now made the exciting observation that 4-oxo-2-nonenal efficiently forms adducts with the amino acid arginine...
  13. VALPROATE RESPONSE IN AGGRESSIVE AUTISTIC ADOLESCENTS
    Jessica Hellings; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..A primary goal is for the candidate to learn from Dr. Schroeder how behavioral observation and Applied Behavior Analysis can be used in research in this population...
  14. Long-term Ambulatory Gait Monitor for Parkinson's Disease
    Steven Moore; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Clinical assessment relies on brief observation and frequently unreliable clinical histories, and to date no objective method exists for long-term monitoring ..