gamma rays

Summary

Summary: Very powerful and penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength than that of x-rays. They are emitted by a decaying nucleus, usually between 0.01 and 10 MeV. They are also called nuclear x-rays.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A critical role for histone H2AX in recruitment of repair factors to nuclear foci after DNA damage
    T T Paull
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0540, USA
    Curr Biol 10:886-95. 2000
  2. pmc Recurrent initiation: a mechanism for triggering p53 pulses in response to DNA damage
    Eric Batchelor
    Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Cell 30:277-89. 2008
  3. ncbi Radiation activates HIF-1 to regulate vascular radiosensitivity in tumors: role of reoxygenation, free radicals, and stress granules
    Benjamin J Moeller
    Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cancer Cell 5:429-41. 2004
  4. ncbi p53 is required for radiation-induced apoptosis in mouse thymocytes
    S W Lowe
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts, Cambridge 02139
    Nature 362:847-9. 1993
  5. ncbi DNA double-stranded breaks induce histone H2AX phosphorylation on serine 139
    E P Rogakou
    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Division of Basic Sciences, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 273:5858-68. 1998
  6. pmc Tumor suppressor p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) is involved in DNA damage-signaling pathways
    I Rappold
    Division of Oncology Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    J Cell Biol 153:613-20. 2001
  7. pmc Radiation modulates the peptide repertoire, enhances MHC class I expression, and induces successful antitumor immunotherapy
    Eric A Reits
    Division of Tumor Biology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Exp Med 203:1259-71. 2006
  8. ncbi The DNA double-strand break repair gene hMRE11 is mutated in individuals with an ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder
    G S Stewart
    The University of Birmingham CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, The Medical School Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    Cell 99:577-87. 1999
  9. ncbi Gene expression changes in mouse brain after exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation
    E Yin
    Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore CA 94 550 USA
    Int J Radiat Biol 79:759-75. 2003
  10. ncbi Colocalization of multiple DNA double-strand breaks at a single Rad52 repair centre
    Michael Lisby
    Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, 701 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032 2704, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 5:572-7. 2003

Detail Information

Publications378 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A critical role for histone H2AX in recruitment of repair factors to nuclear foci after DNA damage
    T T Paull
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0540, USA
    Curr Biol 10:886-95. 2000
    ..Recently it has been reported that a member of the histone H2A family, H2AX, becomes extensively phosphorylated within 1-3 minutes of DNA damage and forms foci at break sites...
  2. pmc Recurrent initiation: a mechanism for triggering p53 pulses in response to DNA damage
    Eric Batchelor
    Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Cell 30:277-89. 2008
    ....
  3. ncbi Radiation activates HIF-1 to regulate vascular radiosensitivity in tumors: role of reoxygenation, free radicals, and stress granules
    Benjamin J Moeller
    Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cancer Cell 5:429-41. 2004
    ..These data describe novel pathways contributing significantly to our understanding of HIF-1 regulation which may be major determinants of tumor radiosensitivity, potentially having high clinical relevance...
  4. ncbi p53 is required for radiation-induced apoptosis in mouse thymocytes
    S W Lowe
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts, Cambridge 02139
    Nature 362:847-9. 1993
    ..These results demonstrate that p53 is required for radiation-induced cell death in the thymus but is not necessary for all forms of apoptosis...
  5. ncbi DNA double-stranded breaks induce histone H2AX phosphorylation on serine 139
    E P Rogakou
    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Division of Basic Sciences, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 273:5858-68. 1998
    ..Thus, gamma-H2AX formation is a rapid and sensitive cellular response to the presence of DNA double-stranded breaks, a response that may provide insight into higher order chromatin structures...
  6. pmc Tumor suppressor p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) is involved in DNA damage-signaling pathways
    I Rappold
    Division of Oncology Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    J Cell Biol 153:613-20. 2001
    ..Third, 53BP1 is readily phosphorylated by ATM in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that 53BP1 is an ATM substrate that is involved early in the DNA damage-signaling pathways in mammalian cells...
  7. pmc Radiation modulates the peptide repertoire, enhances MHC class I expression, and induces successful antitumor immunotherapy
    Eric A Reits
    Division of Tumor Biology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Exp Med 203:1259-71. 2006
    ..Our findings indicate that directed radiotherapy can improve the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy...
  8. ncbi The DNA double-strand break repair gene hMRE11 is mutated in individuals with an ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder
    G S Stewart
    The University of Birmingham CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, The Medical School Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    Cell 99:577-87. 1999
    ..These data demonstrate that ATM and the hMre11/hRad50/Nbs1 protein complex act in the same DNA damage response pathway and link hMre11 to the complex pathology of A-T...
  9. ncbi Gene expression changes in mouse brain after exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation
    E Yin
    Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore CA 94 550 USA
    Int J Radiat Biol 79:759-75. 2003
    ..To characterize the cellular functions associated with the altered transcript profiles of mouse brain exposed to low-dose in vivo gamma-irradiation...
  10. ncbi Colocalization of multiple DNA double-strand breaks at a single Rad52 repair centre
    Michael Lisby
    Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, 701 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032 2704, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 5:572-7. 2003
    ..Finally, analyses of cells experiencing multiple DSBs demonstrate that Rad52 foci are centres of DNA repair capable of simultaneously recruiting more than one DSB...
  11. ncbi An agonist of toll-like receptor 5 has radioprotective activity in mouse and primate models
    Lyudmila G Burdelya
    Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
    Science 320:226-30. 2008
    ..CBLB502 also showed radioprotective activity in lethally irradiated rhesus monkeys. Thus, TLR5 agonists could potentially improve the therapeutic index of cancer radiotherapy and serve as biological protectants in radiation emergencies...
  12. pmc Small-molecule antioxidant proteome-shields in Deinococcus radiodurans
    Michael J Daly
    Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e12570. 2010
    ....
  13. ncbi Dynamics of the p53-Mdm2 feedback loop in individual cells
    Galit Lahav
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Nat Genet 36:147-50. 2004
    ..This approach can be used to study other signaling systems and suggests that the p53-Mdm2 feedback loop generates a 'digital' clock that releases well-timed quanta of p53 until damage is repaired or the cell dies...
  14. pmc Homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining pathways of DNA double-strand break repair have overlapping roles in the maintenance of chromosomal integrity in vertebrate cells
    M Takata
    Department of Molecular Immunology and Allergology, Kyoto University Medical School, Konoe Yoshida, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8315, Japan
    EMBO J 17:5497-508. 1998
    ..These observations provide the first genetic evidence that both repair pathways play a role in maintaining chromosomal DNA during the cell cycle...
  15. ncbi Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay for dose assessment in mass casualty accidents
    Carita Lindholm
    Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK, Helsinki, Finland
    Radiat Res 173:71-8. 2010
    ..However, there are limitations for its use in the triage of people exposed to high, partial-body doses...
  16. pmc Radiation hybrid mapping of the species cytoplasm-specific (scsae) gene in wheat
    Khwaja G Hossain
    Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo 58105, USA
    Genetics 168:415-23. 2004
    ..A radiation hybrid mapping population was developed from a hemizygous (lo) scsae--line using 35 krad gamma rays. The analysis of 87 individuals of this population with 39 molecular markers mapped on chromosome 1D revealed 88 ..
  17. pmc Phosphorylation and rapid relocalization of 53BP1 to nuclear foci upon DNA damage
    L Anderson
    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Biol 21:1719-29. 2001
    ..These results suggest a role for 53BP1 in the DNA damage response and/or checkpoint control which may involve signaling of damage to p53...
  18. ncbi p53- and drug-induced apoptotic responses mediated by BH3-only proteins puma and noxa
    Andreas Villunger
    Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia
    Science 302:1036-8. 2003
    ..Hence, Puma and Noxa are critical mediators of the apoptotic responses induced by p53 and other agents...
  19. pmc From the Cover: mitotic gene conversion events induced in G1-synchronized yeast cells by gamma rays are similar to spontaneous conversion events
    Phoebe S Lee
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7383-8. 2010
    ....
  20. pmc Cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks after low-dose gamma-irradiation
    Aroumougame Asaithamby
    Division of Molecular Radiation Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:3912-23. 2009
    ..These findings have important implications for estimating the risk associated with low-dose radiation exposure on human health...
  21. ncbi Radiation leukemogenesis in mice: loss of PU.1 on chromosome 2 in CBA and C57BL/6 mice after irradiation with 1 GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions, X rays or gamma rays. Part I. Experimental observations
    Yuanlin Peng
    Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
    Radiat Res 171:474-83. 2009
    ..Although 56Fe ions were initially some two to three times more effective than X or gamma rays in inducing PU.1 deletions, by 1 month postirradiation, the proportions of cells with PU...
  22. ncbi Kinetics and dose-response of residual 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci: co-localization, relationship with DSB repair and clonogenic survival
    E Markova
    Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Radiat Biol 83:319-29. 2007
    ..In this study, we investigated dose-responses and kinetics for radiation-induced 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci formation in relation to their co-localization, DSB repair and cell survival...
  23. pmc Chk1 is an essential kinase that is regulated by Atr and required for the G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoint
    Q Liu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Genes Dev 14:1448-59. 2000
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that Chk1 plays an essential role in the mammalian DNA damage checkpoint, embryonic development, and tumor suppression, and that Atr regulates Chk1...
  24. pmc The radiosensitivity of satellite cells: cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and oxidative stress
    Vincent J Caiozzo
    Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA
    Radiat Res 174:582-9. 2010
    ....
  25. ncbi Methods for studying the DNA damage response in the Caenorhabdatis elegans germ line
    Ashley L Craig
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Methods Cell Biol 107:321-52. 2012
    ..elegans, and describe the development of new experimental tools that will facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the DNA damage response...
  26. ncbi Oxidative damage, bleomycin, and gamma radiation induce different types of DNA strand breaks in normal lymphocytes and thymocytes. A comet assay study
    L Benitez-Bribiesca
    Oncological Research Unit, Oncology Hospital, IMSS, Mexico, DF, Mexico
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 887:133-49. 1999
    ..The biomonitoring of DNA damage inflicted by antineoplastic agents can be easily performed with the comet assay and could be useful to monitor and modulate chemo- and radiotherapeutic regimes in cancer patients...
  27. pmc Small-molecule XIAP inhibitors enhance gamma-irradiation-induced apoptosis in glioblastoma
    Sri Hari Krishna Vellanki
    University Children s Hospital, Ulm University, D 89075 Ulm, Germany
    Neoplasia 11:743-52. 2009
    ....
  28. pmc Stimulatory heterotrimeric G protein augments gamma ray-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bak expression via CREB and AP-1 in H1299 human lung cancer cells
    Yoon Jung Choi
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110 799, Korea
    Exp Mol Med 41:592-600. 2009
    ....
  29. ncbi Energetic heavy ions accelerate differentiation in the descendants of irradiated normal human diploid fibroblasts
    Nobuyuki Hamada
    Department of Quantum Biology, Division of Bioregulatory Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan
    Mutat Res 637:190-6. 2008
    ..Accelerated differentiation may account, at least in part, for dose- and LET-dependent delayed loss of clonogenicity in normal human diploid cells, and could be a defensive mechanism that minimizes further expansion of aberrant cells...
  30. ncbi Simple biodosimetry method for use in cases of high-dose radiation exposure that scores the chromosome number of Giemsa-stained drug-induced prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC)
    E Gotoh
    Division of Genetic Resources, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Int J Radiat Biol 81:33-40. 2005
    ..This simple method will be of use for rapid decision making of therapy for radiation accident victims. This method also has potential for use as a biodosimeter for partial-body exposure accidents...
  31. pmc The role of DNA double-strand breaks in spontaneous homologous recombination in S. cerevisiae
    Gaëlle Lettier
    Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
    PLoS Genet 2:e194. 2006
    ....
  32. ncbi The cAMP signaling system inhibits the repair of γ-ray-induced DNA damage by promoting Epac1-mediated proteasomal degradation of XRCC1 protein in human lung cancer cells
    Eun Ah Cho
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cancer Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110 799, Republic of Korea
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 422:256-62. 2012
    ..From these results, we conclude that the cAMP signaling system inhibits the repair of γ-ray-induced DNA damage by promoting the ubiquitin-proteasome dependent degradation of XRCC1 in an Epac-dependent pathway in lung cancer cells...
  33. ncbi PCC-ring induction in human lymphocytes exposed to gamma and neutron irradiation
    Ana I Lamadrid
    Centro de Protección e Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana, Cuba
    J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 48:1-6. 2007
    ..Cells were exposed either to neutron or to gamma rays and the corresponding dose effect curves are presented in this paper for the first time in literature...
  34. pmc Accelerated hematopoietic toxicity by high energy (56)Fe radiation
    Kamal Datta
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 1468, USA
    Int J Radiat Biol 88:213-22. 2012
    ....
  35. pmc Persistent DNA damage after high dose in vivo gamma exposure of minipig skin
    Emad A Ahmed
    Institut für Radiobiologie der Bundeswehr in Verbindung mit der Universität Ulm, Munchen, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e39521. 2012
    ..Little is known about the DNA damage response after high-dose exposure of the skin. Here, we investigate the cellular and DNA damage response in acutely irradiated minipig skin...
  36. pmc Delayed cell death associated with mitotic catastrophe in γ-irradiated stem-like glioma cells
    Elke Firat
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Radiat Oncol 6:71. 2011
    ..Here, early and late radioresponse of patient-derived stem-like glioma cells (SLGCs) and differentiated cells directly derived from them were examined for cell death mode and the influence of stem cell-specific growth factors...
  37. pmc Preserving immunogenicity of lethally irradiated viral and bacterial vaccine epitopes using a radio- protective Mn2+-Peptide complex from Deinococcus
    Elena K Gaidamakova
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 12:117-24. 2012
    ..This approach could expedite vaccine production for emerging and established pathogens for which no protective vaccines exist...
  38. pmc Prolonged expression of the γ-H2AX DNA repair biomarker correlates with excess acute and chronic toxicity from radiotherapy treatment
    Emma C Bourton
    Brunel Institute of Cancer Genetics and Pharmacogenomics, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UK
    Int J Cancer 129:2928-34. 2011
    ..Further research is required with a larger patient cohort to validate this important study...
  39. ncbi Involvement of purinergic signaling in cellular response to gamma radiation
    Mitsutoshi Tsukimoto
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba, Japan
    Radiat Res 173:298-309. 2010
    ..We conclude that ionizing radiation induces release of nucleotides from cells, leading to activation of P2Y receptors, which in turn would result in a variety of biological effects...
  40. ncbi gamma-Irradiation induces P2X(7) receptor-dependent ATP release from B16 melanoma cells
    Yasuhiro Ohshima
    Department of Radiation Biosciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda shi, Chiba, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1800:40-6. 2010
    ..However, there is no report of radiation-induced ATP release from cancer cells. Here, we examined gamma-irradiation-induced ATP release and its mechanism in B16 melanoma...
  41. ncbi Radiation and transforming growth factor-beta cooperate in transcriptional activation of the profibrotic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene
    Jurre Hageman
    Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Clin Cancer Res 11:5956-64. 2005
    ..This may play a role in patient-to-patient variations in susceptibility toward fibrosis after radiotherapy...
  42. pmc Gamma irradiation alters the phenotype and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells
    Mengde Cao
    Section of Hepatobiliary Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0214, USA
    Cell Biol Int 33:565-71. 2009
    ..Our findings suggest that radiotherapy may be an important strategy to alter the immunologic balance of Tregs and effector cells in cancer therapy...
  43. ncbi Mitochondrial dysfunction, a probable cause of persistent oxidative stress after exposure to ionizing radiation
    Takako Yoshida
    Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan
    Free Radic Res 46:147-53. 2012
    ..Although further experiments are required, results in this study support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction causes persistent oxidative stress that may contribute to promote radiation-induced genomic instability...
  44. pmc Autologous adipocyte derived stem cells favour healing in a minipig model of cutaneous radiation syndrome
    Fabien Forcheron
    Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées antenne La Tronche, La Tronche, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e31694. 2012
    ..Globally this study suggests that local injection of ASCs may represent a useful strategy to mitigate CRS...
  45. pmc Micro RNA responses to chronic or acute exposures to low dose ionizing radiation
    M Ahmad Chaudhry
    Department of Medical Laboratory and Radiation Sciences, University of Vermont, 302 Rowell Building, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
    Mol Biol Rep 39:7549-58. 2012
    ..This information will contribute to understanding the risks to human health after exposure to low dose radiation...
  46. ncbi Repeated 0.5-Gy gamma irradiation attenuates autoimmune disease in MRL-lpr/lpr mice with suppression of CD3+CD4-CD8-B220+ T-cell proliferation and with up-regulation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells
    Fumitoshi Tago
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki Noda shi Chiba, 278 8510, Japan
    Radiat Res 169:59-66. 2008
    ..We therefore conclude that repeated 0.5-Gy gamma irradiation suppresses the proliferation rate of CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-)B220(+) T cells and the production of IL6 and autoantibodies and up-regulates regulatory T cells...
  47. pmc Restoration of radiation therapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice by post therapy IGF-1 administration
    Oliver Grundmann
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
    BMC Cancer 10:417. 2010
    ..To address this problem we investigated the potential for post-therapeutic IGF-1 to reverse radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction...
  48. ncbi Effect of continuous irradiation with a very low dose of gamma rays on life span and the immune system in SJL mice prone to B-cell lymphoma
    L Lacoste-Collin
    Laboratoire d Histologie Embryologie, Faculte de Medecine Rangueil, F 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France
    Radiat Res 168:725-32. 2007
    ..We report here that continuous exposure to a low dose of gamma rays influences the course of spontaneous B-cell lymphoma in SJL mice...
  49. ncbi A method to produce radiation hybrids for the D-genome chromosomes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    O Riera-Lizarazu
    Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 3002, USA
    Cytogenet Genome Res 129:234-40. 2010
    ..These results demonstrate the feasibility of constructing D-genome radiation hybrids (DGRHs) in wheat...
  50. ncbi Expression changes of ERK1/2, STAT3 and SHP-2 in bone marrow cells from gamma-ray induced leukemia mice
    Zhichao Fu
    Department of Radiotherapy, General Hospital of Fuzhou Military Command, China
    J Radiat Res 47:121-30. 2006
    ....
  51. ncbi Radiation induced oxidative stress: II studies in liver as a distant organ of tumor bearing mice
    A Agrawal
    Free Radical Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
    Mol Cell Biochem 224:9-17. 2001
    ..These findings of the present work might have some serious implications as the increased radiation-damage of the distant normal organs (due to tumor burden) is likely to adversely affect the therapeutic gain...
  52. pmc Whole mouse blood microRNA as biomarkers for exposure to γ-rays and (56)Fe ion
    Thomas Templin
    Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
    Int J Radiat Biol 87:653-62. 2011
    ..This study investigates to what extent microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures in mouse peripheral blood can be used as biomarkers for exposures to radiation with low and high linear energy transfers...
  53. ncbi Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates radiation-induced male germ cell loss in mice through reducing hydroxyl radicals
    Yunhai Chuai
    Department of Radiation Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    Biochem J 442:49-56. 2012
    ..Our results represent the first in vivo evidence in support of a radioprotective role of H2 by neutralizing •OH in irradiated tissue with no side effects...
  54. ncbi A pathway of double-strand break rejoining dependent upon ATM, Artemis, and proteins locating to gamma-H2AX foci
    Enriqueta Riballo
    Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, East Sussex, BN1 9RQ, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell 16:715-24. 2004
    ..The significant radiosensitivity of Artemis-deficient cells demonstrates the importance of this component of DSB repair to survival...
  55. ncbi Genes required for ionizing radiation resistance in yeast
    C B Bennett
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Nat Genet 29:426-34. 2001
    ..Over 50% share homology with human genes, including 17 implicated in cancer, indicating that a large set of newly identified human genes may have related roles in the toleration of radiation damage...
  56. ncbi Deinococcus deserti sp. nov., a gamma-radiation-tolerant bacterium isolated from the Sahara Desert
    Arjan de Groot
    Laboratoire d Ecologie Microbienne de la Rhizosphere, UMR 6191 CNRS CEA Université de la Méditerranée, DSV DEVM, CEA Cadarache, F 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance, France
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:2441-6. 2005
    ..Strains VCD115T and VCD117 are therefore identified as representing a novel species, for which the name Deinococcus deserti sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain VCD115T (=DSM 17065T=LMG 22923T)...
  57. ncbi p53 dependence of early apoptotic and proliferative responses within the mouse intestinal epithelium following gamma-irradiation
    A R Clarke
    CRC Laboratories, Department of Pathology, University Medical School, Edinburgh, UK
    Oncogene 9:1767-73. 1994
    ....
  58. pmc Gamma radiation increases endonuclease-dependent L1 retrotransposition in a cultured cell assay
    Evan A Farkash
    Department of Pathology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:1196-204. 2006
    ..The mobilization of L1 in irradiated cells potentially contributes to genomic instability and could be a driving force for secondary mutations in patients undergoing radiation therapy...
  59. pmc Oscillations and variability in the p53 system
    Naama Geva-Zatorsky
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    Mol Syst Biol 2:2006.0033. 2006
    ..This study provides a view of the extensive variability of the behavior of a protein circuit in living human cells, both from cell to cell and in the same cell over time...
  60. ncbi Non-small-cell lung cancers with kinase domain mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor are sensitive to ionizing radiation
    Amit K Das
    Division of Molecular Radiation Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 2201 Inwood Road, NC 7 208, Mail Code 9187, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Cancer Res 66:9601-8. 2006
    ....
  61. ncbi Cancer mortality risk among workers at the Mayak nuclear complex
    N S Shilnikova
    Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk, Russia
    Radiat Res 159:787-98. 2003
    ..As dose estimates for the Mayak workers are improved, it should be possible to obtain more precise estimates of solid cancer and leukemia risks from protracted external radiation exposure in this cohort...
  62. pmc The use of gamma-H2AX as a biodosimeter for total-body radiation exposure in non-human primates
    Christophe E Redon
    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e15544. 2010
    ..However, knowledge of individual exposures is essential for early triage during radiological incidents to provide optimum possible life-sparing medical procedures to each person...
  63. ncbi Linkage of ATM to cell cycle regulation by the Chk2 protein kinase
    S Matsuoka
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Science 282:1893-7. 1998
    ..This is the same site phosphorylated by the protein kinase Chk1, which suggests that, in response to DNA damage and DNA replicational stress, Chk1 and Chk2 may phosphorylate Cdc25C to prevent entry into mitosis...
  64. ncbi Identification of ionizing radiation-responsive microRNAs in the IM9 human B lymphoblastic cell line
    Hwa Jun Cha
    Functional Genoproteome Research Centre, Konkuk University, Seoul 143 701, Korea
    Int J Oncol 34:1661-8. 2009
    ..The expression profiles of miRNAs in the IM9 human B lymphoblastic cells are strongly affected by IR and these changes may be involved in the regulation of cellular response to IR...
  65. ncbi Overexpression of HSP70 is induced by ionizing radiation in C3H 10T1/2 cells and protects from DNA damage
    V Calini
    Dipartimento di Scienze dell Ambiente e del Territorio, Universita Milano Bicocca, p zza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milan, Italy
    Toxicol In Vitro 17:561-6. 2003
    ..A preliminary investigation on the cell cycle does not evidence a significant protective action of inducible Hsp70 on it...
  66. ncbi Modification of immune response by low dose ionizing radiation: role of apoptosis
    B Shankar
    Immunology Section, Cell Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumba, India
    Immunol Lett 68:237-45. 1999
    ..Furthermore, the alterations in the expression of pro-apoptosis gene p53 and activation induced apoptosis in the effector or regulatory cells seem to contribute to the end result...
  67. pmc BH3-only proteins Puma and Bim are rate-limiting for gamma-radiation- and glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells in vivo
    Miriam Erlacher
    Division of Experimental Pathophysiology and Immunology, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Blood 106:4131-8. 2005
    ..Our results thus establish that Puma and Bim are key initiators of gamma-radiation- and glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in lymphoid cells in vivo...
  68. ncbi A role for adult neurogenesis in spatial long-term memory
    J S Snyder
    Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, 1 King s College Circle, Room 3214, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8
    Neuroscience 130:843-52. 2005
    ..These results suggest a new role for adult neurogenesis in the formation and/or consolidation of long-term, hippocampus-dependent, spatial memories...
  69. ncbi Why is Deinococcus radiodurans so resistant to ionizing radiation?
    J R Battista
    Dept of Biological Sciences, 508 Life Sciences Bldg, Louisiana State University and A and M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
    Trends Microbiol 7:362-5. 1999
    ..Despite this insult to their genetic integrity, these cells survive without loss of viability or evidence of mutation, repairing the damage by as-yet-poorly-understood mechanisms...
  70. ncbi Latent transforming growth factor beta1 activation in situ: quantitative and functional evidence after low-dose gamma-irradiation
    E J Ehrhart
    Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Ft Collins 80523, USA
    FASEB J 11:991-1002. 1997
    ..As such, radiation may be useful as a probe to delineate the consequences of latent TGF-beta activation in situ...
  71. pmc Epithelial apoptosis in mechanistically distinct methods of injury in the murine small intestine
    D Vyas
    Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, USA
    Histol Histopathol 22:623-30. 2007
    ....
  72. ncbi Dose response of gamma rays and iron nuclei for induction of chromosomal aberrations in normal and repair-deficient cell lines
    Kerry A George
    Wyle, Houston, Texas 77058, USA
    Radiat Res 171:752-63. 2009
    ..double-strand break (DSB) repair deficiencies on chromosomal aberration frequency using low doses (<1 Gy) of gamma rays and high-energy iron ions (LET = 151 keV/microm)...
  73. pmc Curcumin regulates low-linear energy transfer γ-radiation-induced NFκB-dependent telomerase activity in human neuroblastoma cells
    Natarajan Aravindan
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 79:1206-15. 2011
    ..Accordingly, we investigated the effect of curcumin in inhibiting IR-induced NFκB-dependent hTERT transcription, TA, and cell survival in neuroblastoma cells...
  74. ncbi Protein oxidation: key to bacterial desiccation resistance?
    James K Fredrickson
    Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    ISME J 2:393-403. 2008
    ..We present the case that survival of bacteria that inhabit dry-climate soils are highly dependent on mechanisms, which limit protein oxidation during dehydration...
  75. ncbi p53-Independent ceramide formation in human glioma cells during gamma-radiation-induced apoptosis
    S Hara
    Department of Neurosurgery, Gifu University School of Medicine, Tsukasamachi 40, Gifu 500 8705, Japan
    Cell Death Differ 11:853-61. 2004
    ....
  76. ncbi Radiation-induced DNA damage: formation, measurement, and biochemical features
    Jean Cadet
    Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, SCIB DRFMC, CEA Grenoble, France
    J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 23:33-43. 2004
    ..glycosylase- and endonuclease-III-sensitive sites in the DNA of neoplastic monocytes upon exposure to gamma rays (48 and 53 per 10(9) bases and per Gy, respectively) using a modified comet assay (the overall number of strand ..
  77. ncbi Threonine 68 of Chk2 is phosphorylated at sites of DNA strand breaks
    I M Ward
    Division of Oncology Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:47755-8. 2001
    ..These results suggest that Chk2 is regulated at the sites of DNA strand breaks in response to ionizing radiation...
  78. pmc Wide-cross whole-genome radiation hybrid mapping of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
    Wenxiang Gao
    Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2474, USA
    Genetics 167:1317-29. 2004
    ..The results demonstrate not only the feasibility of WWRH panel construction and mapping, but also complementarity to traditional linkage mapping and cytogenetic methods...
  79. ncbi Expression of CONNEXIN43 is highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and other environmental stresses
    Edouard I Azzam
    Laboratory of Radiobiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cancer Res 63:7128-35. 2003
    ..In contrast, the response after UV radiation varied and was cell type-dependent. Overall, these data suggest a critical role for genes involved in intercellular communication in mediating the cellular responses to a variety of stresses...
  80. pmc Production and characterization of maize chromosome 9 radiation hybrids derived from an oat-maize addition line
    O Riera-Lizarazu
    Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics and Plant Molecular Genetics Institute, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA
    Genetics 156:327-39. 2000
    ..Irradiation (gamma rays at 30, 40, and 50 krad) of a monosomic maize chromosome 9 addition line produced maize chromosome 9 radiation ..
  81. pmc Alliance of proteomics and genomics to unravel the specificities of Sahara bacterium Deinococcus deserti
    Arjan de Groot
    Laboratory of Microbial Ecology of the Rhizosphere and Extreme Environments LEMiRE, Saint Paul lez Durance, France
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000434. 2009
    ..The supplementary nutrient import and DNA repair genes are likely important for survival and adaptation of D. deserti to its nutrient-poor, dry, and UV-exposed extreme environment...
  82. pmc ATM-mediated transcriptional and developmental responses to gamma-rays in Arabidopsis
    Lilian Ricaud
    CEA, DSV, Institut de Biologie Environnementale et de Biotechnologie iBEB, Service de biologie végétale et de microbiologie environnementales SBVME, Cadarache, Saint Paul lez Durance, France
    PLoS ONE 2:e430. 2007
    ..Putative connections of ATM to stem cell maintenance pathways after IR are also discussed...
  83. ncbi Lycopene: An antioxidant and radioprotector against gamma-radiation-induced cellular damages in cultured human lymphocytes
    M Srinivasan
    Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India
    Toxicology 262:43-9. 2009
    ..The dose of 5microg/ml of lycopene was found to be more effective than the other two doses. Thus, our result shows that pretreatment with lycopene offers protection to normal lymphocytes against gamma-radiation-induced cellular damage...
  84. pmc Adapting the γ-H2AX assay for automated processing in human lymphocytes. 1. Technological aspects
    Helen C Turner
    Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Radiat Res 175:282-90. 2011
    ..This study demonstrates for the first time the optimization and use of our robotically based biodosimetry workstation to successfully quantify γ-H2AX total fluorescence in irradiated peripheral lymphocytes...
  85. pmc The Caenorhabditis elegans Werner syndrome protein functions upstream of ATR and ATM in response to DNA replication inhibition and double-strand DNA breaks
    Se Jin Lee
    Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000801. 2010
    ..These functions of WRN-1 in upstream DNA damage signaling are likely to be conserved, but might be cryptic in human systems due to functional redundancy...
  86. pmc Radiation combined with thermal injury induces immature myeloid cells
    April Elizabeth Mendoza
    Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA
    Shock 38:532-42. 2012
    ....
  87. ncbi Prematurely condensed chromosome rings after neutron irradiation of human lymphocytes
    Ana I Lamadrid
    Centro de Protección e Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana, Cuba
    J Radiat Res 52:531-5. 2011
    ..This assay could be included in the multiparametric approach developed to optimize the medical treatment of radiation victims...
  88. ncbi Return of inactivated whole-virus vaccine for superior efficacy
    Yoichi Furuya
    Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208 3479, USA
    Immunol Cell Biol 90:571-8. 2012
    ..Here, I discuss the overlooked but potentially highly advantageous inactivation method, namely, γ-ray irradiation, as a mean to reach the Holy Grail of influenza vaccinology...
  89. ncbi Oncogenic H-Ras up-regulates expression of Ku80 to protect cells from gamma-ray irradiation in NIH3T3 cells
    In Youb Chang
    Research Center for Proteineous Materials and Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea
    Cancer Res 65:6811-9. 2005
    ..These results suggest that the Ku80 expression induced by oncogenic H-Ras seems to play an important role in protecting cells against gamma-ray irradiation...
  90. pmc Chk1 suppresses a caspase-2 apoptotic response to DNA damage that bypasses p53, Bcl-2, and caspase-3
    Samuel Sidi
    Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 133:864-77. 2008
    ..The evolutionarily conserved "Chk1-suppressed" pathway defines a novel apoptotic process, whose responsiveness to Chk1 inhibitors and insensitivity to p53 and BCL2 alterations have important implications for cancer therapy...
  91. ncbi A pilot case-control study of gamma-radiation sensitivity and risk of papillary thyroid cancer
    Ping Xiong
    Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 4009, USA
    Thyroid 15:94-9. 2005
    ..High levels of chromatid breaks induced by gamma-radiation may constitute an independent risk factor for PTC, but further study is needed...
  92. pmc Age, sex, and race influence single-strand break repair capacity in a human population
    Andrzej R Trzeciak
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 45:1631-41. 2008
    ..Our findings suggest that age, sex, and race influence SSB-RC as measured by the alkaline comet assay. SSB-RC may be a useful clinical biomarker...
  93. ncbi Effect of gamma radiation on heat shock protein expression of four foodborne pathogens
    S Caillet
    Canadian Irradiation Center and Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS Institut Armand Frappier, Laval, QC, Canada
    J Appl Microbiol 105:1384-91. 2008
    ....
  94. pmc The radiosensitization effect of parthenolide in prostate cancer cells is mediated by nuclear factor-kappaB inhibition and enhanced by the presence of PTEN
    Yulan Sun
    Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 6:2477-86. 2007
    ..The presence of PTEN enhances the radiosensitization effect of parthenolide, in part, by suppressing the absolute amount of activated p-Akt...
  95. ncbi A comprehensive study of p53 transcriptional activity in thymus and spleen of gamma irradiated mouse: high sensitivity of genes involved in the two main apoptotic pathways
    Sandra Alvarez
    Commissariat a l Energie Atomique CEA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS, Laboratoire de Cancérogenèse Moléculaire, 92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex, France
    Int J Radiat Biol 82:761-70. 2006
    ..Most in vivo published data referred to high (lethal) irradiation doses. The present study was performed to analyse the p53-dependent response to more relevant low irradiation doses...
  96. pmc Inactivation of a human norovirus surrogate, human norovirus virus-like particles, and vesicular stomatitis virus by gamma irradiation
    Kurtis Feng
    Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:3507-17. 2011
    ....
  97. ncbi Gamma-radiation sensitivity and risk of glioma
    M L Bondy
    Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 93:1553-7. 2001
    ....
  98. ncbi Induction of adaptive response: pre-exposure of mice to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields reduces hematopoietic damage caused by subsequent exposure to ionising radiation
    Yi Cao
    School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, China
    Int J Radiat Biol 87:720-8. 2011
    ..To investigate whether an adaptive response can be induced in mice which were pre-exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields...
  99. ncbi Suppression of topoisomerase IIalpha expression and function in human cells decreases chromosomal radiosensitivity
    Samantha Y A Terry
    Bute Medical School, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland, UK
    Mutat Res 663:40-5. 2009
    ....
  100. ncbi Deinococcus gobiensis sp. nov., an extremely radiation-resistant bacterium
    Menglong Yuan
    Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, PR China
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:1513-7. 2009
    ..nov. is proposed. The type strain is I-0(T) (=DSM 21396(T) =CGMCC 1.7299(T))...
  101. ncbi Cell type-specific hypersensitivity to oxidative damage in CSB and XPA mice
    Harm de Waard
    MGC, Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus MC, P O Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    DNA Repair (Amst) 2:13-25. 2003
    ..These findings establish the role of transcription-coupled repair in resistance to oxidative damage and reveal a cell- and organ-specific impact of this repair pathway to the clinical phenotype of CS and XP...

Research Grants67

  1. DNA Damage Checkpoint and Cancer
    Toru Ouchi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  2. Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) as Juvenile Protective Factors that Alter Aging
    David E Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ....
  3. Cancer Mortality among Military Participants at U.S. Nuclear Weapons Tests
    JOHN DUNNING BOICE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the Pacific Proving Ground between 1946 and 1958 could have been exposed to various types of radiation including gamma rays, alpha particles and intakes of radioactive substances such as plutonium, uranium and fallout products...
  4. Beta Camera and Laparoscopic Probe for Surgical Cancer Removal.
    FARHAD DAGHIGHIAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Multiple detector modules will also be tested to increase sensitivity to beta and decrease sensitivity for gamma rays. Preliminary Studies: Recently we performed a pilot study that involved 7 patients that underwent lumpectomy...
  5. Development of lisinopril for post-exposure mitigation of late effects from a rad
    MEETHA M MEDHORA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for mitigation after exposure to single low- and high-linear energy transfer irradiation (X-rays, neutron-gamma rays), and to radiation in combination with full thickness skin wounds that will occur from detonation of an ..
  6. Innovative Biomarkers to Predict Radiation Lung Injury
    MEETHA M MEDHORA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will test our biomarkers with low (X-rays) and mixed (neutrons and gamma rays) linear energy transfer (LET) sources of radiation that resemble an A-bomb...
  7. A gene therapy for bacterial translocation in mice with whole body irradiation
    Fujio Suzuki; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The objective of this project is to develop a new gene therapy to mitigate sepsis stemming from bacterial translocation in mice irradiated with whole body gamma- rays. ..
  8. Development of a Novel Gastrointestinal Radiomitigator
    Gabor Tigyi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The project when completed will provide data necessary for filing an INDA with the FDA and ultimately provide our country with an effective treatment for radiation injury to the gut. ..
  9. Translational Control of Radiation-Induced Apoptosis
    Alexey G Ryazanov; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This research will be done in collaboration with the Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Puschino, Russia, in collaboration with professor A. S. Spirin as an extension of NIH grant No. RC1 AI078513. ..
  10. Suppression of Mutagenesis with Antioxidants
    WILFREDO HERNANDEZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will test the protection against mutations and DNA damage, which is a precursor to mutations. If antioxidants work, they may be used to reduce risk of cancer and other diseases typical of old age. ..
  11. Non-replicative Vaccine for Human Brucellosis
    Ramesh Vemulapalli; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..At present there is no vaccine available for prevention of brucellosis in humans. Research proposed in this application focuses on developing a highly effective and safe Brucella vaccine for human use. ..
  12. Molecular breast imaging to guide early-stage patient care
    JAMES W HUGG; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..commercialization program for a highly accurate instrument capable of imaging molecular imaging agents at the earliest, most treatable stage of breast cancer, thereby optimizing decision making toward improved and cost-effective outcomes ..
  13. MRI Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) system with low cost, highly stable mag
    MICHAEL J TOMSIC; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, the magnet system will be safer and less prone to quenching than presently used magnet system. ..
  14. Evaluation of Tritium: Relative Biological Effectiveness and Cancer Mortality
    David B Richardson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In addition, we will use Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to combine current information on the RBE for tritium with our epidemiological data in order to estimate a (posterior) distribution of the RBE for tritium. ..
  15. Development of New Drugs that Protect Gastrointestinal Tract from Radiation
    ALEXEY RYAZANOV; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..2. To identify specific inhibitors of eEF2 kinase and to develop lead compounds that can be used to develop drugs that protect gastrointestinal tract from radiation damage. ..
  16. Mouse genetic differences in exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis &learning
    Justin S Rhodes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The goal of this project is to discover mechanisms for pro cognitive effects of exercise at multiple levels of biological organization from genes to physiology to behavior. ..
  17. Protection against radiation-induced damage to intestinal nutrient transport
    Roger Howell; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Three sources of radiation will be used in each aim: acute 137Cs gamma rays, chronic 137Cs gamma rays, and alpha particles from 210Po...
  18. Salivary gland repair and regeneration via Schwann cell-nerve interactions
    SARAH MONICA KNOX; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our investigation will provide sufficient proof-of-principle to support the development of this regenerative strategy in human studies and facillitate our understanding of how radiation influences salivary gland regeneration and repair. ..
  19. Feasibility of Multipinhole SPECT for Prostate Imaging
    HOWARD CARL GIFFORD; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..camera heads and medium-energy parallel-hole (MEPAR) collimators to control septal penetration of the In-111 gamma rays deliver relatively poor photon sensitivity and spatial resolution...
  20. Neuronal-epithelial interactions that regulate mouse salivary gland development
    SARAH MONICA KNOX; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON BIOMEDICAL POLYMERS
    Cato Laurencin; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..host response to the polymeric implant, 3) studies examining the cell-polymer interface after irradiation with gamma rays have not been performed...
  22. Innovative Solid-State Photodetector for Applications in Medical Imaging
    Woon Seng Choong; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..and PET still rely on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) to detect the scintillation light from the conversion of the gamma rays in the scintillator...
  23. Quantitative SPECT for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy
    Eric C Frey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The ability to image bremsstrahlung radiation from TRT agents that do not emit gamma rays could have a number of important applications, but is complicated by the continuous energy spectrum of primary ..
  24. Totally Bioresorbable Drug-eluting Peripheral Polymer Stents
    HOCK SENG TAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The commonly used anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative drug, rapamycin (sirolimus), and amorphous bioasorbable poly-D,L-lactide will be applied as drug/polymer coating in this phase I feasibility study. ..
  25. Control and Impacts of Diseases in Zebrafish Research Facilities
    MICHAEL LAWRENCE KENT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Results will be quickly distributed to the zebrafish community through through publications and the ZIRC web based manual on zebrafish. ..
  26. Time-of-flight PET for Improved whole-body imaging
    Joel S Karp; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The TOF technique requires an accurate measurement of the time difference between the two 511-keV gamma rays that result from the positron annihilation of the radioactive isotope (e.g., 18F) tagged to the PET tracer...
  27. AM-241 APPLICATORS FOR INTRACAVITARY IRRADIATION
    Ravinder Nath; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Am-241 gamma rays can be shielded effectively by thin layers of high atomic number materials (HVL in 1/8th of lead) placed on the ..
  28. B.abortus-based vaccine against viral hemorrhagic fevers
    Ramesh Vemulapalli; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. Manufacturing Process for Albumin-ICG Solder & Denatured Albumin Scaffold
    Yasmin Wadia; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..3) Blood conservation by reducing transfusion requirements. 4) Can be used laparoscopically for elective surgeries on liver and kidney. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. Beta Camera and Laparoscopic Probe for Surgical Cancer Removal.
    FARHAD DAGHIGHIAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Background: F-18 atoms emit positrons (beta rays) that in turn generate gamma rays. Gamma rays travel tens of cm in tissue, while beta rays have a range of~2mm...
  31. Dual Mode, Hand-held Intraoperative Imager
    VIVEK V NAGARKAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..new imaging probe, the Imaging Beta ProbeTM (IBPTM), intended for rapid localization of lesions by sensing gamma rays, followed by real-time high-sensitivity imaging of short-range beta particles or positrons...
  32. HIGH-PERFORMANCE STERILANT GAS FOR DIALYSIS MEMBRANES
    JONATHAN NIMITZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The pilot run will provide enough of the new sterilant for demonstrations of sterilization of medical equipment at one or more facilities. ..
  33. BYSTANDER EFFECTS OF LOW DOSE ALPHA PARTICLES
    Bruce Lehnert; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  34. Genetic Susceptibility Modifiers in Renal Cell Carcinoma
    Xifeng Wu; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such individuals may then be targeted for intervention programs such as chemoprevention or dietary modification. ..
  35. In Vivo Optical Imaging of Beta-Emitting Radionuclides using Cerenkov Radiation
    Simon R Cherry; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..on three radionuclides, 18F (a pure 2+ emitter), 90Y (a pure 2- emitter) and 131I (emits both 2--particles and gamma rays). Both 90Y and 131I are clinically used as therapeutic radionuclides...
  36. High Performance Transparent Optical Ceramic Scintillators through Nanotechnology
    Charles Brecher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    LSO is generally recognized as the ideal scintillator for PET. It has high stopping power for 511 keV gamma rays, high light yield of over 30,000 photons/MeV, and rapid decay of 40 ns...
  37. HIGH-PERFORMANCE STERILANT GAS FOR DIALYSIS MEMBRANES
    JONATHAN NIMITZ; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The new sterilant gas should be marketable worldwide and should allow use of existing EO sterilizing equipment, thus reducing costs of medical care. ..
  38. PHYSICAL SCIENCES (BASIC)
    Kent Riley; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Strategies to improve sensitivity by reducing the radiation background and isolating the characteristic gamma rays will be investigated through bolh measurements and simulations...
  39. GENETIC INFLUENCE ON MUTAGEN SENSITIVITY--A TWIN STUDY
    Xifeng Wu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Additionally, these potential biomarkers may ultimately be used to identify individuals who should be targeted for more intense screening programs or behavior modification interventions. ..
  40. HIGH ENERGY IONS AND GENOMIC INSTABILITY
    Eric Hall; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  41. N-PINHOLE GAMMA-EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
    KENNETH KORAL; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..6. Investigate new data-acquisition situations designed to improve N-pinhole-tomography's relatively poor depth resolution...
  42. LOW-DOSE RADIATION STERILIZATION
    SHALABY SHALABY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  43. MUTAGENIC AND RECOMBINOGENIC EFFECTS OF GAMMA RAYS
    William Taylor; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ....
  44. TIMED-BIORESORBABLE RADIOSEEDS FOR PROSTATE CANCER
    YONGREN PENG; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In addition, the bioresorbable seeds would be capable of delivering chemoprevention agents to the site of the tumor as on-going clinical trials show such agents to be of value. ..
  45. Pb-Qdot Direct Gamma Detectors
    IRVING WEINBERG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..g., PET, gamma cameras) require electron-dense materials to effectively detect high-energy gamma rays. The traditional solution to increasing electron density in detectors has been to fabricate scintillators out of ..
  46. Salmon fibrin gels for surgical applications
    Evelyn Sawyer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..If the neurosurgeon could intervene with a material that promotes neuronal regrowth and connectivity, the impacts for the patient and for society are enormous. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  47. SOURCE WIRES FOR ACUTE ENDOVASCULAR RADIOTHERAPY
    CLARA BAJGAR; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Assuming this result, Implant Sciences Corporation will extend its iodine-125 brachytherapy seed production facilities to include the capacity for fabricating one or both of the proposed wire sources. ..
  48. ULTRAVIOLET AND IONIZING RADIATION DAMAGE
    HENRY GRIGGS; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Any elucidation of the structure and organization of interphase chromosomes would likely assist in the description of genetic mechanisms of interest in many areas of biomedical science...
  49. DOUBLE STRAND BREAKS AND HETERODUPLEX DNA IN YEAST
    Andrew Vershon; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The analysis of recombinational-repair proteins in simpler and more tractable organisms, like yeast, will therefore provide invaluable insights into several fundamental and important cellular processes. ..
  50. MITOCHONDRIA SIGNALED APOPTOSIS IN PROSTATE CANCER CELLS
    DEAN TANG; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. PERIPHERAL STENTS WITH ION IMPLANTED RADIOACTIVITY
    ANTHONY ARMINI; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..ISC has had interest from several stent manufacturers who plan to offer radioactive stents as soon as FDA approval is received. ISC plans to ion implant radioisotopes in their stents as a manufacturing service. ..
  52. RADIOSURGICAL TREATMENT OF TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY
    Nicholas Barbaro; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..If radiosurgery can be shown to reduce or eliminate seizures in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, patients could be offered this minimally invasive technique, avoiding the morbidity of open cranial surgery. ..
  53. GENOMIC INSTABILITY IN HIGH LET CARCINOGENESIS
    Robert Ullrich; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Studies will examine induction of delayed instability by gamma rays, protons, neutrons and iron particles in mouse mammary epithelial cells irradiated in vitro and in vivo...
  54. ROLES OF HUMAN RECOMBINATION GENES IN GENOME INSTABILITY
    David Chen; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..alpha particles have also suggested that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is more potent than low LET gamma rays as an inducer of heritable genome instability...
  55. High-resolution focusing optics for small animal radionuclide imaging
    MICHAEL PIVOVAROFF; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This imaging capability is crucial for the development of novel therapies and understanding the progression of disease for a wide range of human conditions like heart disease and cancer. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. INTRAOPERATIVE DIGITAL IMAGING PROBE
    Gerald Entine; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..designing a next-generation intraoperative probe intended to rapidly localize tumors by detecting the long-range gamma rays, and then image the tumor bed with the short-range beta rays...
  57. DEVELOPMENT OF A GERMANIUM PHOTON IMAGING DETECTOR
    AARON BRILL; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..e. spatial and energy resolution, uniformity, and efficiency measured in response to 140 ke V gamma rays. Small, low contrast test objects will be fabricated and imaged simulated with both the germanium camera and a ..
  58. Tunable Wavelength, High Efficiency Scintillator for Neutron Crystallography
    Vivek Nagarkar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our novel scintillator will attain high neutron detection efficiency with low sensitivity to gamma rays and fast temporal response, and will demonstrate the tremendous potential of nanomanufacturing -techniques to ..
  59. ENDOTHELIAL CELL CYCLE ANTIOXIDANTS AND RADIATION
    David Rubin; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..EC will be cultured from bovine aorta and irradiated (0-10 Gy, 137 Cs, gamma rays). Cewll cycle distribution will be quantified by flow cytometry...
  60. TECHNIQUES FOR PRODUCTION OF ORTHOSILICATE SCINTILLATORS
    JAN IWANCZYK; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..as well as brand new uses with solid-state photodetectors such as APD's and new drift photodetectors. ..
  61. Solid State Beta Imaging Sensor for Radioguided Surgery
    Gerald Entine; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..RMD's Imaging Beta Probe (IBP) will benefit medical professionals and improve the patient care. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  62. Solid State Beta Imaging Sensor for Image Guided Surgery
    Gerald Entine; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The estimated market size for probes is well over a hundred million dollars. A significant fraction of this market represents areas where the proposed technology will have a major impact. ..
  63. POLY (ADP-RIBOSE) AND REPAIR OF RADIATION INDUCED DAMAGE
    THOMAS STAMATO; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..synthesis and find that these mutants are also abnormally sensitive to DNA alkylating agents and possibly to gamma rays. To determine the basis of this sensitivity, PADR mutant cells will be examined for increased frequency of DNA ..
  64. DNA BASE DAMAGE INDUCED BY GAMMA RADIATION
    JOHN ZIMBRICK; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..of Texas, Austin. These studies will help to elucidate possible changes in reactivity of DNA transient radicals when the DNA contains bound drugs...
  65. THE MECHANISM OF RADIATION-INDUCED MITOTIC DELAY
    NANCY OLEINICK; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The correlation of physiological, biochemical, and cytological information may elucidate the mechanism by which ionizing radiation delays nuclear division. ..
  66. DOSE COMPARISON OF STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGICAL MODALITIES
    Mark Phillips; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Use will be made of clinical data at LBL in order to help determine dose-volume relationships of clinical effects...
  67. New Multi-Channel ASIC and Si Detector for Gamma Cameras
    CAROLYN TULL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The prototype detector array will be evaluated with radioisotope sources and medical imaging phantoms. ..