Summary: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS or BETA RAYS, the latter being a high-energy biproduct of nuclear decay.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi 3D structural imaging of the brain with photons and electrons
    Moritz Helmstaedter
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Biomedical Optics, Heidelberg, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 18:633-41. 2008
  2. ncbi Evidence for wavelike energy transfer through quantum coherence in photosynthetic systems
    Gregory S Engel
    Department of Chemistry and QB3 Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Nature 446:782-6. 2007
  3. ncbi Direct exchange of electrons within aggregates of an evolved syntrophic coculture of anaerobic bacteria
    Zarath M Summers
    Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    Science 330:1413-5. 2010
  4. ncbi Hydrogen, metals, bifurcating electrons, and proton gradients: the early evolution of biological energy conservation
    William F Martin
    Institute of Molecular Evolution, University of Dusseldorf, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    FEBS Lett 586:485-93. 2012
  5. ncbi Anchoring semiconductor and metal nanoparticles on a two-dimensional catalyst mat. Storing and shuttling electrons with reduced graphene oxide
    Ian V Lightcap
    Radiation Laboratory, Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 0579, USA
    Nano Lett 10:577-83. 2010
  6. ncbi Capture, store, and discharge. Shuttling photogenerated electrons across TiO2-silver interface
    Azusa Takai
    Radiation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA
    ACS Nano 5:7369-76. 2011
  7. ncbi A kinetic perspective on extracellular electron transfer by anode-respiring bacteria
    César I Torres
    Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 34:3-17. 2010
  8. ncbi Radiosensitization of DNA by gold nanoparticles irradiated with high-energy electrons
    Yi Zheng
    Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1H 5N4
    Radiat Res 169:19-27. 2008
  9. pmc Origin of long-lived coherences in light-harvesting complexes
    Niklas Christensson
    Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    J Phys Chem B 116:7449-54. 2012
  10. pmc Cerenkov luminescence imaging of medical isotopes
    Alessandro Ruggiero
    Nuclear Medicine Service, Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA
    J Nucl Med 51:1123-30. 2010

Detail Information

Publications363 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi 3D structural imaging of the brain with photons and electrons
    Moritz Helmstaedter
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Biomedical Optics, Heidelberg, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 18:633-41. 2008
    ..Both photon-based and electron-based imaging methods will ultimately need highly automated data analysis, because the manual tracing of most networks of interest would require hundreds to tens of thousands of years in human labor...
  2. ncbi Evidence for wavelike energy transfer through quantum coherence in photosynthetic systems
    Gregory S Engel
    Department of Chemistry and QB3 Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Nature 446:782-6. 2007
    ..This wavelike characteristic of the energy transfer within the photosynthetic complex can explain its extreme efficiency, in that it allows the complexes to sample vast areas of phase space to find the most efficient path...
  3. ncbi Direct exchange of electrons within aggregates of an evolved syntrophic coculture of anaerobic bacteria
    Zarath M Summers
    Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    Science 330:1413-5. 2010
    Microbial consortia that cooperatively exchange electrons play a key role in the anaerobic processing of organic matter...
  4. ncbi Hydrogen, metals, bifurcating electrons, and proton gradients: the early evolution of biological energy conservation
    William F Martin
    Institute of Molecular Evolution, University of Dusseldorf, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    FEBS Lett 586:485-93. 2012
    ..is similar to acetogenesis in that both physiologies allow energy conservation from the reduction of CO(2) with electrons from H(2)...
  5. ncbi Anchoring semiconductor and metal nanoparticles on a two-dimensional catalyst mat. Storing and shuttling electrons with reduced graphene oxide
    Ian V Lightcap
    Radiation Laboratory, Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 0579, USA
    Nano Lett 10:577-83. 2010
    ..Photogenerated electrons from UV-irradiated TiO(2) are transported across RGO to reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles at a ..
  6. ncbi Capture, store, and discharge. Shuttling photogenerated electrons across TiO2-silver interface
    Azusa Takai
    Radiation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA
    ACS Nano 5:7369-76. 2011
    ..causes a blue shift in the surface plasmon peak from 430 to 415 nm as these particles become charged with excess electrons. Under UV irradiation, both the charging and discharging of electrons occur at different rates, thus allowing ..
  7. ncbi A kinetic perspective on extracellular electron transfer by anode-respiring bacteria
    César I Torres
    Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 34:3-17. 2010
    ..In order to develop an electrical current, ARB must transfer electrons to a solid anode through extracellular electron transfer (EET)...
  8. ncbi Radiosensitization of DNA by gold nanoparticles irradiated with high-energy electrons
    Yi Zheng
    Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1H 5N4
    Radiat Res 169:19-27. 2008
    ..J., Ayotte, P. and Sanche, L. Radiosensitization of DNA by Gold Nanoparticles Irradiated with High-Energy Electrons. Radiat. Res. 168, 19-27 (2008)...
  9. pmc Origin of long-lived coherences in light-harvesting complexes
    Niklas Christensson
    Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    J Phys Chem B 116:7449-54. 2012
    ..Purely electronic coherences are found to decay on a 200 fs time scale...
  10. pmc Cerenkov luminescence imaging of medical isotopes
    Alessandro Ruggiero
    Nuclear Medicine Service, Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA
    J Nucl Med 51:1123-30. 2010
    ..Here, we report the use of the inherent optical emissions from the decay of radiopharmaceuticals for Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) of tumors in vivo and correlate the results with those obtained from concordant immuno-PET studies...
  11. pmc Peptide and protein sequence analysis by electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry
    John E P Syka
    Engineering Physics Program, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22901, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9528-33. 2004
    ..Modifications to the QLT that enable this ion/ion chemistry are presented, and automated acquisition of high-quality, single-scan electron transfer dissociation MS/MS spectra of phosphopeptides separated by nanoflow HPLC is described...
  12. ncbi Total skin electron radiation in the management of mycosis fungoides: Consensus of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Cutaneous Lymphoma Project Group
    Glenn W Jones
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Care Ontario, Hamilton, Canada
    J Am Acad Dermatol 47:364-70. 2002
    ..of the modern linear accelerator, it has become possible to treat extended areas of the skin with accelerated electrons. Total skin electron beam radiation (TSEB) has been in use for several decades, and a number of technical ..
  13. ncbi Crystal structure of the 270 kDa homotetrameric lignin-degrading enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase
    B Martin Hallberg
    Department of Biotechnology, KTH, AlbaNova University Center, SE 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 341:781-96. 2004
  14. ncbi Tah18 transfers electrons to Dre2 in cytosolic iron-sulfur protein biogenesis
    Daili J A Netz
    Institut für Zytobiologie und Zytopathologie, Philipps Universitat Marburg, Marburg, Germany
    Nat Chem Biol 6:758-65. 2010
    ..b>Electrons are transferred from NADPH via the FAD- and FMN-containing Tah18 to the Fe-S clusters of Dre2...
  15. pmc Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers
    R Robertson
    Department of Imaging Sciences, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Phys Med Biol 54:N355-65. 2009
  16. ncbi Tautomeric equilibria in relation to pi-electron delocalization
    Ewa Daniela Raczyńska
    Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University, 02 776 Warsaw, Poland
    Chem Rev 105:3561-612. 2005
  17. pmc Carbon monoxide cycling by Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough
    Gerrit Voordouw
    Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, D 28359 Bremen, Germany
    J Bacteriol 184:5903-11. 2002
    Sulfate-reducing bacteria, like Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, use the reduction of sulfate as a sink for electrons liberated in oxidation reactions of organic substrates...
  18. ncbi Cellular Ti-6Al-4V structures with interconnected macro porosity for bone implants fabricated by selective electron beam melting
    Peter Heinl
    University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science Institute of Science and Technology of Metals, Martensstrasse 5, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
    Acta Biomater 4:1536-44. 2008
    ..The modified bioactive surface is expected to enhance the fixation of the implant in the surrounding bone as well as to improve its long-term stability...
  19. ncbi High frequency vibrational modulations in two-dimensional electronic spectra and their resemblance to electronic coherence signatures
    N Christensson
    Electronic Properties of Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    J Phys Chem B 115:5383-91. 2011
    ..Our results show that these anticorrelated oscillations occur for vibrational wavepackets and not exclusively for electronic coherences as has been assumed previously...
  20. ncbi Electron correlation effects and density analysis of the first-order hyperpolarizability of neutral guanine tautomers
    Andrea Alparone
    Department of Chemistry, University of Catania, Viale A Doria 6, Catania 95125, Italy
    J Mol Model 19:3095-102. 2013
    ..Dipole moment and first-order hyperpolarizability are molecular properties that are potentially useful for distinguishing the 7H from the 9H tautomer...
  21. ncbi The distance between donor and acceptor affects the proportion of C1' and C2' oxidation products of DNA in a BrU-containing excess electron transfer system
    Ryu Tashiro
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Sciences, 3500 3 Minamitamagaki cho, Suzuka shi, Mie 513 8670, Japan
    J Am Chem Soc 132:14361-3. 2010
    ..On the basis of a labeling experiment using H(2)(18)O, we have shown that hole migration from Py(•+) formed after charge separation is involved in the reaction...
  22. ncbi Multipolar plasmonic resonances in silver nanowire antennas imaged with a subnanometer electron probe
    D Rossouw
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street W Hamilton ON, L8S 4L7, Canada
    Nano Lett 11:1499-504. 2011
    ..Finally, we achieve good agreement of our experimental SR-SPP maps with numerical calculations of photon excited near fields, using a novel integrated photon excitation geometry...
  23. ncbi Binding energies, lifetimes and implications of bulk and interface solvated electrons in water
    Katrin R Siefermann
    Institut für Physikalische Chemie der Universität Göttingen, Tammannstrasse 6, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Nat Chem 2:274-9. 2010
    Solvated electrons in liquid water are one of the seemingly simplest, but most important, transients in chemistry and biology, but they have resisted disclosing important information about their energetics, binding motifs and dynamics...
  24. ncbi Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes
    Nathaniel M Gabor
    Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Science 325:1367-71. 2009
    ..This process is both of fundamental interest and relevant for applications in future ultra-efficient photovoltaic devices...
  25. ncbi Halogen bond tunability I: the effects of aromatic fluorine substitution on the strengths of halogen-bonding interactions involving chlorine, bromine, and iodine
    Kevin E Riley
    Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931, USA
    J Mol Model 17:3309-18. 2011
    ..It is also shown that aromatic fluorine substitutions affect the optimal geometries of the halogen-bonded complexes, often as the result of secondary interactions...
  26. ncbi The origins and limits of metal-graphene junction resistance
    Fengnian Xia
    IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598, USA
    Nat Nanotechnol 6:179-84. 2011
    ..As the temperature increases, this carrier transport becomes less ballistic, resulting in a considerable reduction in efficiency...
  27. ncbi Localization of dirac electrons in rotated graphene bilayers
    G Trambly de Laissardière
    Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, Universite de Cergy Pontoise CNRS, F 95302 Cergy Pontoise Cedex, France
    Nano Lett 10:804-8. 2010
    For Dirac electrons the Klein paradox implies that the confinement is difficult to achieve with an electrostatic potential although it can be of great importance for graphene-based devices...
  28. ncbi Potential of dual-energy subtraction for converting CT numbers to electron density based on a single linear relationship
    Masatoshi Saito
    Department of Radiological Technology, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan
    Med Phys 39:2021-30. 2012
    ..The purpose of this study is to present a simple conversion from the energy-subtracted CT number (ΔHU) by means of dual-energy CT (DECT) to the relative electron density (ρ(e)) via a single linear relationship...
  29. ncbi Induction of DNA-double-strand breaks by auger electrons from 99mTc complexes with DNA-binding ligands
    Pascal Häfliger
    Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Chembiochem 6:414-21. 2005
    ..1 conversion electrons and 4 Auger or Coster-Kronig electrons per decay...
  30. ncbi The molecular mechanism of mammalian NO-synthases: a story of electrons and protons
    Jerome Santolini
    iBiTec S LSOD, C E A Saclay 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
    J Inorg Biochem 105:127-41. 2011
    ..The resulting discussion should provide a comparative picture of all potential models for the NOS molecular mechanism...
  31. ncbi Enrichment and analysis of anode-respiring bacteria from diverse anaerobic inocula
    Joseph F Miceli
    Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States
    Environ Sci Technol 46:10349-55. 2012
    ..cell (MXC) technologies lies in the shortage of different organisms capable of forming a biofilm and channeling electrons from substrates to the anode at high current densities. Using a poised anode (-0...
  32. ncbi Accelerated partial breast irradiation with intraoperative electrons: using GEC-ESTRO recommendations as guidance for patient selection
    Maria Cristina Leonardi
    Division of Radiation Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy
    Radiother Oncol 106:21-7. 2013
    ..among early-stage breast cancer patients after conservative surgery and full-dose intraoperative radiotherapy electrons (ELIOT) by applying the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and ..
  33. ncbi Energy dependence and dose response of Gafchromic EBT2 film over a wide range of photon, electron, and proton beam energies
    Bijan Arjomandy
    Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Med Phys 37:1942-7. 2010
    ..The energy dependence of the dose response of Gafchromic EBT2 film is evaluated for a broad range of energies from different radiation sources used in radiation therapy...
  34. ncbi Combined modality therapy including intraoperative electron irradiation for locally recurrent colorectal cancer
    Michael G Haddock
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 79:143-50. 2011
    ..To evaluate survival, relapse patterns, and prognostic factors in patients with colorectal cancer relapse treated with curative-intent therapy, including intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT)...
  35. ncbi Surface plasmon modes of a single silver nanorod: an electron energy loss study
    Olivia Nicoletti
    Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, CB2 3QZ Cambridge, UK
    Opt Express 19:15371-9. 2011
  36. pmc Consequence of one-electron oxidation and one-electron reduction for aniline
    Ewa D Raczyńska
    Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences SGGW, ul Nowoursynowska 159C, 02 776 Warszawa, Poland
    J Mol Model 17:3229-39. 2011
    ..Independently on the state of oxidation, π- and n-electrons are more delocalized for the enamine than imine tautomers...
  37. pmc Control of hydrogen photoproduction by the proton gradient generated by cyclic electron flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Dimitri Tolleter
    Commissariat à l Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Institut de Biologie Environementale et de Biotechnologie, Laboratoire de Bioénergétique et Biotechnologie des Bactéries et Microalgues, Commissariat à l Energie Atomique Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance, France
    Plant Cell 23:2619-30. 2011
    ..Regulation of the trans-thylakoidal proton gradient by monitoring pgrl1 expression opens new perspectives toward reprogramming the cellular metabolism of microalgae for enhanced H₂ production...
  38. ncbi Quantum coherence and its interplay with protein environments in photosynthetic electronic energy transfer
    Akihito Ishizaki
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:7319-37. 2010
  39. ncbi The evolution of Photosystem II: insights into the past and future
    Adele Williamson
    Research School of Biology, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 0200, Australia
    Photosynth Res 107:71-86. 2011
    ..We then apply our understanding of the evolution of PSII to the bioengineering of a water oxidizing catalyst for utilization of solar energy...
  40. ncbi Analysis of histidine phosphorylation using tandem MS and ion-electron reactions
    Anne J Kleinnijenhuis
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK 5230 Odense M, Denmark
    Anal Chem 79:7450-6. 2007
    ..Finally, a new method is described for nonretentive solid-phase extraction of histidine-phosphorylated peptides using polymeric Strata-X microcolumns...
  41. pmc An electronic bus bar lies in the core of cytochrome bc1
    Monika Swierczek
    Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
    Science 329:451-4. 2010
    ..b>Electrons moved freely within and between monomers, crossing an electron-transfer bridge between two hemes in the core of ..
  42. ncbi Possible mechanism of proton transfer through peptide groups in the H-pathway of the bovine cytochrome c oxidase
    Katsumasa Kamiya
    Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1 1 1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305 8577, Japan
    J Am Chem Soc 129:9663-73. 2007
  43. ncbi Total skin electron beam radiotherapy for patients who have mycosis fungoides
    Glenn Jones
    McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 17:1421-34. 2003
    ..Meanwhile, adjuvant PUVA and ECP may significantly improve results, but further data are needed to confirm these preliminary findings (see references [23, 34, 39, 40, 42])...
  44. pmc Images of paraffin monolayer crystals with perfect contrast: minimization of beam-induced specimen motion
    R M Glaeser
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Ultramicroscopy 111:90-100. 2011
    ..of images of the same area in which each frame from a movie with up to 400 frames had an exposure of only 500 electrons. In the third approach, we simply used a much thicker carbon support film to increase the physical strength and ..
  45. ncbi Electron-crystallographic refinement of the structure of bacteriorhodopsin
    N Grigorieff
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    J Mol Biol 259:393-421. 1996
    ..The ordered and disordered regions of the structure are described by the temperature factor distribution...
  46. ncbi Deciphering the influence of short-range electronic couplings on optical properties of molecular dimers: application to "special pairs" in photosynthesis
    Mohamed El Amine Madjet
    Freie Universitat Berlin, Institut fur Chemie und Biochemie, Fabeckstrasse 36a, D 14195 Berlin, Germany
    J Phys Chem B 113:12603-14. 2009
    ..8 A(-1) and another factor being in the range 0.3-0.7 A(-1) for PSI and 0.8-0.9 A(-1) for bRC. Both effects of the short-range coupling determine the excitation energy sink in the reaction centers at the special pairs...
  47. ncbi Oxidative DNA damage associated with combination of guanine and superoxide radicals and repair mechanisms via radical trapping
    Richard Misiaszek
    Chemistry Department and Radiation and Solid State Laboratory, New York University, New York, New York 10003 5180, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:32106-15. 2004
    ..oxidation and deprotonation of guanine in the 5'-d(CC[2AP]-TCGCTACC) strands and the trapping of the ejected electrons by molecular oxygen (Shafirovich, V., Dourandin, A., Huang, W., Luneva, N. P., and Geacintov, N. E. (2000) Phys...
  48. ncbi Dual-energy CT-based material extraction for tissue segmentation in Monte Carlo dose calculations
    Magdalena Bazalova
    Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Phys Med Biol 53:2439-56. 2008
    ..Comparable improvement in dose calculation accuracy is expected for human tissues. The dual-energy tissue segmentation offers a significantly higher accuracy compared to the conventional single-energy segmentation...
  49. ncbi Three-spin correlations in double electron-electron resonance
    Gunnar Jeschke
    ETH Zurich, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 11:6580-91. 2009
    ..The agreement with the expected side lengths of the triangles is satisfying...
  50. pmc Collisions or electrons? Protein sequence analysis in the 21st century
    Joshua J Coon
    University of Wisconsin Madison, 1101 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Anal Chem 81:3208-15. 2009
    ..To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry website at pubs.acs.org/journal/ancham...
  51. ncbi Fabrication of solid-state nanopores with single-nanometre precision
    A J Storm
    Department of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands
    Nat Mater 2:537-40. 2003
    ..When the electron beam is switched off, the material quenches and retains its shape. This technique dramatically increases the level of control in the fabrication of a wide range of nanodevices...
  52. ncbi Electric currents couple spatially separated biogeochemical processes in marine sediment
    Lars Peter Nielsen
    Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 114, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    Nature 463:1071-4. 2010
    ..concentration within the sediment more than 12 mm below the oxic zone, a change explicable by transmission of electrons but not by diffusion of molecules...
  53. ncbi Auger radiation targeted into DNA: a therapy perspective
    Franz Buchegger
    Service of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Lausanne CHUV, Rue du Bugnon 46, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 33:1352-63. 2006
    ..In the situation of DNA-associated decay, the high linear energy transfer (LET) of Auger electrons gives a high relative biological efficacy similar to that of alpha particles...
  54. ncbi Patterns of failure and local control after intraoperative electron boost radiotherapy to the presacral space in combination with total mesorectal excision in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer
    Falk Roeder
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67:1381-8. 2007
    ..To evaluate local control and patterns of failure in patients treated with intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT) after total mesorectal excision (TME), to appraise the effectiveness of intraoperative target definition...
  55. ncbi Inhibition of photosystems I and II and enhanced back flow of photosystem I electrons in cucumber leaf discs chilled in the light
    S J Kim
    Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 475, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
    Plant Cell Physiol 42:842-8. 2001
    ..but only if the measurement of PSII functionality was free from complications due to downstream accumulation of electrons in pools...
  56. ncbi Excess electron transfer from an internally conjugated aromatic amine to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine in DNA
    Takeo Ito
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 125:11480-1. 2003
    ..dC radical anion. The UV-dependent transfer of excess electrons and subsequent strand cleavage proceeds equivalently under anaerobic and aerobic conditions and is not sensitive ..
  57. ncbi Characterization of the Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 decaheme cytochrome MtrA: expression in Escherichia coli confers the ability to reduce soluble Fe(III) chelates
    Katy E Pitts
    Centre for Metalloprotein Spectroscopy and Biology, School of Biological Sciences and School of Chemical Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 278:27758-65. 2003
    ..In intact cells of E. coli, MtrA is shown to obtain electrons from the host electron transport chain and pass these onto host oxidoreductases or a range of soluble Fe(III) ..
  58. pmc Top-down identification and characterization of biomolecules by mass spectrometry
    Kathrin Breuker
    Institute of Organic Chemistry and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
    J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 19:1045-53. 2008
    ..The latter, which extends characterization to proteins >200 kDa, was made possible by greater understanding of how molecular ion tertiary structure evolves in the gas phase...
  59. pmc Determination of electron density profiles and area from simulations of undulating membranes
    Anthony R Braun
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Biophys J 100:2112-20. 2011
    ..In addition, we have developed a set of methods that use the undulation reference surface to determine the true area per lipid which, due to undulations, is larger than the projected area commonly reported from simulations...
  60. ncbi Quantification of electron transfer rates to a solid phase electron acceptor through the stages of biofilm formation from single cells to multicellular communities
    Jeffrey S McLean
    The J Craig Venter Institute, San Diego, CA, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 44:2721-7. 2010
    ..These data suggest a link between the ability of a surface to accept electrons and biofilm structure development.
  61. ncbi Oxygen access to the active site of cholesterol oxidase through a narrow channel is gated by an Arg-Glu pair
    R Coulombe
    , McIntyre Medical Sciences Building, McGill University, , , Canada
    J Biol Chem 276:30435-41. 2001
    ..These concerted side chain movements provide an explanation for the biphasic mode of reaction with dioxygen and the ping-pong kinetic mechanism exhibited by the enzyme...
  62. pmc Coupled motions direct electrons along human microsomal P450 Chains
    Christopher R Pudney
    Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001222. 2011
    ..Motion has been implicated in the transfer of electrons from human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) to all microsomal cytochrome P450s (CYPs)...
  63. pmc Atomistic study of the long-lived quantum coherences in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex
    Sangwoo Shim
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Biophys J 102:649-60. 2012
    ..This work thus presents, to our knowledge, one of the first steps to explain the role of excitonic quantum coherence in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes based on their atomistic and molecular description...
  64. ncbi Nature of the energy landscape for gated electron transfer in a dynamic redox protein
    Sam Hay
    Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre and Faculty of Life Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    J Am Chem Soc 132:9738-45. 2010
    ..Open states that enable P450 enzymes to gain access to electrons located in the FMN-domain are favored in the absence of bound coenzyme...
  65. ncbi Induction of bystander response in human glioma cells using high-energy electrons: a role for TGF-beta1
    M D Gow
    Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1
    Radiat Res 173:769-78. 2010
    ..produced in T98G cells by exposure to irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) produced by high-energy 20 MeV electrons at a dose rate of 10 Gy min(-1) and doses up to 20 Gy...
  66. ncbi Suppression of auger processes in confined structures
    George E Cragg
    Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D C 20375, USA
    Nano Lett 10:313-7. 2010
    ..Such minima suggest that nanocrystals of "magic sizes" can exist for which nonradiative Auger processes are strongly suppressed...
  67. ncbi Reduced flavins promote oxidative DNA damage in non-respiring Escherichia coli by delivering electrons to intracellular free iron
    Anh N Woodmansee
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:34055-66. 2002
    ..However, NADH itself was a poor reductant of free iron in vitro. This suggests that in non-respiring cells electrons are transferred from NADH to another carrier that directly reduces the iron...
  68. ncbi Ultrafast cooling of photoexcited electrons in gold nanoparticle-thiolated DNA conjugates involves the dissociation of the gold-thiol bond
    Prashant K Jain
    Laser Dynamics Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0400, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 128:2426-33. 2006
    ..gold-sulfur bond-breaking process is a new pathway for nonradiative relaxation of the optically excited electrons within the DNA-modified gold nanoparticles, as manifested by a faster decay rate of the excited electronic ..
  69. ncbi Bond breaks of nucleotides by dissociative electron transfer of nonequilibrium prehydrated electrons: a new molecular mechanism for reductive DNA damage
    Chun Rong Wang
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada
    J Am Chem Soc 131:11320-2. 2009
    ..Moreover, this finding challenges the conventional notion that damage to the genome is mainly induced by the oxidizing OH* radical and might eventually lead to improved radiotherapy of cancer and radioprotection of humans...
  70. ncbi Phosphodiester and N-glycosidic bond cleavage in DNA induced by 4-15 eV electrons
    Yi Zheng
    Group in the Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    J Chem Phys 124:64710. 2006
    Thin molecular films of the short single strand of DNA, GCAT, were bombarded under vacuum by electrons with energies between 4 and 15 eV...
  71. ncbi Cell membrane is a more sensitive target than cytoplasm to dense ionization produced by auger electrons
    Jean Pierre Pouget
    Direction de la RadioProtection de l Homme, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses, France
    Radiat Res 170:192-200. 2008
    ..that the membrane is a more sensitive target than the cytoplasm for the dense ionization produced by Auger electrons. Moreover, cell membrane targeting is as cytotoxic as nuclear targeting in SK-OV-3 cells...
  72. ncbi Full-dose intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons in breast cancer. First report on late toxicity and cosmetic results from a single-institution experience
    Salvatore Mussari
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Santa Chiara Hospital, Trento, Italy
    Strahlenther Onkol 182:589-95. 2006
  73. ncbi Direct extraction of photosynthetic electrons from single algal cells by nanoprobing system
    WonHyoung Ryu
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nano Lett 10:1137-43. 2010
    ..by photosynthetic organisms, we evaluated the feasibility of generating bioelectricity by directly extracting electrons from the photosynthetic electron transport chain before they are used to fix CO(2) into sugars and ..
  74. ncbi Excitons and disorder in molecular nanotubes: a 2D electronic spectroscopy study and first comparison to a microscopic model
    Jaroslaw Sperling
    Newport Spectra Physics, Guerickeweg 7, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
    J Phys Chem A 114:8179-89. 2010
    ..Our results provide a basis for understanding recently reported correlated fluctuations of excitonic absorption bands and interband coherences in tubular aggregates...
  75. pmc Multi-parametric relationships between PAM measurements and carbon incorporation, an in situ approach
    Camille Napoléon
    Universite de Caen Basse Normandie, BIOMEA FRE3484 CNRS, Caen, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e40284. 2012
  76. pmc Density functional theory studies of the extent of hole delocalization in one-electron oxidized adenine and guanine base stacks
    Anil Kumar
    Department of Chemistry, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309, USA
    J Phys Chem B 115:4990-5000. 2011
    ..The presence of A(2)(•+) in the adenine stack has a characteristic intense peak at ~1100 cm(-1). Thus, IR and Raman spectroscopy has potential for monitoring the extent of hole delocalization in A stacks...
  77. ncbi Degradation of N-acetyl tryptophan by low-energy (<12 eV) electrons
    Hassan Abdoul-Carime
    Institut für Chemie Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Freie Universitat Berlin, Takustrasse 3, D 14195 Berlin, Germany
    J Am Chem Soc 126:12158-61. 2004
    Secondary low-energy electrons are abundantly created during the early moments following the deposition of energy by radiation into cells...
  78. ncbi Nanoscopic aspects of radiobiological damage: Fragmentation induced by secondary low-energy electrons
    Leon Sanche
    Group of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in the Radiation Sciences, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Canada J1H 5N4
    Mass Spectrom Rev 21:349-69. 2002
    Low-energy electrons (LEEs) are produced in large quantities in any type of material irradiated by high-energy particles...
  79. ncbi Comparison of Monte Carlo calculated electron slowing-down spectra generated by 60Co gamma-rays, electrons, protons and light ions
    N Tilly
    Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institute and Stockholm University, Sweden
    Phys Med Biol 47:1303-19. 2002
    ..RBE) of different radiation qualities, it is essential to consider particularly the low-energy slowing-down electrons (around 100 eV to 1 keV) since they have the potential of inflicting severe damage to the DNA...
  80. ncbi A bioinorganic view of Alzheimer's disease: when misplaced metal ions (re)direct the electrons to the wrong target
    Peter Faller
    CNRS, LCC Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, 205 route de Narbonne, BP 44099, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
    Chemistry 18:15910-20. 2012
  81. ncbi Hydrated interfacial ions and electrons
    Bernd Abel
    Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, Chemical Department, D 04318 Leipzig, Germany
    Annu Rev Phys Chem 64:533-52. 2013
    Charged particles such as hydrated ions and transient hydrated electrons, the simplest anionic reducing agents in water, and the special hydronium and hydroxide ions at water interfaces play an important role in many fields of science, ..
  82. ncbi A simple formula to calculate the ionization energies of two-, three-, and four-electron atomic ions
    Peter F Lang
    School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London, WC1E 7HX, UK
    Naturwissenschaften 97:689-96. 2010
    ..Our equation also gives fairly good estimates of first electron affinities. Comparisons are made with another published equation, sources of data are described, and the calculated results are discussed...
  83. ncbi Monte Carlo simulation of backscatter from lead for clinical electron beams using EGSnrc
    James C L Chow
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Med Phys 35:1241-50. 2008
    In electron radiotherapy of superficial lesions in the eyelid, lip, buccal mucosa, ear, and nose, backscattered electrons are produced from the lead shield used to protect the critical tissue underneath the tumor...
  84. ncbi Revisiting low-dose total skin electron beam therapy in mycosis fungoides
    Cameron Harrison
    Department of Dermatology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California 94063, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81:e651-7. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to identify a lower dose alternative while retaining a favorable efficacy profile...
  85. ncbi Assessment of pulmonary fibrosis after radiotherapy (RT) in breast conserving surgery: comparison between conventional external beam RT (EBRT) and intraoperative RT with electrons (ELIOT)
    C Rampinelli
    Division of Radiology, European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milan, Italy
    Technol Cancer Res Treat 10:323-9. 2011
    ..46-57.14) and 6 times higher to develop at least Grade 2 (OR: 5.70; 95%CI: 1.56-20.76). In conclusion, CT detected pulmonary fibrosis in patients treated with ELIOT is significantly less frequent compared to patients treated with EBRT...
  86. ncbi Irradiation of gold nanoparticles by x-rays: Monte Carlo simulation of dose enhancements and the spatial properties of the secondary electrons production
    Michael K K Leung
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada
    Med Phys 38:624-31. 2011
    The aim of this study is to understand the characteristics of secondary electrons generated from the interaction of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with x-rays as a function of nanoparticle size and beam energy and thereby further the ..
  87. ncbi Dissociative electron attachment to β-alanine
    Violaine Vizcaino
    Institut für Ionenphysik and Angewandte Physik, Universitat Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Chemphyschem 12:1272-9. 2011
    ..Comparisons with α-alanine and other amino acids are made when relevant...
  88. ncbi Fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to electrons from 10 MeV TO 10 GeV
    Jing Chen
    Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1, Canada
    Health Phys 94:313-7. 2008
    b>Electrons as primary and more often as secondary radiation exist commonly in the environment and workplaces...
  89. ncbi Maximum-likelihood scintillation detection for EM-CCD based gamma cameras
    Marc A N Korevaar
    Department of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors, Section of Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft, The Netherlands
    Phys Med Biol 56:4785-801. 2011
    ..We conclude that the MLA significantly improves the gamma camera performance compared to the MSA...
  90. ncbi Monte Carlo-simulated Auger electron spectra for nuclides of radiobiological and medical interest - a validation with noble gas ionization data
    Ekkehard Pomplun
    Department of Safety and Radiation Protection, Forschungszentrum Julich, D 52425 Julich, Germany
    Int J Radiat Biol 88:108-14. 2012
    ..In particular, the need for an appropriate kinetic energy determination of the Auger electrons emitted from multiple-ionized atoms as well as the consideration of shake-off electrons would be investigated ..
  91. ncbi Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy as a debulking agent for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: an open-label prospective phase II study
    M R Kamstrup
    Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, DK 2400 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Br J Dermatol 166:399-404. 2012
    ..Complete response (CR) rates are about 60-90% for T2-4 stages with a 5-year relapse-free survival of 10-25% for stages IB-III...
  92. ncbi Influence of environment induced correlated fluctuations in electronic coupling on coherent excitation energy transfer dynamics in model photosynthetic systems
    Pengfei Huo
    Department of Chemistry, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Chem Phys 136:115102. 2012
    ..We find that the relative sign of the different correlations can have profound influence on decoherence time and energy transfer rate and can provide sensitive control of relaxation in these complex quantum dynamical open systems...
  93. ncbi Long-term side effects and cosmetic outcome in a pool of breast cancer patients treated with intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons as sole treatment
    Maria Cristina Leonardi
    Division of Radiation Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy
    Tumori 98:324-30. 2012
    To evaluate late toxicity and cosmetic outcome after intraoperative radiotherapy using electrons (ELIOT) as sole treatment modality in early breast cancer patients.
  94. ncbi Therapy of human carcinoma xenografts with antibodies to EGFr and HER-2 conjugated to radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons
    M Jules Mattes
    Garden State Cancer Center at the Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology, 520 Belleville Avenue, Belleville, NJ 07109, USA
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 35:1249-58. 2008
    Low-energy electrons (10-50 keV) can be effective and specific cytotoxic agents when delivered to the cell surface by antibodies, because their path length in tissue is comparable to a cell diameter...
  95. ncbi Theoretical study on the ground state structure of uranofullerene U@C82
    Xin Liu
    School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
    J Phys Chem A 116:11651-5. 2012
    ..The proposed geometry and electronic structure of U(3+)@(#9)C(82)(3-) are in good agreement with the experimental observation...
  96. pmc Real space refinement of crystal structures with canonical distributions of electrons
    Simon W Ginzinger
    Division of Molecular Biology, Department of Bioinformatics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstraße 34, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
    Structure 19:1739-43. 2011
    Recurring groups of atoms in molecules are surrounded by specific canonical distributions of electrons. Deviations from these distributions reveal unrealistic molecular geometries...
  97. ncbi Charge transfer in the living matrix
    James L Oschman
    Nature s Own Research Association, PO Box 1935, Dover, New Hampshire, USA
    J Bodyw Mov Ther 13:215-28. 2009
    ..Evidence comes from studies of the role of electrons in mitigating the consequences of inflammation when living systems are connected to the earth (earthing)...
  98. pmc Radiation microbeams as spatial and temporal probes of subcellular and tissue response
    Giuseppe Schettino
    Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen s University Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT97BL, UK
    Mutat Res 704:68-77. 2010
    ..Several different types of radiation microbeams have been developed using X-rays, charged particles and electrons. For charged particles, beams can be targeted with sub-micron accuracy into biological samples and the lowest ..
  99. ncbi High resolution mass analysis of N- and C-terminal negative ions resulting from resonance electron capture by aliphatic amino acids
    Pavel V Shchukin
    Institute of Physics of Molecules and Crystals, Ufa Research Center, Russian Academy of Science, Ufa 450075, Russia
    J Chem Phys 132:234306. 2010
    ..Instead, [M-18](-) negative ions in the vicinity of 5 eV were found to be associated with simultaneous loss of either ammonia and a hydrogen atom or an amino group and a hydrogen molecule...
  100. pmc Respiration and growth of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 using vanadate as the sole electron acceptor
    Wesley Carpentier
    Laboratory of Protein Biochemistry and Protein Engineering, UGent, K L Ledeganckstraat 35, B 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    J Bacteriol 187:3293-301. 2005
    ..coli ccm genes being functional in another organism. Analysis of an mtrB-deficient mutant confirmed the results of a previous paper indicating that OmcB may function as a vanadate reductase or may be part of a vanadate reductase complex...
  101. ncbi A conceptual design of rotating board technique for delivering total skin electron therapy
    Jia ming Wu
    Department of Radiation Oncology, E Da Hospital, No 1, Yi Da Road, Jiau Shu Tsuen, Yan Chau Shiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan
    Med Phys 37:1449-58. 2010
    ..This study presents a novel technique in which a uniform radiation dose to the whole body, soles, and scalp vertex can be achieved in one electron beam treatment fraction...

Research Grants68

  1. Anti-tumor properties of curcumin in oral cancers: role of thioredoxin reductase
    STEPHEN WILLIAM TUTTLE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..resulting in inhibition ofthe catalytic interaction between TxRd and thioredoxin. The electrons donated by NADPH are instead diverted to O2, to form superoxide and ultimately hydrogen peroxide...
    Gary Cecchini; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Ubiquinol is then oxidized by the bc1 complex (complex III) and electrons transferred to oxygen through complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) to produce water...
  3. Complex I: Role of L Subunit in Proton Translocation
    Steven B Vik; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..It oxidizes NADH to NAD+ which allows the citric acid cycle to oxidize carbon compounds. Its extraction of two electrons from NADH is used to reduce ubiquinone to ubiquinol, which then functions as an electron carrier to downstream ..
  4. Microsomal Cytochromes P450 and their Interactions with their Redox Partners
    Lucy A Waskell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cyt P450 reductase and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5), which provide electrons to cyt P450, are two proteins that support the activity of cyt P450...
  5. Mechanisms of Neutrophil-induced Liver Toxicity
    HARTMUT W JAESCHKE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Sulfhydryl groups can provide the necessary electrons to reductively inactivate these ROS...
  6. Electron Transfer in Iron and Copper Proteins
    Jay R Winkler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    A great many biological energy transduction pathways depend upon the rapid movement of electrons or holes over long distances (>30 [unreadable]) through proteins...
  7. Investigating the pathogenesis of CoQ10 deficiencies
    Catarina M Quinzii; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the mitochondrial respiratory chain, CoQ10 is vital for the transport of electrons from complex I and complex II to complex III...
  8. Molecular &Cellular Effects of Human Mutations in Cytochrome P450 Reductase
    Satya Prakash Panda; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the sole provider of electrons to the microsomal cytochromes P450 and to heme oxygenase, which catabolizes heme degradation...
  9. Mitochondrial Metabolism and ROS Regulate Lung Cancer
    Navdeep S Chandel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These reducing equivalents donate electrons to the electron transport chain resulting in complex III generated superoxide...
  10. Nonheme Diiron Centers and the Biological Oxidation of Hydrocarbons
    Stephen J Lippard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..alkene monooxygenase (AMO), will enable us to elucidate the carefully orchestrated delivery of four substrates - electrons, protons, O2, and a hydrocarbon (RH) - to their diiron centers to generate product (ROH = alkyl alcohol, aryl ..
  11. Structure and Function of Enzymes in Fatty Acid Oxidation
    JUNG JA P KIM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DD functions in choline metabolism and is not a member of the AD family, but donates electrons to ETF...
  12. Regulation of mitochondrial metabolism by lysine acetylation
    Eric S Goetzman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hypothesis that acetylation at K42 reduces enzymatic activity by interfering with the binding and transfer of electrons to ETF...
  13. Problems in Membrane Protein Crystallography: Hetero-Oligomeric Cytochrome b6f
    William A Cramer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..redox group, heme cn, and on the mechanism of transfer across the membrane of quinone (ol) that carries the electrons and protons and is reduced by heme cn. Proposed studies: (1) Crystal preparation;proteolysis...
  14. Peroxynitrite, nitrotyrosine and HSP90 in neuronal death
    ALVARO G ESTEVEZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, the copper in zinc-deficient SOD can act as a non-specific one-electron oxidase, robbing electrons from antioxidants like ascorbate and glutathione that can be transferred to oxygen to produce superoxide...
  15. Molecular Pathogenesis of Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency
    Michio Hirano; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In the mitochondrial respiratory chain, CoQ10 is vital for the transport of electrons from complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and complex II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) to complex ..
    Paul R Ortiz de Montellano; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..heme to biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide (CO) via a complex, three-stage process that requires seven electrons and three molecules of O2...
  17. Regulation of mTORC1 signaling by mROS and ATM
    ..Mitochondria add significantly to cellular ROS when electrons are prematurely transferred to oxygen during oxidative phosphorylation...
    ..made in this proposal is that alterations in the structure of this electron transferase regulate the flow of electrons across the membrane it spans...
  19. The Electrochemistry of Diheme Cytochrome c Peroxidases
    Sean J Elliott; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the case of bacteria, diheme peroxidases (CCPs) take electrons from cytochrome c and use them to reduce hydrogen peroxide to water...
  20. Structural and Biochemical Basis of the Vitamin K cycle
    Weikai Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) We will determine structures of reaction intermediates to elucidate the pathway by which electrons flow from the thioredoxin domain to VKOR...
  21. Investigating Regulation of Integral Membrane Protein Cofactor Biosynthesis using
    Ronald F Peck; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..For example, cytochrome oxidase is a mitochondrial complex that catalyzes the delivery of electrons to oxygen to allow cellular respiration...
    FRANCIS S contact MILLETT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to determine what factors control the conformational changes in the Rieske iron-sulfur protein as it transfers electrons from QH2 in the Qo site to cyt c1...
    Wayne L Backes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..metabolism, largely due to an alteration in the manner in which NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase transfers electrons to P450s in the heteromeric complex...
  24. Simultaneous Time-Resolved X-ray Spectroscopy and Crystallography: A Mechanistic
    Rosalie Tran; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Although it is known that the OEC is composed of a heteronuclear Mn4CaOx cluster where four electrons are extracted in a stepwise manner from two H2O molecules to produce one O2 molecule, the detailed structure and ..
    James F Rusling; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..SWNTs as molecular wires will shuttle electrons vectorially between enzyme labels at their tips and external electrical connections...
  26. Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Brain Vasculature
    Neetu Tyagi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cytochrome-C transports electrons and facilitates mitochondrial bioenergetics...
  27. Asbestosis is regulated by Rac1-mediated mitochondrial H2O2 levels
    A Brent Carter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..space (IMS), Rac1 interacts with cytochrome c, which is regulated by its redox state via transfer of electrons. The macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is known to provide innate immune defense against ..
  28. Coupled Transfers of Electrons and Protons
    James M Mayer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The work proposed aims to build a similarly valuable understanding for reactions that involve coupled transfers of electrons and protons.
  29. Novel Mechanisms of Microglial Neurotoxicity at Physiological Oxygen
    Brian M Polster; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Clinically safe idebenone, a short chain Coenzyme Q analogue which upon reduction by NQO1 enzyme can shuttle electrons from cytoplasmic NAD(P)H directly to complex III, will be tested for the ability to bypass an upstream ..
    John L Markley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..which impact on their function, are modulated by the geometry of their iron centers and by interactions between electrons on the metal(s) and the ligands provided by the protein...
  31. Molecular Regulation of Fusion: Voltage Dependence and Local Physical Interaction
    Fredric S Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The energy required to transfer electrons (redox potentials) may also have an important role in regulating viral fusion: The redox potential of an ..
  32. Cytochrome C Oxidase in Malignant Gliomas
    Corinne E Griguer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is the last enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain (ETC) that transfers electrons from cytochrome c (Cyt c) to molecular oxygen (O2)...
  33. Natural engineering of multi-electron biological oxidation &reduction
    PETER LESLIE DUTTON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..At their termini, electrons exchange with sites of diffusible one-electron carriers (e. g...
    Ping Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..inner membrane protein that may preserve cellular integrity by stabilizing the function of complex I, the electrons entry point into the respiratory chain, and reducing production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species...
  35. Nurbits: Playing for Success in Neuroscience
    STEPHEN PAUL BORDEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..During the early levels of Nurbits, the students will make decisions about which colors, shapes and sounds 'electrons'must have in order to deliver information between adjacent chips to achieve a desired outcome (e.g...
  36. Shining Light on the Mechanism and Regulation of Nitric Oxide Synthases
    BRIAN CHRISTOPHER SMITH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Both steps occur in the heme-containing oxidase domain of NOS enzymes, which is fed electrons from a flavin-containing reductase domain...
  37. Cytosolic and plasma membrane circuitry of beta cell redox control
    Emma Heart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The PMET/NQO1 pathway functions to reoxidize glycolytically-derived NADH and to export protons and electrons from the cell, generating the second messenger hydrogen peroxide...
  38. Flat Panel X-ray Sources for Small Animal Cardiac CT
    Mitali J More; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The DAXS uses an innovative architecture in which electrons from cold cathode arrays formed in pixel configurations on the source exit window generate x-ray flux at the ..
  39. Structure Function &Biosynthesis of Respiratory Enzymes
    Victor L Davidson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): This proposal will describe how specific enzymes control the transfer of reactive electrons and the activation of molecular oxygen, while minimizing oxidative damage...
  40. Design Principals of Photobiological Metabolism
    Daniel C Ducat; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..reactions of photosynthesis involve the absorption of incident solar light and its conversion into low potential electrons that can be used to drive a variety of metabolic processes, including carbon fixation...
    TOMOKO NONE OHNISHI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Specifically, X-ray data indicated that iron-sulfur cluster N2, which directly donates electrons to protein-associated ubiquinone (designated SQNf), is located only 8A from the membrane domain interface...
  42. Separated Concerted Proton-Electron Transfer with Biomimetic Models of Peroxidase
    ALEXANDER RAY FOX; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A very wide variety of biochemical processes involve movement of protons and electrons, called proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET)...
  43. Flavoenzymes in Pyrimidine Metabolism
    Bruce A Palfey; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Vitamin B2 transfers electrons when certain proteins speed chemical reactions that create or modify the building-blocks of DNA or RNA the ..
  44. Computer Simulation of Electron and Proton Transfer
    Arieh Warshel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Proteins that control the transport of electrons, protons and ions underpin basic functions of living cells and are crucial to many life processes...
  45. DNA sequence imaging using a Low Energy Electron Microscope
    Marian Mankos; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..aberration-corrected dual-beam low energy electron microscopy, two beams illuminate the sample with electrons having energies from 0 to a few 100 eV, and the reflected electrons are utilized to form a magnified image...
  46. Nitrogenase Mechanism
    Lance C Seefeldt; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..8Fe-7S]) contained within the MoFe protein that is proposed to function in the intermolecular delivery of electrons to FeMo-cofactor...
  47. Structure of reaction intermediates in the bc1 complex
    Sergei A Dikanov; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..structure, hydrogen bonding, and distances, to provide the parameters that control rates, and partitioning of electrons to different pathways. Several partial reactions in the bc1 complex involve paramagnetic intermediates...
  48. Clonable Nanoparticles
    ..In all microscopes, whether illuminated by photons or electrons, biological tissues are essentially transparent...
  49. Chemistry and Biology of Deoxyribose Oxidation in DNA
    Peter C Dedon; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..deoxyribose oxidation caused by ?-radiation, a-particles and FeEDTA, and to include studies of low energy electrons, the most abundant secondary species arising from ionizing radiation...
  50. Mechanisms of Copper Transport
    Ninian J Blackburn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..assembly and metalation of the mixed-valence dinuclear CuA center, which resides in subunit 2, and accepts electrons into the oxidase from cytochrome c...
  51. Protein and Peptide Derived Cofactors
    Judith P Klinman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..acid side chains (i) in generating an O2 binding/reactivity pocket, (ii) in the stepwise abstraction of eight electrons and protons from the substrate, and (iii) in the creation of a pathway that permits the abstracted protons to be ..
  52. Mitochondrial mechanisms of redox cycling agents
    Manisha N Patel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..agents such as PQ2+ increase mitochondrial ROS production by a mechanism involving its partial reduction by electrons of the electron transport chain to form the PQ+. radical via complex III as the redox enzyme...
  53. Development of RLIP767 as a Radiation Countermeasure
    Charles Casey Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, the normal cell already has scavenger molecules present, such as glutathione. Glutathione accepts electrons from reactive electrophiles as part of the normal cellular defenses, but the resultant electrophilic glutathione ..
  54. Structure and Function of the Mn Oxygen-Evolving Complex
    Vittal Yachandra; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The water-oxidation reaction involves removal of four electrons, in a stepwise manner by light-induced oxidation, from two water molecules by the Mn-OEC to produce a molecule ..
    CHARLES DAVID STOUT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..structure-directed, site-directed mutation to regulate the several structural pathways whereby substrates (electrons, dioxygen, water and protons) enter and leave the active site...
  56. Mechanism of Alcohol and Nicotine Interaction
    Toshio Narahashi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Electrons are moved across the membrane from intracellular NADPH to extracellular O2 to generate O2-*...
  57. Using Second Coordination Sphere Interactions of Rhenium(I) Complexes to Promote
    LOI HUNG DO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..carbonyl platform for reductive coupling of CO using syngas as the exclusive source of carbon, hydrogen, and electrons. A multi-functional ligand provides an opportunity to explore the influence of second coordination sphere ..
  58. Direct Stimulation of Bacterial Metabolism with Applied Electrical Current
    Drew Mackellar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Living cells gain energy for growth and survival by transferring electrons between the products of catabolism and a suitable electron acceptor...
  59. 2012 Radiation Chemistry GRS and GRC
    Jay Laverne; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Energy Absorption to Disease", "Biodosimetry after a Radiological Incident," "Track Structure and Low Energy Electrons," "Free Radical Processes in DNA and Proteins," "Irradiated Polymers for Industrial/ Medical Applications," "..
  60. 2012 Radiation Chemistry Gordon Research Seminar and Gordon Research Confere
    William A Bernhard; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Energy Absorption to Disease", "Biodosimetry after a Radiological Incident," "Track Structure and Low Energy Electrons," "Free Radical Processes in DNA and Proteins," "Irradiated Polymers for Industrial/ Medical Applications," "..
  61. Bacterial Response to Singlet Oxygen
    Timothy Donohue; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..When single electrons are transferred to O2, it is reduced to superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, or hydroxyl radicals...
  62. Use of Molecular Hydrogen by Salmonella typhimurium
    Robert J Maier; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The pathogen has excellent capacity to split molecular H2 and use the low potential electrons in a respiratory manner (with O2 as the terminal acceptor)...
    PAUL SALTMAN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Transfer of heme-iron electrons to Fe(lll) varies as a function of the redox potential and stability constant of the Fe(lll)-complex, as well as ..
  64. Function of thioredoxin glutathione reductase
    VADIM GLADYSHEV; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..thiol-disulfide reaction is a central theme in biology: it is used as a general strategy to accept and donate electrons and thus, participates in numerous redox reactions within the cell...
    David Waxman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Abstract) NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450 reductase) is a microsomal flavoprotein that transfers electrons from NADPH to microsomal cytochrome P450...
  66. Msec Polymerase Chain Reaction with fMolar Detection Sensitivity using SPR
    DONALD ROPER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..SPR is collective oscillation of delocalized noble metal electrons polarized by incident resonant photons...
    Ravinder Nath; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..These Auger electrons produce a high LET-type lesion in the immediate vicinity of the iodine atom...
  68. Understanding coupled transfers of electrons and protons relevant to biological c
    James Mayer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..a broad perspective, by examining a number of different systems and a diverse set of reactions, this work is uncovering the principles that govern the different classes of coupled transfers of electrons and protons.