Summary: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The basis of anisotropic water diffusion in the nervous system - a technical review
    Christian Beaulieu
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    NMR Biomed 15:435-55. 2002
  2. ncbi Characterization and propagation of uncertainty in diffusion-weighted MR imaging
    T E J Behrens
    Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain FMRIB, Oxford, UK
    Magn Reson Med 50:1077-88. 2003
  3. pmc Reproducibility of quantitative tractography methods applied to cerebral white matter
    Setsu Wakana
    F M Kirby Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Neuroimage 36:630-44. 2007
  4. pmc Diffusion tensor imaging of the brain
    Andrew L Alexander
    Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Neurotherapeutics 4:316-29. 2007
  5. ncbi Direct estimation of the fiber orientation density function from diffusion-weighted MRI data using spherical deconvolution
    J Donald Tournier
    Radiology and Physics Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London, WC1N 1EH, UK
    Neuroimage 23:1176-85. 2004
  6. ncbi Virtual in vivo interactive dissection of white matter fasciculi in the human brain
    Marco Catani
    Section of Old Age Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom
    Neuroimage 17:77-94. 2002
  7. pmc White matter damage and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury
    Kirsi Maria Kinnunen
    Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, London, UK
    Brain 134:449-63. 2011
  8. ncbi Topography of the human corpus callosum revisited--comprehensive fiber tractography using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging
    Sabine Hofer
    Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH am Max Planck Institut für biophysikalische Chemie, 37070 Gottingen, Germany
    Neuroimage 32:989-94. 2006
  9. ncbi Fiber tracking: principles and strategies - a technical review
    Susumu Mori
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    NMR Biomed 15:468-80. 2002
  10. ncbi RESTORE: robust estimation of tensors by outlier rejection
    Lin Ching Chang
    Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics, Laboratory of Integrative Medicine and Biophysics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Magn Reson Med 53:1088-95. 2005

Detail Information

Publications395 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The basis of anisotropic water diffusion in the nervous system - a technical review
    Christian Beaulieu
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    NMR Biomed 15:435-55. 2002 is to characterize the relationship of nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of water diffusion and its anisotropy (i.e. directional dependence) with the underlying microstructure of neural fibres...
  2. ncbi Characterization and propagation of uncertainty in diffusion-weighted MR imaging
    T E J Behrens
    Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain FMRIB, Oxford, UK
    Magn Reson Med 50:1077-88. 2003
    ..This technique is then applied to the estimation of the cortical connectivity of the human thalamus. The resulting connectivity distributions correspond well with predictions from invasive tracer methods in nonhuman primate...
  3. pmc Reproducibility of quantitative tractography methods applied to cerebral white matter
    Setsu Wakana
    F M Kirby Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Neuroimage 36:630-44. 2007
    ..The protocols were applied to a DTI database of adult normal subjects to study size, fractional anisotropy (FA), and T2 of individual white matter tracts...
  4. pmc Diffusion tensor imaging of the brain
    Andrew L Alexander
    Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Neurotherapeutics 4:316-29. 2007
    ..The diffusion tensor may be used to characterize the magnitude, the degree of anisotropy, and the orientation of directional diffusion...
  5. ncbi Direct estimation of the fiber orientation density function from diffusion-weighted MRI data using spherical deconvolution
    J Donald Tournier
    Radiology and Physics Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London, WC1N 1EH, UK
    Neuroimage 23:1176-85. 2004 the brain share identical diffusion characteristics, thus implicitly assigning any differences in diffusion anisotropy to partial volume effects...
  6. ncbi Virtual in vivo interactive dissection of white matter fasciculi in the human brain
    Marco Catani
    Section of Old Age Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom
    Neuroimage 17:77-94. 2002
  7. pmc White matter damage and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury
    Kirsi Maria Kinnunen
    Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, London, UK
    Brain 134:449-63. 2011
    ..Analysis of fractional anisotropy and diffusivity maps revealed widespread differences in white matter integrity between the groups...
  8. ncbi Topography of the human corpus callosum revisited--comprehensive fiber tractography using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging
    Sabine Hofer
    Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH am Max Planck Institut für biophysikalische Chemie, 37070 Gottingen, Germany
    Neuroimage 32:989-94. 2006 in qualitative agreement with differences in the microstructure of transcallosal fibers yielding the highest anisotropy in posterior regions of the CC...
  9. ncbi Fiber tracking: principles and strategies - a technical review
    Susumu Mori
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    NMR Biomed 15:468-80. 2002
    ..Special attention is paid to situations where complications may arise, and possible solutions are reviewed. Validation issues and potential future directions and improvements are also discussed...
  10. ncbi RESTORE: robust estimation of tensors by outlier rejection
    Lin Ching Chang
    Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics, Laboratory of Integrative Medicine and Biophysics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Magn Reson Med 53:1088-95. 2005
    ..In this paper, the effects of DWI artifacts on estimated tensor values, such as trace and fractional anisotropy, are analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations...
  11. pmc Concomitant fractional anisotropy and volumetric abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy: cross-sectional evidence for progressive neurologic injury
    Simon S Keller
    Department of Neurology, University of Munster, Munster, Germany Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e46791. 2012
    ..However, little is known about the relation between macroscopic atrophy (revealed by volumetric MRI) and microstructural degeneration (inferred by DTI)...
  12. ncbi The effect of filter size on VBM analyses of DT-MRI data
    Derek K Jones
    Neuroimaging Research Group, Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Neuroimage 26:546-54. 2005
  13. ncbi Multiple DTI index analysis in normal aging, amnestic MCI and AD. Relationship with neuropsychological performance
    Beatriz Bosch
    Alzheimer s Disease and Other Cognitive Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Neurobiol Aging 33:61-74. 2012
    ..tract based spatial-statistics (TBSS) was used to obtain whole-brain maps of main WM bundles for fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (DR), axial diffusivity (DA) and mean diffusivity (MD)...
  14. ncbi Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies in schizophrenia
    Ian Ellison-Wright
    Avon and Wiltshire Mental Health Partnership NHS Trust, Salisbury, United Kingdom
    Schizophr Res 108:3-10. 2009
    ..A systematic search was conducted for voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy studies of patients with schizophrenia (or related disorders) in relation to comparison groups...
  15. ncbi Age-related alterations in white matter microstructure measured by diffusion tensor imaging
    D H Salat
    MGH MIT HMS Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA 02129 2060, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 26:1215-27. 2005
    ..Maps of fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of WM microstructure, were calculated for each participant to determine whether particular fiber ..
  16. ncbi Gray and white matter asymmetries in healthy individuals aged 21-29 years: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study
    Hidemasa Takao
    Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Hum Brain Mapp 32:1762-73. 2011
    ..VBM and voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps derived from DTI revealed a number of gray matter volume asymmetries (including the right frontal and ..
  17. ncbi Default mode network functional and structural connectivity after traumatic brain injury
    David J Sharp
    The Hammersmith Hospital, London, W12 0NN, UK
    Brain 134:2233-47. 2011
    ..They can be explained by two related changes: a compensatory increase in functional connectivity within the default mode network; and a variable degree of structural disconnection that modulates this change in network function...
  18. ncbi Nerve fiber impairment of anterior thalamocortical circuitry in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
    M Deppe
    Department of Neurology, University of Muenster, Albert Schweitzer Str 33, 48129 Muenster, Germany
    Neurology 71:1981-5. 2008
    ..Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) without structural brain abnormalities detectable by MRI or CT...
  19. ncbi Analysis of partial volume effects in diffusion-tensor MRI
    A L Alexander
    Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53705 2280, USA
    Magn Reson Med 45:770-80. 2001
    ..More accurate measurements of multiple diffusion compartments may lead to improved confidence in diffusion measurements for clinical applications...
  20. ncbi Water diffusion changes in Wallerian degeneration and their dependence on white matter architecture
    C Pierpaoli
    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-5772, USA
    Neuroimage 13:1174-85. 2001
    ..We found that secondary white matter degeneration is revealed by a large reduction in diffusion anisotropy only in regions where fibers are arranged in isolated bundles of parallel fibers, such as in the cerebral ..
  21. ncbi Extensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development
    Sara L Bengtsson
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden
    Nat Neurosci 8:1148-50. 2005
    ..Long-term training within critical developmental periods may thus induce regionally specific plasticity in myelinating tracts...
  22. ncbi A developmental study of the structural integrity of white matter in autism
    Timothy A Keller
    Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging, Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Neuroreport 18:23-7. 2007
    ..Participants with autism had lower fractional anisotropy in areas within and near the corpus callosum and in the right retrolenticular portion of the internal capsule...
  23. ncbi Diffusion tensor imaging in preclinical and presymptomatic carriers of familial Alzheimer's disease mutations
    John M Ringman
    UCLA Department of Neurology, Alzheimer s Disease Research Center, 10911 Weyburn Ave, Suite 200, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7226, USA
    Brain 130:1767-76. 2007
    ..We compared global and localized fractional anisotropy (FA) measures in white matter between FAD mutation carriers and non-carriers in the preclinical (clinical ..
  24. ncbi White matter tract integrity in aging and Alzheimer's disease
    Jessica S Damoiseaux
    Department of Neurology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Hum Brain Mapp 30:1051-9. 2009
    ..Here we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) measures of the WM in healthy young (n = 8), healthy elderly (n = 22), MCI (n = 8), and AD patients (n = 16)..
  25. pmc Axial diffusivity is the primary correlate of axonal injury in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis spinal cord: a quantitative pixelwise analysis
    Matthew D Budde
    Department of Radiology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 29:2805-13. 2009
    ..In contrast, although anisotropy was significantly correlated with EAE score, it was not correlated with axonal damage...
  26. pmc The influence of spatial registration on detection of cerebral asymmetries using voxel-based statistics of fractional anisotropy images and TBSS
    Siawoosh Mohammadi
    Department of Neurology, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e36851. 2012
    ..white matter alterations has motivated the application of voxel-based statistics (VBS) to fractional anisotropy (FA) images (FA-VBS). However, detected group differences may depend on the spatial registration method used...
  27. ncbi White matter development during childhood and adolescence: a cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging study
    Naama Barnea-Goraly
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, and Department of Psychology, Children s Hospital of Orange County, Orange, CA 92868, USA
    Cereb Cortex 15:1848-54. 2005
    ..In this study, we investigate white matter maturation as reflected by changes in anisotropy and white matter density with age...
  28. ncbi Radial organization of developing preterm human cerebral cortex revealed by non-invasive water diffusion anisotropy MRI
    Robert C McKinstry
    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St Louis Children s Hospital at the Washington University Medical Center, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Cereb Cortex 12:1237-43. 2002
    ..Apparent diffusion of water in cortex is maximally anisotropic at 26 weeks GA and anisotropy values approach zero by 36 weeks GA...
  29. ncbi Cognitive status correlates with white matter alteration in Parkinson's disease
    Takaaki Hattori
    Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
    Hum Brain Mapp 33:727-39. 2012
    ..Fractional anisotropy (FA) map of a patient group was compared with that of control subjects by using tract-based spatial statistics...
  30. ncbi Diffuse axonal injury in mild traumatic brain injury: a diffusion tensor imaging study
    Matilde Inglese
    Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    J Neurosurg 103:298-303. 2005
    ..Although DAI is frequently underdiagnosed by conventional imaging modalities, it can be demonstrated using diffusion tensor imaging. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and extent of DAI in patients with mild TBI...
  31. ncbi Effect of cell anisotropy on differentiation of stem cells on micropatterned surfaces through the controlled single cell adhesion
    Rong Peng
    Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers of Ministry of Education, Department of Macromolecular Science, Advanced Materials Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
    Biomaterials 32:8048-57. 2011
    ..We further interpreted the optimal ratios as reflecting the inherent global anisotropy of free adipoblasts and osteoblasts on unpatterned culture plates...
  32. ncbi Default mode network connectivity predicts sustained attention deficits after traumatic brain injury
    Valerie Bonnelle
    The Computational, Cognitive and Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, Centre for Neuroscience, Division of Experimental Medicine and The Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, London W120NN, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 31:13442-51. 2011
    ..These results show that abnormalities in DMN function are a sensitive marker of impairments of attention and suggest that changes in connectivity within the DMN are central to the development of attentional impairment after TBI...
  33. ncbi Anisotropy in high angular resolution diffusion-weighted MRI
    L R Frank
    Department of Radiology, San Diego VA Healthcare System and University of California-San Diego, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    Magn Reson Med 45:935-9. 2001
    ..We present here a simple algorithm for the identification of diffusion anisotropy based upon the variance of the estimated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) as a function of measurement ..
  34. ncbi Diffusion tensor imaging as potential biomarker of white matter injury in diffuse axonal injury
    Thierry A G M Huisman
    MGH NMR Center, Division of Neuroradiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:370-6. 2004
    ..Our objective was to determine if changes in anisotropic diffusion in TBI correlate with acute Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and/or Rankin scores at discharge...
  35. pmc Regionally-specific diffusion tensor imaging in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease
    M M Mielke
    Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuroimage 46:47-55. 2009
  36. ncbi Men and women are different: diffusion tensor imaging reveals sexual dimorphism in the microstructure of the thalamus, corpus callosum and cingulum
    K Menzler
    Philipps University Marburg, Center of Brain Imaging, Department of Neurology, Marburg, Germany
    Neuroimage 54:2557-62. 2011
    ..In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to delineate sex differences of brain white matter...
  37. pmc High-resolution diffusion tensor imaging in the substantia nigra of de novo Parkinson disease
    D E Vaillancourt
    Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1919 West Taylor, 650 AHSB, MC 994, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Neurology 72:1378-84. 2009
  38. pmc Age-related differences in multiple measures of white matter integrity: A diffusion tensor imaging study of healthy aging
    Ilana J Bennett
    Department of Psychology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia 20057, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 31:378-90. 2010
    ..two global measures of integrity; the average rate (mean diffusivity, MD) and orientation coherence (fractional anisotropy, FA) of diffusion...
  39. ncbi White matter integrity and cognition in chronic traumatic brain injury: a diffusion tensor imaging study
    Marilyn F Kraus
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA
    Brain 130:2508-19. 2007
    ..Twenty mild, 17 moderate to severe TBI and 18 controls underwent DTI and neuropsychological testing. Fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity were calculated from the DTI data...
  40. ncbi Spinal cord spectroscopy and diffusion-based tractography to assess acute disability in multiple sclerosis
    O Ciccarelli
    Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK
    Brain 130:2220-31. 2007
    ..Diffusion- and tractography-derived measures of these tracts, including fractional anisotropy and voxel-based connectivity, which reflect fibre integrity, were obtained...
  41. pmc Quantitative fiber tracking of lateral and interhemispheric white matter systems in normal aging: relations to timed performance
    Edith V Sullivan
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine MC5723, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA 94305 5723, United States
    Neurobiol Aging 31:464-81. 2010
    ..Fiber integrity was measured as orientational diffusion coherence (fractional anisotropy, FA) and magnitude of diffusion, which was quantified separately for longitudinal diffusivity (lambdaL), an ..
  42. ncbi Age-related decline in brain white matter anisotropy measured with spatially corrected echo-planar diffusion tensor imaging
    A Pfefferbaum
    Neuropsychiatry Program, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA
    Magn Reson Med 44:259-68. 2000
    ..spatial distortion, polynomial warping corrections were applied and the effects tested on measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum...
  43. pmc White matter anisotropy in the ventral language pathway predicts sound-to-word learning success
    Francis C K Wong
    The Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    J Neurosci 31:8780-5. 2011
    ..imaging, a brain-imaging tool to investigate white matter connectivity in humans, we found that fractional anisotropy in the left parietal-temporal region positively correlated with the performance in sound-to-word learning...
  44. ncbi Multicenter stability of diffusion tensor imaging measures: a European clinical and physical phantom study
    Stefan J Teipel
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Rostock, Germany
    Psychiatry Res 194:363-71. 2011
    ..We determined the variability of fractional anisotropy (FA) measures using manually placed regions of interest as well as automated tract based spatial statistics and ..
  45. pmc Effects of signal-to-noise ratio on the accuracy and reproducibility of diffusion tensor imaging-derived fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and principal eigenvector measurements at 1.5 T
    Jonathan A D Farrell
    F M Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Magn Reson Imaging 26:756-67. 2007
    To develop an experimental protocol to calculate the precision and accuracy of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and the orientation of the principal eigenvector (PEV) as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in ..
  46. ncbi "Squashing peanuts and smashing pumpkins": how noise distorts diffusion-weighted MR data
    Derek K Jones
    Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics, Laboratory of Integrative Medicine and Biophysics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 5772, USA
    Magn Reson Med 52:979-93. 2004
    ..dependent deviation from Gaussian behavior of the ADC profile, an underestimation of indices of diffusion anisotropy, and a correlation between estimates of mean diffusivity and diffusion anisotropy...
  47. ncbi Quantitative diffusion tensor MR imaging of the brain: field strength related variance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) scalars
    Thierry A G M Huisman
    Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University Children s Hospital Zurich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zurich, Switzerland
    Eur Radiol 16:1651-8. 2006
    ..0 Tesla (within 2 h) using identical DTI scan parameters. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at multiple gray and white matter locations...
  48. ncbi Orientationally invariant indices of axon diameter and density from diffusion MRI
    Daniel C Alexander
    Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, UK
    Neuroimage 52:1374-89. 2010
    ..This demonstration motivates further refinement, validation, and evaluation of the precise nature of the indices and the influence of potential confounds...
  49. ncbi Diffusion-tensor MRI: theory, experimental design and data analysis - a technical review
    Peter J Basser
    Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    NMR Biomed 15:456-67. 2002
    ..Finally, we describe new statistical methods that have been developed to analyse DT-MRI data, and their potential uses in clinical and multi-site studies...
  50. pmc The contribution of gliosis to diffusion tensor anisotropy and tractography following traumatic brain injury: validation in the rat using Fourier analysis of stained tissue sections
    Matthew D Budde
    Neuroscience Research Centre, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Brain 134:2248-60. 2011
    ..Specifically, decreases in fractional anisotropy derived from diffusion tensor imaging are consistent with axonal injury, myelin injury or both in white matter ..
  51. ncbi High-resolution diffusion tensor imaging of human patellar cartilage: feasibility and preliminary findings
    L Filidoro
    Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Magn Reson Med 53:993-8. 2005
    ..Voxel-based maps of the mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy (FA), and eigenvectors were calculated. The mean diffusivity decreased from the surface (1...
  52. ncbi Selective reduction of diffusion anisotropy in white matter of Alzheimer disease brains measured by 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging
    Satoshi Takahashi
    Department of Neurology, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 332:45-8. 2002
    ..of white matter fiber tracts in patients with AD, we used diffusion tensor (DT) imaging to study the diffusion anisotropy of white matter regions. DT imaging was performed using a 3...
  53. ncbi Cognitive aging, executive function, and fractional anisotropy: a diffusion tensor MR imaging study
    S M Grieve
    The Brain Resource International Database, The Brain Resource Company, Ultimo, Australia
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:226-35. 2007
    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is a useful measure of connectivity in the brain that can be derived from the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) dataset...
  54. ncbi Formalin fixation alters water diffusion coefficient magnitude but not anisotropy in infarcted brain
    Shu Wei Sun
    Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Magn Reson Med 53:1447-51. 2005 infarcted cortex and external capsule compared with contralateral brain areas, with no change in relative anisotropy (RA). After formalin fixation, Tr(D) was reduced 30-80%...
  55. ncbi Diffusion-tensor imaging at 3 T: detection of white matter alterations in neurological patients on the basis of normal values
    Michael Deppe
    Department of Neurology, University Hospital Munster, Munster, Germany
    Invest Radiol 42:338-45. 2007
    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is a powerful measure to study the integrity of the cerebral white matter in vivo...
  56. ncbi Testing of the analytical anisotropic algorithm for photon dose calculation
    Ann Van Esch
    7Sigma, QA team in Radiotherapy Physics, Belgium and Clinique Ste Elisabeth, Namur, Belgium
    Med Phys 33:4130-48. 2006
    ..Particular progress was made with respect to the penumbra and low dose regions. In heterogeneous materials, improvements are substantial and more pronounced for high (18 MV) than for low (6 MV) energies...
  57. ncbi Whole brain-based analysis of regional white matter tract alterations in rare motor neuron diseases by diffusion tensor imaging
    Alexander Unrath
    Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Hum Brain Mapp 31:1727-40. 2010
    ..Future advanced MRI-based investigations might help to provide a fingerprint-identification of MNDs...
  58. ncbi More is not always better: increased fractional anisotropy of superior longitudinal fasciculus associated with poor visuospatial abilities in Williams syndrome
    Fumiko Hoeft
    Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94305 5795, USA
    J Neurosci 27:11960-5. 2007
    ..All analysis methods consistently showed that fractional anisotropy (FA; a measure of microstructural integrity) was higher in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) in ..
  59. ncbi White matter connections reflect changes in voluntary-guided saccades in pre-symptomatic Huntington's disease
    Stefan Kloppel
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute if Neurology, UCL, London, UK
    Brain 131:196-204. 2008
    ..20 matched controls using a multivariate support vector machine to identify patterns of changes in fractional anisotropy (FA)...
  60. ncbi Increased brain white matter diffusivity in normal adult aging: relationship to anisotropy and partial voluming
    Adolf Pfefferbaum
    Neuroscience Program, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA
    Magn Reson Med 49:953-61. 2003 64 healthy men and women (age 23-85 years); 2) the relationship between diffusivity (trace) and fractional anisotropy (FA) across and within individuals; and 3) the role of macrostructural and microstructural partial voluming ..
  61. ncbi Diffusion-tensor imaging implicates prefrontal axonal injury in executive function impairment following very mild traumatic brain injury
    Michael L Lipton
    Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Radiology 252:816-24. 2009
    ..To determine whether frontal white matter diffusion abnormalities can help predict acute executive function impairment after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)...
  62. pmc Right orbitofrontal corticolimbic and left corticocortical white matter connectivity differentiate bipolar and unipolar depression
    Amelia Versace
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 68:560-7. 2010
    ..We aimed to determine whether whole brain white matter connectivity differentiated BD from UD depression...
  63. pmc Functional anatomy of interhemispheric cortical connections in the human brain
    Mojtaba Zarei
    Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain, Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Anat 209:311-20. 2006
    ..Our map showed high consistency across individuals. We propose that this map might be useful in the study of the effects of damage to human CC in neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders...
  64. pmc Cingulate fasciculus integrity disruption in schizophrenia: a magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging study
    Marek Kubicki
    Clinical Neuroscience Division, Laboratory of Neuroscience, Boston VA Healthcare System Brockton Division, and Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Brockton, Massachusetts 02301, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 54:1171-80. 2003
    ..We acquired 4-mm-thick coronal slices through the entire brain. Maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) were generated to quantify diffusion within the left and right CB on eight slices that included the central ..
  65. pmc Elevated left and reduced right orbitomedial prefrontal fractional anisotropy in adults with bipolar disorder revealed by tract-based spatial statistics
    Amelia Versace
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 121 Meyran Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:1041-52. 2008
  66. pmc Diffusion tensor imaging of frontal lobe in autism spectrum disorder
    Senthil K Sundaram
    Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Michigan, 3901 Beaubien Blvd, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Cereb Cortex 18:2659-65. 2008
    ..0126) association fibers in ASD group. There was a trend toward statistical significance in the fractional anisotropy (FA) of whole frontal lobe fibers (P = 0.11)...
  67. ncbi Nature and anisotropy of cortical forces orienting Drosophila tissue morphogenesis
    Matteo Rauzi
    Institut Fresnel, Université Aix Marseille III, CNRS, Ecole Centrale Marseille, UMR 6133, Domaine universitaire de St Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Nat Cell Biol 10:1401-10. 2008
    ..We show that anisotropy of cortical tension at apical cell junctions is sufficient to drive tissue elongation...
  68. ncbi Diffusion tensor MR imaging in diffuse axonal injury
    Konstantinos Arfanakis
    Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706 1532, USA
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 23:794-802. 2002
    ..DAI therefore is hypothetically associated in the short term with decreased diffusion anisotropy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the diffusion characteristics of traumatized brain tissue with use of ..
  69. ncbi Fractional anisotropy in the posterior limb of the internal capsule and prognosis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Ricarda A L Menke
    Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance of the Brain
    Arch Neurol 69:1493-9. 2012
    ..To explore the value of diffusion tensor imaging applied to those specific cerebral white matter tracts consistently involved pathologically in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as a source of prognostic biomarkers...
  70. pmc Predicting inter-hemispheric transfer time from the diffusion properties of the corpus callosum in healthy individuals and schizophrenia patients: a combined ERP and DTI study
    Thomas J Whitford
    Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, HarvardMedical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuroimage 54:2318-29. 2011
    ..The present study investigated whether or not these IHTT abnormalities could be underpinned by structural damage to the visual fibers of the corpus callosum...
  71. ncbi White matter impairment in heroin addicts undergoing methadone maintenance treatment and prolonged abstinence: a preliminary DTI study
    Yarong Wang
    Department of Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 1 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi an 710038, China
    Neurosci Lett 494:49-53. 2011
    ..Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and eigenvalues (λ(⊥), λ(||)) were measured...
  72. ncbi A validation study of multicenter diffusion tensor imaging: reliability of fractional anisotropy and diffusivity values
    R J Fox
    Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 33:695-700. 2012
    ..DTI is increasingly being used as a measure to study tissue damage in several neurologic diseases. Our aim was to investigate the comparability of DTI measures between different MR imaging magnets and platforms...
  73. ncbi Robust detection of traumatic axonal injury in individual mild traumatic brain injury patients: intersubject variation, change over time and bidirectional changes in anisotropy
    Michael L Lipton
    The Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Brain Imaging Behav 6:329-42. 2012
    ..The patients were imaged within 2 weeks of injury, 3 months after injury, and 6 months after injury. Fractional anisotropy (FA) images were analyzed in each patient...
  74. ncbi The optimal trackability threshold of fractional anisotropy for diffusion tensor tractography of the corticospinal tract
    Akira Kunimatsu
    Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo University, Hongo, Tokyo
    Magn Reson Med Sci 3:11-7. 2004
    ..3D-DTT) of the corticospinal tract (CST), is performed accurately and efficiently, we set out to find the optimal lower threshold of fractional anisotropy (FA) below which tract elongation is terminated (trackability threshold).
  75. pmc Thalamic integrity underlies executive dysfunction in traumatic brain injury
    D M Little
    Departments of Neurology, Center for Stroke Research, The University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
    Neurology 74:558-64. 2010
    ..To quantify the effects of traumatic brain injury on integrity of thalamocortical projection fibers and to evaluate whether damage to these fibers accounts for impairments in executive function in chronic traumatic brain injury...
  76. pmc Diffusion tensor imaging identifies deficits in white matter microstructure in subjects with type 1 diabetes that correlate with reduced neurocognitive function
    Christopher T Kodl
    Departmentof Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Diabetes 57:3083-9. 2008
  77. pmc Regional pattern of white matter microstructural changes in normal aging, MCI, and AD
    D Y Lee
    Imaging of Dementia and Aging IDeA Laboratory, Department of Neurology and Center for Neuroscience, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Neurology 73:1722-8. 2009
    To cross-sectionally compare the regional white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) of cognitively normal (CN) older individuals and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD), separately focusing on the normal-..
  78. ncbi Altered white matter diffusion anisotropy in normal and preterm infants at term-equivalent age
    Stephen E Rose
    Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia
    Magn Reson Med 60:761-7. 2008
    ..Compared with newborn term infants, very preterm infants were found to possess reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) within the frontal lobe, and a number of anterior and posterior commissural pathways...
  79. ncbi Entanglement and sources of magnetic anisotropy in radical pair-based avian magnetoreceptors
    Hannah J Hogben
    Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3QZ, United Kingdom
    Phys Rev Lett 109:220501. 2012
    ..It emerges that the anisotropy of radical pairs formed from spin-polarized molecular triplets could form the basis of a more sensitive compass ..
  80. pmc The structural plasticity of white matter networks following anterior temporal lobe resection
    Mahinda Yogarajah
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    Brain 133:2348-64. 2010
    ..We observed widespread, significant, mean 7%, decreases in fractional anisotropy in white matter networks connected to the area of resection, following both left and right temporal lobe ..
  81. pmc Assessing spatial relationships between axonal integrity, regional brain volumes, and neuropsychological outcomes after traumatic axonal injury
    Matthew A Warner
    Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9036, USA
    J Neurotrauma 27:2121-30. 2010
    ..imaging (DTI) tractography was used to reconstruct prominent white matter tracts and calculate their fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values...
  82. ncbi Effect of long-term cannabis use on axonal fibre connectivity
    Andrew Zalesky
    Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Melbourne, 3053, Australia
    Brain 135:2245-55. 2012
    ..Our findings indicate long-term cannabis use is hazardous to the white matter of the developing brain. Delaying the age at which regular use begins may minimize the severity of microstructural impairment...
  83. ncbi Anisotropy changes in post-menopausal osteoporosis: characterization by a new index applied to trabecular bone radiographic images
    Christine Chappard
    INSERM ERIT M0101, CHR Orleans, 1 rue Porte Madeleine, 45032 Orleans Cedex 1, France
    Osteoporos Int 16:1193-202. 2005
    ..Bone mineral density (BMD) is a good surrogate for material property. Architectural anisotropy is of special interest in mechanics-architecture relations and characterizes the degree of directional ..
  84. ncbi Relative indices of water diffusion anisotropy are equivalent in live and formalin-fixed mouse brains
    Shu Wei Sun
    Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri
    Magn Reson Med 50:743-8. 2003
    ..Five diffusion indices were examined in a cohort of seven mice: relative anisotropy (RA), directional correlation (DC), trace (Tr(D)), trace-normalized axial diffusivity (D(axially)), and radial ..
  85. ncbi The topographical distribution of tissue injury in benign MS: a 3T multiparametric MRI study
    Antonia Ceccarelli
    Neuroimaging Research Unit, Scientific Institute and University Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    Neuroimage 39:1499-509. 2008
    ..Compared to controls, BMS and RRMS patients had lower WM fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum (CC) and in several regions of temporal and occipital lobes...
  86. ncbi Orthogonal tensor invariants and the analysis of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images
    Daniel B Ennis
    Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94305 5488, USA
    Magn Reson Med 55:136-46. 2006
    ..shape using a set of three orthogonal invariants that characterize the magnitude of isotropy, the magnitude of anisotropy, and the mode of anisotropy...
  87. ncbi Specific anatomic associations between white matter integrity and cognitive reserve in normal and cognitively impaired elders
    Eider M Arenaza-Urquijo
    Department de Psiquiatria i Psicobiologia Clinica EMA U, CJ, DF E, DBF, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 19:33-42. 2011
    ..The authors studied correlations between CR and WM integrity in regions showing WM age-related effects or pathologic changes and tested the differences of slopes between groups...
  88. pmc Recovery after spinal cord relapse in multiple sclerosis is predicted by radial diffusivity
    Patrick Freund
    Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, NMR Unit, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    Mult Scler 16:1193-202. 2010
  89. pmc Major groove width variations in RNA structures determined by NMR and impact of 13C residual chemical shift anisotropy and 1H-13C residual dipolar coupling on refinement
    Blanton S Tolbert
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
    J Biomol NMR 47:205-19. 2010
  90. ncbi Vulnerability of the frontal-temporal connections in temporal lobe epilepsy
    Jack J Lin
    Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
    Epilepsy Res 82:162-70. 2008
    ..We therefore investigated the integrity of two major frontal-temporal white matter association tracts, uncinate fasciculus (UF) and arcuate fasciculus (AF), and their clinical correlates...
  91. ncbi Preservation of diffusion tensor properties during spatial normalization by use of tensor imaging and fibre tracking on a normal brain database
    H P Muller
    Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Germany
    Phys Med Biol 52:N99-109. 2007
    ..The algorithms were tested and validated for a group of 13 healthy controls...
  92. pmc Focal white matter changes in spasmodic dysphonia: a combined diffusion tensor imaging and neuropathological study
    Kristina Simonyan
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Building 10, Room 5D38, Bethesda, MD 20892 1416, USA
    Brain 131:447-59. 2008
    ..DTI showed right-sided decrease of fractional anisotropy in the genu of the internal capsule and bilateral increase of overall water diffusivity in the white matter ..
  93. pmc Choice reaction time performance correlates with diffusion anisotropy in white matter pathways supporting visuospatial attention
    David S Tuch
    Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 13th Street, Room 2301, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:12212-7. 2005
    ..Using diffusion tensor MRI (DTI), we sought to test whether diffusion tensor fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of the orientational coherence of water self-diffusion, is regionally correlated with RT on a ..
  94. ncbi Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging finding of discrepant fractional anisotropy between the frontal and parietal lobes after whole-brain irradiation in childhood medulloblastoma survivors: reflection of regional white matter radiosensitivity?
    Deqiang Qiu
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 69:846-51. 2007
    To test the hypothesis that fractional anisotropy (FA) is more severely reduced in white matter of the frontal lobe compared with the parietal lobe after receiving the same whole-brain irradiation dose in a cohort of childhood ..
  95. ncbi Anisotropy of callosal motor fibers in combination with transcranial magnetic stimulation in the course of motor development
    Inga Koerte
    Institute of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Invest Radiol 44:279-84. 2009
    ..To identify quantifiable markers for motor development, we combined DTI with TMS...
  96. pmc Fractional anisotropy of water diffusion in cerebral white matter across the lifespan
    P Kochunov
    Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX 78284, United States
    Neurobiol Aging 33:9-20. 2012
    ..We carefully mapped changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) of water diffusion for eleven major cerebral white matter tracts in a large group (831) of healthy human ..
  97. ncbi High-frequency rTMS treatment increases white matter FA in the left middle frontal gyrus in young patients with treatment-resistant depression
    Hongjun Peng
    Mental Health Institute, Department of Radiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China
    J Affect Disord 136:249-57. 2012
    ..Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an ideal tool for examining neural connections and the integrity of white matter. Few studies have used DTI to investigate the impact of rTMS on alterations of whiter matter in TRD...
  98. pmc Atypical diffusion tensor hemispheric asymmetry in autism
    Nicholas Lange
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Autism Res 3:350-8. 2010
  99. pmc White matter pathology isolates the hippocampal formation in Alzheimer's disease
    D H Salat
    MGH MIT HMS Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA 02129 2060, United States
    Neurobiol Aging 31:244-56. 2010
    ..Examination of regional changes in unique diffusion parameters including anisotropy and axial and radial diffusivity demonstrated distinct zones of alterations, potentially stemming from ..
  100. ncbi Acute and chronic changes in diffusivity measures after sports concussion
    Luke C Henry
    Département de Psychology, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Neurotrauma 28:2049-59. 2011
    ..of sports concussion on white matter using three different diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and axial diffusivity (AD)...
  101. ncbi Diffusion abnormality maps in demyelinating disease: correlations with clinical scores
    Mihaela Onu
    Medical Imaging Department, Clinical Hospital Prof Dr Th Burghele, and Biophysics Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila, Eroilor Sanitari Blvd 8, Bucharest 050474, Romania
    Eur J Radiol 81:e386-91. 2012
    ..The present study shows brain regions where FA and individual diffusivities abnormalities are present and check their correlations with physical disability clinical scores...

Research Grants70

    PALMER WILLIAM TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Conformation and dynamics are examined through fluorescence spectroscopy, decay of fluorescence anisotropy and H/D exchange...
  2. Aligned Tendon or Ligament Derived Matrix Nanoscaffolds for Rotator Cuff Repair
    Dianne Little; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will test the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Scaffold fiber alignment and mechanical anisotropy will be greatest in 0-Offset scaffolds followed by 45-Offset scaffolds and finally non-aligned TLDM scaffolds...
  3. Biophysics of Drug Interactions with Viral Episomes
    James K Bashkin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Independent physical methods such as fluorescence anisotropy (in competition binding studies), isothermal calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance will allow benchmarking ..
  4. The influenza A virus nucleoprotein: structure and function
    Yizhi Jane Tao; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Several key residues for RNA binding have been identified by mutagenesis. Polarization anisotropy assay shows that wild-type NP exhibits strong binding affinity for RNA, which in turn stimulates NP self-..
  5. Structural determinants of DTI observations in developing cortex and white matter
    Christopher D Kroenke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique termed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have found that fractional anisotropy (FA) is reduced in cerebral white matter (WM) of mature individuals affected by disorders either of genetic (e.g...
  6. The Biomechanics of the Human Posterior Sclera: Effects of Age, Sex, and Glaucoma
    Thao D Nguyen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The goals of the proposal are to (1) measure the regionally varying thickness, anisotropy of the collagen and elastin structure, the inflation response to IOP fluctuations, and viscoelastic properties ..
  7. Neuroanatomical and functional outcomes of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea
    Robert Joseph Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Correlations of neuroanatomical indices (cortical thickness, fractional anisotropy, fiber length, apparent diffusion coefficient) and functional activation volumes and % blood oxygen level ..
  8. Biomaterials (Mf/Zn/F-BCPs) for osteoporosis therapy
    Yu Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..strength, bone density);(c) microstructural (cortical and trabecular bone thickness, trabecular bone porosities, anisotropy);(d) biochemical (matrix/mineral ratio, degree of bone mineralization)'and biomineral (bone mineral ..
  9. Structural Dynamics of Cardiac Muscle Contraction
    Brett A Colson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..3) Use time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), with probes on actin or myosin in solution, to ..
  10. High throughput assay for fibrin-binding probes
    PETER D CARAVAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using polarized fluorescence, the anisotropy of the protein-bound fluorescent probe is high, but is much lower when it is displaced...
  11. Gender Differences in Neural Deficits Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    PAUL MICHAEL MACEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will assess whole-brain structure with diffusion tensor imaging indices (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity), T2 relaxation time, and regional gray matter volume measures, modeled by gender and OSA ..
    David C Van Essen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..unmyelinated WM, and cerebrospinal fluid), 3) diffusion tensor imaging (apparent diffusion coefficient, relative anisotropy, axial and radial diffusivity), and 4) surface-based morphometry (integrated folding index, average sulcal depth,..
  13. Brain Structure and Function in Adolescents after the Fontan Operation
    MICHAEL JOHN RIVKIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..tensor MRI imaging, the primary outcome will be regional white matter microstructure, as measured by fractional anisotropy. Secondary outcomes will be regional apparent diffusion coefficients...
  14. Real-time microviscosity measurement tools for the cell
    Mark A Haidekker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Presently, viscosity on the microscopic scale is determined by fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), or magnetic nanoparticles...
  15. Image-based modeling of nonlinear and anisotropic intervertebral disc mechanics
    Edward J Vresilovic; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..composition and microarchitecture is complex, requiring a constitutive formulation that better reflects the AF anisotropy, nonlinearity, and inhomogeneity...
  16. Sleep and Brain Structure in Heart Failure
    MARY ANN WOO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..gray matter damage (assessed by structural magnetic resonance imaging, including mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy) in HF depends on the presence of SDB (assessed via overnight polysomnography);2) show that nerve fibers (white ..
  17. Development of the Gag/Lysyl tRNA synthetase interaction as a target for anti-HIV
    Lawrence Kleiman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The interaction of LysRS with either Gag or the smaller capsid (CA) molecule will be measured using fluorescent anisotropy (FA), using fluorescently-labeled CA as the tracer in the HTS of the LysRS/CA interaction...
  18. Site-Directed Oxidative Modification of Muscle Protein Structural Dynamics
    David D Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..spectroscopic techniques will be used - fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), transient phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
  19. Neuropathology of severe malaria in Thailand: MRI studies
    Gary M Brittenham; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with correlating fractional anisotropy maps, and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging;and (2) to test the hypothesis that the degree of ..
    Wilson Z Ray; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DTI measures the magnitude, anisotropy, and directionality of water displacement in tissue and provides quantifiable measures of directional ..
  21. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of preterm white matter injury
    Art Riddle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..animal imaging system that is equipped with an ultra- high field (12 T) magnet, will include T2 and diffusion anisotropy measures to assess the cellular etiology of lesions shown on MRI...
  22. Identifying Epileptogenic Tubers in TSC
    Harry Chugani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..non-epileptogenic tubers both in their connectivity patterns to subcortical structures and in their surrounding anisotropy and, when used in conjunction with AMT PET, the epileptogenic brain region can be identified in the vast ..
  23. Error Correction in DNA Synthesis: A Biochemical Study
    MYRON GOODMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These probes will be used to investigate each stage of the pol V Mut cycle by stopped-flow FRET and rotational anisotropy techniques...
  24. ISS ChronosBH Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer
    FRANCISCO J BEZANILLA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Measurement of fluorophore probe properties such as excited state fluorescence lifetime decay, polarization anisotropy, and energy transfer can reflect detailed structural, conformational, motional, binding, and dynamical ..
  25. Essential Features of Neural Damage in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
    Scott R Sponheim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..phase synchronization between brain regions and a greater percentage of white matter voxels with low fractional anisotropy (FA) as measured by DTI. Specific Aim 2...
  26. Processing of emotional content and brain activation in adolescents treated with
    ..pre-selected brain regions of interest (fcMRI), c) microscopic white matter integrity as measured by fractional anisotropy brain maps generated with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and d) anatomical volume of selected brain regions (..
    Pathik D Wadhwa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..amygdala and prefrontal cortex) will be derived from serial MRI scans, and white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy along major white matter tracts: corpus callosum genu and splenium tracts and uncinate fasciculus) will be ..
  28. Whole brain multimodal microscopy of an apoptosis reporter mouse
    PETER JEFF NICHOLLS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..correlating areas of increased or decreased cell death with aberrations in structural morphology and fiber tract anisotropy. The final stage of our method will be to upload the multimodal images of numerous mutant models of disease to a ..
  29. Spectroscopic Probes of the Muscle Cytoskeleton
    David D Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..when the g isoform of actin is used? These questions will be addressed using time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy to detect rotational dynamics, fluorescence and EPR to map protein structures and interactions, and ..
  30. Neonatal Biomarkers in Extremely Preterm Babies Predict Childhood Brain Disorders
    Karl Kuban; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and brain structural abnormalities (diminished white and gray matter volumes and diminished fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts on MRI)...
  31. Multimodal MRI markers of nigrostriatal pathology in Parkinson's disease
    Xuemei Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our pilot data support the hypothesis that fractional anisotropy (FA) and R2* measures reflect different aspects of nigrostriatal pathology that can be used as biomarkers for ..
  32. Brain Mechanisms in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivit
    Mani N Pavuluri; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..accomplish this aim, DTI data are obtained from the color coded tracts that will allow us to measure fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion co-efficient (ADC) and fiber coherence index in the tracts that connect the fronto-..
  33. Biomimetic micro-structured hydrogel scaffolds for tissue engineered heart valves
    Jennifer L West; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Electrospinning can produce layered structures and anisotropy, but this approach is highly sensitive to operating parameters...
  34. Targeting c-Myc and MDR1 in Cancer Through Small Molecule Inhibitors of IMP-1
    David J Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we identified an IMP-1 binding and mRNA stabilizing site in MDR1 mRNA, established a (FAMA) fluorescence anisotropy/polarization microplate assay for analyzing binding of IMP-1 to its c-Myc and MDR1 mRNA targets, developed a ..
  35. Dissecting Allostery in Pyruvate Kinase
    Aron W Fenton; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..dependent changes in the dynamic motions of the N-terminus will be monitored with dynamic fluorescence anisotropy. In Specific Aim 3 novel lead ligand/drug compounds that do not resemble physiological effectors will be ..
  36. Prognostic Impact and Arrhythmic Potential of Peri-infarct Zone by Cardiac MRI
    Raymond Y Kwong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The marked cellular anisotropy observed in the peri-infarct zone has reported to be a potential cause of ventricular arrhythmias...
  37. The Role of N-myristylation and N-terminal Modifications on PKA Structure and Dyn
    ..13 Fluorescence anisotropy experiments also show that the N-terminal region of the C subunit in the RII holoenzyme is much more flexible ..
  38. White Matter Protection in Acute Ischemic Stroke
    Chia Yi Kuan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..oligodendrocyte swelling and compression of the axoplasma, while the late-onset, large reduction of fractional anisotropy (FA) signifies severe structural breakdown of the axons...
  39. Yeast MAPK Signaling Networks: Specificity, Regulation and Function
    Jeremy W Thorner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of DEP domain-mediated GPCR recognition;(2) genetic and biochemical studies of the mechanism of MAPK-induced anisotropy in plasma membrane phosphoinositide distribution;(3) genetic and biochemical studies of the control of the ..
  40. Structural Development of Human Fetal Brain
    Hao Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Factional anisotropy (FA) derived from diffusion tensor and thickness measurements of the subplate provide valuable insights into the ..
  41. Diffusion tensor MR spectroscopic imaging in human brain
    Stefan Posse; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..microstructure abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) generally demonstrate decreased water diffusion anisotropy in frontal cortex and corpus callosum, consistent with frontal disconnectivity theories of autism...
  42. Fluorescence Anisotropy-based Macromolecule Crystallization Screening
    MARC LEE PUSEY; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..screening approach, the self-association behavior of the target macromolecule as measured by fluorescence anisotropy as a diagnostic for the likelihood of crystallization under the test conditions...
  43. Development of a method for in situ nanorheology of human airway mucus
    Amy L Oldenburg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..GNRs are advantageous as rheological probes because their high anisotropy and plasmon-resonance provides a unique optical signal against endogenous mucus light scatterers, and their ..
  44. Structure Function Studies of DNA Mismatch Repair
    Dorothy A Erie; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As a complement to the AFM studies, we will use fluorescence anisotropy arid fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to characterize protein binding to DNA and protein-induced ..
  45. Prediction of cognitive decline with structural, diffusion, and perfusion MRI
    Michael W Weiner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for baseline memory function, memory decline was significantly predicted by entorhinal cortex volume, fractional anisotropy of the parahippocampal cingulum white matter, and perfusion of the posterior cingulate gyrus...
  46. Biomimetic Scaffold Anisotropy and Biomolecule Conjugation to Direct Tendon
    Brendan A Harley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..biomolecule sequestration strategies with a unique fabrication process to precisely control the geometric anisotropy and structural remodeling of a clinically approved collagen-GAG (CG) scaffold system...
  47. Microstructural Characterization of White Matter in Schizophrenia
    Mariana Lazar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..schizophrenia using both typical DTI measures of microstructural integrity - the mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy and a new metric - the mean kurtosis, which has shown promise to better discriminate microstructural alterations ..
  48. Toward a Comprehensive Model for Enzyme Catalysis
    Judith P Klinman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protein motions controlling H-tunneling will be studied using a combination of fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy measurements, resonance Raman spectroscopy and hydrogen deuterium exchange...
  49. Molecular Means for 3'Splice Site Recognition by U2AF35
    Kholiswa M Laird; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Briefly, we will utilize fluorescence anisotropy, electrophoretic mobility shifts assays (EMSA) and site-directed mutagenesis to determine the affinity and ..
  50. Kinetics of Cardiac Myofilament Activation
    Wen Ji Dong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project capitalizes on our FRET and fluorescence anisotropy expertise in determining protein structural kinetics and dynamics to exploit a new approach by implementing FRET ..
  51. Structural determination of DNA damage identification by the repair protein XPC
    Steven M Shell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Two specific aims are designed to test this hypothesis. Aim 1 will use fluorescence anisotropy to determine the affinity of the XPC for DNA substrates containing different types of lesions to test whether ..
  52. Structural and functional diversity of the methyl-binding domain protein family
    DAVID COLLIN WILLIAMS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will involve NMR spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, and fluorescence anisotropy techniques...
  53. Orientation independent DIC and polarization microscopy
    Michael Shribak; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..specimen: distribution of optical path gradients and distribution of birefringence due to structural or internal anisotropy of the cell structure...
  54. Diffusion Tensor Imaging to Define CNS Injury in Children with Brain Tumors
    MARY BARON NELSON; Fiscal Year: 2012 high-dose chemotherapy to white and gray matter in childhood brain tumor survivors as measured by fractional anisotropy and median diffusivity will be compared to healthy controls, with age at diagnosis as a covariate...
  55. Assembly and stability of supramolecular PTB: exon complexes
    Kathleen B Hall; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We use gel mobility shift assays, nitrocellulose filter binding, enzymatic footprinting, fluorescence anisotropy, and NMR to determine binding affinity, stoichiometry, the RNA sites bound by PTB, and the domains of PTB in ..
  56. Genetic Epidemiology of Cerebrovascular Disease and Cognition in Diabetes
    Donald W Bowden; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The relationships between MRI measures (white matter lesion score, diffusion anisotropy index, mean white matter perfusion, total brain volume, total white matter volume, total gray matter volume), ..
  57. Relationship of MRI to ASIA Impairment Scale in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury
    John W McDonald; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..white matter pathways in persons with chronic SCI through tract specific DTI-derived metrics such as: fractional anisotropy (FA), average diffusion coefficient (MD), parallel and perpendicular eigenvalues (;|| and;4) and MTCSF (..
    Donna M Ferriero; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..diffusion tensor imaging (HARDI) to detect small changes in water diffusion parameters (diffusivity and anisotropy)...
  59. Spectroscopic Probes of Protein-Protein Interactions in Muscle Degeneration
    AVA YUN LIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Then laser-excited time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) and fluorescence will be used to determine the effects of the dystrophin constructs on actin structural ..
  60. DTI as a tool to identify infants with Krabbe Disease in need of urgent treatment
    Maria L Escolar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..among transplanted children, whether long- term motor function can be predicted by baseline DTI fractional anisotropy measurements...
  61. Neuroimaging and Neuropathology of Mucopolysaccharidosis I
    Patricia I Dickson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..atrophy, cystic or cribriform changes, and white matter abnormalities including decreased volume and fractional anisotropy of the corpus callosum (a white matter structure)...
  62. Regulation of Supercoil Unwinding by Topoisomerase 1B
    BREEANA GROGAN ANDERSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and a variable number of supercoils, to study the effect of supercoiling on binding affinity (via fluorescence anisotropy), and the kinetics of supercoil unwinding (via gel-based observation of discrete supercoiled intermediates)...
    THOMAS APPLE; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..electrical conductivity, high strength to weight ratio, non- catastrophic failure modes, high modulus, marked anisotropy and chemical resistance...
  64. Bioengineering Studies of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Fluid and Wall Dynamics
    ENDER FINOL; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the mechanical properties of the AAA wall based on a strain energy function for soft tissues that accounts for anisotropy and arrangement of a collagen fiber network;(ii) we have developed a new method for calculating the zero-..
  65. A Novel HTS Cell-Based Assay For Cyclic GMP
    Gary Piazza; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..FRET) results from a conformational change of the protein upon cGMP binding to cause decreased polarization (anisotropy) of YFP fluorescence, which provides a highly specific analyte to image intracellular cGMP in live cell ..
    Martha Shenton; Fiscal Year: 2009 quantify diffusion (the degree of directionality of water movement, as measured by fractional and relative anisotropy) in the aforementioned major fiber connections in the brain, and for all five fiber tracts, we will measure gray ..
  67. A SAS NMR Probe for Structure Elucidation of Proteins
    F Doty; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..alignment has been obtained by using dilute liquid crystal solutions of bicelles (owing to their magnetic anisotropy), but this does not permit the needed dynamical control over the amount and direction of the partial alignment...
  68. Towards pratical Mapping of Complex White Matter Fiber Pathways by Disffusion-Wei
    Ken Sakaie; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..DW-MRI), can map highly organized white matter pathways, but fails upon encountering fiber crossings and low anisotropy regions typical of neoplasms and white matter disease...
    Jeffrey W Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of this project (12/01/03 - 11/30/07) revealed a striking correlation between scar structural and mechanical anisotropy in different animal models and the deformation patterns experienced by healing infarcts in those models...
  70. A SAS NMR Probe for Structure and Function Elucidation of Proteins
    FRANCIS DOTY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..When a sample containing discoidal bicelles of negative magnetic anisotropy is spun at 54...