sex characteristics

Summary

Summary: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes
    Helen Skaletsky
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Whitehead Institute, and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 423:825-37. 2003
  2. ncbi The empathy quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Rd, CB2 2AH United Kingdom
    J Autism Dev Disord 34:163-75. 2004
  3. pmc Tissue-specific expression and regulation of sexually dimorphic genes in mice
    Xia Yang
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Genome Res 16:995-1004. 2006
  4. pmc Sex, gender, and pain: a review of recent clinical and experimental findings
    Roger B Fillingim
    University of Florida, College of Dentistry, Gainesville, Florida 32610 3628, USA
    J Pain 10:447-85. 2009
  5. pmc Sex-specific genetic architecture of human disease
    Carole Ober
    Department of Human Genetics, 920 East 58th Street, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 9:911-22. 2008
  6. ncbi The sex-specific genetic architecture of quantitative traits in humans
    Lauren A Weiss
    1 Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Nat Genet 38:218-22. 2006
  7. ncbi The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken
    Craig A Smith
    Murdoch Children s Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Royal Children s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3052, Australia
    Nature 461:267-71. 2009
  8. ncbi Sexual dimorphism in environmental epigenetic programming
    Anne Gabory
    Inserm U Genetics and Epigenetics of Metabolic Diseases, Neurosensorial Diseases and Development, Clinique Maurice Lamy, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 304:8-18. 2009
  9. ncbi Role of gender in multiple sclerosis: clinical effects and potential molecular mechanisms
    Judith M Greer
    The University of Queensland, UQ Centre for Clinical Research, Royal Brisbane and Women s Hospital, Brisbane, 4029, Australia
    J Neuroimmunol 234:7-18. 2011
  10. ncbi The use of multiple cues in mate choice
    Ulrika Candolin
    Department of Ecology and Systematics, P O Box 65, University of Helsinki, Helsinki FIN 00014, Finland
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 78:575-95. 2003

Detail Information

Publications287 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes
    Helen Skaletsky
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Whitehead Institute, and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 423:825-37. 2003
    ..9% identity, which is maintained by frequent gene conversion (non-reciprocal transfer). The most prominent features here are eight massive palindromes, at least six of which contain testis genes...
  2. ncbi The empathy quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Rd, CB2 2AH United Kingdom
    J Autism Dev Disord 34:163-75. 2004
    ..This confirmed that women scored significantly higher than men. The EQ reveals both a sex difference in empathy in the general population and an empathy deficit in AS/HFA...
  3. pmc Tissue-specific expression and regulation of sexually dimorphic genes in mice
    Xia Yang
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Genome Res 16:995-1004. 2006
    ..Moreover, many tissue-specific transcription factor binding sites were found to be enriched in the sexually dimorphic genes...
  4. pmc Sex, gender, and pain: a review of recent clinical and experimental findings
    Roger B Fillingim
    University of Florida, College of Dentistry, Gainesville, Florida 32610 3628, USA
    J Pain 10:447-85. 2009
    ..The article concludes with a discussion of potential biopsychosocial mechanisms that may underlie sex differences in pain, and considerations for future research are discussed...
  5. pmc Sex-specific genetic architecture of human disease
    Carole Ober
    Department of Human Genetics, 920 East 58th Street, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 9:911-22. 2008
    ..Genetic studies that ignore sex-specific effects in their design and interpretation could fail to identify a significant proportion of the genes that contribute to risk for complex diseases...
  6. ncbi The sex-specific genetic architecture of quantitative traits in humans
    Lauren A Weiss
    1 Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Nat Genet 38:218-22. 2006
    ..In this study, we evaluated sex-specific heritability and genome-wide linkages for 17 quantitative traits in the Hutterites. The results of this study could have important implications for mapping complex trait genes...
  7. ncbi The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken
    Craig A Smith
    Murdoch Children s Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Royal Children s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3052, Australia
    Nature 461:267-71. 2009
    ..These results indicate that DMRT1 is required for testis determination in the chicken. Our data support the Z dosage hypothesis for avian sex determination...
  8. ncbi Sexual dimorphism in environmental epigenetic programming
    Anne Gabory
    Inserm U Genetics and Epigenetics of Metabolic Diseases, Neurosensorial Diseases and Development, Clinique Maurice Lamy, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 304:8-18. 2009
    ....
  9. ncbi Role of gender in multiple sclerosis: clinical effects and potential molecular mechanisms
    Judith M Greer
    The University of Queensland, UQ Centre for Clinical Research, Royal Brisbane and Women s Hospital, Brisbane, 4029, Australia
    J Neuroimmunol 234:7-18. 2011
    ..These include sex-specific differences between the male and female immune systems and nervous systems, genetic and epigenetic or environmental-related effects, the effects of gonadal hormones, and materno-fetal interactions...
  10. ncbi The use of multiple cues in mate choice
    Ulrika Candolin
    Department of Ecology and Systematics, P O Box 65, University of Helsinki, Helsinki FIN 00014, Finland
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 78:575-95. 2003
    ..Finally I discuss the consequences that the use of multiple cues may have for the process of sexual selection, the maintenance of genetic variation, and speciation...
  11. pmc Paucity of genes on the Drosophila X chromosome showing male-biased expression
    Michael Parisi
    Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892 8028, USA
    Science 299:697-700. 2003
    ..These data indicate that the X chromosome is a disfavored location for genes selectively expressed in males...
  12. ncbi Relationship of adiponectin to body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipoproteins: evidence for independent roles of age and sex
    M Cnop
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System 151 and University of Washington, 1660 S Columbian Way, Seattle, WA 98108, USA
    Diabetologia 46:459-69. 2003
    ..We investigated the relationships between adiponectin and leptin, body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and lipoproteins...
  13. pmc Evolution in the fast lane: rapidly evolving sex-related genes in Drosophila
    Wilfried Haerty
    Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada
    Genetics 177:1321-35. 2007
    ..SFP genes also show evidence of lineage-specific gene loss and/or gain. These results bring us closer to understanding the details of the evolutionary dynamics of SRR genes with respect to species divergence...
  14. ncbi The effects of sex and hormonal status on the physiological response to acute psychosocial stress
    Eero Kajantie
    Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, The National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 31:151-78. 2006
    ..Studying this hypothesis may have a fundamental impact on our understanding about how adult health is set during early life and how adult disease could be prevented in men and women...
  15. ncbi Cerebral asymmetry and the effects of sex and handedness on brain structure: a voxel-based morphometric analysis of 465 normal adult human brains
    C D Good
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    Neuroimage 14:685-700. 2001
    ..Males had increased grey matter volume bilaterally in the mesial temporal lobes, entorhinal and perirhinal cortex, and in the anterior lobes of the cerebellum, but no regions of increased grey matter concentration...
  16. pmc Sexual dimorphism of brain developmental trajectories during childhood and adolescence
    Rhoshel K Lenroot
    Child Psychiatry Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health, NIMH CHP 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20814 9692, USA
    Neuroimage 36:1065-73. 2007
    ..These sexually dimorphic trajectories confirm the importance of longitudinal data in studies of brain development and underline the need to consider sex matching in studies of brain development...
  17. ncbi Male-specific fruitless specifies the neural substrates of Drosophila courtship behaviour
    Devanand S Manoli
    Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 436:395-400. 2005
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that FruM proteins specify the neural substrates of male courtship...
  18. ncbi The evolution and significance of male mate choice
    Dominic A Edward
    School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR47TJ, UK
    Trends Ecol Evol 26:647-54. 2011
    ..We also discuss the evolutionary significance of male mate choice and the contrasts in male versus female mate choice. We conclude that mate choice by males is potentially widespread and has a distinct role in how mating systems evolve...
  19. ncbi Valence, gender, and lateralization of functional brain anatomy in emotion: a meta-analysis of findings from neuroimaging
    Tor D Wager
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Neuroimage 19:513-31. 2003
    ..The study provides evidence that lateralization of emotional activity is more complex and region-specific than predicted by previous theories of emotion and the brain...
  20. ncbi Intralocus sexual conflict
    Russell Bonduriansky
    Evolution and Ecology Research Centre and School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Trends Ecol Evol 24:280-8. 2009
    ..Whereas recent thinking has focussed on the role of intralocus sexual conflict as a brake on sexual coevolution, we urge a broader appraisal that also takes account of its potential to drive adaptive evolution and speciation...
  21. ncbi Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in adult Anopheles gambiae
    O Marinotti
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 3900, USA
    Insect Mol Biol 15:1-12. 2006
    ..uci.edu/) has been made available so that detailed analyses of specific groups of genes based on their descriptions, functions or levels of gene expression variation can be performed by interested investigators according to their needs...
  22. pmc Catechol-O-methyltransferase-deficient mice exhibit sexually dimorphic changes in catecholamine levels and behavior
    J A Gogos
    The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:9991-6. 1998
    ....
  23. ncbi X-inactivation profile reveals extensive variability in X-linked gene expression in females
    Laura Carrel
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Nature 434:400-4. 2005
    ..This suggests a remarkable and previously unsuspected degree of expression heterogeneity among females...
  24. ncbi Hormonal and immunological mechanisms mediating sex differences in parasite infection
    S L Klein
    The W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 2179, USA
    Parasite Immunol 26:247-64. 2004
    ....
  25. ncbi Sex-specific serum biomarker patterns in adults with Asperger's syndrome
    E Schwarz
    Institute of Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 16:1213-20. 2011
    ..We conclude that to understand the etiology and development of autism spectrum conditions, stratification by sex is essential...
  26. ncbi Fruitless specifies sexually dimorphic neural circuitry in the Drosophila brain
    Ken ichi Kimura
    Laboratory of Biology, Iwamizawa Campus, Hokkaido University of Education, Iwamizawa 068 8642, Japan
    Nature 438:229-33. 2005
    ..Thus, Fru expression can produce a male-specific neural circuit, probably used during heterosexual courtship, by preventing cell death in identifiable neurons...
  27. ncbi The spectral input systems of hymenopteran insects and their receptor-based colour vision
    D Peitsch
    , , FRG
    J Comp Physiol A 170:23-40. 1992
    ..The only effect is found in UV receptors, for which lambda max values at longer wavelengths are found in bees flying predominantly within the forest...
  28. pmc Sexual dimorphism in the fly brain
    Sebastian Cachero
    Division of Neurobiology, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    Curr Biol 20:1589-601. 2010
    ..Subsequently, three discrete anatomical differences in central brain fru+ neurons have been reported, but the global organization of sex differences in wiring is unclear...
  29. ncbi Neurogenetics of courtship and mating in Drosophila
    Adriana Villella
    Department of Biology, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
    Adv Genet 62:67-184. 2008
    ....
  30. ncbi Telomere length in the newborn
    Koji Okuda
    The Hypertension Research Center, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey 07103 2714, USA
    Pediatr Res 52:377-81. 2002
    ....
  31. pmc Maternal high-fat diet during gestation or suckling differentially affects offspring leptin sensitivity and obesity
    Bo Sun
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi an, Shaanxi, People s Republic of China
    Diabetes 61:2833-41. 2012
    ..Maternal HF diet during suckling has a greater influence in determining offspring's metabolic phenotype than prenatal HF diet exposure and could provide insight regarding optimal perinatal nutrition for mothers and children...
  32. ncbi Sexually antagonistic male adaptation triggered by experimental arrest of female evolution
    W R Rice
    Department of Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz 95064, USA
    Nature 381:232-4. 1996
    ..This male adaptation leads to a reduction in female survivorship, which is mediated by an increased rate of remating and increased toxicity of seminal fluid...
  33. ncbi The roles of fruitless and doublesex in the control of male courtship
    Brigitte Dauwalder
    University of Houston, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, 369 SR2, Houston, TX 77204 5001, USA
    Int Rev Neurobiol 99:87-105. 2011
    ..In particular it discusses how doublesex and fruitless contribute to the generation of sexually dimorphic neurons, the role of cell death, and the emerging information about circuits that underlie the behavior...
  34. ncbi The deficit of male-biased genes on the D. melanogaster X chromosome is expression-dependent: a consequence of dosage compensation?
    Beatriz Vicoso
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    J Mol Evol 68:576-83. 2009
    ..melanogaster and to measure their expression levels. This is consistent with the idea that limitations in transcription rates may prevent male-biased genes from accumulating on the X chromosome...
  35. ncbi Normal sexual dimorphism of the adult human brain assessed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging
    J M Goldstein
    Harvard Medical School Department of Psychiatry at Massachusetts Mental Health Center, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cereb Cortex 11:490-7. 2001
    ..These findings have implications for developmental studies that would directly test hypotheses about mechanisms relating sex steroid hormones to sexual dimorphisms in humans...
  36. ncbi Sex differences in the brain: implications for explaining autism
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Cambridge University, Department of Psychiatry, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 2AH, UK
    Science 310:819-23. 2005
    ..Here we suggest that specific aspects of autistic neuroanatomy may also be extremes of typical male neuroanatomy...
  37. pmc Empathic neural responses are modulated by the perceived fairness of others
    Tania Singer
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College of London, London WC1N 3AR, UK
    Nature 439:466-9. 2006
    ....
  38. ncbi Are the available experimental models of type 2 diabetes appropriate for a gender perspective?
    Flavia Franconi
    University of Sassari INBB Osilo Sassari and Gender Pharmacology Section, School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Pharmacology, University of Sassari, Via Muroni 23a, 07100 Sassari, Italy franconi uniss it
    Pharmacol Res 57:6-18. 2008
    ..In this review we summarize these concepts and literature in the field and propose a reappraisal of the various animal models for a study of T2D that would take into consideration a gender perspective...
  39. pmc A microarray analysis of sex- and gonad-biased gene expression in the zebrafish: evidence for masculinization of the transcriptome
    Clayton M Small
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, USA
    BMC Genomics 10:579. 2009
    ..Here we use a microarray assessment of sex- and gonad-biased gene expression to test this hypothesis in zebrafish...
  40. ncbi Fruitless and doublesex coordinate to generate male-specific neurons that can initiate courtship
    Ken ichi Kimura
    Laboratory of Biology, Iwamizawa Campus, Hokkaido University of Education, Iwamizawa 068 8642, Japan
    Neuron 59:759-69. 2008
    ..Thus, the coordinated actions of two sex determination genes, dsx and fru, confer the unique ability to initiate male-typical sexual behavior on P1 neurons...
  41. pmc Elucidating the role of gonadal hormones in sexually dimorphic gene coexpression networks
    Atila Van Nas
    Department of Human Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1679, USA
    Endocrinology 150:1235-49. 2009
    ..This study indicates that gonadal hormones play a strong role in sex differences in gene expression. In addition, it results in the identification of sex-specific gene coexpression networks related to genetic and metabolic traits...
  42. ncbi Sex differences in the neuroanatomy of human mirror-neuron system: a voxel-based morphometric investigation
    Y Cheng
    Institute of Neuroscience, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li Nong Street, Sec 2, Peitou, Taipei, Taiwan
    Neuroscience 158:713-20. 2009
    ..002). These results indicate that the existence of neuroanatomical sex differences in the human mirror-neuron system. They also suggest that the network of the human mirror-neuron system is strongly linked to empathy competence...
  43. ncbi Sex chromosomes and the evolution of sexual dimorphism: lessons from the genome
    Judith E Mank
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Am Nat 173:141-50. 2009
    ..However, the connection is far more complicated than current theory allows, and this may ultimately require a reexamination of the assumptions so that predictions match the accumulating empirical data...
  44. pmc Developmental basis of sexually dimorphic digit ratios
    Zhengui Zheng
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:16289-94. 2011
    ..Our results also suggest that the 2D:4D ratio can serve as an indicator of disrupted endocrine signaling during early development, which may aid in the identification of fetal origins of adult diseases...
  45. ncbi Sex-specific control and tuning of the pattern generator for courtship song in Drosophila
    J Dylan Clyne
    Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Cell 133:354-63. 2008
    ..Supplying such commands artificially reveals fru-specific differences in the internal dynamics of the song generator and sets the stage for exploring their physiological basis...
  46. ncbi Rapid evolution of a geographic cline in size in an introduced fly
    R B Huey
    Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Box 351800, Seattle, WA 98195 1800, USA
    Science 287:308-9. 2000
    ..Nevertheless, different wing sections dominate the New versus Old World clines. Thus, the evolution of geographic variation in wing length has been predictable, but the means by which the cline is achieved is contingent...
  47. ncbi Some inconvenient truths about sex chromosome dosage compensation and the potential role of sexual conflict
    Judith E Mank
    Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Evolution 65:2133-44. 2011
    ..We show there exists a tremendous diversity in the mechanisms that regulate gene dosage and argue that sexual conflict may be an overlooked agent responsible for some of the variation seen in sex chromosome gene dose regulation...
  48. ncbi Sex influences on the neurobiology of learning and memory
    Joseph M Andreano
    Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 3800, USA
    Learn Mem 16:248-66. 2009
    ..We further suggest that for some tasks, stress evokes sex differences, which are not normally observed, and that these differences are mediated largely by interactions between stress and sex hormones...
  49. ncbi Are all sex chromosomes created equal?
    Doris Bachtrog
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Trends Genet 27:350-7. 2011
    ..We suggest directions for research that will greatly increase our general understanding of the forces driving sex-chromosome evolution in diverse organisms...
  50. pmc Demasculinization of X chromosomes in the Drosophila genus
    David Sturgill
    Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 450:238-41. 2007
    ....
  51. pmc Fetal testosterone influences sexually dimorphic gray matter in the human brain
    Michael V Lombardo
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    J Neurosci 32:674-80. 2012
    ..These results bridge a long-standing gap between human and nonhuman species by showing that FT acts as an organizing mechanism for the development of regional sexual dimorphism in the human brain...
  52. pmc Evolving knowledge of sex differences in brain structure, function, and chemistry
    Kelly P Cosgrove
    Division of Psychiatry SPECT Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine and the Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:847-55. 2007
    ....
  53. pmc Sex differences in the expression of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes
    David J Waxman
    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 76:215-28. 2009
    ....
  54. ncbi Adiponectin expression from human adipose tissue: relation to obesity, insulin resistance, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression
    Philip A Kern
    Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System and the Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock 72205, USA
    Diabetes 52:1779-85. 2003
    ..Thus, adiponectin expression from adipose tissue is higher in lean subjects and women, and is associated with higher degrees of insulin sensitivity and lower TNF-alpha expression...
  55. ncbi Parasites as a viability cost of sexual selection in natural populations of mammals
    Sarah L Moore
    Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK
    Science 297:2015-8. 2002
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parasites contribute to the observed association between SSD and male-biased mortality...
  56. pmc Sex and the single cell. II. There is a time and place for sex
    CARMEN C ROBINETT
    Biology Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000365. 2010
    ..Thus tissue-specific aspects of sexual development are jointly specified by post-transcriptional control by Sxl and by the transcriptional controls of dsx and fru expression...
  57. pmc Incomplete sex chromosome dosage compensation in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, based on de novo transcriptome assembly
    Peter W Harrison
    Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, United Kingdom
    Genome Biol Evol 4:1118-26. 2012
    ..This finding suggests that the Lepidoptera and possibly all female heterogametic taxa lack global dosage compensation, although more species will need to be sampled to confirm this assertion...
  58. ncbi Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies
    Jennifer S Stevens
    Department of Psychology, Emory University, 36 Eagle Row, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Neuropsychologia 50:1578-93. 2012
    ....
  59. ncbi Relationship between body mass index and gray matter volume in 1,428 healthy individuals
    Yasuyuki Taki
    Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer IDAC, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:119-24. 2008
    ....
  60. pmc Sensation in a single neuron pair represses male behavior in hermaphrodites
    Jamie Q White
    Department of Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 0840, USA
    Neuron 75:593-600. 2012
    ..Thus, sensation in a single sensory neuron pair during development reprograms a common neural circuit from male to female behavior...
  61. pmc Emergence of male-biased genes on the chicken Z-chromosome: sex-chromosome contrasts between male and female heterogametic systems
    Hans Ellegren
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Genome Res 21:2082-6. 2011
    ..This is consistent with theoretical models on the evolution of sexually antagonistic genes in which new mutations are at least partly dominant...
  62. ncbi Multidimensional assessment of empathic abilities: neural correlates and gender differences
    Birgit Derntl
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:67-82. 2010
    ....
  63. pmc Sex differences in drug abuse
    Jill B Becker
    Psychology Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Front Neuroendocrinol 29:36-47. 2008
    ..In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed...
  64. pmc Transcriptomic analyses reveal novel genes with sexually dimorphic expression in the zebrafish gonad and brain
    Rajini Sreenivasan
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore
    PLoS ONE 3:e1791. 2008
    ..Our knowledge on zebrafish reproduction is very limited. We generated a gonad-derived cDNA microarray from zebrafish and used it to analyze large-scale gene expression profiles in adult gonads and other organs...
  65. ncbi Sexually dimorphic P450 gene expression in liver-specific hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha-deficient mice
    Christopher A Wiwi
    Department of Biology, Boston University, 5 Cummington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 18:1975-87. 2004
    ....
  66. pmc Sex bias and dosage compensation in the zebra finch versus chicken genomes: general and specialized patterns among birds
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Genome Res 20:512-8. 2010
    ..These patterns suggest that different avian taxa may have evolved specific compensatory mechanisms...
  67. ncbi Sex differences in regional body fat distribution from pre- to postpuberty
    Rachael W Taylor
    Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:1410-6. 2010
    ..The magnitude of the sex difference is amplified with maturation, and particularly from late puberty to early adulthood...
  68. pmc Contrasting effects of different maternal diets on sexually dimorphic gene expression in the murine placenta
    Jiude Mao
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5557-62. 2010
    ..In conclusion, gene expression in the murine placenta is adaptive and shaped by maternal diet. It also exhibits pronounced sexual dimorphism, with placentae of females more sensitive to nutritional perturbations than placentae of males...
  69. pmc Sexual selection explains Rensch's rule of size dimorphism in shorebirds
    Tamás Székely
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:12224-7. 2004
    ....
  70. ncbi Men and women are different: diffusion tensor imaging reveals sexual dimorphism in the microstructure of the thalamus, corpus callosum and cingulum
    K Menzler
    Philipps University Marburg, Center of Brain Imaging, Department of Neurology, Marburg, Germany
    Neuroimage 54:2557-62. 2011
    ..In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to delineate sex differences of brain white matter...
  71. ncbi 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol
    S Lutchmaya
    Developmental Psychiatry Section, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 2AH, UK
    Early Hum Dev 77:23-8. 2004
    ..However, there are no studies which show direct relationships between fetal testosterone (FT), fetal estradiol (FE) and 2D:4D...
  72. ncbi Genetic and molecular insights into the development and evolution of sexual dimorphism
    Thomas M Williams
    Department of Biology, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, Ohio 45469, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 10:797-804. 2009
    ..Sex-specific traits evolve by the gain, loss or modification of linkages in the genetic networks regulated by sex-determination transcription factors...
  73. pmc What does the "four core genotypes" mouse model tell us about sex differences in the brain and other tissues?
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Front Neuroendocrinol 30:1-9. 2009
    ..Some sex chromosome effects are mediated by sex differences in dose of X genes or their parental imprint. Future studies will identify the genes involved and their mechanisms of action...
  74. pmc Gender differences in the mu rhythm of the human mirror-neuron system
    Yawei Cheng
    Institute of Neuroscience, School of Life Science, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
    PLoS ONE 3:e2113. 2008
    ..The human mirror-neuron system is considered to provide the basic mechanism for social cognition. However, whether the human mirror-neuron system exhibits gender differences is not yet clear...
  75. ncbi The evolution of sex-biased genes and sex-biased gene expression
    Hans Ellegren
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Nat Rev Genet 8:689-98. 2007
    ..Sex-biased gene expression has implications beyond just evolutionary biology, including for medical genetics...
  76. ncbi Gene expression during sex determination reveals a robust female genetic program at the onset of ovarian development
    Serge Nef
    Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Dev Biol 287:361-77. 2005
    ..These studies define the major characteristics of testicular and ovarian transcriptional programs and reveal the richness of signaling processes in differentiation of the bipotential gonads into testes and ovaries...
  77. pmc Prenatal bisphenol A exposure and early childhood behavior
    Joe M Braun
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:1945-52. 2009
    ..Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) increases offspring aggression and diminishes differences in sexually dimorphic behaviors in rodents...
  78. ncbi The X-files in immunity: sex-based differences predispose immune responses
    Eleanor N Fish
    Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Women s College Research Institute, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Rev Immunol 8:737-44. 2008
    ..It is crucial to address sex-based differences in disease pathogenesis and in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of therapeutic medications to provide optimal disease management for both sexes...
  79. ncbi The neural basis of puberty and adolescence
    Cheryl L Sisk
    Neuroscience Program and Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Nat Neurosci 7:1040-7. 2004
    ..Reproductive maturity is therefore the product of developmentally timed, brain-driven and recurrent interactions between steroid hormones and the adolescent nervous system...
  80. ncbi Prevalence of knee symptoms and radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in African Americans and Caucasians: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project
    Joanne M Jordan
    Thurston Arthritis Research Center and Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7280, USA
    J Rheumatol 34:172-80. 2007
    ..To report contemporary estimates of the prevalence of knee-related osteoarthritis (OA) outcomes in African Americans and Caucasians aged > or = 45 years...
  81. pmc Hyperexpression of the X chromosome in both sexes results in extensive female bias of X-linked genes in the flour beetle
    Eldon G Prince
    Department of Biology, The University of Texas at Arlington, USA
    Genome Biol Evol 2:336-46. 2010
    ....
  82. ncbi Regulation of innate and adaptive immunity by the female sex hormones oestradiol and progesterone
    Kenneth W Beagley
    School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Royal Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 38:13-22. 2003
    ..Data from both human and animal studies will be reviewed...
  83. pmc Constraint and turnover in sex-biased gene expression in the genus Drosophila
    Yu Zhang
    Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 450:233-7. 2007
    ..This higher divergence and turnover of genes with male-biased expression may be due to high transcription rates in the male germline, greater functional pleiotropy of genes expressed in females, and/or sexual competition...
  84. pmc Sex linkage, sex-specific selection, and the role of recombination in the evolution of sexually dimorphic gene expression
    Tim Connallon
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 2703, USA
    Evolution 64:3417-42. 2010
    ..The theory suggests that sexual selection may strongly influence the architectures of animal genomes, as well as the chromosomal distribution of fixed substitutions underlying sexually dimorphic traits...
  85. ncbi The Xs and Y of immune responses to viral vaccines
    Sabra L Klein
    W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:338-49. 2010
    ....
  86. ncbi Loss of sex discrimination and male-male aggression in mice deficient for TRP2
    Lisa Stowers
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 295:1493-500. 2002
    ..Our study suggests that, in the mouse, sensory activation of the VNO is essential for sex discrimination of conspecifics and thus ensures gender-specific behavior...
  87. ncbi Strategies and methods for research on sex differences in brain and behavior
    Jill B Becker
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 525 East University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Endocrinology 146:1650-73. 2005
    ..This article describes methods and procedures to assist scientists new to the field in designing and conducting experiments to investigate sex differences in research involving both laboratory animals and humans...
  88. ncbi Gonadal hormones determine sensitivity to central leptin and insulin
    Deborah J Clegg
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, PO Box 670559, Cincinatti, OH 45267 0559, USA
    Diabetes 55:978-87. 2006
    ..These data indicate that estrogen acts within the brain to increase leptin sensitivity, decrease insulin sensitivity, and favor subcutaneous over visceral fat...
  89. ncbi The prioritization of voice fundamental frequency or formants in listeners' assessments of speaker size, masculinity, and attractiveness
    Katarzyna Pisanski
    Department of Psychology, The University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
    J Acoust Soc Am 129:2201-12. 2011
    ..Results highlight the value of first establishing JND's for discrimination of specific features of natural voices in future work examining their effects on voice-based social judgments...
  90. pmc The rate of leukocyte telomere shortening predicts mortality from cardiovascular disease in elderly men
    Elissa S Epel
    University of California, San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA
    Aging (Albany NY) 1:81-8. 2009
    ..0 (95% CI: 1.1 - 8.2). This is the first demonstration that rate of telomere length change (TLC) predicts mortality and thus may be a useful prognostic factor for longevity...
  91. ncbi Executive functioning in autism spectrum disorders: a gender comparison of response inhibition
    Janine M Lemon
    Centre for Developmental Psychiatry and Psychology, School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University, 270 Ferntree Gully Rd, NottingHill, VIC 3168, Australia
    J Autism Dev Disord 41:352-6. 2011
    ..By contrast, no response inhibition impairments were evident among males with ASD. Females with ASD may have a different neurobehavioural profile, and therefore different clinical needs, when compared with males with ASD...
  92. pmc Intralocus sexual conflict resolved through gene duplication
    Miguel Gallach
    Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, 501 S Nedderman Drive, Arlington, TX, USA
    Trends Ecol Evol 26:222-8. 2011
    ..e. where sexually antagonistic selection is exerted). We think that these genes cannot evolve tissue-specific expression unless they duplicate...
  93. ncbi Intergenomic conflict revealed by patterns of sex-biased gene expression
    Tim Connallon
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1079, USA
    Trends Genet 21:495-9. 2005
    ....
  94. ncbi Gender differences and age-related white matter changes of the human brain: a diffusion tensor imaging study
    Jung Lung Hsu
    Department of Neurology, Shin Kong Wu Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Neuroimage 39:566-77. 2008
    ..Such differences were mainly due to the increase in diffusion perpendicular to fiber tracts...
  95. pmc Puberty influences medial temporal lobe and cortical gray matter maturation differently in boys than girls matched for sexual maturity
    Jennifer E Bramen
    Developmental Cognitive Neuroimaging Group, Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Cereb Cortex 21:636-46. 2011
    ....
  96. ncbi Predicting Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) from the Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R) and Empathy Quotient (EQ)
    S Wheelwright
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Rd, Cambridge CB2 2AH, UK
    Brain Res 1079:47-56. 2006
    ..The EQ and SQ have been used previously to test for sex differences in 5 'brain types' (Types S, E, B and extremes of Type S or E). Finally, people with ASC have been conceptualized as an extreme of the male brain...
  97. pmc Female-biased expression of long non-coding RNAs in domains that escape X-inactivation in mouse
    Björn Reinius
    Department of Evolution and Development, EBC, Uppsala University, Sweden
    BMC Genomics 11:614. 2010
    ....
  98. ncbi All dosage compensation is local: gene-by-gene regulation of sex-biased expression on the chicken Z chromosome
    J E Mank
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 102:312-20. 2009
    ....
  99. ncbi Sex differences in medical care and early death after acute myocardial infarction
    Hani Jneid
    Division of Cardiology, Michael E DeBakey VA Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, 2002 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Circulation 118:2803-10. 2008
    ..It is unclear whether efforts undertaken to improve AMI care have mitigated these sex disparities in the current era...
  100. ncbi Does sexual selection explain human sex differences in aggression?
    John Archer
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom
    Behav Brain Sci 32:249-66; discussion 266-311. 2009
    ..In this case, social roles are particularly important since they enable both the relatively equality in physical aggression between partners from Western nations, and the considerable cross-national variability, to be explained...
  101. ncbi Thinning of the cerebral cortex in aging
    David H Salat
    MGH MIT HMS Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA
    Cereb Cortex 14:721-30. 2004
    ..These findings demonstrate that cortical thinning occurs by middle age and spans widespread cortical regions that include primary as well as association cortex...

Research Grants66

  1. Adult and Transgenerational Toxicity Due to Developmental TCDD Exposure
    Tracie R Baker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..F0 adult toxicity includes an apparent male feminization in which fish with female secondary sex characteristics have testes...
  2. Nuclear Lipids in Steroidogenesis
    Marion B Sewer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of physiological processes, including sodium homeostasis, reproduction, and the development of secondary sex characteristics. These molecules allow tissues to respond in a coordinated manner to changes in the internal and external ..
  3. CELLS PROCESSING HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS
    Salman Azhar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..as well as inflammation, immunity and blood pressure, whereas gonadal steroids are critical for secondary sex characteristics, reproduction and muscle and bone growth...
  4. Regulation of Steroidogenic Genes by Trophic Hormones
    Marion B Sewer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of physiological processes, including sodium homeostasis, reproduction, and the development of secondary sex characteristics. These molecules allow tissues to respond in a coordinated manner to changes in the internal and external ..
  5. Molecular mechanisms of steroid hormone secretion and trafficking
    Naoki Yamanaka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..During puberty in humans, elevated secretion of gonadal steroid hormones produces secondary sex characteristics such as breast development and the appearance of facial hair...
  6. Contextual Influences on Sexual Risk among Latino MSM
    MARIA ZEA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The triangulation of findings will enable us to interpret results and further refine the theoretical model of contextual factors of sexual risk among these three groups of Latino MSM. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  7. Medical anthropological approaches to gender confusion
    SHERINE HAMDY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..gender identity) and intersexuality (a condition in which sex chromosomes, genitalia, and/or secondary sex characteristics are neither clearly male nor female)...
  8. ANDROGEN EFFECTS MEDIATED BY AR AND PROTO-ONCOPROTEINS
    Lirim Shemshedini; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..of this is androgen, a steroid hormone absolutely required for normal development and maintenance of male sex characteristics. These dramatic effects of androgens on sexual differentiation are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), ..
  9. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PUBERTAL HORMONAL CHANGES AND DEPRESSION
    Adrian Angold; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We will contrast the effects of (1) age, (2) the development of secondary sex characteristics (Tannerstage) and (3) the effects of changing levels of six hormones -(a) from the pituitary, follicle ..
  10. Mechanistic bases for age-related androgen deficiency
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Knowing why testosterone falls should help foster new and safer ways to prevent the problem. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. Novel Active Repressor Model of Human LDL-Receptor Regulation
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This would represent a new treatment approach for patients with atherosclerotic disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  12. Analytical Reconstruction of Feedback Signaling in Aging Men
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The present proposal develops a general biomathematical framework for dissecting otherwise observed pathways that control hormone output in aging, stress and disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. ACTIONS OF ESTROGEN IN MATURING GRAAFIAN FOLLICLES
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Understanding such fundamental interactions is important to the rational design of alternative strategies to interrupt normal and rescue impaired steroidogenesis in the maturing Graafian follicle and corpus luteum. ..
  14. Ensemble Disruption of the GnRH-LH-Testosterone Axis
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Expected corollary outcomes are enhanced diagnosis, assessment and management of more subtle pathophysiology of the male gonadal axis in puberty and adulthood. ..
  15. ENSEMBLE MODEL OF STRESS ACTH-ADRENAL AXIS
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  16. Acoustic Interference on Attention in HIV Patients
    Dardo Tomasi; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..More generally, this study will also improve the understanding of the neural effects of acoustic noise interference during fMRI studies in healthy populations. ..
  17. THE AGING GH AXIS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..An enhanced knowledge base should aid ultimately in formulating more innovative preventive and interventional strategies to limit hyposomatotropism in older and/or estrogen-deficient humans. ..
  18. Hormone Mediated Knee Joint Laxity and Neuromechanics
    SANDRA SHULTZ; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  19. Olfactory and Social Function in Schizophrenia
    Dolores Malaspina; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Not all schizophrenia patients have olfactory dysfunction or social deficits and we also expect to discern homogeneous subgroups within the broader diagnosis of schizophrenia. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  20. "Post-partum steroid withdrawal-induced depression"
    REBECCA CRAFT; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Findings from the proposed model will enhance our understanding of the etiology of PPD and possibly lead to improved treatment options. ..
  21. DYNAMIC PATTERNS OF SPEECH AERODYNAMICS IN CHILDREN
    LAURA KOENIG; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  22. Clock Genes, Night Work, and Breast Cancer Risk
    Eva Schernhammer; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The results from this study could help identify individuals who are more susceptible to night work than others, based on their genetic profile. ..
  23. Longitudinal Twin Study--Early Reading Development
    Richard K Olson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  24. Neurosteroids and acute Alcohol Intoxication in Humans
    Owen Wolkowitz; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  25. Development of a laser holography otoscope for diagnosis in the clinic
    John J Rosowski; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. fMRI of Hippocampal Function in Cannabis Users
    JENNIFER SNEIDER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Data from this study will clarify the impact of marijuana use on learning and memory, and may provide new insights for the development of intervention and treatment. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. HEDONICS AND DIETARY INTAKE OF FAT
    Richard Mattes; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This will be explored through stable isotope tracer studies for Aim 3. The proposed work will hold important public health, clinical, commercial and basic biological implications. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. The Effect of Sex Chromosomes on Immune Responses
    Rhonda Voskuhl; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Together these proposed studies will greatly advance the understanding of the role of sex chromosomes on immune responses. ..
  29. Latent Growth Curve Paths to Longevity: The Terman Study
    Chandra Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  30. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Phthalate Esters
    Bernard Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The proposed research will examine this question in rats, and translate its implications into human relevance. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. Inhibitory control and clinical response in ADHD
    Larry Hawk; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This work will pave the way for a new generation of translational research and theory in ADHD. ..
  32. Circadian & Genetic Evaluation of Extreme Sleep Timing
    JEANNE DUFFY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These data should provide better understanding of the chronobiologic and genetic basis of extreme diurnal preference, leading to better treatments for circadian rhythm sleep disorders. ..
  33. Cellular Mechanisms for the hormonal Modulation of Sleep
    Jessica Mong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  34. Androgens raise venous and arterial adrenergic tone.
    Douglas S Martin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A better understanding the factors that control arterial and venous tone in hypertension may lead to design antihypertensive drugs with fewer adverse effects ..
  35. Tobacco Smoking, Nicotine and Negative Affect Relief
    Kenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In sum, this research will help address the fundamental question of why cigarette smoking is reinforcing. ..
  36. Social-Emotional Assessment of Child's School Readiness
    SUSANNE DENHAM; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  37. Aspartame Intake and the Risk of Cancer
    Eva Schernhammer; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Our results may help decision-makers formulate guidelines and direct future aspartame studies. Even a null finding would be important in this context. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. Effect of Aging & Vitamin D Status on Osteoblastogenesis
    Julie Glowacki; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. Cholesterol metabolism pathway: Cognitive change and Alzheimer's disease risk
    Chandra A Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  40. Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior Development
    Juli Wade; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  41. Calorie Restriction Effects on Chromosomal Aberrations
    CHARLEEN MOORE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The results will be essential in identifying potential mechanisms by which CR acts in cancer prevention and delay of the aging process in long-lived species such as the rhesus monkey and humans. ..
  42. CELLULAR ORGANIZATION IN DEVELOPING HYPOTHALAMUS
    Stuart Tobet; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The proposed studies will bring us closer to determining the pattern-forming steps involved in the establishment of sexual differences in neural morphology and the actions of gonadal steroids on the developing nervous system. ..
  43. NATIONAL STUDY OF SYRINGE EXCHANGE PROGRAMS
    Don Des Jarlais; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The information obtained in the research should be useful for both HIV prevention planning in the US as well as understanding persistent risk behavior among persons already participating in prevention programs. ..
  44. BUILDING BETTER BONES IN CHILDREN
    Babette Zemel; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. DYNAMIC POSTURAL EQUILIBRIUM
    STEVEN BOKER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  46. Marine Toxin Impacts on Neurobehavioral Function
    Edward Levin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The forum will provide an opportunity for methodological and theoretical issues to be integrated in the context of each talk as well as in a discussion session at the end of the symposium. ..
  47. Aromatase regulation of paternal behavior and aggression
    BRIAN TRAINOR; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In summary, this proposal examines how aromatase mediates the effects of testosterone and social behavior. ..
  48. INTEGRATIVE NEUROBIOLOGY OF ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL SEIZURES
    Carl Faingold; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We expect these approaches to yield novel insights into the neurobiological mechanisms controlling seizure susceptibility during ethanol withdrawal and suggest improved approaches to the therapy of alcoholism. ..
  49. PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE AND PREMATURE AGING
    ROBERT MC GIVERN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..A potential relationship between prenatal exposure to subteratogenic levels of ethanol and an accelerated rate of aging has broad implications for NIH with regard to treatment, health education, and clinical services. ..
  50. Gene Expession in Conditioned Taste Aversion
    Louis Irwin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..As such, it represents a more realistic view of the way in which a system as complex as the brain likely processes and encodes experiential information. ..
  51. Protective Effect of Pregnancy Doses of Estrogens in EAE
    Rhonda Voskuhl; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. BASIC AND CLINICAL RHEUMATOLOGY
    JOEL TAUROG; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Simmons Arthritis Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. ..
  53. TISSUE STRESS VARIABILITY AND STRENGTH IN VERTEBRAL BONE
    Yener Yeni; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. Estrogen receptors, photoperiod, and aggression
    BRIAN TRAINOR; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed research should provide a novel and important framework to understand how the environment interacts with ER function to modulate behavior. ..
  55. POTASSIUM CHANNELS AND CEREBRAL HEMODYNAMICS AFTER BRAIN
    William Armstead; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies may lead to therapies for brain injured children. ..
  56. Diabetic/osmotic Influences on Osteoblast Phenotype
    Laura McCabe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our results will suggest targets for ameliorating the effects of type I diabetes on bone. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  57. Plasticity of Vocal Control
    ELIOT BRENOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results of the proposed studies will increase our understanding of the influences of steroid hormones and social stimuli on the nervous system, and the relationship between plasticity in the adult brain and learning. ..
  58. CRP, inflammation, and neurodegeneration during aging
    Caleb Finch; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..F1 hybrids will be made with APPswe/ind and the existing systemic huCRPtg (Y1) and with the neuron-specific huCRPtg (when available). The F1 hybrids will be examined for changes in deposits of Abeta-amyloid. ..
  59. Biological Substrates for Language
    Christine Chiarello; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Hence, the study of individual differences in uninjured populations can provide a critical bridge between the basic science of cerebral lateralization and its clinical application. ..
  60. GHB Tolerance and Dependence
    Cynthia Kuhn; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These experiments should ultimately lead to the development of more effective pharmacotherapies for GHB dependence, which is an emerging drug abuse problem. ..
  61. Maternal Stress and Fetal/Infant Development
    Curt Sandman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  62. NEONATAL CARDIAC RESPONSE TO MYOFILAMENT DEGENERATION
    Mark Sussman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  63. Mediation methods in alcohol continuing care research
    Kevin Lynch; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We compare these methods with standard approaches. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  64. Sleep and Immune Mechanisms in Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Michael Irwin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Results from this study will guide the development of interventions that target disordered sleep with potential effects on disability in RA. ..
  65. Alcoholism: Sleep and Cytokines in African Americans
    Michael Irwin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..g., cytokine antagonists) for sleep disturbance in alcoholism. ..