lactation

Summary

Summary: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster are associated with altered (n-6) and (n-3) essential fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in women during pregnancy and in breast milk during lactation
    Lin Xie
    Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, People s Republic of China
    J Nutr 138:2222-8. 2008
  2. ncbi The human milk microbiome changes over lactation and is shaped by maternal weight and mode of delivery
    Raúl Cabrera-Rubio
    Joint Unit of Research in Genomics and Health, Centre for Public Health Research CSISP Cavanilles Institute for Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    Am J Clin Nutr 96:544-51. 2012
  3. ncbi Stat5a is mandatory for adult mammary gland development and lactogenesis
    X Liu
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Metabolism, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases NIDDK, National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1812, USA
    Genes Dev 11:179-86. 1997
  4. ncbi Treatment of infectious mastitis during lactation: antibiotics versus oral administration of Lactobacilli isolated from breast milk
    Rebeca Arroyo
    Departamento de Nutricion, Bromatologia y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Clin Infect Dis 50:1551-8. 2010
  5. pmc Demonstration of osteocytic perilacunar/canalicular remodeling in mice during lactation
    Hai Qing
    School of Dentistry, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108 2784, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:1018-29. 2012
  6. ncbi Maternal high-fat feeding through pregnancy and lactation predisposes mouse offspring to molecular insulin resistance and fatty liver
    Nicole G Ashino
    Universidade Braz Cubas, CEP 08 773 380, Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Nutr Biochem 23:341-8. 2012
  7. pmc Effect of calcium supplementation in pregnancy on maternal bone outcomes in women with a low calcium intake
    Landing M A Jarjou
    Medical Research Council Keneba, Keneba, The Gambia
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:450-7. 2010
  8. ncbi Changes in reproductive physiology of lactating dairy cows due to elevated steroid metabolism
    Milo Wiltbank
    Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1675 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Theriogenology 65:17-29. 2006
  9. ncbi Identification and characterization of microRNAs in raw milk during different periods of lactation, commercial fluid, and powdered milk products
    Xi Chen
    Jiangsu Diabetes Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, China
    Cell Res 20:1128-37. 2010
  10. pmc Identification of a missense mutation in the bovine ABCG2 gene with a major effect on the QTL on chromosome 6 affecting milk yield and composition in Holstein cattle
    Miri Cohen-Zinder
    Institute of Animal Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
    Genome Res 15:936-44. 2005

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications364 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster are associated with altered (n-6) and (n-3) essential fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in women during pregnancy and in breast milk during lactation
    Lin Xie
    Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, People s Republic of China
    J Nutr 138:2222-8. 2008
    ..phosphoglyceride (EPG) (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids of women in pregnancy or their breast milk during lactation. We genotyped rs174553, rs99780, rs174575, and rs174583 in the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster and analyzed plasma and ..
  2. ncbi The human milk microbiome changes over lactation and is shaped by maternal weight and mode of delivery
    Raúl Cabrera-Rubio
    Joint Unit of Research in Genomics and Health, Centre for Public Health Research CSISP Cavanilles Institute for Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    Am J Clin Nutr 96:544-51. 2012
    ..The factors influencing the milk microbiome and the potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been uncovered...
  3. ncbi Stat5a is mandatory for adult mammary gland development and lactogenesis
    X Liu
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Metabolism, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases NIDDK, National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1812, USA
    Genes Dev 11:179-86. 1997
    ..These results document that Stat5a is the principal and an obligate mediator of mammopoietic and lactogenic signaling...
  4. ncbi Treatment of infectious mastitis during lactation: antibiotics versus oral administration of Lactobacilli isolated from breast milk
    Rebeca Arroyo
    Departamento de Nutricion, Bromatologia y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Clin Infect Dis 50:1551-8. 2010
    Mastitis is a common infectious disease during lactation, and the main etiological agents are staphylococci, streptococci, and/or corynebacteria...
  5. pmc Demonstration of osteocytic perilacunar/canalicular remodeling in mice during lactation
    Hai Qing
    School of Dentistry, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108 2784, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:1018-29. 2012
    ..Infusion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), known to be elevated during lactation, induced TRAP activity and cathepsin K expression in osteocytes concurrent with osteocytic remodeling...
  6. ncbi Maternal high-fat feeding through pregnancy and lactation predisposes mouse offspring to molecular insulin resistance and fatty liver
    Nicole G Ashino
    Universidade Braz Cubas, CEP 08 773 380, Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Nutr Biochem 23:341-8. 2012
    ..In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the consumption of excessive saturated fats during pregnancy and lactation contributes to adult hepatic metabolic dysfunction in offspring...
  7. pmc Effect of calcium supplementation in pregnancy on maternal bone outcomes in women with a low calcium intake
    Landing M A Jarjou
    Medical Research Council Keneba, Keneba, The Gambia
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:450-7. 2010
    ..Mobilization of maternal bone mineral partly supplies calcium for fetal and neonatal bone growth and development...
  8. ncbi Changes in reproductive physiology of lactating dairy cows due to elevated steroid metabolism
    Milo Wiltbank
    Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1675 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Theriogenology 65:17-29. 2006
    ..Although many aspects of this model remain to be tested, a central role for elevated steroid metabolism in lactation-induced reproductive changes seems likely.
  9. ncbi Identification and characterization of microRNAs in raw milk during different periods of lactation, commercial fluid, and powdered milk products
    Xi Chen
    Jiangsu Diabetes Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, China
    Cell Res 20:1128-37. 2010
    ..Unlike other classic biomarkers whose expression levels are nearly identical at different periods of lactation, individual miRNAs can be significantly altered during lactation process, implicating that miRNAs may be a more ..
  10. pmc Identification of a missense mutation in the bovine ABCG2 gene with a major effect on the QTL on chromosome 6 affecting milk yield and composition in Holstein cattle
    Miri Cohen-Zinder
    Institute of Animal Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
    Genome Res 15:936-44. 2005
    ..Expression of SPP1 and ABCG2 in the bovine mammary gland increased from parturition through lactation. SPP1 and all the coding exons of ABCG2 and PKD2 were sequenced for these two sires...
  11. ncbi Maternal obesity during pregnancy and lactation programs the development of offspring non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice
    Jude A Oben
    University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK
    J Hepatol 52:913-20. 2010
    ..Obesity and NAFLD rates in reproductive age women, and adolescents, are rising worldwide. Our hypothesis was that maternal obesity and lactation transmit to the offspring a pre-disposition to dysmetabolism, obesity and NAFLD.
  12. pmc Lactation-related microRNA expression profiles of porcine breast milk exosomes
    Yiren Gu
    Sichuan Animal Science Academy, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e43691. 2012
    ..Here, we analyzed the lactation-related miRNA expression profiles in porcine milk exosomes across the entire lactation period (newborn to 28 ..
  13. pmc Transcriptome profiling of bovine milk oligosaccharide metabolism genes using RNA-sequencing
    Saumya Wickramasinghe
    Department of Animal Science, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e18895. 2011
    ..Fresh milk samples (n = 32) were collected from four Holstein and Jersey cows at days 1, 15, 90 and 250 of lactation and free milk oligosaccharide profiles were analyzed...
  14. ncbi A maternal 'junk food' diet in pregnancy and lactation promotes an exacerbated taste for 'junk food' and a greater propensity for obesity in rat offspring
    Stéphanie A Bayol
    The Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, London, NW1 0TU, UK
    Br J Nutr 98:843-51. 2007
    ..However, the influence of a maternal junk food diet during pregnancy and lactation on the feeding behaviour and weight gain of the offspring remains largely uncharacterised...
  15. ncbi Plasma paraoxonase, health, inflammatory conditions, and liver function in transition dairy cows
    M Bionaz
    Istituto di Zootecnica, Facolta di Agraria, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, Piacenza, Italy
    J Dairy Sci 90:1740-50. 2007
    ..3 +/- 7.7 kg of milk/d during the first 30 DIM. A reduction in the ability of the liver to cope with the increased metabolic demand near parturition in dairy cows can be diagnosed using changes in baseline plasma PON...
  16. pmc Inactivation of Stat5 in mouse mammary epithelium during pregnancy reveals distinct functions in cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation
    Yongzhi Cui
    Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0822, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:8037-47. 2004
    ..proliferation and differentiation during pregnancy, cell survival and maintenance of differentiation throughout lactation, and cell death during involution...
  17. pmc Cadmium exposure in pregnancy and lactation in relation to iron status
    Agneta Akesson
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Metals and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Am J Public Health 92:284-7. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of iron status on cadmium dose among pregnant women...
  18. ncbi A validated genome-wide association study in 2 dairy cattle breeds for milk production and fertility traits using variable length haplotypes
    J E Pryce
    Biosciences Research Division, Department of Primary Industries Victoria, Bundoora 3083, Australia
    J Dairy Sci 93:3331-45. 2010
    ..Promising candidate genes have been identified in several of the validated regions...
  19. ncbi Effect of reducing the n-6:n-3 long-chain PUFA ratio during pregnancy and lactation on infant adipose tissue growth within the first year of life: an open-label randomized controlled trial
    Hans Hauner
    Else Kroner Fresenius Center for Nutritional Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:383-94. 2012
    ..The composition of long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) in the maternal diet may affect obesity risk in the mother's offspring...
  20. pmc Sterol regulatory element binding protein and dietary lipid regulation of fatty acid synthesis in the mammary epithelium
    Michael C Rudolph
    1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299:E918-27. 2010
    ..5-fold at parturition. However, Srebf1c-null mice showed only minor deficiencies in lipid synthesis during lactation, possibly due to compensation by Srebf1a expression...
  21. pmc The Ets transcription factor Elf5 specifies mammary alveolar cell fate
    Samantha R Oakes
    Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, New South Wales 2010, Australia
    Genes Dev 22:581-6. 2008
    ..Thus Elf5 specifies the differentiation of CD61+ progenitors to establish the secretory alveolar lineage during pregnancy, providing a link between prolactin, transcriptional events, and alveolar development...
  22. pmc Lactation intensity and postpartum maternal glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in women with recent GDM: the SWIFT cohort
    Erica P Gunderson
    Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California, USA
    Diabetes Care 35:50-6. 2012
    ....
  23. ncbi High feed intake increases liver blood flow and metabolism of progesterone and estradiol-17beta in dairy cattle
    S Sangsritavong
    Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    J Dairy Sci 85:2831-42. 2002
    ..Higher rates of LBF and steroid metabolism in lactating than in nonlactating cows may indicate chronic effects of higher feed intakes as well...
  24. pmc Old and new stories: revelations from functional analysis of the bovine mammary transcriptome during the lactation cycle
    Massimo Bionaz
    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e33268. 2012
    ..A total of 6,382 differentially expressed genes (DEG) at a false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 were found throughout lactation. The greatest number of DEG (>3,500 DEG) was observed at 60 and 120 d vs...
  25. ncbi Hormonal regulation of mammary differentiation and milk secretion
    Margaret C Neville
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262, USA
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 7:49-66. 2002
    ....
  26. ncbi Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation may decrease the risk of infant allergy
    Catrin Furuhjelm
    Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
    Acta Paediatr 98:1461-7. 2009
    ..Maternal intake of omega-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during pregnancy has decreased, possibly contributing to a current increased risk of childhood allergy...
  27. ncbi Evolution of the mammary gland from the innate immune system?
    Claudia Vorbach
    IMBA, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria
    Bioessays 28:606-16. 2006
    ..Numerous theories on the origin of the mammary gland and lactation exist...
  28. pmc A low maternal protein diet during pregnancy and lactation has sex- and window of exposure-specific effects on offspring growth and food intake, glucose metabolism and serum leptin in the rat
    E Zambrano
    Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga 15, 14000, Mexico, D F Mexico
    J Physiol 571:221-30. 2006
    ..We determined the effects of protein restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation on growth, serum leptin, and glucose and insulin responses to a glucose tolerance test in male and female ..
  29. ncbi Oxytocin improves long-lasting spatial memory during motherhood through MAP kinase cascade
    Kazuhito Tomizawa
    Department of Physiology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Shikata cho 2 5 1, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Nat Neurosci 6:384-90. 2003
    Oxytocin is an essential hormone for mammalian labor and lactation. Here, we show a new function of oxytocin in causing plastic changes in hippocampal synapses during motherhood...
  30. pmc No stress please! Mechanisms of stress hyporesponsiveness of the maternal brain
    David A Slattery
    Department of Behavioural and Molecular Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Zoology, University of Regensburg, Universitatsstrasse 31, D 93053 Regensburg, Germany
    J Physiol 586:377-85. 2008
    ....
  31. ncbi Reproductive loss in high-producing dairy cattle: where will it end?
    M C Lucy
    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia 65211, USA
    J Dairy Sci 84:1277-93. 2001
    ..Critical areas for new research include control of the estrous cycle, metabolic effects of lactation on reproduction, mechanisms linking disease to reproduction, and early embryonic mortality...
  32. ncbi Functional development of the mammary gland: use of expression profiling and trajectory clustering to reveal changes in gene expression during pregnancy, lactation, and involution
    Michael C Rudolph
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 8:287-307. 2003
    ..which progesterone withdrawal initiates milk secretion, we examined global gene expression during pregnancy and lactation in mice, focusing on the period around parturition...
  33. pmc Gene regulatory networks in lactation: identification of global principles using bioinformatics
    Danielle G Lemay
    Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    BMC Syst Biol 1:56. 2007
    The molecular events underlying mammary development during pregnancy, lactation, and involution are incompletely understood.
  34. ncbi The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations
    Berthold Koletzko
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Munich, Munchen, Germany
    J Perinat Med 36:5-14. 2008
    ..Dietary LC-PUFA supply should continue after the first six months of life, but currently there is not sufficient information for quantitative recommendations...
  35. pmc Gene networks driving bovine milk fat synthesis during the lactation cycle
    Massimo Bionaz
    Mammalian NutriPhysioGenomics, Department of Animal Sciences and Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, 61801 Illinois, USA
    BMC Genomics 9:366. 2008
    ..and phospholipids) and secretion from the late pre-partum/non-lactating period through the end of subsequent lactation. mRNA expression was coupled with milk fatty acid (FA) composition and calculated indexes of FA desaturation and ..
  36. ncbi Dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women
    Berthold Koletzko
    Dr von Hauner Children s Hospital, University of Munich, Germany
    Br J Nutr 98:873-7. 2007
    Dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation affects pregnancy outcomes and child growth, development and health...
  37. ncbi Gluconeogenesis in dairy cows: the secret of making sweet milk from sour dough
    Jörg R Aschenbach
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Veterinary Physiology, Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    IUBMB Life 62:869-77. 2010
    ..for hepatic glucose output except in high-producing dairy cows during the transition from the dry period to peak lactation. Lactating cows adapt to the increased glucose requirement for lactose production by mobilization of endogenous ..
  38. pmc Gene expression in the human mammary epithelium during lactation: the milk fat globule transcriptome
    Patricia D Maningat
    Department of Pediatrics Nutrition, Baylor College of Medicine, Children s Nutrition Research Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Physiol Genomics 37:12-22. 2009
    ..We used MFG RNA to determine the gene expression profile of human MEC during lactation. Microarray studies were performed using Human Ref-8 BeadChip arrays (Illumina)...
  39. ncbi Targeted inactivation of the EGF and amphiregulin genes reveals distinct roles for EGF receptor ligands in mouse mammary gland development
    N C Luetteke
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7295, USA
    Development 126:2739-50. 1999
    ..Stat5a activation was frequently reduced in AR single and combinatorial nulls in association with impaired lactation. Collectively, our results provide genetic confirmation of a requirement for EGFR signaling throughout the ..
  40. ncbi A systematic review on animal models of maternal high fat feeding and offspring glycaemic control
    H Ainge
    Discipline of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Int J Obes (Lond) 35:325-35. 2011
    ..glycaemic control in offspring exposed to a high fat diet (HFD) during maternal gestation only or gestation and lactation. Studies in this review identify a real risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity in male offspring exposed to a ..
  41. ncbi Effects of lactation and pregnancy on gene expression of endometrium of Holstein cows at day 17 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy
    R L A Cerri
    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    J Dairy Sci 95:5657-75. 2012
    Objectives were to determine effects of lactation and pregnancy on endometrial gene expression on d 17 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy...
  42. ncbi Fructose consumption during pregnancy and lactation induces fatty liver and glucose intolerance in rats
    Mi Zou
    Interdepartmental Nutrition Program, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2054, USA
    Nutr Res 32:588-98. 2012
    Nutritional insults during pregnancy and lactation are health risks for mother and offspring. Both fructose (FR) and low-protein (LP) diets are linked to hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in nonpregnant animals...
  43. ncbi Expression and localisation of GLUT1 and GLUT12 glucose transporters in the pregnant and lactating rat mammary gland
    Maria L Macheda
    Department of Medicine, St Vincent s Hospital, University of Melbourne, PO Box 2900, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065, Australia
    Cell Tissue Res 311:91-7. 2003
    Glucose plays a major role in mammary gland function during lactation as it is used both as a fuel and as a precursor of milk components...
  44. ncbi Pregnancy and lactation: physiological adjustments, nutritional requirements and the role of dietary supplements
    Mary Frances Picciano
    Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Nutr 133:1997S-2002S. 2003
    Nutritional needs are increased during pregnancy and lactation for support of fetal and infant growth and development along with alterations in maternal tissues and metabolism...
  45. ncbi Variation in hepatic regulation of metabolism during the dry period and in early lactation in dairy cows
    H A van Dorland
    Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3001 Bern, Switzerland
    J Dairy Sci 92:1924-40. 2009
    ..variations in hepatic regulation of metabolism during the dry period, after parturition, and in early lactation in dairy cows...
  46. ncbi Growth, reproduction, and lactation in somatic cell cloned cows with short telomeres
    M Yonai
    National Livestock Breeding Center, Nishigo, Fukushima, 961 8511, Japan
    J Dairy Sci 88:4097-110. 2005
    ..In this study, we investigated growth, reproduction, and lactation in these animals to determine if shortened telomeres have any effect on these characteristics...
  47. ncbi Comparison of a high saturated fat diet with a high carbohydrate diet during pregnancy and lactation: effects on insulin sensitivity in offspring of rats
    Søren Gregersen
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tage Hansensgade 2, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    Metabolism 54:1316-22. 2005
    ..A diet high in SAFA given to mothers during gestation and/or the weaning period does not seem to have deleterious effects on the insulin sensitivity in the offspring...
  48. pmc Autocrine prolactin induced by the Pten-Akt pathway is required for lactation initiation and provides a direct link between the Akt and Stat5 pathways
    Chien Chung Chen
    Department of Cancer Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Genes Dev 26:2154-68. 2012
    ..Demonstrating a physiological requirement for autocrine prolactin, mammary glands from lactation-defective Akt1(-/-);Akt2(+/-) mice failed to express autocrine prolactin or activate Stat5 during late pregnancy ..
  49. ncbi ACSL1, AGPAT6, FABP3, LPIN1, and SLC27A6 are the most abundant isoforms in bovine mammary tissue and their expression is affected by stage of lactation
    Massimo Bionaz
    Mammalian NutriPhysioGenomics, Department of Animal Sciences and Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    J Nutr 138:1019-24. 2008
    ..Results suggest that SLC27A6, ACSL1, FABP3, AGPAT6, and LPIN1 coordinately regulate the channeling of fatty acids toward copious milk fat synthesis in bovine mammary...
  50. ncbi Epigenetic regulation of milk production in dairy cows
    Kuljeet Singh
    AgResearch Ltd, Ruakura Research Centre, Hamilton, 3240, New Zealand
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 15:101-12. 2010
    ..In recent years our understanding of molecular events within the MEC underlying bovine lactation has been advanced through mammary microarray studies and will be further advanced through the recent ..
  51. ncbi Risks associated with in utero and lactation exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
    Maria Ellfolk
    Teratology Information Service, Helsinki University Central Hospital and HUSLAB, Helsinki, Finland
    Reprod Toxicol 30:249-60. 2010
    ..Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may increase risk for congenital malformations and adverse perinatal outcome...
  52. ncbi Differential expression and localization of lipid transporters in the bovine mammary gland during the pregnancy-lactation cycle
    O Mani
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Bern, CH 3012 Bern, Switzerland
    J Dairy Sci 92:3744-56. 2009
    ..investigated the expression of lipid transporters and their regulators in comparison to blood metabolites during lactation and dry period (DP) in dairy cows...
  53. pmc Duration of lactation and risk factors for maternal cardiovascular disease
    Eleanor Bimla Schwarz
    Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 113:974-82. 2009
    ..To examine dose-response relationships between the cumulative number of months women lactated and postmenopausal risk factors for cardiovascular disease...
  54. pmc Ablation of beta1 integrin in mammary epithelium reveals a key role for integrin in glandular morphogenesis and differentiation
    Matthew J Naylor
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, England, UK
    J Cell Biol 171:717-28. 2005
    ..Loss of beta1 integrin in vivo resulted in impaired alveologenesis and lactation. Cultured beta1 integrin-null cells displayed abnormal focal adhesion function and signal transduction and could ..
  55. ncbi Smoking in pregnancy and lactation: a review of risks and cessation strategies
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 65:325-30. 2009
    Despite documented evidence of harm to fetus and infant, a substantial number of women continue to smoke during pregnancy and lactation.
  56. ncbi Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age
    Ingrid B Helland
    Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Peter Möller, avd Orkla, ASA, Oslo, Norway
    Pediatrics 111:e39-44. 2003
    ..Our hypothesis was that maternal intake of DHA during pregnancy and lactation is marginal and that high intake of this fatty acid would benefit the child...
  57. ncbi Metabolic regulation in the lactating mammary gland: a lipid synthesizing machine
    Michael C Rudolph
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center at Fitzsimmons, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA
    Physiol Genomics 28:323-36. 2007
    ..the lactating mouse synthesizes and secretes milk lipid equivalent to its entire body weight in a single 20-day lactation cycle, making it one of the most active lipid synthetic organs known...
  58. ncbi Multiple micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation: an overview
    Lindsay H Allen
    US Department of Agriculture, ARS Western Human Nutrition Research Center, and Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 81:1206S-1212S. 2005
    This overview of multiple micronutrients during pregnancy and lactation emphasizes 2 relatively neglected issues...
  59. ncbi Prescription drugs during pregnancy and lactation--a Finnish register-based study
    Heli Malm
    Department of Medical Genetics, The Family Federation of Finland, Helsinki, Finland
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 59:127-33. 2003
    To examine the use of prescription drugs in Finnish women before and during pregnancy and lactation.
  60. pmc Duration of lactation and incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women of reproductive age according to gestational diabetes mellitus status: a 20-Year prospective study in CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults)
    Erica P Gunderson
    Division of Research, Epidemiology, and Prevention Section, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California, USA
    Diabetes 59:495-504. 2010
    The objective of the study was to prospectively assess the association between lactation duration and incidence of the metabolic syndrome among women of reproductive age.
  61. ncbi Richer milk for sons but more milk for daughters: Sex-biased investment during lactation varies with maternal life history in rhesus macaques
    Katherine Hinde
    Department of Anthropology, UC Santa Barbara, California 93106 3210, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 21:512-9. 2009
    b>Lactation represents the greatest postnatal energetic expenditure for human and non-human primate females, and the ability to sustain the costs of lactation is influenced by a mother's physical condition...
  62. ncbi Breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation: biological features and treatment options
    O Gentilini
    Department of Breast Surgery, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy
    Eur J Surg Oncol 31:232-6. 2005
    Assessment of biological features and treatment of patients with breast cancer presenting during pregnancy or lactation.
  63. pmc Misexpression of wingless-related MMTV integration site 5A in mouse mammary gland inhibits the milk ejection response and regulates connexin43 phosphorylation
    Sarah E Baxley
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Biol Reprod 85:907-15. 2011
    ..is a noncanonical signaling WNT that is expressed in every stage of mouse mammary gland development except lactation. Using slow release pellets containing WNT5A as well as Wnt5a-null tissue, we previously showed that WNT5A acts ..
  64. ncbi Limits to sustained energy intake. X. Effects of fur removal on reproductive performance in laboratory mice
    Elzbieta Krol
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity, Aberdeen, AB24 2TZ, UK
    J Exp Biol 210:4233-43. 2007
    ..Our results argue against central, peripheral or extrinsic limits to SusEI at peak lactation and provide strong support for the heat dissipation limit hypothesis...
  65. pmc Database of cattle candidate genes and genetic markers for milk production and mastitis
    J Ogorevc
    Department of Animal Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Domzale, Slovenia
    Anim Genet 40:832-51. 2009
    ..an integrated research tool incorporating different types of information supporting a genomic approach to study lactation, udder development and health...
  66. pmc P21-activated kinase-1 phosphorylates and transactivates estrogen receptor-alpha and promotes hyperplasia in mammary epithelium
    Rui An Wang
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 4009, USA
    EMBO J 21:5437-47. 2002
    ..developed widespread hyperplasia associated with apocrine metaplasia and lobuloalveolar hyperdevelopment during lactation. Mammary tissues with active Pak1 also exhibited an increased activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and ..
  67. pmc Expression of genes involved in hepatic carnitine synthesis and uptake in dairy cows in the transition period and at different stages of lactation
    Gloria Schlegel
    Institute of Animal Nutrition and Nutrition Physiology, Justus Liebig Universitat Giessen, Giessen, Germany
    BMC Vet Res 8:28. 2012
    ..Dairy cows are typically in a negative energy balance during early lactation. We investigated the hypothesis that genes of carnitine synthesis and uptake in dairy cows are enhanced during ..
  68. ncbi Supplementation of bitter melon to rats fed a high-fructose diet during gestation and lactation ameliorates fructose-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic oxidative stress in male offspring
    Rachel H H Ching
    Food and Nutritional Science Division, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People s Republic of China
    J Nutr 141:1664-72. 2011
    ..control (C), high-fructose (F; 60%), or BM-supplemented fructose (FBM; 1%) diet before conception until d 21 of lactation. Weaned male offspring were fed the C diet for 11 wk, forming C/C, F/C, and FBM/C groups...
  69. ncbi Comparison on gestation and lactation exposure of perfluorinated compounds for newborns
    Jiaying Liu
    Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No 29, NanWei Road, Beijing, 100050, China
    Environ Int 37:1206-12. 2011
    ..To investigate the PFCs exposure of neonates from mother during gestation and lactation, we analyzed twelve PFCs in matched maternal serum, cord serum and breast milk samples collected from 50 pairs ..
  70. ncbi Invited review: Mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control
    S De Vliegher
    M team and Mastitis and Milk Quality Research Unit, Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Herd Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke 9820, Belgium
    J Dairy Sci 95:1025-40. 2012
    ..Intramammary infection in early lactation caused by CNS does not generally have a negative effect on subsequent productivity...
  71. pmc Maternal PPAR gamma protects nursing neonates by suppressing the production of inflammatory milk
    Yihong Wan
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Genes Dev 21:1895-908. 2007
    b>Lactation is a highly demanding lipid synthesis and transport process that is crucial for the development of newborn mammals...
  72. ncbi Pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in pregnancy and lactation
    Tuija Heikkinen
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Turku and Turku University Central Hospital, Finland
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 73:330-7. 2003
    The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine, during pregnancy, delivery, and lactation in mothers and their infants.
  73. ncbi Maternal dietary fat intake during gestation and lactation alters tissue fatty acid composition in the adult offspring of C57Bl/6 mice
    Kanta Chechi
    Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University, St John s, NL, Canada
    Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 83:97-104. 2010
    We investigated the effects of maternal dietary fat intake during gestation and lactation on the tissue fatty acid composition of the adult offspring...
  74. ncbi Lipolysis in early lactation is associated with an increase in phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α1 in adipose tissue of dairy cows
    L F Locher
    Clinic for Cattle, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, 30171 Hannover, Germany
    J Dairy Sci 95:2497-504. 2012
    ..Lipolysis in early lactation of dairy cows was associated with an increase in phosphorylation of AMPKα1 and ratio of pAMPKα1 to AMPKα1 in ..
  75. ncbi Folate recommendations for pregnancy, lactation, and infancy
    Yvonne Lamers
    Food, Nutrition and Health, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Ann Nutr Metab 59:32-7. 2011
    An adequate intake of folate during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy is essential for maternal and child health and normal growth...
  76. ncbi Validation of RNA isolated from milk fat globules to profile mammary epithelial cell expression during lactation and transcriptional response to a bacterial infection
    P Brenaut
    INRA, UMR1313 Unité Génétique Animale et Biologie Intégrative, équipe Lait, Génome and Santé F 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
    J Dairy Sci 95:6130-44. 2012
    ..Furthermore, this noninvasive technique could be used to provide mammary transcriptomic data on a large scale, thus filling the gap between genomic and phenotypic data...
  77. ncbi Allergic disease in infants up to 2 years of age in relation to plasma omega-3 fatty acids and maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation
    Catrin Furuhjelm
    Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 22:505-14. 2011
    ..effect of maternal omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in pregnancy and lactation on IgE-associated eczema and food allergy in the infant during the first year of life...
  78. ncbi Hepatic gene expression in multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed n-3 fatty acids in early lactation
    M Carriquiry
    Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, St Paul 55108 6118, USA
    J Dairy Sci 92:4889-900. 2009
    ..fat and treated with bST to assess effects of n-3 fatty acid supply, bovine somatotropin (bST), and stage of lactation on hepatic gene expression...
  79. ncbi Calcium and bone metabolism disorders during pregnancy and lactation
    Christopher S Kovacs
    Health Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s, Canada
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 40:795-826. 2011
    Pregnancy and lactation cause a substantial increase in demand for calcium that is met by different maternal adaptations within each period...
  80. ncbi Prenatal and lactational exposure to low-doses of bisphenol A alters adult mice behavior
    Keiko Nakamura
    Department of Pathology and Applied Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Japan
    Brain Dev 34:57-63. 2012
    ..These results indicated that prenatal and lactational BPA exposure disturbed the murine behavior in the postnatal development period and the adult mice...
  81. ncbi Intake of trans fatty acids during gestation and lactation leads to hypothalamic inflammation via TLR4/NFκBp65 signaling in adult offspring
    Gustavo D Pimentel
    Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo SP, Brazil
    J Nutr Biochem 23:265-71. 2012
    ..Thus, the present study shows that the mothers' hydrogenated vegetable fat intake during pregnancy and lactation led to hypothalamic inflammation and impaired satiety-sensing, which promotes deleterious metabolic consequences ..
  82. ncbi Selective response to insulin versus insulin-like growth factor-I and -II and up-regulation of insulin receptor splice variant B in the differentiated mouse mammary epithelium
    Chiara Berlato
    Division of Medical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
    Endocrinology 150:2924-33. 2009
    The terminal differentiation of the mouse mammary gland epithelium during lactation has been shown to require IGFs and/or superphysiological levels of insulin...
  83. ncbi Production loss due to new subclinical mastitis in Dutch dairy cows estimated with a test-day model
    T Halasa
    Department of Farm Animal Health and Reproduction, Utrecht University, CN Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Dairy Sci 92:599-606. 2009
    ..44-0.56) kg of milk/d, respectively. Moreover, it was found that the greater the SCC increase above 100,000 cells/mL, the greater the production losses. The estimated production losses were more precise than previously reported estimates...
  84. ncbi Limits to sustained energy intake. XI. A test of the heat dissipation limitation hypothesis in lactating Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii)
    Su Hui Wu
    State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Lu, Chaoyang, Beijing 100101, China
    J Exp Biol 212:3455-65. 2009
    ..The ;heat dissipation limitation hypothesis' suggests that maximum SusEI during lactation is limited by the capacity to dissipate body heat generated as a by-product of processing food and producing ..
  85. ncbi Global transcriptional profiling in porcine mammary glands from late pregnancy to peak lactation
    Dan Ping Shu
    College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, People s Republic of China
    OMICS 16:123-37. 2012
    ..To understand the molecular mechanisms of lactogenesis and lactation, mammary tissue samples were taken from six sows at -17(±2), 1 and 17(±2) days relative to parturition...
  86. ncbi Calcium economy in human pregnancy and lactation
    Hanna Olausson
    MRC Human Nutrition Research, The Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL, UK
    Nutr Res Rev 25:40-67. 2012
    Pregnancy and lactation are times of additional demand for Ca. Ca is transferred across the placenta for fetal skeletal mineralisation, and supplied to the mammary gland for secretion into breast milk...
  87. ncbi Modulation of susceptibility to weight gain and insulin resistance in low birthweight rats by treatment of their mothers with leptin during pregnancy and lactation
    C Stocker
    Clore Laboratory, University of Buckingham, Buckingham, UK
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28:129-36. 2004
    To investigate whether administration of leptin to rats during pregnancy and lactation affects placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2) activity and the susceptibility of their offspring to weight gain and insulin ..
  88. ncbi Major advances associated with the biosynthesis of milk
    D E Bauman
    Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Dairy Sci 89:1235-43. 2006
    ....
  89. pmc Use of a prolactin-Cre/ROSA-YFP transgenic mouse provides no evidence for lactotroph transdifferentiation after weaning, or increase in lactotroph/somatotroph proportion in lactation
    Emma Castrique
    Henry Wellcome Labs for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Bristol, UK
    J Endocrinol 205:49-60. 2010
    In rats, a shift from somatotroph dominance to lactotroph dominance during pregnancy and lactation is well reported...
  90. ncbi Cidea is an essential transcriptional coactivator regulating mammary gland secretion of milk lipids
    Wenshan Wang
    Tsinghua Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
    Nat Med 18:235-43. 2012
    Adequate lipid secretion by mammary glands during lactation is essential for the survival of mammalian offspring. However, the mechanism governing this process is poorly understood...
  91. ncbi Effects of tobacco smoke exposure during lactation on nutritional and hormonal profiles in mothers and offspring
    A P Santos-Silva
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Roberto Alcantara Gomes Biology Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Av 28 de Setembro, 87, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20551 030, Brazil
    J Endocrinol 209:75-84. 2011
    ..we showed that maternal nicotine (the main addictive compound of tobacco) exposure exclusively during lactation affects biochemical profiles in mothers, milk, and pups...
  92. pmc Parity and lactation in relation to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer in African American women
    Julie R Palmer
    Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, 1010 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20:1883-91. 2011
    ..We assessed the relation of parity and lactation to incidence of ER(-)/PR(-) and ER(+)/PR(+) breast cancer in a cohort of African American women.
  93. ncbi Expression, localization, and functional model of cholesterol transporters in lactating and nonlactating mammary tissues of murine, bovine, and human origin
    Orlando Mani
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299:R642-54. 2010
    ..ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA7 and their regulatory genes in mammary tissues of different species during the pregnancy-lactation cycle. Murine and bovine mammary glands (MGs) were investigated during different functional stages...
  94. ncbi Maternal consumption of high-prebiotic fibre or -protein diets during pregnancy and lactation differentially influences satiety hormones and expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in offspring in rats
    Alannah D Maurer
    Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4
    Br J Nutr 105:329-38. 2011
    ..We examined the effects of high-fibre (HF) and high-protein (HP) diets consumed during pregnancy and lactation on satiety hormones and expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in offspring...
  95. ncbi ORAI1-mediated calcium influx in lactation and in breast cancer
    Damara McAndrew
    School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland Australia, 4072
    Mol Cancer Ther 10:448-60. 2011
    ..e., calcium influx mechanisms) during lactation is poorly understood...
  96. ncbi Effect of a high-protein diet on food intake and liver metabolism during pregnancy, lactation and after weaning in mice
    Björn Kuhla
    Research Unit Nutritional Physiology Oskar Kellner, Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology FBN, Dummerstorf, Germany
    Proteomics 10:2573-88. 2010
    ..adjust food intake is incompletely understood, particularly under physiological challenging conditions such as lactation. In order to identify these molecular events, mice were fed a high-protein (HP) diet from pregnancy, during ..
  97. ncbi Delayed onset of lactogenesis among first-time mothers is related to maternal obesity and factors associated with ineffective breastfeeding
    Laurie A Nommsen-Rivers
    Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:574-84. 2010
    ..Delayed onset of lactogenesis (OL) is most common in primiparas and increases the risk of excess neonatal weight loss, formula supplementation, and early weaning...
  98. ncbi Nicotine exposure affects mother's and pup's nutritional, biochemical, and hormonal profiles during lactation in rats
    E Oliveira
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Roberto Alcantara Gomes Biology Institute Laboratory of Lipids, School of Medicine, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 20551 030, Brazil
    J Endocrinol 205:159-70. 2010
    We have shown that maternal nicotine exposure during lactation has long-lasting effects on body adiposity and hormonal status of rat offspring. Here, we studied the nutritional and hormonal profiles in this experimental model...
  99. ncbi Cellular mechanisms in regulating mammary cell turnover during lactation and dry period in dairy cows
    J V Nørgaard
    Department of Animal Health, Welfare and Nutrition, University of Aarhus, PO Box 50, DK 8830, Tjele, Denmark
    J Dairy Sci 91:2319-27. 2008
    The mechanisms involved in regulating mammary cell turnover during the pregnancy-lactation cycle in dairy cows are unclear...
  100. ncbi Neurobehavioural functions in adult progeny of rat mothers exposed to methylmercury or 2,2', 4,4', 5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) alone or their combination during gestation and lactation
    Sławomir Gralewicz
    Department of Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland
    Int J Occup Med Environ Health 22:277-91. 2009
    ..The main source of human exposure to MeHg and PCBs is seafood. The aim of the present work was to find out whether and how separate or combined perinatal exposure to these neurotoxicants affects neurobehavioural functions in maturity...
  101. ncbi Gene expression profiling in rat cerebellum following in utero and lactational exposure to mixtures of methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides
    B K Padhi
    Environment and Occupational Toxicology Division, HECSB, Health Canada, Tunney s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada
    Toxicol Lett 176:93-103. 2008
    ....

Research Grants73

  1. MOLECULAR BASIS OF INSULIN RESISTANCE
    Maureen J Charron; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..hypothesis of this proposal is that consumption of a high fat (HF) diabetogenic diet during pregnancy and lactation `programs'offspring for increased susceptibility to Metabolic Syndrome and T2DM...
  2. Role of JAK2-PAK1 interaction in prolactin-dependent signaling
    Maria Diakonova; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Prolactin (PRL) was discovered in 1928 as a pituitary factor able to stimulate mammary gland development and lactation in rabbits, as well as the production of crop milk in pigeons...
  3. Arcuate nucleus glutamatergic neurons modulate energy homeostasis
    Anthony N van den Pol; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a role in other functions that this small but critical part of the brain controls, including regulation of the pituitary and other endocrine organs, reproduction and lactation, growth, metabolism, and response to stress.
  4. Metabolic Adapation and Control of Lactation in Humans
    Morey W Haymond; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2. Understanding the metabolic adaptation to lactation and processes that control milk production will result in improved success in lactation and appropriate methods ..
  5. NEURAL AND ENDOCRINE CONSEQUENCES OF PARITY
    ROBERT STAFFORD BRIDGES; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy, parturition and lactation) results in long lasting alterations in the female mammal's neural and endocrine systems...
  6. MECHANISMS OF MILK LIPID SECRETION
    JAMES LEWIS MCMANAMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Lipid synthesis is induced during differentiation of the mammary gland into a secretory organ;and during lactation in humans and rodents the mammary gland is estimated to be among the most active lipogenic organs in the body...
  7. Epithelial Sodium Channels in the Supraoptic Vasopressin and Oxytocin Neurons
    Ryoichi Teruyama; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition to the well known effects of OT during parturition and lactation, plasma OT increases in response to hypernatremia (Huang et al., 1995) and induces natriuresis (Conrad et al...
  8. Evolution of the Immune Response to Cytomegalovirus Transmitted via Breast Milk
    Lynn Puddington; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of mothers with latent HCMV, as reactivation of the virus can occur specifically within the mammary gland during lactation. This could be the consequence of latently infected monocyte recruitment from the blood followed by ..
  9. Iodine Nutrition and Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and Lactation
    ANGELA MEI TIN LEUNG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..at specific strategies of achieving adequate iodine nutrition and normal thyroid function during pregnancy and lactation. This work will then prepare me to embark on the design and implementation of an R01 award aimed at specific ..
  10. Role of SIRT3 in fetal programming and kidney dysfunction
    Karen R Jonscher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mitochondrial response to maternal over-nutrition, and 4) administer a potent anti-oxidant during pregnancy and lactation to rescue developmentally programmed "lipotoxicity...
  11. Effect of Perinatal Diet on Developmental Programming of the Skeleton
    Mary L Bouxsein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Previous studies have demonstrated that nutrition in early life, including maternal diet during gestation and lactation, can trigger developmental programming that increases the risk of many metabolic diseases, including obesity and ..
  12. ANALYSIS OF CHROMATIN REMODELING IN MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT USING TILING ARRAYS
    Monique Rijnkels; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..is to determine the role chromatin remodeling plays in the maturation of the mammary gland and regulation of lactation, and identify the pertinent regions in the genome that function as regulatory elements in these processes...
  13. Lactation and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus in CARDIA Women
    ERICA PAULINE GUNDERSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lactation has favorable effects on cardiometabolic risk factor levels that persist after weaning, and may prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in women in mid to late life...
  14. CONTROL OF GONADOTROPIN SECRETION DURING LACTATION
    Kevin L Grove; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is firmly established that states of energy deficiency, such as fasting, anorexia nervosa, cachexia, bulimia, lactation and exercise-induced amenorrhea, as well as states of energy overabundance, such as obesity, are both associated ..
  15. Neonatal Programming of Growth and Maturation in Rhesus Monkeys
    Andrew Muir; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in rodents show that maternal ingestion of a high fat, high sugar, high calorie diet (HCD) during pregnancy and lactation programs behaviors and metabolism that promote obesity in the offspring...
  16. Regulation of Organized Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues by TRANCE/RANKL
    Ifor R Williams; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the differentiation of medullary thymic epithelial cells, the differentiation of osteoclasts, and mammary gland lactation, is also present on stromal cells in ILF and PP...
  17. Omega-3 fat to reduce risk for breast cancer
    WANDA ELAINE HARDMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..with a lower incidence of breast cancer whereas exposure to high omega 6 fatty acids during gestation and lactation has been shown to increase the future incidence of mammary cancer in mice...
  18. Pregnancy and EARly Lifestyle improvement Study (PEARLS)
    Kaumudi J Joshipura; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sessions (10 participants per group), followed by booster sessions and phone calls, and will continue during lactation through the first postpartum year...
  19. IGF-II regulation of FABPs in the breast cancer survival disparity among AA women
    TELEKA CASSANDRA CALDERON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..A classic example is the protective effect that lactation has in preventing breast cancer in women...
  20. QTL and QTL Genes Underlying Lactation Performance
    Darryl L Hadsell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Today, most women who choose to breast feed have difficulty maintaining a productive lactation for that long. The most common reason cited for early cessation of breastfeeding is insufficient milk volume...
  21. Role of LHX3 Protein Isoforms in Pituitary Development
    SIMON JAMES RHODES; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..development and physiology, including growth, reproduction, the stress response, metabolic homeostasis, and lactation. Diseases involving pituitary dysfunction therefore can involve severe syndromes affecting many tissues and ..
  22. Maternal nutrient restriction: Effects on offspring immune function
    Mark J Nijland; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of this valuable NHP cohort will provide a unique opportunity to dissect the effects of MNR during pregnancy and lactation on immune system development in a well-controlled primate model...
  23. Metabolic Consequences of bariatric surgery on pregnant and lactating rats and th
    Bernadette E Grayson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The goal of the proposed research is to determine the impact on reproductive cyclicity, pregnancy and lactation in female rats of two models of bariatric surgery: vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a restrictive procedure, ..
  24. Impact of maternal hyperleptinemia on health: CNS mechanisms
    Rebecca Leshan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..from hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons, and that the critical period during which this occurs will be lactation;second, that stable changes to histones and DNA will be induced in offspring of obese mothers that are more ..
  25. Regulation of Cellular Zn Redistribution: A Role of ZnT2
    Shannon L Kelleher; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Impaired Zn secretion from the mammary gland during lactation results in severe neonatal Zn deficiency...
  26. Functional role of the Spot 14 gene in dietary regulation of milk fat synthesis
    KEVIN JOHN HARVATINE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed work will test the effect of dietary factors on mammary lipid metabolism during established lactation. Specifically, we will investigate the role of S14 in milk fat response to dietary fat concentration and FA ..
  27. Effect of Prenatal Nicotinic Exposure on Control of Hypoxic Ventilatory Response
    Fadi Xu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a more realistic "full-term" PNE (fPNE) that consists of the period before pregnancy and during pregnancy and lactation to maximize adverse impacts of PNE on cardiorespiratory functions...
  28. Regulated Retrotransposon Elements in Neuroendocrine System
    Janusz Puc; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..in all vertebrates, and is essential in the maintenance of homeostasis, metabolism, reproduction, growth, and lactation. Under the integrated control of central nervous system signals from the hypothalamus and feedback signals from ..
  29. FUNCTION OF THE CALCIUM SENSING RECEPTOR IN THE BREAST
    John J Wysolmerski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the CaR is low in rapidly proliferating MECs during pregnancy, but is greatly upregulated at the start of lactation. This allows the mammary gland to become a calcium-sensing organ that actively participates in the regulation of ..
  30. Molecular Biology of Marfan Syndrome
    Harry C Dietz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The temporal association between release of oxytocin to mediate delivery and lactation (via activation of ERK) and the timing of predisposition has implicated oxytocin as a potential mediator of ..
  31. Maternal Diet and Susceptibility to Neonatal Brain Injury
    John D Barks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..neuropathology outcomes in offspring of dams who are fed low (17%) or high (34%) fat diets during pregnancy and lactation. To determine if reversion of maternal high fat to low fat diet on P7 influences these outcomes;(ii) To ..
  32. Mothers and Others: Family-based Obesity Prevention for Infants and Toddlers
    Margaret E Bentley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..delivery for the intervention arm will include face-to-face counseling through 9 home visits (1 by a certified Lactation Consultant), 6 tailored health newsletters for mothers and 6 targeted health newsletters for "other" caregivers ..
  33. NSAIDs During Postpartum Involution for Breast Cancer Chemoprevention
    Pepper J Schedin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In animal models, we demonstrate that wound healing-like programs required to remodel the lactation-competent gland to its pre-pregnant state are tumor promotional...
  34. Lactation and Glucose Tolerance After GDM Pregnancy
    ERICA PAULINE GUNDERSON; Fiscal Year: 2011
    b>Lactation has immediate favorable effects on glucose tolerance that may persist after weaning to prevent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in women...
  35. FUNCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAMMARY GLAND
    Steven M Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lactation is critical to survival of all mammals because it supports the growth of the newborn...
  36. Perinatal choline therapy in a mouse model of Down Syndrome &Alzheimer's Disease
    Barbara J Strupp; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..study to test the hypothesis that supplementation of the maternal diet with excess choline during pregnancy and lactation would lessen the attentional dysfunction seen in Ts65Dn mice...
  37. C60, MWCNTs and the Influence on Cardiovascular, Reproductive, and Developmental
    Timothy R Fennell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Pregnancy and lactation may be susceptible conditions with respect to the effects of nanoparticles on the mothers and their offspring, ..
  38. Design & Synthesis of Novel CNS-Active Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Ligands
    Edward Roberts; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Oxytocin peptide is responsible for labor and lactation control in the uterus and mammary glands respectively...
  39. Molecular Mechanisms of Gonadotrope Differentiation
    Pamela L Mellon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The anterior pituitary synthesizes hormones that control reproduction, homeostasis, growth, stress response, and lactation. Since each of these physiological responses must be regulated independently, individual pituitary endocrine ..
  40. Lactation Effects on Postnatal Endothelial Function and Vascular Inflammation
    Karen M Grewen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with mothers who practice exclusive or prolonged lactation. Mechanisms underlying this association remain to be determined...
  41. Effect of lactation on ectopic lipid after gestational diabetes
    MARIA ANGELICA RAMOS-ROMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Lactation may be one such strategy - although, the metabolic inter-relationships between the hormonal milieu of lactation (..
  42. Epigenetic Consequences of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
    Eva E Redei; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will administer dietary supplement regimes, known to affect epigenetic mechanisms, to animals during lactation, or post- weaning, and subsequently screen for improvement in spatial learning and memory as well as gene ..
  43. Epigenetic Programming of Metabolic Flexibility
    Lyda Williams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using a unique mouse model of high fat feeding during pregnancy and lactation we demonstrated that maternal "metabolic flexibility" is passed on to their offspring and that mothers with ..
  44. Copper Transport in Lactation
    Maria Linder; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have obtained evidence that lactation profoundly alters the tissue distribution of newly absorbed Cu, diverting most of it from the liver and kidney ..
  45. IRS-1 and -2 signaling in mammary development and cancer
    Adrian V Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using IRS-null mice we found that IRSs are required for embryonic mammary bud formation and for maximal lactation. Using human immortalized MCF-10A cells we showed that overexpression of IRSs disrupted formation of acini by ..
  46. Neonatal Growth and the Neurodevelopmental Origins of Hypertension
    Robert D Roghair; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In rat models, maternal undernutrition during lactation induces neonatal growth restriction, neonatal leptin deficiency, altered hypothalamic development, and obesity- ..
  47. Epigenetic mechanisms in obesity
    Robert A Waterland; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The overall hypothesis of the proposed research is that maternal obesity during pregnancy and/or lactation affects the establishment of gene-specific DNA methylation patterns in the developing hypothalamus, causing ..
  48. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer Subtypes in African American Women: a Consortium
    Julie R Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in recent GWAS findings, using fine-mapping to identify potential causal alleles;2) pregnancy history and lactation, and potential modification by genetic variants in related pathways;3) body size, early life and adult physical ..
  49. Mood, mother and infant: The psychobiology of impaired dyadic development
    Alison M Stuebe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed study will use lactation as a novel physiologic challenge to determine the extent to which low oxytocin mediates associations between PPD ..
  50. Role of breast milk in development of neonatal oral tolerance to foods
    KIRSI JARVINEN-SEPPO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Human studies to investigate the effect of strict food allergen avoidance, such as peanut, during pregnancy and lactation on the infant's risk towards development of food allergy are difficult to perform and potentially unethical...
  51. PEDIGREE: Prenatal Environmental Determinants of InterGenerational Risk
    Mary Beth Terry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to organchlorines during two critical windows of exposure for the breast: 1) pregnancy when preparation for lactation places the breast at risk for carcinogenesis in the mother and 2) the prenatal period when breast ..
  52. Molecular Mechanism of Allosteric Modulation of the Oxytocin Receptor by Sterols
    VADIM GENNADYEVICH CHEREZOV; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..two critical reproductive functions in mammals: uterine contraction during labor and milk ejection during lactation. Recently, a significant interest has emerged concerning the involvement of the OXTR in social and emotional ..
  53. MODEL FOR SENSITIVE PERIODS IN EARLY FLAVOR LEARNING
    JULIA ANNE MENNELLA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..experiments have shown that, as with other mammals, what a nursing mother eats during the first months of lactation can influence her child's food preferences...
  54. Chromium VI-induced toxicity on Female Reproductive Function
    SAKHILA BANU; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our recent findings in rats demonstrate that lactation exposure to CrVI induces follicular atresia and apoptosis of granulose cells, decreases steroid genesis, delays ..
  55. Function of Mammalian Single-minded Genes SIM1 and SIM2
    Chen Ming Fan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..provided by applicant): Neuroendocrine hormones regulate diverse physiological processes, including urination, lactation, and food intake...
  56. MATERNAL LOW PROTEIN DIET IMPRINTS LIPID METABOLISM IN THE ADULT OFFSPRING
    ANIL P D apos MELLO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Exposure to low protein diets (LPD) during gestation and lactation (perinatal) imprints alterations in lipid homeostasis...
  57. Secretory Pathway Calcium and Manganese Pumps
    Rajini Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a calcium handling module of pumps, channels, buffers and sensors, including SPCA2, is coordinately induced upon lactation. A unique, 3-dimensional model of lactating mammary epithelial cells will be used to determine if SPCA2 ..
  58. Functions of Stem Cells in Pituitary Plasticity
    Xiaoyan Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..including growth during childhood, the stress response, sexuality, reproduction, metabolic homeostasis, and lactation. It dynamically changes its relative cell number and hormone secretion activity to meet the endocrine needs in ..
  59. Prolactin as a lacrimal gland immunomodulator
    Joel Schechter; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..PRL on local PRL in a setting of low systemic E2, mimicking the post-menopause, a non-suckling puerperium, and lactation, and in a setting of elevated systemic E2 mimicking that of a woman using oral contraceptives...
  60. Reproductive Plasticity in Oxytocin Neurons
    William E Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Oxytocin (OT) functions as a hormone in labor and lactation and as a neuromodulator in the brain. OT receptors are present on OT neurons, which they autoregulate during somatodendritic OT release...
  61. Molecular Basis of Childhood Asthma Following Perinatal Vitamin D Deficiency
    Virender K Rehan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..proximal airway smooth muscle differentiation;and examine 3) if vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation will prevent morphological, structural, and functional pulmonary changes associated with vitamin D deficiency, ..
  62. Molecular Mechanisms of RANKL Activation in Osteoblasts
    J Wesley Pike; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..following physiological perturbations associated with age, altered mineral homeostasis, and physiologic state (lactation) in vitro and in vivo...
  63. DIOXINS AND HYPOTHALAMIC APPETITE NEUROPEPTIDES
    GEORGE GREELEY; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..We will initially measure the effects of TCDD given either during gestation or during both gestation and lactation on hypothalamic expression of two stimulatory neuropeptides: neuropeptide Y (NPY) and melanin-concentrating ..
  64. NOVEL EVALUATION OF LACTATION PERFORMANCE
    Cutberto Garza; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The evaluation of lactation performance is based on 3 types of criteria, infant outcome and the quality and quantity of milk produced...
  65. Spike After-Potentials of Oxytocin Cells in Lactation
    Ryoichi Teruyama; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..is one of the best models to study such adaptation, because the importance of OT during parturition and lactation are well documented...
  66. Breast milk: Physiology, Biochemistry and Outcomes
    Ardythe Morrow; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..NIH sponsorship of the September 2006 conference of the International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation. The conference theme is Breast Milk: Physiology, Biochemistry and Outcomes and will be held in Niagara-on-the-..
  67. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF OXYTOCIN DEFICIENCY
    CHRISTINA LUEDKE; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..It is the principal initiator of lactation and plays an important role as a stimulant for labor in the clinical setting...
  68. VITAMIN A TRANSPORT DURING LACTATION
    A Ross; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..research is to obtain basic information on the mechanisms of delivery of vitamin A to the mammary gland during lactation, and on cellular retinoid binding proteins that may facilitate intracellular transport and metabolism of retinol ..
  69. Vitamins, Breast Milk HIV Shedding and Child Health
    Eduardo Villamor; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..provided by applicant): We have shown that supplementation with vitamins B, C, and E during pregnancy and lactation to HIV-infected women is related to lower rates of breastfeeding transmission among women in advanced stage of ..
  70. EFFECT OF LACTATION ON BONE
    MaryFran Sowers; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..be critical for anticipating fracture risk later in life and for anticipating future impact in reproduction and lactation. The goal of the research is to determine whether there is significant loss, or gain of bone mass over a 6-month ..
  71. BRAIN MONOAMINES AND LUTEINIZING HORMONE SECRETION
    William Crowley; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Studies conducted during the current funding period have demonstrated that one role of NPY in lactation is to amplify the inhibitory action of DA over PRL secretion, through a specific reduction in the entry of ..
  72. Immunologic Effects of Lactation on HIV infected women
    Grace Aldrovandi; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Thus, a significant portion of a woman's life is spent lactating. Of note, lactation results in low levels of estrogen...
  73. Role of Protein (S14)in Normal and Neoplastic Mammary
    WILLIAM KINLAW; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Abundant expression of enzymes of fatty acid synthesis occurs for each cycle of lactation and in a subset of aggressive breast cancers...