bystander effect

Summary

Summary: The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The bystander effect
    Eric J Hall
    Columbia University, Center for Radiological Research, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Health Phys 85:31-5. 2003
  2. pmc Radiation induced non-targeted response: mechanism and potential clinical implications
    Tom K Hei
    Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, Vanderbilt Clinic, New York, USA
    Curr Mol Pharmacol 4:96-105. 2011
  3. pmc A senescent cell bystander effect: senescence-induced senescence
    Glyn Nelson
    Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Aging Cell 11:345-9. 2012
  4. ncbi Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects: inter-related nontargeted effects of exposure to ionizing radiation
    Sally A Lorimore
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Pathology, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK
    Oncogene 22:7058-69. 2003
  5. ncbi Persistence of DNA double-strand breaks in normal human cells induced by radiation-induced bystander effect
    Mitsuaki Ojima
    Department of Environmental Health Science, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 2944 9 Megusuno, Oita 840 1201, Japan
    Radiat Res 175:90-6. 2011
  6. ncbi Bystander cell killing in normal human fibroblasts is induced by synchrotron X-ray microbeams
    Masanori Tomita
    Radiation Safety Research Center, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan
    Radiat Res 173:380-5. 2010
  7. ncbi Non-targeted bystander effects induced by ionizing radiation
    William F Morgan
    Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, and Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, BRB 7 011, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 1509, USA
    Mutat Res 616:159-64. 2007
  8. ncbi Radiation-induced bystander effects--implications for cancer
    Carmel Mothersill
    Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Science Unit, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Rev Cancer 4:158-64. 2004
  9. ncbi Role of gap junctional intercellular communication in radiation-induced bystander effects in human fibroblasts
    Chunlin Shao
    Heavy Ion Radiobiology Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4 9 1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263 8555, Japan
    Radiat Res 160:318-23. 2003
  10. ncbi Evidence for 'bystander effects' in vivo
    Antone L Brooks
    Department of Environmental Science and Regional Planning, Washington State University Tri Cities, Richland, WA 99352 1617, USA
    Hum Exp Toxicol 23:67-70. 2004

Detail Information

Publications323 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The bystander effect
    Eric J Hall
    Columbia University, Center for Radiological Research, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Health Phys 85:31-5. 2003
    The bystander effect refers to the induction of biological effects in cells that are not directly traversed by a charged particle...
  2. pmc Radiation induced non-targeted response: mechanism and potential clinical implications
    Tom K Hei
    Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, Vanderbilt Clinic, New York, USA
    Curr Mol Pharmacol 4:96-105. 2011
    ..A better understanding of the mechanism of the non-targeted effects will be invaluable to assess its clinical relevance and ways in which the bystander phenomenon can be manipulated to increase therapeutic gain in radiotherapy...
  3. pmc A senescent cell bystander effect: senescence-induced senescence
    Glyn Nelson
    Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Aging Cell 11:345-9. 2012
    ..Hepatocytes bearing senescence markers clustered together in mice livers. Thus, senescent cells can induce a bystander effect, spreading senescence towards their neighbours in vitro and, possibly, in vivo.
  4. ncbi Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects: inter-related nontargeted effects of exposure to ionizing radiation
    Sally A Lorimore
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Pathology, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK
    Oncogene 22:7058-69. 2003
    ....
  5. ncbi Persistence of DNA double-strand breaks in normal human cells induced by radiation-induced bystander effect
    Mitsuaki Ojima
    Department of Environmental Health Science, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 2944 9 Megusuno, Oita 840 1201, Japan
    Radiat Res 175:90-6. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that DSBs induced by the radiation-induced bystander effect persist for long periods, whereas DSBs induced by direct radiation effects are repaired relatively quickly.
  6. ncbi Bystander cell killing in normal human fibroblasts is induced by synchrotron X-ray microbeams
    Masanori Tomita
    Radiation Safety Research Center, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan
    Radiat Res 173:380-5. 2010
    ..These results suggest that NO is the chief initiator/mediator of bystander cell killing induced by X-ray microbeams...
  7. ncbi Non-targeted bystander effects induced by ionizing radiation
    William F Morgan
    Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, and Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, BRB 7 011, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 1509, USA
    Mutat Res 616:159-64. 2007
    ....
  8. ncbi Radiation-induced bystander effects--implications for cancer
    Carmel Mothersill
    Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Science Unit, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Rev Cancer 4:158-64. 2004
  9. ncbi Role of gap junctional intercellular communication in radiation-induced bystander effects in human fibroblasts
    Chunlin Shao
    Heavy Ion Radiobiology Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4 9 1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263 8555, Japan
    Radiat Res 160:318-23. 2003
    ..Our results indicated that both GJIC and ROS contributed to the radiation-induced bystander effect, but gap junctional channels might play an essential role by modulating the release of radiation-induced ..
  10. ncbi Evidence for 'bystander effects' in vivo
    Antone L Brooks
    Department of Environmental Science and Regional Planning, Washington State University Tri Cities, Richland, WA 99352 1617, USA
    Hum Exp Toxicol 23:67-70. 2004
    ..Bystander effects suggest that organs respond as a unit and are not just a bag of individual cells acting independently. Dose and risk must consider this unit...
  11. ncbi Low-dose binary behavior of bystander cell killing after microbeam irradiation of a single cell with focused c(k) x rays
    Giuseppe Schettino
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Radiat Res 163:332-6. 2005
    ..The bystander effect may play a critical role in determining the biological effectiveness of low-dose exposures, but questions on ..
  12. ncbi Extracellular signaling through the microenvironment: a hypothesis relating carcinogenesis, bystander effects, and genomic instability
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Radiat Res 156:618-27. 2001
    ..Understanding radiation effects in terms of coordinated multicellular responses that affect decisions regarding the fate of a cell may necessitate re-evaluation of radiation dose and risk concepts and provide avenues for intervention...
  13. ncbi Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability
    William F Morgan
    Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Department of Radiation Oncology and Program in Oncology, University of Maryland at Baltimore, BRB 6 011, 655 W Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 1559, USA
    Mutat Res 504:91-100. 2002
    ..These reactive intermediates then contribute to a chronic pro-oxidant environment that cycles over multiple generations, promoting chromosomal recombination and other phenotypes associated with genomic instability...
  14. pmc DNA damage responses following exposure to modulated radiation fields
    Colman Trainor
    Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland
    PLoS ONE 7:e43326. 2012
    ....
  15. ncbi Triggering-response model for radiation-induced bystander effects
    Hatim Fakir
    University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
    Radiat Res 171:320-31. 2009
    ..We suggest that for many such experiments, a moderate increase in medium volume should have about the same effect as a moderate decrease in the fraction of irradiated cells...
  16. pmc Mechanism of radiation-induced bystander effect: role of the cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway
    Hongning Zhou
    Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:14641-6. 2005
    The radiation-induced bystander effect is defined as "the induction of biological effects in cells that are not directly traversed by a charged particle but are in close proximity to cells that are...
  17. pmc Radiation-induced bystander signalling in cancer therapy
    Kevin M Prise
    Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, UK
    Nat Rev Cancer 9:351-60. 2009
    ..has become clear is that, as well as responses to direct DNA damage, cell-cell signalling -- known as the bystander effect -- mediated through gap junctions and inflammatory responses may have an important role in the response of ..
  18. ncbi Is there a common mechanism underlying genomic instability, bystander effects and other nontargeted effects of exposure to ionizing radiation?
    William F Morgan
    Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory and Greenebaum Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, 655 W Baltimore St, BRB 7 011, Baltimore, MD 21201 5525, USA
    Oncogene 22:7094-9. 2003
    ..While it is difficult to imagine a role for such a secreted factor in contributing to transgenerational effects, the other nontargeted effects of radiation may all share a common mechanism...
  19. ncbi Investigation of the mechanisms underpinning IL-6 cytokine release in bystander responses: the roles of radiation dose, radiation quality and specific ROS/RNS scavengers
    Luca G Mariotti
    Department of Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, Italy
    Int J Radiat Biol 88:751-62. 2012
    ....
  20. ncbi Bystander-type effects mediated by long-lived inflammatory signaling in irradiated bone marrow
    Shubhra Rastogi
    Centre for Oncology and Molecular Medicine, University of Dundee Medical School, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Radiat Res 177:244-50. 2012
    ..The findings also demonstrate the importance of studying tissue responses when considering the mechanisms underlying the consequences of radiation exposures...
  21. pmc Oncogenic bystander radiation effects in Patched heterozygous mouse cerebellum
    Mariateresa Mancuso
    Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences and Italian National Metrological Institute, Biotechnologies, Agro industry and Health Protection, Ente per le Nuove Technologie, l Energia e l Ambiente Centro Ricerche Casaccia, 00123 Rome, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:12445-50. 2008
    ....
  22. ncbi Oxidative metabolism, gap junctions and the ionizing radiation-induced bystander effect
    Edouard I Azzam
    Department of Radiology, UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103
    Oncogene 22:7050-7. 2003
    ..metabolism and gap-junction intercellular communication have been proposed to regulate the radiation-induced bystander effect. Our current knowledge of the biochemical and molecular events involved in the latter two processes is ..
  23. ncbi Ionizing radiation induces DNA double-strand breaks in bystander primary human fibroblasts
    Mykyta V Sokolov
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Center, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Oncogene 24:7257-65. 2005
    ..The mechanisms underlying the bystander effect are obscure, but genomic instability suggests DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) may be involved...
  24. ncbi Up-regulation of ROS by mitochondria-dependent bystander signaling contributes to genotoxicity of bystander effects
    Shaopeng Chen
    Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, People s Republic of China
    Mutat Res 666:68-73. 2009
    ..rho(0)) human-hamster hybrid cells to investigate mitochondrial effects on the genotoxicity in bystander effect through medium transfer experiments...
  25. ncbi Chemical induction of the bystander effect in normal human lymphoblastoid cells
    Rajalakshmi S Asur
    Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 3917, USA
    Mutat Res 676:11-6. 2009
    Many studies investigating the bystander effect have used ionizing radiation to evaluate this phenomenon, whereas very few have determined whether genotoxic chemicals are also capable of inducing this effect...
  26. ncbi Radiation-induced bystander effects: what are they, and how relevant are they to human radiation exposures?
    Benjamin J Blyth
    Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042, Australia
    Radiat Res 176:139-57. 2011
    The term radiation-induced bystander effect is used to describe radiation-induced biological changes that manifest in unirradiated cells remaining within an irradiated cell population...
  27. pmc Circulating human antibody-secreting cells during vaccinations and respiratory viral infections are characterized by high specificity and lack of bystander effect
    F Eun Hyung Lee
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 186:5514-21. 2011
    ..Additionally, high specificity of circulating ASCs after antigenic challenge highlights the diagnostic value of interrogating ASCs as an ideal single-time-point diagnostic immune surrogate for serology during acute infection...
  28. ncbi A novel AML-selective TRAIL fusion protein that is superior to Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in terms of in vitro selectivity, activity and stability
    B ten Cate
    Laboratory for Tumor Immunology, Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Leukemia 23:1389-97. 2009
    ..Taken together, scFvCD33:sTRAIL is superior to GO in terms of tumor selectivity, activity and stability, warranting its further development for the treatment of CD33-positive leukemias...
  29. ncbi ATR-dependent radiation-induced gamma H2AX foci in bystander primary human astrocytes and glioma cells
    S Burdak-Rothkamm
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, UK
    Oncogene 26:993-1002. 2007
    ..Furthermore, ATR-dependent bystander foci induction was restricted to S-phase cells. These observations may provide additional therapeutic targets for the exploitation of the bystander effect.
  30. ncbi Mechanism of radiation-induced bystander effects: a unifying model
    Tom K Hei
    Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Pharm Pharmacol 60:943-50. 2008
    The radiation-induced bystander effect represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the radiobiological effects of ionizing radiation, in that extranuclear and extracellular events may also contribute to the final biological ..
  31. pmc Radiation-induced bystander signaling pathways in human fibroblasts: a role for interleukin-33 in the signal transmission
    Vladimir N Ivanov
    Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Cell Signal 22:1076-87. 2010
    ....
  32. ncbi Role of epigenetic effectors in maintenance of the long-term persistent bystander effect in spleen in vivo
    Igor Koturbash
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4, Canada
    Carcinogenesis 28:1831-8. 2007
    ..These cancers are thought to be linked to indirect radiation-induced bystander effect. Bystander effect occurs when irradiated cells communicate damage to nearby, non-irradiated 'bystander' cells,..
  33. ncbi Signaling pathways underpinning the manifestations of ionizing radiation-induced bystander effects
    Nobuyuki Hamada
    Radiation Safety Research Center, Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Iwado kita, Komae, Tokyo, Japan
    Curr Mol Pharmacol 4:79-95. 2011
    ..Such non-targeted responses are interrelated, and the bystander effect is further related with an adaptive response that manifests itself as the attenuated stressful biological ..
  34. pmc ATM acts downstream of ATR in the DNA damage response signaling of bystander cells
    Susanne Burdak-Rothkamm
    Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom
    Cancer Res 68:7059-65. 2008
    ..In conclusion, these results provide a rationale for the differential modulation of targeted and nontargeted effects of radiation...
  35. ncbi Biophysical models of radiation bystander effects: 1. Spatial effects in three-dimensional tissues
    Igor Shuryak
    Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Radiat Res 168:741-9. 2007
    ..These assumptions are implemented by a mathematical formalism and computational algorithms. The model adequately describes data on bystander responses in the 3D system using a small number of adjustable parameters...
  36. ncbi Bystander effect-mediated gene therapy of gliomas using genetically engineered neural stem cells
    Shaoyi Li
    Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Handayama, Japan
    Cancer Gene Ther 12:600-7. 2005
    ..We first evaluated the "bystander effect" between NSCs transduced with the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene (NSCtk) and C6 rat ..
  37. ncbi A dose threshold for a medium transfer bystander effect for a human skin cell line
    Zhengfeng Liu
    Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1
    Radiat Res 166:19-23. 2006
    ..data for neutrons where the gamma-ray dose was kept below the bystander threshold do not show a significant bystander effect in the dose range 1-33 mGy...
  38. ncbi Medium-mediated intercellular communication is involved in bystander responses of X-ray-irradiated normal human fibroblasts
    Hongying Yang
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Cox 302, Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Oncogene 24:2096-103. 2005
    ..The data suggest that irradiated cells release toxic factors other than ROS into the medium...
  39. ncbi Radiation-induced bystander effects in vivo are epigenetically regulated in a tissue-specific manner
    Yaroslav Ilnytskyy
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
    Environ Mol Mutagen 50:105-13. 2009
    ..Studies on in vivo bystander effect conducted so far analyzed changes induced by single-dose exposure...
  40. ncbi Stress signaling from irradiated to non-irradiated cells
    E I Azzam
    Department of Radiology, New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Curr Cancer Drug Targets 4:53-64. 2004
    ..intercellular communication and oxidative metabolism have been proposed to regulate the radiation-induced bystander effect. In this review, our current knowledge of this phenomenon and its potential impact both on the estimation of ..
  41. ncbi Microbeam irradiation facilities for radiobiology in Japan and China
    Yasuhiko Kobayashi
    Department of Quantum Biology, Division of Bioregulatory Medicine, Gumma Univ Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gumma 371 8511, Japan
    J Radiat Res 50:A29-47. 2009
    ....
  42. ncbi Epigenetic changes and nontargeted radiation effects--is there a link?
    Olga Kovalchuk
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
    Environ Mol Mutagen 49:16-25. 2008
    ..IR can affect neighboring cells in the proximity, giving rise to a bystander effect. IR effects can also span several generations and influence the progeny of exposed parents, leading to ..
  43. ncbi Triphasic low-dose response in zebrafish embryos irradiated by microbeam protons
    Viann Wing Yan Choi
    Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong
    J Radiat Res 53:475-81. 2012
    ..At the same time, the experimental data were in line with induction of radiation-induced bystander effect as well as rescue effect in the zebrafish embryos, particular in those embryos with unirradiated cells.
  44. ncbi HPRT mutants induced in bystander cells by very low fluences of alpha particles result primarily from point mutations
    L Huo
    Department of Cancer Cell Biology, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Radiat Res 156:521-5. 2001
    ..5 cGy involved point mutations, confirming our hypothesis that they are induced by a different mechanism...
  45. ncbi An extracellular DNA mediated bystander effect produced from low dose irradiated endothelial cells
    Aleksei V Ermakov
    Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    Mutat Res 712:1-10. 2011
    ..cells was then supplemented with ecDNA(R), followed by analysing the cells along the series of parameters (bystander effect)...
  46. ncbi The radiation-induced bystander effect for clonogenic survival
    S G Sawant
    Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Radiat Res 157:361-4. 2002
    ..allows a known fraction of cells to be traversed by a defined number of alpha particles, have demonstrated a bystander effect for clonogenic survival and oncogenic transformation in C3H 10T(1/2) cells...
  47. ncbi Manifestations and mechanisms of non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation
    Eric G Wright
    University of Dundee, Centre for Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Sciences, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, UK
    Mutat Res 687:28-33. 2010
    ....
  48. pmc Junín virus infection of human hematopoietic progenitors impairs in vitro proplatelet formation and platelet release via a bystander effect involving type I IFN signaling
    Roberto G Pozner
    Department of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Hematological Research Institute Mariano R Castex, National Academy of Medicine, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000847. 2010
    ..by decreasing in vitro proplatelet formation, platelet release, and P-selectin externalization via a bystander effect. The decrease in platelet release was also TfR1-dependent, mimicked by poly(I:C), and type I interferon (IFN ..
  49. ncbi Oxidative stress as a significant factor for development of an adaptive response in irradiated and nonirradiated human lymphocytes after inducing the bystander effect by low-dose X-radiation
    Aleksei V Ermakov
    Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow, Russia
    Mutat Res 669:155-61. 2009
    ..effects are transmitted by means of extracellular DNA (ecDNA) fragments to nonirradiated cells (the so-called bystander effect, BE)...
  50. ncbi Effects of low and high LET radiations on bystander human lung fibroblast cell survival
    Rajamanickam Baskar
    Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, USA
    Int J Radiat Biol 83:551-9. 2007
    ..to determine the role of low LET (linear energy transfer, gamma-rays) and high LET (alpha-particles) radiations on bystander effect of using the same type of cells and its implications on colony-forming efficiency from a single cell.
  51. ncbi Multiple bystander effect of irradiated megacolonies of melanoma cells on non-irradiated neighbours
    Waldemar M Przybyszewski
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Institute of Oncology, 44 101 Gliwice, Poland
    Cancer Lett 214:91-102. 2004
    ..The bystander effect of radiation-traversed cells on non-traversed cells was studied during postradiation co-cultivation...
  52. ncbi Low-dose studies of bystander cell killing with targeted soft X rays
    G Schettino
    Gray Cancer Institute, PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2JR, United Kingdom
    Radiat Res 160:505-11. 2003
    ..However, critical analysis of the distance of the damaged, unirradiated cells from other damaged cells revealed the presence of clusters of damaged cells produced under bystander conditions...
  53. ncbi Radiation-induced bystander effect in healthy G(o) human lymphocytes: biological and clinical significance
    Paola Belloni
    Department of Agrobiology and Agrochemistry, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo De Lellis, I 01100 Viterbo, Italy
    Mutat Res 713:32-8. 2011
    ..However, when lymphocytes were irradiated with 0.1 Gy, no bystander effect with regard to viability, apoptosis, telomere length, and micronuclei was observed, although a high ..
  54. ncbi Inflammatory-type responses after exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo: a mechanism for radiation-induced bystander effects?
    S A Lorimore
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Pathology, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, UK
    Oncogene 20:7085-95. 2001
    ....
  55. ncbi Connexin-26 is a key factor mediating gemcitabine bystander effect
    Laura Garcia-Rodríguez
    Programa Gens i Malaltia, Centre de Regulació Genòmica Dr Aiguader, 88 08003 Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Cancer Ther 10:505-17. 2011
    ..killing whereas overexpression of Cx26 triggered increased GJIC and enhanced the gemcitabine cytotoxic bystander effect. Gemcitabine treatment of mice bearing tumors, with a high GJIC capacity, resulted in a significant delay in ..
  56. ncbi Heavy charged particles produce a bystander effect via cell-cell junctions
    Masao Suzuki
    International Space Radiation Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Inage Ku, Chiba shi, Japan
    Biol Sci Space 18:241-6. 2004
    ..The recent work described here utilized heavy charged particles for irradiation, and investigated the role of gap-junction mediated cell-cell communication in this phenomenon...
  57. ncbi Medium-mediated bystander effects on HSG cells co-cultivated with cells irradiated by X-rays or a 290 MeV/u carbon beam
    C Shao
    Heavy Ion Radiobiology Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4 9 1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263 8555, Japan
    J Radiat Res 42:305-16. 2001
    ..These results indicated that NO was involved in the above mentioned medium-mediated bystander effects. In addition, an equation was deduced to well fit the induction of MN of the unirradiated recipient cells...
  58. ncbi A microbeam study of DNA double-strand breaks in bystander primary human fibroblasts
    L B Smilenov
    Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry 122:256-9. 2006
    Radiation-induced bystander effect has been well documented. However, the mechanisms are poorly understood. How we incorporate this effect into the classical models of risk assessment remains an open question...
  59. ncbi Bystander signal production and response are independent processes which are cell line dependent
    Alice M Vines
    Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland
    Int J Radiat Biol 84:83-90. 2008
    ..now an established phenomenon seen in numerous models; however it is not known whether the magnitude of the bystander effect is determined by the signal produced by the irradiated cells or the response of the exposed cells...
  60. ncbi Constitutive nitric oxide acting as a possible intercellular signaling molecule in the initiation of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated bystander cells
    W Han
    Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, People s Republic of China
    Oncogene 26:2330-9. 2007
    ....
  61. ncbi Different involvement of radical species in irradiated and bystander cells
    Tadayuki Harada
    Division of Radiation Biology, Department of Radiology and Radiation Biology, Course of Life Sciences and Radiation Research, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan
    Int J Radiat Biol 84:809-14. 2008
    ..To examine whether nitric oxide (NO) and other radical species are involved in radiation-induced bystander effects in normal human fibroblasts...
  62. ncbi Influence of the bystander effect on HSV-tk/GCV gene therapy. A review
    Ingrid J van Dillen
    Department of Medical Oncology, Groningen University Hospital, PO Box 30 001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
    Curr Gene Ther 2:307-22. 2002
    ..This cell kill is called the "bystander effect". Various attempts have been made to increase this effect...
  63. ncbi Human CD4+ memory T cells are preferential targets for bystander activation and apoptosis
    Sarah C Bangs
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 182:1962-71. 2009
    ..This may provide an explanation for the attrition of T cell memory pools of heterologous specificity during immune responses to pathogens such as viruses...
  64. ncbi Genotoxic damage in non-irradiated cells: contribution from the bystander effect
    H Zhou
    Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry 99:227-32. 2002
    ..Our studies provide clear evidence that genotoxic damage can be induced in non-irradiated cells, and that gap junction mediated cell-cell communication plays a critical role in the bystander phenomenon...
  65. ncbi HIV gp41-induced apoptosis is mediated by caspase-3-dependent mitochondrial depolarization, which is inhibited by HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir
    Himanshu Garg
    NCI Frederick, P O Box B, Building 469, Room 152, Miller Drive, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 79:351-62. 2006
    ..We also show that virion-induced apoptosis is gp41-dependent. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanism via which HIV gp41 mediates apoptosis in bystander cells...
  66. ncbi Connexin over-expression differentially suppresses glioma growth and contributes to the bystander effect following HSV-thymidine kinase gene therapy
    Tomas Jimenez
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    Cell Commun Adhes 13:79-92. 2006
    ..Cx32, or Cx43 would display differential growth suppression of C6 glioma cells and uniquely modulate the bystander effect following transduction of C6 cells with HSVtk followed by suicide gene therapy...
  67. ncbi Antitumor activity and bystander effect of adenovirally delivered tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3
    Matti Ahonen
    Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Abo Akademi University, Turku, Finland
    Mol Ther 5:705-15. 2002
    ..type of secreted tumor suppressor, which has antiinvasive, antiangiogenic, and proapoptotic effects in vivo, and which displays a potent bystander effect validating further exploration of its applicability in human cancer gene therapy.
  68. ncbi Domestic radon risks may be dominated by bystander effects--but the risks are unlikely to be greater than we thought
    D J Brenner
    Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Health Phys 85:103-8. 2003
    ..Thus current domestic radon risk estimates are unlikely to be underestimates as a result of bystander effects...
  69. ncbi A bystander effect observed in boron neutron capture therapy: a study of the induction of mutations in the HPRT locus
    Yuko Kinashi
    Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka, Japan
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 68:508-14. 2007
    ..The BSH-containing cells were irradiated with alpha-particles produced by the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction, whereas cells without boron were affected only by the 1H(n,gamma)2H and 14N(n,rho)14C reactions...
  70. ncbi The role of promotion in carcinogenesis from protracted high-LET exposure
    S B Curtis
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Phys Med 17:157-60. 2001
    ..It is suggested that the effect might be caused by a 'Bystander Effect' by which normal cells in the vicinity of initiated cells are hit by alpha particles and send out signals ..
  71. ncbi E-cadherin contributes to the bystander effect of TK/GCV suicide therapy and enhances its antitumoral activity in pancreatic cancer models
    L García-Rodriguez
    Programa Gens i Malaltia, Centre de Regulacio Genomica, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, UPF, Barcelona, Spain
    Gene Ther 18:73-81. 2011
    ..A bystander effect, mediated by gap junctions, accounts for the transfer of toxic metabolites from TK-expressing cells to ..
  72. ncbi Adenovirus mediated herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir gene therapy for resectable malignant glioma
    Ann Marie Määttä
    A I Virtanen Institute, Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland
    Curr Gene Ther 9:356-67. 2009
    ..Thus, the adenoviral mediated HSV-tk gene therapy is a promising new adjuvant treatment for patients with operable high-grade glioma...
  73. ncbi Relationship between radiation-induced low-dose hypersensitivity and the bystander effect
    Carmel Mothersill
    Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Fitzwilliam House, 30 Upper Pembroke Street, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Radiat Res 157:526-32. 2002
    ..of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation have shown two unexpected phenomena: a "bystander effect" that can be demonstrated at low doses as a transferable factor(s) causing radiobiological effects in ..
  74. ncbi Biophysical model of the radiation-induced bystander effect
    Hooshang Nikjoo
    MRC Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Harwell OX11 0RD, UK
    Int J Radiat Biol 79:43-52. 2003
    To construct a quantitative model of the radiation-induced bystander effect based on diffusion-type spreading of bystander signal communication between the hit and non-hit cells...
  75. pmc A heterotypic bystander effect for tumor cell killing after adeno-associated virus/phage-mediated, vascular-targeted suicide gene transfer
    Martin Trepel
    Department of Oncology and Hematology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Mol Cancer Ther 8:2383-91. 2009
    ..Finally, this heterotypic bystander effect is accompanied by a suppression of tumor growth in vivo that is independent of primary gene transfer into ..
  76. ncbi Serum serotonin levels determine the magnitude and type of bystander effects in medium transfer experiments
    Carmel Mothersill
    Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Science Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8S 4K1
    Radiat Res 174:119-23. 2010
    ..variation in the ability to produce bystander effects and further suggest that serum batches should be protected from light and prescreened for their ability to produce a bystander effect using a positive control cell line.
  77. ncbi Heavy-ion-induced bystander killing of human lung cancer cells: role of gap junctional intercellular communication
    Kosaku Harada
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan
    Cancer Sci 100:684-8. 2009
    ..present study was to clarify the mechanisms of cell death induced by heavy-ion irradiation focusing on the bystander effect in human lung cancer A549 cells...
  78. ncbi The time and spatial effects of bystander response in mammalian cells induced by low dose radiation
    Burong Hu
    Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, People s Republic of China
    Carcinogenesis 27:245-51. 2006
    ....
  79. ncbi Chromosomal instability in unirradiated hemaopoietic cells induced by macrophages exposed in vivo to ionizing radiation
    Sally A Lorimore
    Division of Pathology and Neuroscience, Cancer Biology and Clinical Pathology Unit, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Cancer Res 68:8122-6. 2008
    ..As the majority of accidental, occupational, and therapeutic exposures to ionizing radiation are partial body exposures, the findings have implications for understanding the consequences of such exposure...
  80. pmc Role of TGF-beta1 and nitric oxide in the bystander response of irradiated glioma cells
    C Shao
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Oncogene 27:434-40. 2008
    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) increases the probability of cellular response and therefore has important implications for cancer risk assessment following low-dose irradiation and for the likelihood of secondary cancers ..
  81. ncbi The controversial abscopal effect
    Joseph M Kaminski
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA
    Cancer Treat Rev 31:159-72. 2005
    ..However, the term should now be used interchangeably with distant bystander effect. Through analysis of distant bystander effects of other local therapies, we discuss the poorly understood and ..
  82. pmc Expression of the bifunctional suicide gene CDUPRT increases radiosensitization and bystander effect of 5-FC in prostate cancer cells
    Ligang Xing
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Radiother Oncol 92:345-52. 2009
    ..the hypothesis that, with 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) treatment, the co-expression of cytosine deaminase (CD) and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) can lead to greater radiosensitization and bystander effect than CD-expression alone.
  83. ncbi Damaging and protective cell signalling in the untargeted effects of ionizing radiation
    Philip J Coates
    Division of Pathology and Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Pathology Laboratories, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD19SY, Scotland, UK
    Mutat Res 568:5-20. 2004
    ....
  84. pmc HIV ENV glycoprotein-mediated bystander apoptosis depends on expression of the CCR5 co-receptor at the cell surface and ENV fusogenic activity
    Anjali Joshi
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, Texas 79905, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:36404-13. 2011
    ..Our findings suggest that R5 HIV-1-mediated bystander apoptosis is dependent on both CCR5 expression levels as well as fusogenic activity of the Env glycoprotein...
  85. ncbi Role of connexin43 and ATP in long-range bystander radiation damage and oncogenesis in vivo
    M Mancuso
    Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia nazionale per le nuove tecnologie, l Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile ENEA CR Casaccia, Rome, Italy
    Oncogene 30:4601-8. 2011
    ..Our data provide a novel hypothesis for transduction of distant bystander effects and suggest that the highly branched nervous system, similar to the vascular network, has an important role...
  86. ncbi Induction of bystander response in human glioma cells using high-energy electrons: a role for TGF-beta1
    M D Gow
    Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1
    Radiat Res 173:769-78. 2010
    ..These results indicate that bystander cell death can be induced in T98G glioma if a large enough radiation stress is applied and that TGF-beta1 plays a downstream role in this response...
  87. ncbi Dilution of irradiated cell conditioned medium and the bystander effect
    Lorna A Ryan
    Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1
    Radiat Res 169:188-96. 2008
    While nontargeted and low-dose effects such as the bystander effect are now accepted, the mechanisms underlying the response have yet to be elucidated...
  88. ncbi ATRA enhances bystander effect of suicide gene therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer
    Weiguo Chen
    Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University, Jiangsu, China
    Urol Oncol 26:397-405. 2008
    ..Here, we report that the alteration of GJIC by ATRA may directly enhance the bystander effect (BE) of suicide gene therapy against prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo.
  89. ncbi Cellular communication and bystander effects: a critical review for modelling low-dose radiation action
    Francesca Ballarini
    Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, Milan, Italy
    Mutat Res 501:1-12. 2002
    ..Possible synergism with other low-dose specific phenomena such as adaptive response (AR) (i.e. low-dose induced resistance to subsequent irradiation) was discussed...
  90. pmc Mitochondrial apoptosis is amplified through gap junctions
    Pablo M Peixoto
    Dept Basic Sciences, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY 10010, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 390:38-43. 2009
    The death of one cell can precipitate the death of nearby cells in a process referred to as the bystander effect. We investigated whether mitochondrial apoptosis generated a bystander effect and, if so, by which pathway...
  91. ncbi Exogenous carbon monoxide protects the bystander Chinese hamster ovary cells in mixed coculture system after alpha-particle irradiation
    Wei Han
    Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong
    Carcinogenesis 31:275-80. 2010
    ..II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on the toxicity of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) after alpha-particle irradiation was studied in a mixed coculture system...
  92. ncbi Cellular response to modulated radiation fields
    E Claridge Mackonis
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Camperdown 2050, NSW, Australia
    Phys Med Biol 52:5469-82. 2007
    ..The first of these (type I effect) is the previously reported classical Bystander effect, where cell survival is reduced when communicating with irradiated cells...
  93. ncbi Tissue-sparing effect of x-ray microplanar beams particularly in the CNS: is a bystander effect involved?
    F Avraham Dilmanian
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 5000, USA
    Exp Hematol 35:69-77. 2007
    ..The repairs apparently involve the microvasculature and the glial system. We evaluate a hypothesis on the involvement of bystander effects in these repairs...
  94. ncbi Bystander effect in suicide gene therapy is directly proportional to the degree of gap junctional intercellular communication in esophageal cancer
    Satoru Matono
    Department of Surgery, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume shi 830 0011, Japan
    Int J Oncol 23:1309-15. 2003
    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been shown to be involved in the bystander effect through herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) gene therapy...
  95. ncbi Characterisation of a bystander effect induced in human tissue explant cultures by low let radiation
    C Mothersill
    Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8, Ireland
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry 99:163-7. 2002
    The existence of a bystander effect following both alpha and gamma irradiation of many cell lines is not now in dispute...
  96. ncbi Experimental and theoretical analysis of cytokine release for the study of radiation-induced bystander effect
    Angelica Facoetti
    Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia, Italy
    Int J Radiat Biol 85:690-9. 2009
    ..g., Interleukin-6, IL-6) regulation in the case of 'sham irradiation' and after ionising radiation exposure...
  97. pmc Mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from loss of cytochrome c impairs radiation-induced bystander effect
    G Yang
    State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People s Republic of China
    Br J Cancer 100:1912-6. 2009
    ..c, we showed here that cytochrome c-deficient cells had attenuated reactive oxygen species/nitric oxide and micronuclei induction to radiation-induced bystander signals, indicating cytochrome c is essential for the bystander effect.
  98. ncbi Classical radiation biology, the bystander effect and paradigms: a reply
    Keith Baverstock
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, Finland
    Hum Exp Toxicol 24:537-42. 2005
    Although, in retrospect, it can be seen that the bystander effect and the related effect of genomic instability were observed well before they were recognized as such, they have not been able to be accommodated within the existing ..
  99. ncbi Inhibition of ATP-sensitive potassium channels increases HSV-tk/GCV bystander effect in U373 human glioma cells by enhancing gap junctional intercellular communication
    Teresa Paíno
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Neurociencias de Castilla y Leon, INCYL, Universidad de Salamanca, Spain
    Neuropharmacology 59:480-91. 2010
    ..efficiency of Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) therapy is improved by the bystander effect, which mainly relies on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC)...
  100. ncbi Genome-wide microarray analysis of human fibroblasts in response to γ radiation and the radiation-induced bystander effect
    Erta Kalanxhi
    Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello 0310 Oslo, Norway
    Radiat Res 177:35-43. 2012
    ..microarray approach to determine factors that may be modulated in the generation or propagation of the bystander effect. For the microarray data we employed analysis at both the single-gene and gene-set level to place the ..
  101. ncbi A computational model of cellular response to modulated radiation fields
    Stephen J McMahon
    Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84:250-6. 2012
    ..To develop a model to describe the response of cell populations to spatially modulated radiation exposures of relevance to advanced radiotherapies...

Research Grants64

  1. Enterococcus faecalis, Colorectal Cancer, and Bystander Effects
    Mark M Huycke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The bystander effect refers to collateral DNA damage in neighboring cells from activated cells that produce clastogens (or ..
  2. Effect of diet & commensal bacteria on diabetes outcome in NOD mouse
    Li Wen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Although we use a diabetes model system, the impact of our study is beyond T1D and could potentially apply to allergy, asthma and possibly other diseases that affect by environments. ..
  3. Antibody-mediated Gene Therapy for the Treatment of Cancer
    TRACY RUTH DANIELS-WELLS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is expected there will be a bystander effect associated with ADEPT therapy since the toxic metabolites can be released from targeted cells and taken up by ..
  4. PROTEIN KINASE C IN THE LENS
    DOLORES JEAN TAKEMOTO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This would prevent the delivery of apoptotic signals to adjacent cells, known as the "Bystander Effect"...
  5. Carboxylesterase-activated Doxazolidine-prodrug for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Tad H Koch; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Experiments are designed to improve the synthesis and formulation, to establish a bystander effect for PPD, to measure the pharmacokinetics, and to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity in orthotopic mouse ..
  6. Pathophysiology and potential therapy for a childhood neurodegenerative disease
    Marquis T Walker; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The progressive neurodegeneration, due to this bystander effect, and the ensuing motor defects are suppressed by expression of the wild-type trpml+ gene in macrophages...
  7. Functional impact of dendritic cell phenotype in a mouse model of myositis
    Dana P Ascherman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The latter objective is relevant to the treatment of multiple autoimmune diseases for which global immunosuppression is the only therapeutic option. ..
  8. Radiation Bystander Effects: Mechanisms
    Tom K Hei; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Project 1 will address the role of Rad9, a DNA damage response protein, in the radiation induced bystander effect in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) and mice...
  9. Kupffer Cells in Liver Immunopathology
    Ian Nicholas Crispe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of anti-viral cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) inhibits the antiviral CTL response (Aim 2) and that KC-mediated bystander effect contributes to liver damage even in the context of an intrahepatic infection (Aim 3)...
  10. Mechanisms of Caspase-1 Mediated Schwannoma Regression
    GARY JAY BRENNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  11. Strategies for gene and protein delivery for cancer therapy
    Harald Sauthoff; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of this proposal is to circumvent the obstacle of inefficient gene transfer through the induction of a strong bystander effect using protein transduction technology...
  12. College Bystanders: Coaching Students With Technology to Help Intoxicated peers
    Andrea L Dunn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..be the three-segment CABI program, completely accessible online, that will: a) educate students about the bystander effect and alcohol use, b) help students learn to recognize action cues for intervention opportunities, and c) ..
  13. A stem cell strategy to induce tumor stasis and inhibit metastasis of breast canc
    Guojun Wu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Co-cultures of 4T1 cells with 4T1-piPSCs suggest a bystander effect that enables a small number of 4T1-piPSCs to reverse malignant phenotype of large numbers of surrounding 4T1 ..
  14. MODELS OF IN VIVO MYOMETRIAL GENE TRANSFER
    Gregory Christman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..is very effective in human and ELT-3 rat leiomyoma cells in inducing cell death due to an extremely high bystander effect. We have also shown in an in vivo model that when a stable ELT-3 HSV-tk expression leiomyoma cell line was ..
  15. Photoreceptor degeneration and rescue in zebrafish
    Susan E Brockerhoff; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..requirements that lead to the death of healthy photoreceptors in the presence of dying photoreceptors (the "bystander effect")? 2...
  16. Negative Effects of Irradiated Hosts on Transplanted Hematopoietic Stem Cells
    Tao Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Moreover, our own preliminary study documented a negative proliferation-independent bystander effect of the TBI- conditioned mouse recipients on transplanted HSCs...
  17. Small Animal CT Image Guided Xray Irradiation System
    Cheng Shie Wuu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..signaling pathways involved in the other kidney to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the bystander effect;partial-body irradiation animal studies to address issues of partial-body exposure from a Radiological ..
  18. Defining mechanisms of extracellular communication for cancer therapy
    Erwin G Van Meir; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Unpublished studies in our lab have revealed a new bystander effect for tumor suppressor p53...
  19. CONNECTIVITY PATTERNS OF RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS
    Stephen L Mills; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  20. Cytoplasmic Damage and Genotoxicity
    Tom K Hei; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..from the elucidation of the biological consequence of targeted cytoplasmic irradiation and discovery of the bystander effect. Together with the genomic instability and bystander effects, the study will address some of the fundamental ..
  21. Achieving Therapeutic Antigent-Specific Tolerance in Type 1 Diabetes
    Matthias G Von Herrath; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..These assays should provide strong guidance to the goals of the clinical project (#3, Herold). ..
  22. Improved Suicide Gene Therapy for Hepatic Cancers
    William Ensminger; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..because of an inadequate ability to kill adjacent cultured tumor cells that are not transduced ("bystander effect"). FU generated from FC has been demonstrated to have a significant bystander effect...
  23. BYSTANDER EFFECTS OF LOW DOSE ALPHA PARTICLES
    Bruce Lehnert; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..A second, potentially related bystander effect is that cells that have been treated with supernatants from alpha-irradiated cells show, relative to control ..
  24. Immunomodulation of inflammatory disease by atorvastatin
    Scott Zamvil; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies have direct and immediate applicability to the use of statins in treatment of autoimmune disease. ..
  25. Leiomyomata Uteri: Apoptosis and Cell Survival Pathways
    Gregory Christman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..A strong bystander effect was demonstrated where transfection of a small percentage of leiomyoma cells was able to mediate marked ..
  26. EFFECTS OF NONUNIFORM DISTRIBUTIONS OF RADIOACTIVITY
    Roger Howell; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..response of tissues containing radioactivity with cellular absorbed dose and variables relating to the bystander effect. We have made substantial progress during our first grant period, including the revelation of important ..
  27. Novel cancer therapy by EGFR targeted transfection of synthetic dsRNA
    Alexander Levitzki; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..both the EGFR over-expressing cells as well as neighboring tumor cells with mutated EGFR or no EGFR at all ("bystander effect");2) The agent should activate multiple anti-proliferative/pro-apoptotic pathways to overcome possible ..
  28. BYSTANDER EFFECTS AND X RAY INDUCED GENOMIC INSTABILITY
    William Morgan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We propose that some bystander effect factor (BSEF) is stimulated by cellular irradiation and secreted into the culture medium...
  29. ENGINEERED THYMIDINE KINASES FOR CANCER GENE THERAPY
    Richard Drake; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..properties will be evaluated in colon tumor cell lines for their effect on GCV metabolism, cell killing and bystander effect. Further analysis of any increased therapeutic benefits of the new GCVKs will be evaluated in a multi-focal ..
  30. Human Keratin (K14)-MBP/MBP-TCR Transgenic Animal Model
    Kouichi Ito; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We will generate the mice expressing the MBP and examine whether expression of MBP gene in the thymic epithelial cells can suppress the development of EAE. ..
  31. NOVEL ENZYME/PRODRUG STRATEGY FOR CANCER GENE THERAPY
    Alnawaz Rehemtulla; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..the toxic metabolite (drug) produced by a few transduced tumor cells is able to kill neighboring cells (the bystander effect ). The extent of the bystander effect will be investigated using the CPA/MTX-Phe system...
  32. Gene Therapy for Glioma
    Pedro Lowenstein; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Killing of non-transduced cells, the 'bystander effect', amplifies this strategy's efficiency through cell-cell diffusion of cytotoxic intermediates (e.g...
  33. IMPROVING SUICIDE GENES FOR CANCER GENE THERAPY
    Margaret Black; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..compare: 1) increasing production of activated prodrugs and the impact on tumor cell killing;2) enhancing the bystander effect as it relates to increased cytotoxin production;3) reducing prodrug doses for therapeutic efficacy to offset ..
  34. STRESS INDUCED BYSTANDER EFFECT IN CANCER TREATMENT
    Andrei Gudkov; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..of stress secrete in a p53-dependent manner growth inhibitory factors causing negative paracrine regulation ("bystander effect"), affecting growth of neighboring cells...
  35. Exploring the Mechanisms of Photoreceptor Degeneration
    Alaron Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..evaluate changes in calcium (Ca2+) during cone death in a pde6c-/- zebrafish model, and to (2) assess the "bystander effect" in a cone population comprised of wild type and mutant photoreceptors...
  36. SYNERGISTIC METHIONINASE GENE THERAPY OF CANCER
    Yuying Tan; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The r-Ad-MET transduced cells also had a very strong bystander effect in the presence of SeMeth whereby only 3% of the cell population killed 80% or more of the remaining co-..
  37. IMMUNOTHERAPY OF COLON CANCER METASTIC TO THE LIVER
    Hiroshi Takahashi; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..apoptosis and bystander lysis of colon cancer cells, and determine what soluble factors mediate this bystander effect using various Fas-resistant target cells and neutralizing polyclonal antibodies...
  38. Apoptosis Modulation in Prodrug Activation Gene Therapy
    Ting Su; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Recent studies conducted in Dr. Waxman's laboratory suggest that a significantly enhanced bystander effect can be achieved for cytochrome P450-based GDEPT in combination with the anti-cancer prodrug cyclophosphamide ..
  39. DONOR-DRIVEN REGULATION IN HUMAN ALLOGRAFT ACCEPTANCE
    WILLIAM BURLINGHAM; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Our goal is to develop a working model of how donor-derived leukocytes and the antigens they release contribute to a tonic equilibrium between host T regulator and effector cells in human allograft acceptance. ..
  40. ORAL TOLERANCE TO MYELIN ANTIGENS IN EAE
    Howard Weiner; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  41. ADENOVIRUS BASED P53 GENE THERAPY FOR OVARIAN CANCER
    J Mathis; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..has direct tumor cytotoxicity or indirect tumor growth inhibitory function (through a phenomenon termed the "bystander effect"), or potentially both...
  42. GENE THERAPY FOR CANCER
    Helen Blau; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..directly via FasL/Fas-mediated apoptosis, (b) indirectly via FasL-mediated neutrophil invasion, and (c) via a bystander effect as allogeneic stimulants of T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells...
  43. Clinical and Molecular Evaluation of Cancer Therapy Induced Mucositis
    Sharon Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..therapy, using growth factors to boost regeneration of quickly proliferating epithelial cells destroyed as a bystander effect of cytotoxic agents...
  44. Gap-Junction-Medicated Cell Death in Rod-Cone Dystrophie
    Harris Ripps; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. IMMUNOTHERAPY FOR PRIMARY BRAIN GLIOMA
    CAROL KRUSE; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..the tissue levels of gamma-IFN with ganciclovir (GCV) and may further improve tumor lysis through the "bystander effect." 2) Test, in vitro and in animals, whether IL-2 secretion from transduced tumor cells will maintain ..
  46. PATHOGENESIS AND TREATMENT OF AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES
    Matthias von Herrath; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..4. To assess the prevention of slow-onset and fast-onset IDDM by specific tolerization of anti-self CTL by the use of DNA vaccination. This will be assessed using plasmids expressing LCMV proteins and various injection routes. ..
  47. Gap Junction Blockage Attenuates Brain Ischemic Injury
    Renato Rozental; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..that cells injured by ischemic brain insults are linked to surrounding, less-affected cells, and that this "bystander effect" expands the volume of a brain ischemic injury over time...
  48. SYSTEMIC DELIVERY OF P53 INHIBITS BREAST CANCER
    A Mixson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..transfect the tumor cells efficiently, then this suggests that the liposome:p53 complex is acting through a bystander effect. This bystander effect may be due to inhibition of angiogenesis or the induction of IGF-BP3 by p53...
  49. MOLECULAR CHEMOTHERAPY FOR OVARIAN CANCER
    Ronald Alvarez; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..been observed that tumor cells transduced with selected toxin genes can exert a noxious effect, a so-called bystander effect, on surrounding, nontransduced tumor cells...
  50. HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS IN THE TREATMENT OF ORAL CANCER
    EDWARD SHILLITOE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We will then make the anti-tumor effect even stronger by exploiting the anti-tumor bystander effect that occurs when ganciclovir is activated by HSV-1...
  51. Regulatable expression of TRAIL and viral oncolysis
    Konstantin Doronin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In order to determine if there is a bystander effect, cells infected with Tet-On-TRAIL+KD3+DOX will be mixed with uninfected cells and the death of the latter ..
  52. GENE THERAPY TARGETING HYPOXIC GLIOMA CELLS
    Dennis Deen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..2) evaluate suicide genes under low pH and in noncycling brain tumor cells; 3) reveal and investigate any bystander effect (BE) produced by specific suicide genes under hypoxic conditions; 4) determine whether expression of suicide ..
  53. MECHANISMS OF ARSENIC CARCINOGENESIS
    TOM HEI; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. THE MUTAGENICITY OF MINERAL FIBERS
    TOM HEI; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..By using specific DNA probes of other genes that have been regionally mapped to various sites on chromosome 11, the molecular spectrum of mutations induced by either asbestos or glass fiber control will be compared. ..
  55. MECHANISMS OF FIBER CARCINOGENESIS
    TOM HEI; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Cytogenetic and molecular alterations at the gene level will be analyzed from tumors and intermediate transformation stages to provide a mechanistic basis for tumor induction by mineral fibers. ..
  56. HIGH ENERGY IONS AND GENOMIC INSTABILITY
    Eric Hall; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  57. RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY (RARAF)
    David Brenner; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  58. High Stability Accelerator for Sub-Cellular Microbeam
    David Brenner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We have considerably more demand for microbeam time than we can cope with, primarily because of limited physicist manpower. ..
  59. CELL SITE SPECIFIC MICROBEAM IRRADIATION AND RESPONSE
    Charles Geard; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..It is hypothesized that gap junction intercellular communication is a minor component of the bystander effect.
  60. Cancer Risks Attributable To Radiation from Pediatric CT
    David Brenner; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The target audiences will be radiologists, pediatricians, family physicians, and the CT industry. We will use telephone interviews supplemented with survey questions, to aid in web content decisions. ..
  61. STEROID MODULATION OF TUMOR CELL GROWTH
    James Norris; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..It is Dr. Norris' belief that understanding these pathways will ultimately allow definition of novel interventional protocols for the control of cancer. ..
  62. Damage signaling from irradiated to non-irradiated cells
    EDOUARD AZZAM; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..They are also relevant to diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine where radionuclides are being investigated to detect various diseases and treat cancer. ..