glycemic index

Summary

Summary: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation by a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings. These numbers do not correspond to calories or amounts of food intake but rather, depend on the rates of digestion and absorption of these food items.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance
    Thomas Meinert Larsen
    Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    N Engl J Med 363:2102-13. 2010
  2. ncbi Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk--a meta-analysis of observational studies
    Alan W Barclay
    Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:627-37. 2008
  3. pmc International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008
    Fiona S Atkinson
    Institute of Obesity, Nutrition and Exercise, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Diabetes Care 31:2281-3. 2008
  4. ncbi Dietary glycemic index and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men
    Masaru Sakurai
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1 1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan
    Metabolism 61:47-55. 2012
  5. ncbi Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
    Jia Yi Dong
    Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, People s Republic of China
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 126:287-94. 2011
  6. ncbi Glycemic index and glycemic load: measurement issues and their effect on diet-disease relationships
    B J Venn
    Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Eur J Clin Nutr 61:S122-31. 2007
  7. ncbi The influence of maternal glycaemia and dietary glycaemic index on pregnancy outcome in healthy mothers
    Ciara A McGowan
    UCD Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine and Medical Science, National Maternity Hospital, University College Dublin, Holles Street, Dublin 2, Republic of Ireland
    Br J Nutr 104:153-9. 2010
  8. ncbi Meta-analysis of dietary glycemic load and glycemic index in relation to risk of coronary heart disease
    Jia Yi Dong
    Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, China
    Am J Cardiol 109:1608-13. 2012
  9. pmc Association of glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of incident coronary heart disease among Whites and African Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study
    Dale S Hardy
    Division of Epidemiology, University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX 77225, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 20:610-6. 2010
  10. ncbi The use of low-glycaemic index diets in diabetes control
    D E Thomas
    Centre for Evidence Based Paediatrics Gastroenterology and Nutrition CEBPGAN, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, c o Research Building, The Children s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
    Br J Nutr 104:797-802. 2010

Detail Information

Publications293 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance
    Thomas Meinert Larsen
    Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    N Engl J Med 363:2102-13. 2010
    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power.
  2. ncbi Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk--a meta-analysis of observational studies
    Alan W Barclay
    Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:627-37. 2008
    Inconsistent findings from observational studies have prolonged the controversy over the effects of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) on the risk of certain chronic diseases.
  3. pmc International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008
    Fiona S Atkinson
    Institute of Obesity, Nutrition and Exercise, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Diabetes Care 31:2281-3. 2008
    To systematically tabulate published and unpublished sources of reliable glycemic index (GI) values.
  4. ncbi Dietary glycemic index and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men
    Masaru Sakurai
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1 1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan
    Metabolism 61:47-55. 2012
    This cohort study investigated the association between dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men, and the effect of insulin resistance and pancreatic B-cell ..
  5. ncbi Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
    Jia Yi Dong
    Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, People s Republic of China
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 126:287-94. 2011
    Consumption diets of high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may increase the risk of breast cancer...
  6. ncbi Glycemic index and glycemic load: measurement issues and their effect on diet-disease relationships
    B J Venn
    Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Eur J Clin Nutr 61:S122-31. 2007
    b>Glycemic index (GI) describes the blood glucose response after consumption of a carbohydrate containing test food relative to a carbohydrate containing reference food, typically glucose or white bread...
  7. ncbi The influence of maternal glycaemia and dietary glycaemic index on pregnancy outcome in healthy mothers
    Ciara A McGowan
    UCD Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine and Medical Science, National Maternity Hospital, University College Dublin, Holles Street, Dublin 2, Republic of Ireland
    Br J Nutr 104:153-9. 2010
    ..Pregnancy is a physiological condition where the GI may be of particular relevance as glucose is the primary fuel for fetal growth...
  8. ncbi Meta-analysis of dietary glycemic load and glycemic index in relation to risk of coronary heart disease
    Jia Yi Dong
    Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, China
    Am J Cardiol 109:1608-13. 2012
    ..Our goal was to determine the associations between dietary glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI), and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective studies...
  9. pmc Association of glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of incident coronary heart disease among Whites and African Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study
    Dale S Hardy
    Division of Epidemiology, University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX 77225, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 20:610-6. 2010
    In this study we examined whether high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) diets are associated with increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) in Whites and African Americans with and without type 2 diabetes.
  10. ncbi The use of low-glycaemic index diets in diabetes control
    D E Thomas
    Centre for Evidence Based Paediatrics Gastroenterology and Nutrition CEBPGAN, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, c o Research Building, The Children s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
    Br J Nutr 104:797-802. 2010
    ..Glycosylated albumin levels decreased significantly with low-GI diet, but not with high-GI diet, in one study that reported this outcome. Lowering the GI of the diet may contribute to improved glycaemic control in diabetes...
  11. ncbi Prospective study of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Chinese women
    Raquel Villegas
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2525 West End Ave, Ste 600, Nashville, TN 37203 1738, USA
    Arch Intern Med 167:2310-6. 2007
    Much uncertainty exists about the role of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in populations that traditionally subsist on a diet high in carbohydrates.
  12. ncbi Obesity and the metabolic syndrome: role of different dietary macronutrient distribution patterns and specific nutritional components on weight loss and maintenance
    Itziar Abete
    Department of Nutrition, Food Science, Physiology and Toxicology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
    Nutr Rev 68:214-31. 2010
    ....
  13. ncbi Effect of glycemic carbohydrates on short-term satiety and food intake
    G Harvey Anderson
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Fitzgerald Building, 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3E2
    Nutr Rev 61:S17-26. 2003
    ..Many other preabsorptive and postabsorptive signals for satiety exist and may be the determining factors. Further studies are needed to delineate the role of glycemic carbohydrates and their mechanisms of action in determining satiety...
  14. ncbi Dietary glycemic load and index and risk of coronary heart disease in a large italian cohort: the EPICOR study
    Sabina Sieri
    Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy
    Arch Intern Med 170:640-7. 2010
    Dietary glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) in relation to cardiovascular disease have been investigated in a few prospective studies with inconsistent results, particularly in men...
  15. ncbi Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and digestible carbohydrate intake are not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in eight European countries
    Ivonne Sluijs
    University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Nutr 143:93-9. 2013
    The association of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with the risk of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We investigated associations of dietary GI, GL, and digestible carbohydrate with incident type 2 diabetes...
  16. ncbi Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cereal fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in US black women
    Supriya Krishnan
    Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Arch Intern Med 167:2304-9. 2007
    ..Previous studies of carbohydrate quality and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus have yielded inconsistent findings. Because diet is in part culturally determined, a study of dietary factors in US black women is of interest...
  17. ncbi High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women: a population-based follow-up study
    Joline W J Beulens
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Am Coll Cardiol 50:14-21. 2007
    The goal of this work was to assess whether high dietary glycemic load and glycemic index are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
  18. ncbi Physiological validation of the concept of glycemic load in lean young adults
    J C Brand-Miller
    Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    J Nutr 133:2728-32. 2003
    Dietary glycemic load, the mathematical product of the glycemic index (GI) of a food and its carbohydrate content, has been proposed as an indicator of the glucose response and insulin demand induced by a serving of food...
  19. ncbi The glycemic index issue
    Jennie Brand-Miller
    School of Molecular Bioscience and Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition and Exercise, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Curr Opin Lipidol 23:62-7. 2012
    In recent years, many of the concerns surrounding the glycemic index have been addressed by methodological studies and clinical trials comparing diets carefully matched for other nutrients...
  20. ncbi Long-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets differing in glycemic load on dietary adherence, body composition, and metabolism in CALERIE: a 1-y randomized controlled trial
    Sai Krupa Das
    Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA
    Am J Clin Nutr 85:1023-30. 2007
    ..There remains no consensus about the optimal dietary composition for sustained weight loss...
  21. ncbi High-glycemic index carbohydrate increases nuclear factor-kappaB activation in mononuclear cells of young, lean healthy subjects
    Scott Dickinson
    Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition and Exercise, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:1188-93. 2008
    High-glycemic index diets have been linked to greater risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes...
  22. ncbi A pilot study to determine the short-term effects of a low glycemic load diet on hormonal markers of acne: a nonrandomized, parallel, controlled feeding trial
    Robyn Smith
    School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia
    Mol Nutr Food Res 52:718-26. 2008
    ..These results suggest that increases in dietary glycemic load may augment the biological activity of sex hormones and IGF-I, suggesting that these diets may aggravate potential factors involved in acne development...
  23. ncbi Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors: the diet, obesity, and genes (DiOGenes) study: a randomized, controlled trial
    Ozlem Gögebakan
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam Rehbruecke, Arthur Scheunert Allee 114 116, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
    Circulation 124:2829-38. 2011
    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (..
  24. ncbi Glycemic index and dietary fiber and the risk of type 2 diabetes
    Allison M Hodge
    Cancer Epidemiology Centre, The Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia
    Diabetes Care 27:2701-6. 2004
    To examine associations between type 2 diabetes and fiber, glycemic load (GL), dietary glycemic index (GI), and fiber-rich foods.
  25. ncbi Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects
    Anders H Frid
    Clinic of Endocrinology, University Hospital MAS, Malmo, Sweden
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:69-75. 2005
    ..Whey proteins have insulinotropic effects and reduce the postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. The mechanism is not known, but insulinogenic amino acids and the incretin hormones seem to be involved...
  26. ncbi Glycemia and insulinemia in healthy subjects after lactose-equivalent meals of milk and other food proteins: the role of plasma amino acids and incretins
    Mikael Nilsson
    Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:1246-53. 2004
    ..Milk products deviate from other carbohydrate-containing foods in that they produce high insulin responses, despite their low GI. The insulinotropic mechanism of milk has not been elucidated...
  27. ncbi Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss
    Mark A Pereira
    Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital, Boston, Mass 02115, USA
    JAMA 292:2482-90. 2004
    ..Weight loss elicits physiological adaptations relating to energy intake and expenditure that antagonize ongoing weight loss...
  28. ncbi The Canadian Trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes (CCD), a 1-y controlled trial of low-glycemic-index dietary carbohydrate in type 2 diabetes: no effect on glycated hemoglobin but reduction in C-reactive protein
    Thomas M S Wolever
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, and the Department of Medicine, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:114-25. 2008
    ..The optimal source and amount of dietary carbohydrate for managing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are unknown...
  29. ncbi Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cancer risk: a meta-analysis
    Patrizia Gnagnarella
    Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:1793-801. 2008
    Factors linked to glucose metabolism play an important role in the development of cancers, and both glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been investigated as potential etiologic factors.
  30. ncbi Carbohydrate quantity and quality and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study
    Ivonne Sluijs
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:905-11. 2010
    ..Carbohydrate quantity and quality may play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes...
  31. ncbi Impairment of fat oxidation under high- vs. low-glycemic index diet occurs before the development of an obese phenotype
    F Isken
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298:E287-95. 2010
    Exposure to high vs. low glycemic index (GI) diets increases fat mass and insulin resistance in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. However, the longer-term effects and potentially involved mechanisms are largely unknown...
  32. pmc Dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load, blood lipids, and C-reactive protein
    Emily B Levitan
    Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Metabolism 57:437-43. 2008
    ..We measured dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) among 18137 healthy women > or = 45 years old without diagnosed ..
  33. ncbi Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber in relation to risk of stroke in women
    Kyungwon Oh
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 161:161-9. 2005
    The associations of dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load with stroke risk were examined among 78,779 US women who were free of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in 1980 and completed a food frequency questionnaire...
  34. ncbi The Diet, Obesity and Genes (Diogenes) Dietary Study in eight European countries - a comprehensive design for long-term intervention
    T M Larsen
    Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Obes Rev 11:76-91. 2010
    ..Despite major cultural and dietary regional differences in Europe, interventions addressing effects of dietary factors are feasible with a reasonable attrition...
  35. ncbi Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment
    Lee S Gross
    Inter Medic Medical Group, 2630 Bobcat Village Center Road, North Port, FL 34288, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 79:774-9. 2004
    ....
  36. ncbi Long-term effects of low glycemic index/load vs. high glycemic index/load diets on parameters of obesity and obesity-associated risks: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    L Schwingshackl
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstreet 14, UZAII, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23:699-706. 2013
    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the long-term effects of glycemic index-related diets in the management of obesity with a special emphasis on the potential benefits of low glycemic index/load (GI/GL) in the ..
  37. pmc A randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet versus no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of macrosomia
    Jennifer Walsh
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Dublin National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 10:16. 2010
    ..Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women, and maternal weight influences this recurrence risk 3...
  38. ncbi The use of glycaemic index tables to predict glycaemic index of composite breakfast meals
    Anne Flint
    Department of Human Nutrition, Centre for Advanced Food Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, DK 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    Br J Nutr 91:979-89. 2004
    ..Our prediction models show that the GI of mixed meals is more strongly correlated either with fat and protein content, or with energy content, than with carbohydrate content alone. Furthermore, GI was not correlated with II...
  39. pmc A high legume low glycemic index diet improves serum lipid profiles in men
    Zhiying Zhang
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
    Lipids 45:765-75. 2010
    ..weight loss and improves lipid profiles; however, the beneficial effects of high fermentable fiber low glycemic index (GI) diets under conditions of weight maintenance are unclear...
  40. ncbi Glycemic index, glycemic load and cancer risk
    J Hu
    Science Integration Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Ann Oncol 24:245-51. 2013
    Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been related to the risk of selected cancers, but the issue remains open.
  41. ncbi Effect of legumes as part of a low glycemic index diet on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial
    David J A Jenkins
    Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Arch Intern Med 172:1653-60. 2012
    Legumes, including beans, chickpeas, and lentils, are among the lowest glycemic index (GI) foods and have been recommended in national diabetes mellitus (DM) guidelines...
  42. pmc Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and stroke mortality: a systematic review with meta-analysis
    Jingyao Fan
    Sino German Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, the State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 7:e52182. 2012
    The relationship between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and stroke-related mortality is inconsistent.
  43. ncbi No difference in body weight decrease between a low-glycemic-index and a high-glycemic-index diet but reduced LDL cholesterol after 10-wk ad libitum intake of the low-glycemic-index diet
    Birgitte Sloth
    Department of Human Nutrition, Centre for Advanced Food Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, 30 Rolighedsvej, DK 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:337-47. 2004
    The role of glycemic index (GI) in appetite and body-weight regulation is still not clear.
  44. ncbi Overall glycaemic index and glycaemic load of habitual diet and risk of heart disease
    Katrine Grau
    Research Unit for Dietary Studies, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Public Health Nutr 14:109-18. 2011
    ..To test the hypothesis that diets with high glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) increase the risk of heart disease...
  45. pmc Glycation-altered proteolysis as a pathobiologic mechanism that links dietary glycemic index, aging, and age-related disease (in nondiabetics)
    Tomoaki Uchiki
    Laboratory for Nutrition and Vision Research, USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Aging Cell 11:1-13. 2012
    ..heart disease, diabetes, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are diminished in people who consume lower glycemic index (GI) diets, but lack of a unifying physiobiochemical mechanism that explains the salutary effect is a barrier ..
  46. ncbi Glycemic index and load and risk of upper aero-digestive tract neoplasms (Italy)
    Livia S A Augustin
    Servizio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Aviano, Italy
    Cancer Causes Control 14:657-62. 2003
    ..carbohydrates to affect blood glucose and insulin levels by dietary carbohydrates is best measured by the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) which have been directly associated with risk of several chronic conditions, ..
  47. ncbi The influence of the glycaemic index of breakfast and lunch on substrate utilisation during the postprandial periods and subsequent exercise
    Emma Stevenson
    Sport and Exercise Nutrition Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK
    Br J Nutr 93:885-93. 2005
    ..Furthermore, during subsequent exercise, plasma glucose concentrations were better maintained following the LGI CHO meals...
  48. pmc Effects of low- and high-glycemic index/glycemic load diets on coronary heart disease risk factors in overweight/obese men
    James M Shikany
    Division of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 4410, USA
    Metabolism 58:1793-801. 2009
    ..The effect of dietary carbohydrate, specifically of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), on established and emerging coronary heart disease risk factors has not been ..
  49. ncbi Glycemic load, glycemic index and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Swedish women
    Susanna C Larsson
    Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, The National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Cancer 125:153-7. 2009
    ..We examined the associations of carbohydrate intake, glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of overall and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in the Swedish Mammography ..
  50. ncbi Effect of cereal test breakfasts differing in glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates on daylong glucose tolerance in healthy subjects
    Anne C Nilsson
    Division of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Sweden
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:645-54. 2008
    ..Frequent hyperglycemic episodes are increasingly being associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
  51. ncbi Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women
    Martin Lajous
    INSERM, ERI 20, EA 4045, and Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:1384-91. 2008
    ..Insulin response to carbohydrate intake is increased in insulin-resistant states such as obesity...
  52. ncbi Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population
    Huaidong Du
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:655-61. 2008
    Previous studies on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) reported inconsistent findings on their association with metabolic risk factors. This may partly have been due to differences in underlying dietary patterns.
  53. pmc Can a low-glycemic index diet reduce the need for insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus? A randomized trial
    Robert G Moses
    Illawarra Diabetes Service, South Eastern Sydney and Illawarra Area Health Service, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
    Diabetes Care 32:996-1000. 2009
    A low-glycemic index diet is effective as a treatment for individuals with diabetes and has been shown to improve pregnancy outcomes when used from the first trimester...
  54. ncbi Role of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, hyperglycaemic food and milk consumption in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris
    Bodo C Melnik
    Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health Theory, University of Osnabruck, Osnabruck, Germany
    Exp Dermatol 18:833-41. 2009
    ..Persistent acne in adulthood with high IGF-1 levels may be considered as an indicator for increased risk of cancer, which may require appropriate dietary intervention as well as treatment with insulin-sensitizing agents...
  55. ncbi The effect of a low glycemic load diet on acne vulgaris and the fatty acid composition of skin surface triglycerides
    Robyn N Smith
    School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia
    J Dermatol Sci 50:41-52. 2008
    ..Dietary factors have long been implicated in acne pathogenesis. It has recently been hypothesized that low glycemic load diets may influence sebum production based on the beneficial endocrine effects of these diets...
  56. ncbi Dietary glycemic index: health implications
    Jennie Brand-Miller
    Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    J Am Coll Nutr 28:446S-449S. 2009
    ..of low fat diets has prompted research on alternative dietary strategies, including high protein diets and low glycemic index (GI) diets...
  57. ncbi Intake of carbohydrates compared with intake of saturated fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: importance of the glycemic index
    Marianne U Jakobsen
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark
    Am J Clin Nutr 91:1764-8. 2010
    ..The effect of carbohydrates, however, may depend on the type consumed...
  58. ncbi Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, cereal fiber, and plasma adiponectin concentration in diabetic men
    Lu Qi
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Diabetes Care 28:1022-8. 2005
    ..Adiponectin may improve insulin sensitivity, reduce inflammation, and ameliorate glycemic control. However, few studies have evaluated dietary predictors of plasma adiponectin levels, especially among subjects with type 2 diabetes...
  59. ncbi Whole-grain cereal products based on a high-fibre barley or oat genotype lower post-prandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans
    Marie Alminger
    Dept of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Food Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden
    Eur J Nutr 47:294-300. 2008
    ..Some suggested factors lowering the responses are; intact botanical structure, high amylose/high ss-glucan cereal varieties, organic acid produced during fermentation and food processes inducing retrogradation of starch...
  60. ncbi Carbohydrate nutrition, insulin resistance, and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Offspring Cohort
    Nicola M McKeown
    Jean Mayer U S Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Diabetes Care 27:538-46. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the relation between carbohydrate-related dietary factors, insulin resistance, and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Offspring Cohort...
  61. pmc Metabolic responses to high glycemic index and low glycemic index meals: a controlled crossover clinical trial
    Paula G Cocate
    Departament of Nutrition and Health, Federal University of Vicosa, Avenida PH Rolfs, S N, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570 000, Brazil
    Nutr J 10:1. 2011
    The consumption of low glycemic index (LGI) foods before exercise results in slower and more stable glycemic increases...
  62. ncbi Low glycemic index breakfasts and reduced food intake in preadolescent children
    Janet M Warren
    Nutrition and Food Science Group, School of Biological and Molecular Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Pediatrics 112:e414. 2003
    Recent reports have suggested that a low glycemic index (GI) diet may have a role in the management of obesity through its ability to increase the satiety value of food and modulate appetite...
  63. ncbi A low-glycemic-load diet improves symptoms in acne vulgaris patients: a randomized controlled trial
    Robyn N Smith
    School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:107-15. 2007
    ..Although the pathogenesis of acne is currently unknown, recent epidemiologic studies of non-Westernized populations suggest that dietary factors, including the glycemic load, may be involved...
  64. ncbi Effect of a low-glycemic index or a high-cereal fiber diet on type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial
    David J A Jenkins
    Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    JAMA 300:2742-53. 2008
    ..Low-glycemic index diets may improve both glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors for patients with type 2 diabetes but ..
  65. ncbi Improved plasma glucose control, whole-body glucose utilization, and lipid profile on a low-glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetic men: a randomized controlled trial
    Salwa W Rizkalla
    Department of Diabetes, INSERM U465, Hotel Dieu Hospital, 1 Place du Parvis Notre Dame, 75004 Paris, France
    Diabetes Care 27:1866-72. 2004
    To determine whether a chronic low-glycemic index (LGI) diet, compared with a high-glycemic index (HGI) diet, has beneficial effects on plasma glucose control, lipid metabolism, total fat mass, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic ..
  66. ncbi Effects of the glycemic index of breakfast on metabolic responses to brisk walking in females
    S H Backhouse
    Carnegie Research Institute, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 61:590-6. 2007
    The aim of this study was to examine the metabolic responses during 1 h of brisk walking, 3 h after ingesting high glycemic index (HGI) and moderate glycemic index (MGI) breakfasts.
  67. pmc Associations of glycemic index and load with coronary heart disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohorts
    Arash Mirrahimi
    Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Am Heart Assoc 1:e000752. 2012
    b>Glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in some but not all cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association of GI and GL with CHD risk in prospective cohorts.
  68. ncbi Glycemic load, glycemic index and risk of cardiovascular diseases: meta-analyses of prospective studies
    Xiang Yu Ma
    Department of Cardiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Gaotanyan Street 30, Chongqing 400038, China
    Atherosclerosis 223:491-6. 2012
    The objective of this study was to assess the relations between glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI) and the risk of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).
  69. pmc Long-term effects of dietary glycemic index on adiposity, energy metabolism, and physical activity in mice
    Kelly B Scribner
    Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E1126-31. 2008
    A high-glycemic index (GI) diet has been shown to increase adiposity in rodents; however, the long-term metabolic effects of a low- and high-GI diet have not been examined...
  70. ncbi Glycemic index predicts individual glucose responses after self-selected breakfasts in free-living, abdominally obese adults
    Angela M Kochan
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Nutr 142:27-32. 2012
    The degree to which an individual's glycemic response to a meal is determined by the glycemic index (GI) and other components of the meal remains unclear, especially when meals are not consumed in a highly controlled research setting...
  71. ncbi Glycemic index-based nutritional education improves blood glucose control in Japanese adults: a randomized controlled trial
    Yuki Amano
    Department of Health Promotion Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Diabetes Care 30:1874-6. 2007
  72. ncbi A low-glycemic load diet facilitates greater weight loss in overweight adults with high insulin secretion but not in overweight adults with low insulin secretion in the CALERIE Trial
    Anastassios G Pittas
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Tufts New England Medical Center, 750 Washington Street 268, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Diabetes Care 28:2939-41. 2005
  73. pmc Glycemic load effect on fasting and post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in a randomized, controlled feeding study
    S S Runchey
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    Eur J Clin Nutr 66:1146-52. 2012
    ..We aimed to assess the impact of GL on concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3)...
  74. pmc Reducing the glycemic index or carbohydrate content of mixed meals reduces postprandial glycemia and insulinemia over the entire day but does not affect satiety
    Ann G Liu
    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
    Diabetes Care 35:1633-7. 2012
    We evaluated the effects of mixed meals differing in glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content on postprandial serum glucose and insulin response, hunger, and satiety over the course of a 12-h day.
  75. pmc Continuous glucose monitoring to assess the ecologic validity of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load
    Anthony N Fabricatore
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 19104 3309, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 94:1519-24. 2011
    The circumstances under which the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are derived do not reflect real-world eating behavior. Thus, the ecologic validity of these constructs is incompletely known.
  76. pmc Dietary glycemic load and glycemic index and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in Dutch men and women: the EPIC-MORGEN study
    Koert N J Burger
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 6:e25955. 2011
    The associations of glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are not well-established, particularly in men, and may be modified by gender.
  77. ncbi Dietary carbohydrate (amount and type) in the prevention and management of diabetes: a statement by the american diabetes association
    Nancy F Sheard
    Department of Family Practice, University of Vermont, Burlington, USA
    Diabetes Care 27:2266-71. 2004
  78. ncbi Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with metabolic control in type 2 diabetes: The CAPRI experience
    Katherine Esposito
    Department of Geriatrics and Metabolic Diseases, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
    Metab Syndr Relat Disord 8:255-61. 2010
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients.
  79. ncbi Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and intake of carbohydrate and rice in relation to risk of mortality from stroke and its subtypes in Japanese men and women
    Shino Oba
    Department of Prevention for Lifestyle Related Diseases, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan
    Metabolism 59:1574-82. 2010
    We assessed the relationship of the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intake of carbohydrate and rice, and risk of mortality from stroke and its subtypes...
  80. ncbi Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food
    M Sugiyama
    National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Division of Applied Nutrition, Laboratory of Nutrition Care and Management, 1 23 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8636, Japan
    Eur J Clin Nutr 57:743-52. 2003
    The objectives were to examine the feasibility of using white rice as a reference food in the study of glycemic index (GI) and to examine the GI values of both single and mixed meal foods among rice species, processed rice products, beans,..
  81. pmc The relation of low glycaemic index fruit consumption to glycaemic control and risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes
    D J A Jenkins
    Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada M5C 2T2
    Diabetologia 54:271-9. 2011
    ..We therefore assessed the effect of fruit with special emphasis on low GI fruit intake in type 2 diabetes...
  82. ncbi Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to body mass index and waist to hip ratio
    Marta Rossi
    Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Via La Masa, 19, 20156 Milan, Italy
    Eur J Nutr 49:459-64. 2010
    High-glycemic index (GI) diet has been associated with obesity, but epidemiological data are inconsistent...
  83. ncbi Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and blood lipid levels in middle-aged Japanese men and women
    Motoko Nakashima
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1 1 Daigaku, Ishikawa, Japan
    J Atheroscler Thromb 17:1082-95. 2010
    This study investigated the association between dietary glycemic index (GI)/glycemic load (GL) and serum lipids in middle-aged Japanese men and women.
  84. ncbi Association between glycemic index, glycemic load, and fructose with insulin resistance: the CDC of the Canary Islands study
    Santiago Domínguez Coello
    Primary Health Care Research Unit, La Candelaria University Hospital, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
    Eur J Nutr 49:505-12. 2010
    ..The involvement of carbohydrates in triggering insulin resistance (IR) remains a source of controversy...
  85. pmc A low-glycemic index diet combined with exercise reduces insulin resistance, postprandial hyperinsulinemia, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide responses in obese, prediabetic humans
    Thomas Pj Solomon
    Department of Pathobiology, Lerner Research Institute and Nutrition, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:1359-68. 2010
    ..The optimal lifestyle intervention that reverses diabetes risk factors is not known...
  86. pmc Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study
    Tommy Jonsson
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Box 117, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
    Cardiovasc Diabetol 8:35. 2009
    ..Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age') diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin...
  87. ncbi A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women
    Inger Krog-Mikkelsen
    Department of Human Nutrition, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark
    J Nutr 141:1679-84. 2011
    At present, it is difficult to determine whether glycemic index (GI) is an important tool in the prevention of lifestyle diseases, and long-term studies investigating GI with diets matched in macronutrient composition, fiber content, ..
  88. ncbi Prediction of postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in lean, young, healthy adults: glycemic load compared with carbohydrate content alone
    Jiansong Bao
    Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition and Exercise and the School of Molecular Biosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Am J Clin Nutr 93:984-96. 2011
    Dietary glycemic load (GL; defined as the mathematical product of the glycemic index and carbohydrate content) is increasingly used in nutritional epidemiology...
  89. ncbi Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of digestive tract neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Helen G Mulholland
    Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research Group, Centre for Clinical and Population Sciences, Queen s University Belfast, Mulhouse Building, Royal Victoria Hospital Site, Belfast, Northern Ireland
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:568-76. 2009
    Habitual consumption of diets with a high glycemic index (GI) and a high glycemic load (GL) may influence cancer risk via hyperinsulinemia and the insulin-like growth factor axis.
  90. pmc A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of a low-glycemic index diet on pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus
    Jimmy Chun Yu Louie
    School of Molecular Bioscience and Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Diabetes Care 34:2341-6. 2011
    ..We aimed to investigate the effect of a low-glycemic index (LGI) versus a conventional high-fiber diet on pregnancy outcomes, neonatal anthropometry, and maternal ..
  91. pmc A low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention reduces TNF(alpha) in isolated mononuclear cells of older, obese adults
    Karen R Kelly
    Department of Pathobiology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    J Nutr 141:1089-94. 2011
    Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known...
  92. pmc Does eating particular diets alter the risk of age-related macular degeneration in users of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study supplements?
    C J Chiu
    Laboratory for Nutrition and Vision Research, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Br J Ophthalmol 93:1241-6. 2009
    ....
  93. pmc Dietary hyperglycemia, glycemic index and metabolic retinal diseases
    Chung Jung Chiu
    Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, United States
    Prog Retin Eye Res 30:18-53. 2011
    The glycemic index (GI) indicates how fast blood glucose is raised after consuming a carbohydrate-containing food. Human metabolic studies indicate that GI is related to patho-physiological responses after meals...
  94. ncbi The application of the glycemic index and glycemic load in weight loss: A review of the clinical evidence
    Amin Esfahani
    Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    IUBMB Life 63:7-13. 2011
    ..its possible link to appetite control and metabolism, several clinical studies have assessed the effect of low glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) diets on weight loss...
  95. ncbi Dietary carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Framingham offspring cohort
    Nicola M McKeown
    Jean Mayer U S Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Am Coll Nutr 28:150-8. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between carbohydrate intake and dietary glycemic index and several cardiovascular disease risk factors.
  96. ncbi The link between dietary glycemic index and nutrient adequacy
    Jimmy Chun Yu Louie
    Cluster for Public Health Nutrition, Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise, and Eating Disorders, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:694-702. 2012
    Low-glycemic index (low-GI) diets may be less nutritious because of limited food choices. Alternately, high-GI diets could be less healthful because of a higher intake of refined carbohydrate.
  97. ncbi Dietary strategy to manipulate ad libitum macronutrient intake, and glycaemic index, across eight European countries in the Diogenes Study
    C S Moore
    MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge, CB1 9NL, UK
    Obes Rev 11:67-75. 2010
    ..The points system provides a useful starting point for designing improved experimental paradigms for the manipulation of dietary intake in future trials...
  98. ncbi Clinical and histological effect of a low glycaemic load diet in treatment of acne vulgaris in Korean patients: a randomized, controlled trial
    Hyuck Hoon Kwon
    Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Acta Derm Venereol 92:241-6. 2012
    ..A reduction in glycaemic load of the diet for 10 weeks resulted in improvements in acne...
  99. ncbi Effects of glycemic load on metabolic risk markers in subjects at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome
    Ruth Vrolix
    Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:366-74. 2010
    Epidemiologic studies suggest that diets with a low glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) are associated with a decreased risk of developing metabolic syndrome...
  100. ncbi A randomised four-intervention crossover study investigating the effect of carbohydrates on daytime profiles of insulin, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and triacylglycerols in middle-aged men
    Audrey E Brynes
    Nutrition and Dietetic Research Group, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0HS, UK
    Br J Nutr 89:207-18. 2003
    ..Conversely the HIGH-GI diet appeared to increase postprandial insulin resistance over the study period...
  101. ncbi The acute effect of various glycemic index dietary carbohydrates on endothelial function in nondiabetic overweight and obese subjects
    Talya Lavi
    Institute of Endocrinology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
    J Am Coll Cardiol 53:2283-7. 2009
    ..This study sought to explore the effect of glycemic-index dietary carbohydrates on endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in overweight and obese nondiabetic volunteers...

Research Grants62

  1. Oxidative Stress in Chronic Kidney Disease
    Talat Alp Ikizler; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..physical activity, and healthy dietary characteristics (greater polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio, lower glycemic index, lower processed food intake) will be associated with lower risks of CKD progression, and major ..
  2. Using Ketogenic Diets to Enhance Radio-Chemo-Therapy Response: A Phase I Trial
    DOUGLAS ROBERT SPITZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..proportion of fat relative to protein and carbohydrates and result in elevated blood ketone levels and a lower glycemic index which force cells to rely more heavily on mitochondrial respiration, as opposed to glycolysis, for energy ..
  3. Substituting Brown Rice for White Rice: Effect on Diabetes Risk Factors in India
    Mohan Viswanathan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..rice, a whole-grain, for white rice in Chennai, India, on biomarkers of diabetes risk and also will obtain glycemic index values of local rice and other staples...
  4. Glucose Regulation and Memory in Alzheimer's Disease
    Suzanne Craft; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..use a highly sensitive model developed in our current funding cycle: ingestion of a high saturated fat/high glycemic index diet (HSF/HGI) for 4 weeks, a time sufficient to induce mild metabolic changes characteristic of HAIR in a ..
  5. ENHANCING CARBOHYDRATE QUALITY IN DIABETES TYPE - 1
    Lori Laffel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..However, a growing body of evidence indicates that carbohydrates with a lower glycemic index may reduce postprandial hyperglycemia and improve overall glycemic control...
  6. Motivational Changes for Nutritionally Relevant Tastes after Gastric Bypass
    Alan C Spector; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..indisputedlty guides food choices and the effect of RYGB on gustatory processes may promote a shift to a lower glycemic index diet and potentially contribute to the weight loss and health gain...
  7. Glycemic Status and Infections in Autologous HCT Recipients
    Marilyn J Hammer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..A secondary aim is to determine which proinflammatory cytokine are overexpressed as the glycemic index increases in autologous HCT recipients. This will be the first prospective study of this nature...
  8. The role of Myocardial Substrate Metabolism in Heart Failure
    MOGAMMAD FAADIEL ESSOP; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Epidemiological studies from the US and Europe recently showed that high intake of carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (e.g...
  9. Dietary carbohydrate &glycemic index effects on oxidation &inflammation
    EDGAR RAYMOND MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In this application we propose to measure the effects of dietary patterns that vary the type (high and low glycemic index) and the amount of carbohydrate in the diet (high carbohydrate and low carbohydrate) on markers of ..
  10. Evaluation of Glycemic Index to Assess Diet-Associated Chronic Disease Risk
    Alice H Lichtenstein; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..within the same individual, when repeatedly measured) and inter-individual variability (among individuals) of glycemic index (Gl) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations for individual foods and food combinations...
  11. Glycemic Load and Resistance Training on Endothelial Function and Inflammation
    Christian K Roberts; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..test, whole body composition by DEXA, visceral and hepatic fat fraction by MRI, and acute responses to a high-glycemic index meal...
  12. Validated Biomarkers for Primary Macronutrient Balance
    Bruce S Kristal; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..signature of class-specific fats (eg, saturated, trans, polyunsaturated) and carbohydrates (differing glycemic index), including testing the biomarkers within the Nurses'Health Study I (NHS), a large, well-characterized ..
  13. Effect of Dietary Glycemic Index on Beta-cell Function
    KRISTINA MARIE UTZSCHNEIDER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Diets containing foods with a high glycemic index (GI) increase the glycemic load (GL) of the diet and post-prandial glucose levels...
  14. Mechanistically linking AMD, glycemic index and protein homeostasis
    Allen Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..New information from three large human cohorts indicates that consuming lower glycemic index diets (GI) is associated with a lower risk for all grades of AMD as well as for delayed onset or progress of ..
  15. EFFECT OF CHRONIC AMYLOSE FEEDING IN ADIPOSITY
    DANIEL BESSESSEN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Also, low glycemic index diets (amylose) seem to increase HDL- cholesterol compared with high glycemic index diets (amylopectin)...
  16. Identification of anti-cariogenic/low-glycemic activity factors from Lo Han Kuo
    CHIFU HUANG; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..that can be: (1) used by the general population; (2) demonstrate a anti-cariogenic capacity; (3) have a low glycemic index and negligible negative health effects; (4) has high sweetening index so low amounts can be used; (5) have a ..
  17. Nutrition Intervention: Metabolic Complications of HIV+
    Margo Woods; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..to polyunsaturated fat, increased omega 3-fatty acids intake, high fiber, and use of carbohydrates lower in glycemic index may be beneficial when they were studied individually...
  18. Colon Cancer Prevention Program Project Grant
    M Lance; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..g. obesity, excess energy intake, glycemic index) and recurrent and high risk colorectal adenomas and carcinogenesis, including associations between candidate ..
  19. Primary Prevention of Weight Gain for Women Aged 25-45
    Walter Willett; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..demonstrated changes in blood glucose levels due to the intake of specific carbohydrate foods, as measured by glycemic index (GI)...
  20. DIETARY TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELITUS--META ANALYSIS
    Zung Tran; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..as duration of diet therapy, diet composition, experimental design quality, subject's gender, subject type, glycemic index, and obesity; (4) compare similar diets in NIDDM and "normal" subjects; and (5) compile a unique data base ..
  21. Dietary Predictors of Congestive Heart Failure
    EMILY LEVITAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..in women and men;higher omega-6 to omega-3 ratio will be associated with increased risk;and 3) Higher dietary glycemic index and dietary glycemic load will be associated with increased risk of CHF in women...
  22. Growth Factors and Colon Cancer
    MARTHA OR MARTY SLATTERY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..IGFBP3, IRS-1, IRS-2, PPARgamma, ApoE, and VDR interact with dietary such as calcium, vitamin D, sugar, and glycemic index; sunshine exposure, physical activity, aspirin use, and body size to alter risk of colorectal cancer; that ..
  23. Gene-nutrient Etiologies of Neural Tube Defects
    Gary M Shaw; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..related to the folate pathway;2) exploring dietary intake of important nutritional factors such as choline and glycemic index, controlling for folate intake;3) measuring specific nutrients and antibodies in midpregnancy sera from women ..
  24. HIGH GLYCEMIC DIET AND RISK OF NIDDM AND CHD
    Simin Liu; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We have added two new components including a) validating the two dietary variables-glycemic index and insulinemic index-using a series of biomarkers including glycosylated hemoglobin Alc (HbAlc), C-peptide, ..
  25. Role of Diet in Weight Gain in Childbearing Women
    Christine Olson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The dietary components of primary interest are fat (% of calories from fat), carbohydrate (glycemic index and glycemic load), and calcium (dairy and non-dairy)...
  26. Effect of glycemic index and obesity on postmeal lipemia
    Kathryn Silliman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The specific aim of this project is to examine the effects of two test breakfast meals: One with a low glycemic index (47) and the other with a high glycemic index (70) in a group of premenopausal women with abdominal obesity ..
  27. A trial of two diets for weight and diabetes management
    Anthony Fabricatore; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..type 2 diabetes (n=120) will be randomly assigned to a diet based on the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) or a low-glycemic index (Gl) diet. The latter emphasizes selecting foods less rapidly converted to glucose...
  28. GLYCEMIC INDEX/GLYCEMIC LOAD AND BLOOD LIPIDS IN THE WHI
    James Shikany; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b>Glycemic index (GI) is a way of ranking carbohydrate-containing foods based on their postprandial blood glucose responses and ..
  29. Dietary Glycemic Load, Body Weight, and Blood Lipids
    Yunsheng Ma; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..However, neither the glycemic index (GI) nor GL is considered in the dietary guidelines of the American Heart Association, the U...
  30. USE OF ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTS AND OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE
    Marian Neuhouser; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. Age, Exercise, Diet: Effects on Insulin Resistance
    John Kirwan; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. Glycemic Index, Obesity, Insulin Resistance and CVD Risk
    David Ludwig; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..and epidemiology suggests that diets designed to minimize the rise in postprandial blood glucose, that is low glycemic index, may be useful in the treatment of obesity and related complications...
  33. Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Overweight Adolescents
    David S Ludwig; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These results should have immediat public health application, and aid in the design of future, comprehensive obesity prevention interventions. ..
  34. Exogenous Stressors and Birth Defects Risks
    Suzan Carmichael; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This research will enhance scientific understanding of the causes of several common, costly, often deadly birth defects, which will undoubtedly have important implications for their risk assessment and prevention. ..
  35. OXIDATIVE STRESS, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS & PREGNANCY OUTCOME
    Theresa Scholl; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  36. Glycemic Index and Metabolic Syndrome
    ANASTASSIOS PITTAS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..weight and also directly influencing the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity is the dietary glycemic index (GI)...
  37. Diet and Genetic Risks for Prostate Cancer
    Marian Neuhouser; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..To date, there are 718 confirmed cases of primary prostatic carcinoma. This proposed study will provide important information about prostate cancer etiology and suggest new strategies for prevention and control. ..
  38. Sugar-sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in Children
    David Ludwig; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. Postprandial glycemic response to 4-week low and high glycemic load diets
    Marian Neuhouser; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..has been done on postprandial responses of glucose and insulin to acute feeding of individual foods of varying glycemic index, but most other biomarkers measured in human studies are done in the fasting state...
  40. Popular Diets, Metabolism, and CVD Risk
    David Ludwig; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Recently, a third dietary approach focusing on glycemic index (Gl) has generated interest...
  41. Glycemic Load and infant birth weight in pregnant/glucose intolerant women
    David Ludwig; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..A successful outcome of this study will provide preliminary data upon which to design a multi- centered clinical trial. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  42. Low glycemic diets in Latino children at risk for type 2 diabetes
    NAZRAT MIRZA; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Through this career development award, Dr. Mirza expects to become established as an independent investigator and a leader in pediatric obesity and clinical nutrition. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  43. TEACHING NUTRITION TO PREVENT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
    Francine Welty; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This career award will establish Dr. Walker as a leader in medical education in nutrition, his long-term career goal. ..
  44. Intramuscular lipid and insulin action: ethnic aspects
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. Obesity, diet and functional health in African-Americans
    June Stevens; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..behavioral research on aging" and "... epidemiological research on the aging process and on the determinants of health and mortality in older populations .... " ..
  46. Plant-Based Dietry Intervention in Type 2 Diabetes
    Neal Barnard; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin concentrations, 24-hour urinary albumin, body weight, blood pressure, serum lipids, and related cardiovascular risk factors will be measured at baseline, 22 weeks, and 74 weeks. ..
  47. TRIAL OF ACTIVITY FOR ADOLESCENT GIRLS (TAAG)
    June Stevens; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  48. Do Free Glucose Test Strips Increase Self-Monitoring?
    Andrew Karter; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Proposal strengths also include a longitudinal design, substantial statistical power, low cost data acquisition, and an ethnically diverse population with uniform access to care. ..
  49. METHODOLOGIC ISSUES IN NUTRITIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGY
    KARIN MICHELS; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We aim to provide guidance to researchers who wish to explore diet-disease relations in how to use data best to obtain most valid results and avoid pitfalls which might produce misleading associations. ..
  50. DIETARY COMPOSITION, OBESITY, AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK
    ERNST SCHAEFER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..CHO): 15 percent fat, 5 percent mono, 5 percent poly, and 70 percent CHO (mainly complex with relatively high glycemic index), 16 g/1000 cal of fiber, and low dietary caloric density of 1...
  51. Hyperglycemia, Frailty and Disability in Older Women
    Caroline Blaum; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. Evaluation of Biological Relevance of Choline Intake
    Eunyoung Cho; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results from the proposed grant will enhance understanding of the role of choline intake in humans and lay the groundwork for future studies on choline intake and overall methyl-group-deficient diet and cancer. ..
  53. Vitamin D Intake and Breast Cancer Survival
    Michelle Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..A polymorphism in VDR (FOK1) has been shown to influence breast cancer risk. We hypothesize that women homozygous for this polymorphism will have an increased risk of death from breast cancer. ..
  54. HEDONICS AND DIETARY INTAKE OF FAT
    Richard Mattes; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This will be explored through stable isotope tracer studies for Aim 3. The proposed work will hold important public health, clinical, commercial and basic biological implications. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. Phytoestrogens and breast cancer risk
    Susan McCann; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These investigations, combining retrospective and experimental designs, as well as genetic analyses, will help to elucidate the role of dietary phytoestrogen intake in the etiology of a hormone- sensitive cancer. ..
  56. Development of a tool to measure food availability in the home
    June Stevens; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..By accurately measuring what foods are in the home, we can learn how food availability influences diet. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  57. Using Information Systems to Improve Cardiac Prevention
    Jeffrey Schnipper; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Schnipper's development as an independent researcher in improving the quality of care of patients with CAD. ..
  58. Localized Bioimpedance in Neuromuscular Disease
    SEWARD RUTKOVE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..As part of this aim, a prototype device for easy use will be developed and tested in the clinical setting. ..
  59. Validation of an Integrated Heart Rate/Activity Monitor
    Glenn Gaesser; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The PAM system will also be of benefit in sleep studies gait studies, pain management, geriatric stability assessment and fall monitoring, and diagnosis of ADHD, to name lust a few applications. ..
  60. Ambulatory Foot Temperature in Diabetic Neuropathy
    SEWARD RUTKOVE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Ultimately, the results obtained in this work may justify the use of ambulatory foot temperature monitoring in DN clinical trials, both as a screening tool for early disease and as an outcome measure. ..
  61. Cysteine, Related Gene Variants and Breast Cancer Risk
    Walter C Willett; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....