antigenic variation

Summary

Summary: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The genome of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei
    Matthew Berriman
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK
    Science 309:416-22. 2005
  2. pmc Molecular mechanisms underlying the control of antigenic variation in African trypanosomes
    David Horn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Curr Opin Microbiol 13:700-5. 2010
  3. pmc Phase and antigenic variation in bacteria
    Marjan W van der Woude
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, 202A Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6076, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 17:581-611, table of contents. 2004
  4. ncbi Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution
    Neil M Ferguson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nature 422:428-33. 2003
  5. pmc Silence, activate, poise and switch! Mechanisms of antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum
    Julien Guizetti
    Unité de Biologie des Interactions Hôte Parasite, Département de Parasitologie et Mycologie, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, Cedex 15, F 75724 Paris, France
    Cell Microbiol 15:718-26. 2013
  6. pmc Immunogenetic mechanisms driving norovirus GII.4 antigenic variation
    Lisa C Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002705. 2012
  7. ncbi Predicting the evolution of human influenza A
    R M Bush
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Science 286:1921-5. 1999
  8. pmc Common strategies for antigenic variation by bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens
    Kirk W Deitsch
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 7:493-503. 2009
  9. pmc Parasite antigens on the infected red cell surface are targets for naturally acquired immunity to malaria
    P C Bull
    Kenya Medical Research Institute CRC, Kilifi Unit
    Nat Med 4:358-60. 1998
  10. pmc Sir2 paralogues cooperate to regulate virulence genes and antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum
    Christopher J Tonkin
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia
    PLoS Biol 7:e84. 2009

Detail Information

Publications301 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The genome of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei
    Matthew Berriman
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK
    Science 309:416-22. 2005
    ..brucei and the greatest in L. major. Horizontal transfer of genes of bacterial origin has contributed to some of the metabolic differences in these parasites, and a number of novel potential drug targets have been identified...
  2. pmc Molecular mechanisms underlying the control of antigenic variation in African trypanosomes
    David Horn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Curr Opin Microbiol 13:700-5. 2010
    ..We describe the factors and sequences recently linked to mutually exclusive transcription and VSG recombination, and how these act in the control of the key virulence mechanism of antigenic variation.
  3. pmc Phase and antigenic variation in bacteria
    Marjan W van der Woude
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, 202A Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6076, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 17:581-611, table of contents. 2004
    Phase and antigenic variation result in a heterogenic phenotype of a clonal bacterial population, in which individual cells either express the phase-variable protein(s) or not, or express one of multiple antigenic forms of the protein, ..
  4. ncbi Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution
    Neil M Ferguson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nature 422:428-33. 2003
    ....
  5. pmc Silence, activate, poise and switch! Mechanisms of antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum
    Julien Guizetti
    Unité de Biologie des Interactions Hôte Parasite, Département de Parasitologie et Mycologie, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, Cedex 15, F 75724 Paris, France
    Cell Microbiol 15:718-26. 2013
    Phenotypic variation in genetically identical malaria parasites is an emerging topic. Although antigenic variation is only part of a more global parasite strategy to create adaptation through epigenetically controlled transcriptional ..
  6. pmc Immunogenetic mechanisms driving norovirus GII.4 antigenic variation
    Lisa C Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002705. 2012
    ..Moreover, these data support the hypothesis that GII.4 norovirus evolution is heavily influenced by antigenic variation of neutralizing epitopes and consequently, antibody-driven receptor switching; thus, protective herd ..
  7. ncbi Predicting the evolution of human influenza A
    R M Bush
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Science 286:1921-5. 1999
    ..However, not all codons in these sites had predictive value. Monitoring new H3 isolates for additional changes in positively selected codons might help identify the most fit extant viral strains that arise during antigenic drift...
  8. pmc Common strategies for antigenic variation by bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens
    Kirk W Deitsch
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 7:493-503. 2009
    ..and fungal pathogens from distant evolutionary lineages have evolved surprisingly similar mechanisms of antigenic variation to avoid eradication by the host immune system and can therefore maintain persistent infections and ensure ..
  9. pmc Parasite antigens on the infected red cell surface are targets for naturally acquired immunity to malaria
    P C Bull
    Kenya Medical Research Institute CRC, Kilifi Unit
    Nat Med 4:358-60. 1998
    ..the red cell surface and are prominently exposed and because they are highly polymorphic and undergo clonal antigenic variation, a mechanism of immune evasion maintained by a large family of var genes...
  10. pmc Sir2 paralogues cooperate to regulate virulence genes and antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum
    Christopher J Tonkin
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia
    PLoS Biol 7:e84. 2009
    ..1 (PfEMP1) molecules displayed on the erythrocyte surface are responsible for cytoadherance and undergo antigenic variation in the course of an infection...
  11. pmc An alternative DNA structure is necessary for pilin antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    Laty A Cahoon
    Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Science 325:764-7. 2009
    Pathogens can use DNA recombination to promote antigenic variation (Av) of surface structures to avoid immune detection...
  12. pmc Detailed analysis of sequence changes occurring during vlsE antigenic variation in the mouse model of Borrelia burgdorferi infection
    Loic Coutte
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000293. 2009
    ..The vls antigenic variation system, which expresses the surface-exposed lipoprotein VlsE, plays a major role in B...
  13. pmc Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen expression patterns during malaria
    Peter C Bull
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 1:e26. 2005
    ....
  14. pmc Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum malaria involves a highly structured switching pattern
    Mario Recker
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001306. 2011
    ..bacteria, fungi, and protozoa achieve chronic infection through an immune evasion strategy known as antigenic variation. In the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, this involves transcriptional switching among members ..
  15. pmc Surface co-expression of two different PfEMP1 antigens on single plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes facilitates binding to ICAM1 and PECAM1
    Louise Joergensen
    Centre for Medical Parasitology, Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001083. 2010
    ..membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) antigens play a major role in cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE), antigenic variation, and immunity to malaria...
  16. pmc Frequent recombination events generate diversity within the multi-copy variant antigen gene families of Plasmodium falciparum
    Matthias Frank
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 62, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Int J Parasitol 38:1099-109. 2008
    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum utilises a mechanism of antigenic variation to avoid the antibody response of its human host and thereby generates a long-term, persistent infection...
  17. pmc TOPO3alpha influences antigenic variation by monitoring expression-site-associated VSG switching in Trypanosoma brucei
    Hee Sook Kim
    Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000992. 2010
    Homologous recombination (HR) mediates one of the major mechanisms of trypanosome antigenic variation by placing a different variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene under the control of the active expression site (ES)...
  18. pmc Identification of Trypanosoma brucei RMI1/BLAP75 homologue and its roles in antigenic variation
    Hee Sook Kim
    Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e25313. 2011
    ..allows the parasite to escape the antibody-mediated host immune response, a mechanism known as antigenic variation. The active VSG is transcribed from a sub-telomeric polycistronic unit called the expression site (ES), ..
  19. ncbi Classification of adhesive domains in the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 family
    J D Smith
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 110:293-310. 2000
    ..This information might be used to develop interventions targeting parasite binding variants that cause disease...
  20. pmc Plasmodium falciparum antigenic variation. Mapping mosaic var gene sequences onto a network of shared, highly polymorphic sequence blocks
    Peter C Bull
    Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    Mol Microbiol 68:1519-34. 2008
    ....
  21. pmc Focusing homologous recombination: pilin antigenic variation in the pathogenic Neisseria
    Laty A Cahoon
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Mol Microbiol 81:1136-43. 2011
    ..high rates of recombination without deleterious effects on the genome in the well-characterized pilin antigenic variation systems of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis is presented...
  22. pmc Transcription of a cis-acting, noncoding, small RNA is required for pilin antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    Laty A Cahoon
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003074. 2013
    ..structure localized near pilE that is required for the homologous recombination reactions leading to pilin antigenic variation (Av)...
  23. pmc Comparative investigation of the genomic regions involved in antigenic variation of the TprK antigen among treponemal species, subspecies, and strains
    Lorenzo Giacani
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Bacteriol 194:4208-25. 2012
    ..Although each of the above-mentioned species and subspecies has a functional tprK antigenic variation system, it is still unclear why the level of expression and the rate at which tprK diversifies during ..
  24. ncbi Phase and antigenic variation in mycoplasmas
    Christine Citti
    INRA, UMR 1225, F 31076 Toulouse, France
    Future Microbiol 5:1073-85. 2010
    ....
  25. pmc A histone methyltransferase modulates antigenic variation in African trypanosomes
    Luisa M Figueiredo
    Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA
    PLoS Biol 6:e161. 2008
    ..In the African trypanosomes, antigenic variation is achieved by tightly regulating the expression of a multigene family encoding a large repertoire of ..
  26. pmc NUP-1 Is a large coiled-coil nucleoskeletal protein in trypanosomes with lamin-like functions
    Kelly N DuBois
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 10:e1001287. 2012
    ..NUP-1 depletion leads to increased VSG switching and therefore appears to have a role in control of antigenic variation. Thus, analogous to vertebrate lamins, NUP-1 is a major component of the nucleoskeleton with key roles in ..
  27. ncbi The role of VlsE antigenic variation in the Lyme disease spirochete: persistence through a mechanism that differs from other pathogens
    Troy Bankhead
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4 N1, Canada
    Mol Microbiol 65:1547-58. 2007
    ..This plasmid contains the vls antigenic variation locus, which has long been thought to be important for immune evasion...
  28. ncbi Mapping the antigenic and genetic evolution of influenza virus
    Derek J Smith
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    Science 305:371-6. 2004
    ..Further, this approach offers a route to predicting the relative success of emerging strains, which could be achieved by quantifying the combined effects of population level immune escape and viral fitness on strain evolution...
  29. pmc Dynamics and selection of many-strain pathogens
    Julia R Gog
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:17209-14. 2002
    ..By contrast, a short infectious period leads to a single dominant cluster at any given time. We show how the speed of cluster replacement depends on the specificity of cross-immunity and on the underlying pathogen mutation rate...
  30. ncbi Antigenic variation in the African trypanosome: molecular mechanisms and phenotypic complexity
    Liam J Morrison
    University of Glasgow, Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology and Division of Infection and Immunity, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, 120 University Place, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK
    Cell Microbiol 11:1724-34. 2009
    b>Antigenic variation is an immune evasion strategy that has evolved in viral, bacterial and protistan pathogens...
  31. ncbi Transient cross-reactive immune responses can orchestrate antigenic variation in malaria
    Mario Recker
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Nature 429:555-8. 2004
    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has evolved to prolong its duration of infection by antigenic variation of a major immune target on the surface of the infected red blood cell...
  32. ncbi Antigenic variation with a twist--the Borrelia story
    Steven J Norris
    Department of Pathology University of Texas Medical School at Houston, PO Box 20708, Houston, TX 77225 0708, USA
    Mol Microbiol 60:1319-22. 2006
    A common mechanism of immune evasion in pathogenic bacteria and protozoa is antigenic variation, in which genetic or epigenetic changes result in rapid, sequential shifts in a surface-exposed antigen...
  33. pmc A yeast-endonuclease-generated DNA break induces antigenic switching in Trypanosoma brucei
    Catharine E Boothroyd
    Laboratory of Lymphocyte Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nature 459:278-81. 2009
    ..This protozoan parasite evades the host immune system by antigenic variation, a periodic switching of its variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat...
  34. pmc DNA break site at fragile subtelomeres determines probability and mechanism of antigenic variation in African trypanosomes
    Lucy Glover
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003260. 2013
    b>Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes requires monoallelic transcription and switching of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes...
  35. pmc Borrelia burgdorferi vlsE antigenic variation is not mediated by RecA
    Dionysios Liveris
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Infect Immun 76:4009-18. 2008
    ..Genetic recombination may play a role in B. burgdorferi persistence by generation of antigenic variation. We report here the isolation of a recA null mutant in an infectious B. burgdorferi strain...
  36. ncbi Epochal evolution shapes the phylodynamics of interpandemic influenza A (H3N2) in humans
    Katia Koelle
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 2019 Kraus Natural Science Building, University of Michigan, 830 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1048, USA
    Science 314:1898-903. 2006
    ..It captures the observed boom-and-bust pattern of viral evolution, with periods of antigenic stasis during which genetic diversity grows, and with episodic contraction of this diversity during cluster transitions...
  37. pmc A role for RAD51 and homologous recombination in Trypanosoma brucei antigenic variation
    R McCulloch
    The Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology, The Anderson College, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G11 6NU, U K
    Genes Dev 13:2875-88. 1999
    b>Antigenic variation is an immune evasion strategy used by African trypanosomes, in which the parasites periodically switch the expression of VSG genes that encode their protective variant surface glycoprotein coat...
  38. ncbi The Plasmodium falciparum var gene transcription strategy at the onset of blood stage infection in a human volunteer
    Christian W Wang
    Department of International Health, Immunology, and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Parasitol Int 58:478-80. 2009
    ....
  39. ncbi PfSET10, a Plasmodium falciparum methyltransferase, maintains the active var gene in a poised state during parasite division
    Jennifer C Volz
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Cell Host Microbe 11:7-18. 2012
    ..switched expression of one of 60 var genes encoding PfEMP1 in each parasite genome provides a mechanism for antigenic variation. We report the identification of a parasite protein, designated PfSET10, which localizes exclusively to the ..
  40. pmc Distinct roles for two RAD51-related genes in Trypanosoma brucei antigenic variation
    Chris Proudfoot
    The Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology, University of Glasgow, Anderson College, 56 Dumbarton Road, Glasgow, G11 6NU, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:6906-19. 2005
    In Trypanosoma brucei, DNA recombination is crucial in antigenic variation, a strategy for evading the mammalian host immune system found in a wide variety of pathogens. T...
  41. ncbi Telomeric heterochromatin propagation and histone acetylation control mutually exclusive expression of antigenic variation genes in malaria parasites
    Lucio H Freitas-Junior
    Institut Pasteur, Biology of Host Parasite Interactions Unit CNRS URA2581, 25, rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris, France
    Cell 121:25-36. 2005
    Malaria parasites use antigenic variation to avoid immune clearance and increase the duration of infection in the human host. Variation at the surface of P...
  42. pmc Cohesin regulates VSG monoallelic expression in trypanosomes
    David Landeira
    Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 18100 Granada, Spain
    J Cell Biol 186:243-54. 2009
    b>Antigenic variation allows Trypanosoma brucei to evade the host immune response by switching the expression of 1 out of approximately 15 telomeric variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) expression sites (ESs)...
  43. ncbi Genetically destined potentials for N-linked glycosylation of influenza virus hemagglutinin
    Manabu Igarashi
    Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo 001 0020, Japan
    Virology 376:323-9. 2008
    ..We hypothesize that influenza viruses maintained in natural reservoirs could have different potentials for sustained circulation, depending on their HA subtypes, if introduced into the human population...
  44. ncbi Structure of Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A10 61 alone and complexed with oligosaccharide receptor: receptor conservation in the face of antigenic variation
    Elizabeth E Fry
    Division of Structural Biology, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK
    J Gen Virol 86:1909-20. 2005
    ..Heparin bound at a similar site and in a similar conformation to that seen in the analogous complex with O(1)BFS, although the binding had a lower affinity and was more ionic...
  45. ncbi Complete DNA sequence of a serogroup A strain of Neisseria meningitidis Z2491
    J Parkhill
    The Sanger Centre, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK
    Nature 404:502-6. 2000
    ..Many of these repeats appear to be involved in genome fluidity and antigenic variation in this important human pathogen.
  46. ncbi Determinants of phase variation rate and the fitness implications of differing rates for bacterial pathogens and commensals
    Christopher D Bayliss
    Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 33:504-20. 2009
    ..Experimental approaches to studying the biological relevance of differing PV rates are being developed, and a recent intriguing finding is of a co-ordination of switching rates in the phase variable P-pili of uropathogenic bacteria...
  47. ncbi Glycosylation and antigenic variation among Kunjin virus isolates
    S C Adams
    Department of Microbiology, University of Western Australia, QEII Medical Centre, Nedlands
    Virology 206:49-56. 1995
    ..We investigated the extent of antigenic variation between KUN virus isolates from Australia and Sarawak using an immunoperoxidase assay and a panel of six ..
  48. pmc Norovirus GII.4 strain antigenic variation
    Lisa C Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Virol 85:231-42. 2011
    ..assays using sera from outbreaks and from immunized mice suggest that, as with influenza virus, antigenic variation maintains GII.4 persistence in the face of human population herd immunity...
  49. pmc 'Nothing is permanent but change'- antigenic variation in persistent bacterial pathogens
    Guy H Palmer
    Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Cell Microbiol 11:1697-705. 2009
    ..in immunocompetent mammalian hosts using various strategies, including evasion of immune effectors by antigenic variation. Among highly antigenically variant bacteria, gene conversion is used to generate novel expressed variants ..
  50. ncbi The Plasmodium falciparum var gene switching rate, switching mechanism and patterns of parasite recrudescence described by mathematical modelling
    S Paget-McNicol
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, The Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Australia
    Parasitology 124:225-35. 2002
    ..This work illustrates the complex relationship between the malaria parasite and its host and shows that var gene switching at rates substantially slower than 2% are essential for parasite survival...
  51. pmc Vaccination against trypanosomiasis: can it be done or is the trypanosome truly the ultimate immune destroyer and escape artist?
    Florencia La Greca
    Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    Hum Vaccin 7:1225-33. 2011
    ....
  52. pmc Telomeric expression sites are highly conserved in Trypanosoma brucei
    Christiane Hertz-Fowler
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 3:e3527. 2008
    ..This work opens important perspectives in understanding the molecular mechanisms of antigenic variation, a widely used strategy for immune evasion in pathogens, and telomere biology.
  53. pmc Borrelia burgdorferi changes its surface antigenic expression in response to host immune responses
    Fang Ting Liang
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8031, USA
    Infect Immun 72:5759-67. 2004
    ..This change in antigenic expression could be induced by passively immunizing infected severe combined immunodeficiency mice with specific Borrelia antisera or OspC antibody and appears to allow B. burgdorferi to resist immune attack...
  54. pmc Frequent homologous recombination events in Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE/PPE multigene families: potential role in antigenic variability
    Anis Karboul
    Unit of Typing and Genetics of Mycobacteria, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia
    J Bacteriol 190:7838-46. 2008
    ..The finding of high prevalence (approximately 45% and approximately 58%) for at least two of the genomic deletions suggests that they likely confer advantageous biological attributes...
  55. ncbi Phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in China and the antigenic variation of new strains
    Xinglong Wang
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, People s Republic of China
    Arch Virol 157:1523-30. 2012
    ..The present work is the first comprehensive analysis of Chinese RHDV and reveals a new RHDV variation that should be carefully monitored...
  56. pmc Interactions among Trypanosoma brucei RAD51 paralogues in DNA repair and antigenic variation
    Rachel Dobson
    College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Sir Graeme Davis Building, 120 University Place, Glasgow G128TA, UK
    Mol Microbiol 81:434-56. 2011
    ..is used for moving variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes into expression sites during immune evasion by antigenic variation. A major route for such VSG switching is gene conversion reactions in which RAD51, a universally conserved ..
  57. pmc Identification of a cis-acting DNA-protein interaction implicated in singular var gene choice in Plasmodium falciparum
    Nicolas M B Brancucci
    Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
    Cell Microbiol 14:1836-48. 2012
    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most severe form of malaria in humans. Antigenic variation of P...
  58. pmc The small chromosomes of Trypanosoma brucei involved in antigenic variation are constructed around repetitive palindromes
    Bill Wickstead
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
    Genome Res 14:1014-24. 2004
    ..brucei fall into this category, yet are critical to understanding the genome because of their role in antigenic variation. Their relatively small size, however, makes them particularly amenable to physical mapping...
  59. pmc Mosaic VSGs and the scale of Trypanosoma brucei antigenic variation
    James P J Hall
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003502. 2013
    ..infection and transmission and success of the parasite is the interplay between host acquired immunity and antigenic variation of the parasite variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. About 0...
  60. pmc Hypervariable antigen genes in malaria have ancient roots
    Martine M Zilversmit
    National Institute of Allergy of Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    BMC Evol Biol 13:110. 2013
    ..Although studying genetic diversity is a major focus of recent work on the var genes, little is known about the gene family's origin and evolutionary history...
  61. ncbi New insights regarding the biology of Giardia lamblia
    Pedro G Carranza
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Cordoba, Jacinto Rios 571, CP X5004ASK, Cordoba, Argentina
    Microbes Infect 12:71-80. 2010
    ..findings regarding the process of Giardia trophozoites differentiation into infective cysts as well as the mechanism of antigenic variation, which allows the parasite to cause chronic and recurrent infections in susceptible individuals.
  62. ncbi Bloodstream form Trypanosome plasma membrane proteins: antigenic variation and invariant antigens
    Angela Schwede
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB21GA, UK
    Parasitology 137:2029-39. 2010
    ..In particular, the following are addressed: (1) antigenic variation of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), (2) the formation of an effective VSG barrier shielding ..
  63. ncbi Antigenic variation in Babesia bovis occurs through segmental gene conversion of the ves multigene family, within a bidirectional locus of active transcription
    Basima Al-Khedery
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611, USA
    Mol Microbiol 59:402-14. 2006
    b>Antigenic variation in Babesia bovis is one aspect of a multifunctional virulence/survival mechanism mediated by the heterodimeric variant erythrocyte surface antigen 1 (VESA1) protein that also involves endothelial cytoadhesion with ..
  64. pmc X-ray structure of a native calicivirus: structural insights into antigenic diversity and host specificity
    Rong Chen
    Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:8048-53. 2006
    ..These observations suggest a mechanism for antigenic diversity and host specificity in caliciviruses and provide a structural framework for vaccine development...
  65. pmc Ureaplasma antigenic variation beyond MBA phase variation: DNA inversions generating chimeric structures and switching in expression of the MBA N-terminal paralogue UU172
    Carl Ulrich R Zimmerman
    Institute of Bacteriology, Mycology and Hygiene, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinaerplatz 1, A 1210 Vienna, Austria
    Mol Microbiol 79:663-76. 2011
    ..Our results indicate that site-specific recombination events in the genome of U. parvum serovar 3 are dynamic and frequent, leading to a broad spectrum of antigenic variation by which the organism may evade host immune responses.
  66. pmc Differential, positional-dependent transcriptional response of antigenic variation (var) genes to biological stress in Plasmodium falciparum
    Elli Rosenberg
    The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Ben Gurion University of Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    PLoS ONE 4:e6991. 2009
    ..As disease severity is partly associated with expression of particular var gene subtypes, manipulation of the IE environment may serve as a mechanism to direct transcription towards less virulent genes...
  67. ncbi Alternate phase variation in expression of two major surface membrane proteins (MBA and UU376) of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3
    Carl Ulrich R Zimmerman
    Institute of Bacteriology, Mycology and Hygiene, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 292:187-93. 2009
    ..We propose that in U. parvum serovar 3, and presumably in all U. parvum and U. urealyticum, an inversion event at specific sites effects an alternate ON/OFF switching of the genes UU375 and UU376...
  68. ncbi Bioinformatics models for predicting antigenic variants of influenza A/H3N2 virus
    Yu Chieh Liao
    Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan 350, Taiwan
    Bioinformatics 24:505-12. 2008
    ..Continual and accumulated mutations in hemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza A virus generate novel antigenic strains that cause annual epidemics...
  69. ncbi Understanding the dynamics of rapidly evolving pathogens through modeling the tempo of antigenic change: influenza as a case study
    Katia Koelle
    Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Epidemics 1:129-37. 2009
    ..These advantages of the antigenic tempo model make it a useful alternative to address several outstanding questions for rapidly evolving pathogens...
  70. ncbi A new antigenic variant of human influenza A (H3N2) virus isolated from airport and community surveillance in Taiwan in early 2009
    Ji Rong Yang
    National Influenza Center, Centers for Disease Control, No 161, Kun Yang Street, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC
    Virus Res 151:33-8. 2010
    ....
  71. pmc Predicting antigenic variants of influenza A/H3N2 viruses
    Min Shi Lee
    MedImmune Vaccines, Mountain View, California 94043, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:1385-90. 2004
    ..The methods described in this study could be applied to predict vaccine-induced cross-reactive antibody responses in humans, which may further improve the selection of vaccine strains...
  72. pmc Biology of Giardia lamblia
    R D Adam
    Department of Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine, 1501N Campbell, Tucson, AZ 85724 5049, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 14:447-75. 2001
    ..Trophozoites exhibit antigenic variation of an extensive repertoire of cysteine-rich variant-specific surface proteins...
  73. ncbi The pir multigene family of Plasmodium: antigenic variation and beyond
    Deirdre Cunningham
    Division of Parasitology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 170:65-73. 2010
    ..erythrocytes, and therefore could be potential targets of the host's immune response, and involved in antigenic variation and immune evasion. Other functions such as signalling, trafficking and adhesion have been also postulated...
  74. ncbi The Hypervariable region of Streptococcus pyogenes M protein escapes antibody attack by antigenic variation and weak immunogenicity
    Jonas Lannergård
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden
    Cell Host Microbe 10:147-57. 2011
    ..These data indicate that the M protein HVR evades antibody attack not only through antigenic variation but also by weak immunogenicity, a paradoxical observation that may apply to other HVR-containing proteins.
  75. ncbi Nuclear architecture, genome and chromatin organisation in Trypanosoma brucei
    Klaus Ersfeld
    Department of Biological Sciences and Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, UK
    Res Microbiol 162:626-36. 2011
    ..These advances also have a major impact on progress in understanding the molecular basis of antigenic variation.
  76. pmc Influenza A virus hemagglutinin antibody escape promotes neuraminidase antigenic variation and drug resistance
    Scott E Hensley
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e15190. 2011
    ..Here, we show that antibody-driven antigenic variation in one domain of the H1 hemagglutinin Sa site leads to compensatory mutations in NA, resulting in NA ..
  77. ncbi Two residues in the hemagglutinin of A/Fujian/411/02-like influenza viruses are responsible for antigenic drift from A/Panama/2007/99
    Hong Jin
    MedImmune Vaccines, Inc, 297 North Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
    Virology 336:113-9. 2005
    ....
  78. ncbi Nuclear architecture underlying gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei
    Miguel Navarro
    Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Spanish National Research Council, Avda del Conocimiento s n, 18100 Granada, Spain
    Trends Microbiol 15:263-70. 2007
    ..Furthermore, the infective bloodstream form of the parasite undergoes antigenic variation, displaying sequentially different types of VSG by allelic exclusion...
  79. pmc Identification of neutralizing antigenic sites on VP1 and VP2 of type A5 foot-and-mouth disease virus, defined by neutralization-resistant variants
    J C Saiz
    Molecular Biology Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, U S Department of Agriculture, Greenport, New York 1194 0848
    J Virol 65:2518-24. 1991
    ..The relative importance of these two sites in the biological properties of foot-and-mouth disease virus is discussed...
  80. pmc Hemagglutinin receptor binding avidity drives influenza A virus antigenic drift
    Scott E Hensley
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 326:734-6. 2009
    ....
  81. ncbi Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum
    Artur Scherf
    Biology of Host Parasite Interactions Unit, CNRS URA2581, Institut Pasteur 75724 Paris, France
    Annu Rev Microbiol 62:445-70. 2008
    ..b>Antigenic variation is orchestrated by epigenetic factors including monoallelic var transcription at separate spatial domains ..
  82. pmc Population structure and capsular switching of invasive Neisseria meningitidis isolates in the pre-meningococcal conjugate vaccine era--United States, 2000-2005
    Lee H Harrison
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:1208-24. 2010
    ..Neisseria meningitidis changes its capsular phenotype through capsular switching, which has implications for vaccines that do not protect against all serogroups...
  83. pmc Genetics of antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum
    Ron Dzikowski
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Kuvin Center for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, The Institute for Medical Research Israel Canada, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    Curr Genet 55:103-10. 2009
    ..exposed antigenic proteins that that are vulnerable to antibody recognition and attack, a process called antigenic variation. Significant work in recent years has contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this ..
  84. pmc High diversity and rapid changeover of expressed var genes during the acute phase of Plasmodium falciparum infections in human volunteers
    Jennifer Peters
    Malaria Laboratory, Infectious Diseases Unit, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Post Office Royal Brisbane Hospital, Queensland 4029, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:10689-94. 2002
    ..falciparum-infected erythrocytes undergo antigenic variation by switching the gene expressed within a repertoire of approximately 50 var genes per haploid genome...
  85. ncbi Assessment of the extent of variation in influenza A virus cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes by using virus-specific CD8+ T-cell clones
    E G M Berkhoff
    Department of Virology and Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Gen Virol 88:530-5. 2007
    ..6 % of all CTL clones. For some of these CTL clones, the minimal epitope and the residues responsible for abrogation of T-cell recognition were identified...
  86. ncbi Global genetic diversity and evolution of var genes associated with placental and severe childhood malaria
    Adama R Trimnell
    Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 148:169-80. 2006
    ..These studies aid our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms that shape var diversity and will be important to the development of vaccines against pregnancy associated malaria and severe malaria...
  87. ncbi Phase variation of the multiple banded protein in Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum
    Stefan Monecke
    Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Medical Faculty, Technical University of Dresden, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 293:203-11. 2003
    ..Therefore, it is proposed that the multiple banded proteins of U. urealyticum and U. parvum are subjected to a phase-switching mechanism as it has already been described for several other Mycoplasmatales...
  88. ncbi Unifying the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogens
    Bryan T Grenfell
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK
    Science 303:327-32. 2004
    ..A central pillar of this model is the Evolutionary Infectivity Profile, which captures the relationship between immune selection and pathogen transmission...
  89. pmc Antigenic divergence suggested by correlation between antigenic variation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of Bordetella pertussis isolates in Japan
    Atsuko Kodama
    Department of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Infection Control, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4 7 1 Gakuen, Musashimurayama City, Tokyo 208 0011, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5453-7. 2004
    ..A correlation was found between the antigenic variation and the PFGE profile in the isolates...
  90. ncbi DNA metabolism and genetic diversity in Trypanosomes
    Carlos Renato Machado
    Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
    Mutat Res 612:40-57. 2006
    ..In T. brucei, two genetic components are critical to the success of antigenic variation, a strategy that allows the parasite to evade the host immune system by periodically changing the ..
  91. ncbi Heterochromatin silencing and locus repositioning linked to regulation of virulence genes in Plasmodium falciparum
    Manoj T Duraisingh
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne 3050, Australia
    Cell 121:13-24. 2005
    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum undergoes antigenic variation to evade host immune responses through switching expression of variant surface proteins encoded by the var gene family...
  92. pmc Antigenic diversity, transmission mechanisms, and the evolution of pathogens
    Alexander Lange
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Comput Biol 5:e1000536. 2009
    ....
  93. ncbi Regulation of antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia
    Cesar G Prucca
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Cordoba, CP X5004ASK Cordoba, Argentina
    Annu Rev Microbiol 65:611-30. 2011
    b>Antigenic variation, a clonal phenotypic variation developed by microorganisms, involves the permanent switching of homologous, antigenically different cell surface molecules...
  94. pmc Frequency and rate of pilin antigenic variation of Neisseria meningitidis
    R Allen Helm
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:3822-3. 2010
    The rates of pilin antigenic variation (Av) of two strains of Neisseria meningitidis were determined using an unbiased DNA sequencing assay. Strain MC58 underwent pilin Av at a rate similar to that of N...
  95. ncbi Antigenic variation in trypanosomes: secrets surface slowly
    G A Cross
    Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021 6399, USA
    Bioessays 18:283-91. 1996
    ..Trypanosoma brucei has developed the most elaborate capacity for antigenic variation. Trypanosomes branched early during eukaryotic evolution...
  96. ncbi Mapping of H3N2 influenza antigenic evolution in China reveals a strategy for vaccine strain recommendation
    Xiangjun Du
    Key Laboratory of Protein and Peptide Pharmaceuticals, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    Nat Commun 3:709. 2012
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that the coupling of large-scale HA sequencing with PREDAC can significantly improve vaccine strain recommendation for China...
  97. pmc Erasing the epigenetic memory and beginning to switch--the onset of antigenic switching of var genes in Plasmodium falciparum
    Yair Fastman
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Kuvin Center for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, IMRIC, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    PLoS ONE 7:e34168. 2012
    b>Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is regulated by transcriptional switches among members of the var gene family, each expressed in a mutually exclusive manner and encoding a different variant of the surface antigens ..
  98. pmc Monoclonal antibody-based antigenic mapping of norovirus GII.4-2002
    Lisa C Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    J Virol 86:873-83. 2012
    ..Surrogate neutralization assays using sera and mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) suggest that antigenic variation maintains GII...
  99. pmc Antigenic variation in Treponema pallidum: TprK sequence diversity accumulates in response to immune pressure during experimental syphilis
    Lorenzo Giacani
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    J Immunol 184:3822-9. 2010
    Pathogens that cause chronic infections often employ antigenic variation to evade the immune response and persist in the host. In Treponema pallidum (T...
  100. ncbi Investigating antigenic variation and other parasite-host interactions in Plasmodium falciparum infections in naïve hosts
    M L Gatton
    Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, PO Royal Brisbane Hospital, QLD 4029, Australia
    Parasitology 128:367-76. 2004
    ..This model incorporates a novel process to simulate antigenic variation by the parasite, and specific and non-specific immune responses by the host...
  101. ncbi Antigenic variation in Babesia bovis: how similar is it to that in Plasmodium falciparum?
    D R Allred
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611 0880, USA
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92:461-72. 1998
    ..Significant among these are participation in rapid, clonal antigenic variation, and cyto-adherence and sequestration in the deep vasculature...

Research Grants65

  1. Characterize functions of T. brucei RAP1 and TRF in antigenic variation and telom
    Bibo Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In mammalian hosts, bloodstream form (BF) T. brucei undergoes antigenic variation and regularly switches its surface antigen, variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), to evade the host's ..
  2. FUNCTION OF THE KINETOPLAST IN THE HEMOFLAGELLATES
    Larry Simpson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  3. Recombination in a Minimal Organism
    Patricia A Totten; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have hypothesized that this persistence is based on the ability of MG to evade the host immune response by antigenic variation in two of its surface proteins, MgpB and MgpC located in its complex and unique terminal organelle...
  4. The role of the interaction between the C-terminal domain of RNA pol II and a his
    Uchechi E Ukaegbu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is expressed aids the parasite in its ability to evade clearance by the immune system and is referred to as antigenic variation. The mechanism by which the expression of individual var genes is regulated is poorly understood, however ..
  5. Immunogenicity of the Type IV Secretin System
    WENDY CATHERINE BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..total membrane antigens is constrained by surface protein antigenic diversity[unreadable]either within host antigenic variation or diversity among strains...
  6. Susceptibility and Protective Immunity to Noroviruses
    Ralph S Baric; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While defining the relationships between mutation, antigenic variation, immunogenicity, deceptive imprinting, structure and HGBA binding, our interdisciplinary team ..
  7. VIRULENCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS IN LYME DISEASE
    Steven J Norris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Antigenic variation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many infectious agents, most notably bacteria and protozoa that cause chronic infections...
  8. P.falciparum var gene diversity and malaria control
    KAREN PATRICIA DAY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..falciparum genome and differential expression of these genes underlies clonal antigenic variation. This ability to switch surface antigen variants allows the malaria parasite to evade the host immune ..
  9. Var gene regulation and antigenic variation in malaria
    Kirk W Deitsch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This process is referred to as antigenic variation and is responsible for the persistent nature of the disease as well as the waves of parasitemia frequently ..
  10. Antigenic Variation of TprK in Treponema pallidum
    Sheila A Lukehart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of TprK, a putative surface- exposed protein of Treponema pallidum, we hypothesized that this represents an antigenic variation system, leading to immune evasion and contributing to the chronic nature of syphilis infection...
  11. Primate Model of Mycoplasma genitalium
    Patricia A Totten; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Dr. Totten's research demonstrating the disease associations of M. genitalium, the possible role of antigenic variation in the ability of this organism to persist in infected women, and her proven ability to culture this ..
  12. Mycoplasma genitalium Antigenic Variation
    Patricia Totten; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..genitalium to evade the immune response mediated by antigenic variation in two of its surface proteins, MgpB and MgpC, located in the complex terminally located attachment ..
  13. Type IV secretion by Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    Joseph P Dillard; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Gonococci survive in the human population by generating a high degree of genetic diversity resulting in antigenic variation and the avoidance of the host immune response...
  14. Mutational analysis of the vlp/vsp antigenic variation system of the relapsing fe
    TROY MICHAEL BANKHEAD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..vlp/vsp antigenic switching, direct mutational studies providing a mechanistic role for these elements in antigenic variation by any relapsing fever Borrelia species is still lacking...
  15. Novel vaccine strategies for prevention of N. meningitidis group B disease
    Dan M Granoff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..meningitidis disease, including group B. Since other pathogens also bind fH to circumvent innate host defenses, the lessons learned may be applicable to development of other vaccines. ..
  16. Biosynthesis and function of base J in T. brucei
    Robert S Sabatini; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Pathogenesis of T. brucei is critically dependent on the phenomena of antigenic variation. During infection of the mammalian host the majority of the trypanosome population is destroyed by the ..
  17. Guide RNA Binding Complex
    RUSLAN AFASIZHEV; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sickness, Trypanosoma brucei, is also an important model organism for several areas of research, including antigenic variation, host-pathogen interaction, developmental reprogramming, and mitochondrial biology...
  18. MOLECULAR BASIS OF BORRELIA PATHOGENESIS
    Alan G Barbour; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..provide an excellent experimental system for comprehensively understanding the pathogenesis strategy of antigenic variation and the systems biology and evolutionof an infectiousdisease...
  19. Multifunctional class I transcription in T. brucei
    ARTHUR GUNZL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The coat protects the parasite from lytic host components and antigenic variation of the VSG coat is the parasite's means to evade the immune response...
  20. VIRULENCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS IN LYME DISEASE
    Steven J Norris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Antigenic variation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many infectious agents, most notably bacteria and protozoa that cause chronic infections...
  21. Genetic diversity in virulence genes of Plasmodium falciparum
    LAURA KIRKMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This proposal will further the understanding of antigenic variation in malaria by integrating the study of the parasite mechanisms for DNA recombination and repair and the ..
  22. Mycoplasma genitalium variation in longitudinally infected men
    Patricia A Totten; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have hypothesized that this persistence is based on the ability of MG to evade the host immune response by antigenic variation in two of its surface proteins, MgpB and MgpC located in its complex and unique terminal organelle...
  23. DNA repair and recombination within the var gene family of P. falciparum
    Kirk W Deitsch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..undergoes rapid and continuous diversification that enables the parasite to avoid the immune system through antigenic variation. The mechanisms underlying diversification are unknown, but the process appears to involve frequent "..
  24. Modulation of Virulence Determinants Contributing to Gonococcal Pathogenesis
    Daniel Williams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..gonorrhoeae. The gene encoding the major pilin subunit (PilE) is subject to both phase and antigenic variation. We recently have identified a transcriptional regulator termed PssR (Pilus secretion system Represser ..
  25. Antigenic variation in microbial transmission
    GUY HUGHES PALMER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the second part, we will examine the "fitness cost" of this genomic change and determine if it underlies the ability of an emergent strain to succeed within the pathogen population. ..
  26. Molecular Mechanisms of Antigenic Variation in Malaria
    Mary R Galinski; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..human primate model system to identify, distinguish and characterize the molecular mechanisms that regulate antigenic variation in Plasmodium...
  27. Cross-Protective Immunity to African Trypanosomes
    John M Mansfield; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Arguably the most well-known example of immune evasion by parasites is antigenic variation of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat by the African trypanosomes, which prevents immune ..
  28. A role for chromatin factors in regulating antigenic variation in T. brucei.
    Danae Schulz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..between thousands of variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) expressed on its cell surface in a process called antigenic variation. VSG genes are monoallelically expressed from one of ~15 telomeric expression sites, while the rest are ..
  29. Human &mouse antibodies against influenza virus
    Gillian M Air; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Influenza vaccines are safe but have varying effectiveness due to antigenic variation of circulating influenza viruses in the human population...
  30. Immuno-epidemiological epitope mapping of a blood stage malaria vaccine antigen
    Christopher V Plowe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..AMA1 is highly polymorphic;antigenic variation is likely a parasite immune escape mechanism that allows repeated infection with different variants in the ..
  31. Plasmodium Recombination of Machinery
    Nirbhay Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Recombination mechanisms are intimately linked with antigenic variation, a phenomenon of utmost significance for vaccine development against protozoan parasites like the malaria ..
  32. Mechanisms of Gonococcal Pilin Antigenic and Phase Variation
    Hank S Seifert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): The pathogenic Neisseria are obligate human pathogens that rely on several antigenic variation systems to continually colonize and cause disease in the human population...
  33. Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen diversity
    Sebastien Gagneux; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To determine whether M. tuberculosis uses antigenic variation to evade elimination by T cell responses, we tested the hypothesis that M...
  34. Transmission-blocking vaccine for HIV-1
    Robert C Rose; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..authentic form of HIV-1, as it is found in semen, and - potentially - to circumvent the problem of viral antigenic variation. Two aims are proposed...
  35. Mechanisms and Population Genomics of Pneumococcal Antigenic Diversity
    Marc Lipsitch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  36. Virological Synapse and Signaling for Efficient HIV Transmission
    Catarina E Hioe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  37. Broad Spectrum Neutralizing Human Abs to SARS and Related Coronaviruses
    Wayne A Marasco; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  38. Estimates of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness
    Peter G Szilagyi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, the relationship between antigenic variation and vaccine effectiveness is incompletely understood in many populations...
  39. The role of nuclear architecture in adaptation
    Megan C King; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..I propose to study genetic changes in loci encoding cell surface proteins in fission yeast as a model for antigenic variation employed by many pathogens...
  40. Design and function of flagellin-based immunogens for broadly neutralizing immuni
    Kelly D Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose to engineer bacterial flagellin molecules that will display conserved HIV epitopes for use as potent immunogens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses to HIV. ..
  41. Salpingeal infection model of Mycoplasma genitalium
    Patricia A Totten; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Dr. Totten's research demonstrating the disease associations of M. genitalium, the possible role of antigenic variation in the ability of this organism to persist in infected women, and her proven ability to culture this ..
  42. Development of a polyvalent chimeric vaccine for Lyme disease
    Richard T Marconi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In aim 1we will identify the immunodominant epitopes of each OspC type and determine if each elicits a bactericidal Ab response. In aim 2 we will construct a polyvalent chimeric vaccinogen and in aim 3 we will assess its efficacy. ..
  43. CMV Vaccines: Reinfection and Antigenic Variation
    WILLIAM JARVIS BRITT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  44. The Transfusion Chip: A Simple, Low Cost Microarray for DNA Based Blood Typing
    Michael E Hogan; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The resulting technology will not only reduce the cost of blood supply testing in the US, but we propose, will enable a new generation of enhanced, DNA-based blood group typing in the developing world. ..
  45. Antigenic variation by multiple promoter inversions in Mycoplasma penetrans
    Michael Calcutt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The study of the system of antigenic variation in this organism will both further our understanding of this complex process and provide a platform for the ..
  46. Neisseria gonorrhoeae G4-binding proteins that regulate pilin antigenic variation
    ELLA ROSE ROTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Antigenic variation of the N. gonorrhoeae pilus is one of the reasons why long term immunity is difficult to achieve, as hosts can get reinfected...
  47. Structure-function analysis of infection- and vaccine-induced B-cell repertoires
    STEPHEN COPLAN HARRISON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Antigenic variation underlies a large number of the most critical problems now facing vaccine development...
  48. Reassortment of influenza viruses in a co-infected host
    Anice C Lowen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, through carefully controlled experimental studies, we propose to reveal novel insights in the mechanisms governing influenza virus evolution and the emergence of epidemic and pandemic strains. ..
  49. TRYPANOSOME VARIANT SURFACE GLYCOPROTEIN CARBOHYDRATES
    Herman van Halbeek; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The parasite evades the mammalian host's immunological response to its presence in body fluids by antigenic variation: the expression of a sequence of immunologically distinct glycoprotein coats over the entire surface of the ..
  50. Regulation of HTLV-I replication by the viral p30
    Christophe Nicot; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. Molecular Microbial Persistance and Pathogenesis
    Neal A DeLuca; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..diseases worldwide and the formidable challenges posed by microbial antibiotic resistance, microbial antigenic variation, genetic latency, and emerging infectious agents...
  52. Masking the GH-loop: model for human Rhinovirus vaccine
    Peter Nara; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..of new vaccine development for viruses, bacteria and parasites is overcoming problems associated with antigenic variation. In the picornavirus family, antigenic variation is promoted through genetic instability and the evolution ..
  53. GONOCOCCAL PIA--ROLE IN INVASION OF FALLOPIAN TUBE CELL
    GARY GORBY; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Opa and LOS undergo rapid phase and antigenic variation. One type of LOS defined by the 3F11 monoclonal antibody binds to the asialoglycoprotein receptor in liver ..
  54. Antigenic variation of Anaplasma marginale
    PATRICK MEEUS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..b>Antigenic variation of surface proteins is a major evasion strategy common to all ehrlichial pathogens, often involving very ..
  55. Immunologic interaction of schistomiasis & acute malaria
    Kirsten Lyke; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  56. Virulence and Immunity of Granulocytic Ehrlichiae
    JOHN DUMLER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We characterized antigenic variation in the major immunodominant surface protein (Msp) of the bacterium that likely results from differential ..
  57. Evaluation of a CCR5 Vaccine for HIV infection in the SIV/Macaque Model
    BRYCE C CHACKERIAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..HIV vaccine development has been complicated by the extensive antigenic variation displayed by HIV...
  58. 'Lyme disease: A possible test for cure
    MARIO PHILIPP; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..VIsE is the molecule that undergoes antigenic variation in Borrelia hurgdorfen (the etiologic agent of LD)...
  59. MECHANISM OF ANTIGENIC VARIATION IN TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI
    Keith Gottesdiener; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The blood-dwelling parasite Trypanosoma brucei escapes immune-destruction through antigenic variation, by periodically changing the production of one variant cell surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat to the next...
  60. EXPRESSION OF GLYCOLIPID ANCHORED PRIONS IN TRYPANOSOMES
    GEORGE CROSS; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Trypanosomes can persist indefinitely in the infected host, evading the immune system through a process of antigenic variation, mediated by the sequential expression of variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) that form an impregnable '..
  61. CELL-SURFACE PROTEINS IN CAMPYLOBACTER FETUS VIRULENCE
    Martin Blaser; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..SLPs inhibit complement binding, which leads to both serum and phagocytosis resistance, and they undergo antigenic variation. C. fetus cells possess 8 or 9 homologs of sapA, which encodes a 97 kDa SLP...
  62. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ANTIGENIC VARIATION IN MALARIA
    Mary Galinski; Fiscal Year: 2000
    The long term goal is to understand the phenomenon of Plasmodium antigenic variation, a major factor in the development of chronic malaria blood-stage infections and a determinant of parasite virulence...
  63. GPI PHOSPHOLIPASE C OF T BRUCEI
    Kojo Mensa Wilmot; Fiscal Year: 2001
    African trypanosomes sustain an infection in a mammalian host by antigenic variation, a process which involves the replacement of one variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) with a second (another) antigenically distinct VSG...
  64. CAMPYLOBACTER FETUS SURFACE LAYER PROTEIN SECRETION
    Stuart Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Despite significant advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of antigenic variation of surface layer proteins (SLPs, the subunits of the S-layer), until recently little was known about the ..
  65. Immune Dampening the OMPs of non-typeable H. influenzae
    Peter Nara; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..aspects of new vaccine development for viruses, bacteria and parasites is overcoming problems of antigenic variation. The development of vaccines against pathogens, which cause otitis media are being vigorously pursued by ..