Genomes and Genes
Summary: The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.
Publications255 found, 100 shown here
- How theories became knowledge: Morgan's chromosome theory of heredity in America and BritainStephen G Brush
Department of History and Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
J Hist Biol 35:471-535. 2002..H. Sturtevant, H. J. Muller and C. B. Bridges published their comprehensive treatise The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity in 1915...
- Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: prevalence, mechanisms, and implications for the study of heredity and evolutionEva Jablonka
The Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Q Rev Biol 84:131-76. 2009....
- RNA-mediated epigenetic heredity requires the cytosine methyltransferase Dnmt2Jafar Kiani
University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, UFR Sciences, Nice, France
PLoS Genet 9:e1003498. 2013RNA-mediated transmission of phenotypes is an important way to explain non-Mendelian heredity. We have previously shown that small non-coding RNAs can induce hereditary epigenetic variations in mice and act as the transgenerational ..
- Epigenetic variations in heredity and evolutionE Jablonka
Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Clin Pharmacol Ther 92:683-8. 2012..Population studies, formalmodels, and research on genomic and ecological stressesall suggest that epigenetic inheritance is important in bothmicro-and macroevolutionary change...
- Genetic basis of atherosclerosis: insights from mice and humansIoannis M Stylianou
Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 654 BRBII III Labs, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19104 6160, USA
Circ Res 110:337-55. 2012..The combination of mouse and human genetics has the potential to identify and validate novel genes that influence atherosclerosis, some of which may be candidates for new therapeutic approaches...
- The association of beliefs about heredity with preventive and interpersonal behaviors in communities affected by podoconiosis in rural EthiopiaDesta Ayode
College of Social Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Am J Trop Med Hyg 87:623-30. 2012Little is known about how beliefs about heredity as a cause of health conditions might influence preventive and interpersonal behaviors among those individuals with low genetic and health literacy...
- Role of epigenetics in developmental biology and transgenerational inheritanceMichael K Skinner
Center for Reproductive Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, 99164 4236, USA
Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 93:51-5. 2011..This impacts area such as cellular differentiation, tissue development, environmental induced disease etiology, epigenetic transgenerational inheritance, and the general systems biology of organisms and evolution...
- Hemodynamic and clinical onset in patients with hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension and BMPR2 mutationsNicole Pfarr
Centre for Pulmonary Hypertension Thoraxclinic, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Respir Res 12:99. 2011..This study prospectively screened for BMPR2 mutations in a large cohort of PAH-patients and compared clinical features between BMPR2 mutation carriers and non-carriers...
- Aortic arch curvature and atherosclerosis have overlapping quantitative trait loci in a cross between 129S6/SvEvTac and C57BL/6J apolipoprotein E-null miceHirofumi Tomita
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7525, USA
Circ Res 106:1052-60. 2010..The shape of the aortic arch also differs in the 2 strains...
- Neurochemistry, neuropathology, and heredity in SAMP8: a mouse model of senescenceKoji Tomobe
Department of Pathophysiology, Yokohama College of Pharmacy, Matano cho 601, Totsuka ku, Yokohama, 245 0066, Japan
Neurochem Res 34:660-9. 2009..The rise in oxidative stress following mitochondrial dysfunction may trigger neuropathological and neurochemical changes, disrupting the development of neural networks in the brain in SAMP8...
- Paternal heredity and housing characteristics affect childhood asthma and allergy morbidityNai Yun Hsu
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
Arch Environ Occup Health 67:155-62. 2012..This is the first epidemiological evidence of East Asia suggesting paternal heredity, with concurrent indoor hazardous exposures, as a predominant risk on developing childhood asthma and allergy.
- Heredity of food allergies in an unselected child population: an epidemiological survey from FinlandKaisa Pyrhönen
South Karelia District of Social and Health Services, Lappeenranta, Finland
Pediatr Allergy Immunol 22:e124-32. 2011The heredity of food allergies (FA) has not previously been addressed in a large unselected child population...
- Heredity and DNA methylation in colorectal cancerJ R Jass
Gut 56:154-5. 2007
- Discovering genes are made of DNAMaclyn McCarty
The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York 10021, USA
Nature 421:406. 2003..This preceded by a decade the discovery of the structure of DNA itself. Here he shares his personal perspective of those times and the impact of the double helix...
- Telomere length and heredity: Indications of paternal inheritanceKatarina Nordfjäll
Units for Pathology and Medical and Clinical Genetics, Department of Medical Biosciences, Umea University, SE 90187 Umea, Sweden
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:16374-8. 2005..The mode of heredity has not been clarified, but a link to the X chromosome was recently suggested...
- Environmental light and heredity are associated with adaptive changes in retinal DHA levels that affect retinal functionRobert E Anderson
Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, and Dean A McGee Eye Institute, Oklahoma City, OK, USA
Lipids 39:1121-4. 2004....
- Discovering DNA encodes heredity and prions are infectious proteinsStanley B Prusiner
Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
Annu Rev Genet 40:25-45. 2006The resemblance between the discoveries that DNA is the basis of heredity and that prions are infectious proteins is remarkable...
- Hair loss, insulin resistance, and heredity in middle-aged women. A population-based studyVeikko Matilainen
Department of Public Health Science and General Practice, University of Oulu and Unit of General Practice, Central University Hospital of Oulu, Finland
J Cardiovasc Risk 10:227-31. 2003..Polycystic ovarian syndrome is quite common among Caucasian women, and its association with insulin resistance is well documented...
- Heredity in multiple system atrophyHiroyuki Soma
Department of Neurology, Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Medicine, and Hokuyukai Neurology Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060 8368, Japan
J Neurol Sci 240:107-10. 2006..The results indicated that one of them had a family history of MSA. Although the familial presence of neurodegenerative disorders is rare in MSA patients, the existence of such cases suggests that MSA may have a genetic background...
- Parents and children: ideas of heredity in the 19th centuryJohn C Waller
Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL, 24 Eversholt Street, NW1 1AD, London, UK
Endeavour 27:51-6. 2003The concept of heredity played a powerful role in structuring 19th-century debates over sickness, morality, class, race, education, social change and evolution...
- Unresolved boundaries of evolutionary theory and the question of how inheritance systems evolve: 75 years of debate on the evolution of dominanceHomayoun C Bagheri
Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany
J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 306:329-59. 2006..A re-examination of this issue is essential, given that dominance evolution is likely to be an important stepping stone towards understanding the evolution of inheritance systems...
- Evolutionary biology: males from MarsDavid Queller
Nature 435:1167-8. 2005
- Analysis of genetically complex epilepsiesRuth Ottman
Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
Epilepsia 46:7-14. 2005..Collaborative studies are essential to achieve these goals...
- Going back to Darwin's worksIrène Till-Bottraud
Trends Plant Sci 11:471-2; author reply 472-3. 2006
- Clonal reproduction by males and females in the little fire antDenis Fournier
Centre de Biologie et de Gestion des Populations, INRA, Campus International de Baillarguet, CS 30 016, 34988 Montferrier Lez cedex, France
Nature 435:1230-4. 2005..These findings show that the haplodiploid sex-determination system provides grounds for the evolution of extraordinary genetic systems and new types of sexual conflict...
- The creative evolution of scientific paradigms: Vernon Lee and the debate over the hereditary transmission of acquired charactersShafquat Towheed
Institute of English Studies, University of London
Vic Stud 49:33-61. 2006..This essay explores Lee's lifelong engagement with emerging and often unproven ideas in heredity and evolutionary science by arguing, first, that rather than a unidirectional flow of ideas from experimental ..
- [Current thought on hereditary transmission and human genetics]Stephen Snelders
Gewina 26:203-15. 2003..Concepts of heredity and their use in society have been various and diverse...
- Ideas about heredity, genetics, and 'medical genetics' in Britain, 1900-1982William Leeming
Faculty of Liberal Studies, Ontario College of Art and Design, 100 McCaul Street, Toronto, ON M5T 1W1, Canada
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 36:538-58. 2005The aim of this paper is to understand how evolving ideas about heredity and genetics influenced new medical interests and practices and, eventually, the formation of 'medical genetics' as a medical specialism in Britain...
- From eugenics to scientometrics: Galton, Cattell, and men of scienceBenoît Godin
Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Montreal, Canada
Soc Stud Sci 37:691-728. 2007..It argues that the measurement of science emerged out of interest in great men, heredity and eugenics, and the contribution of eminent men to civilization...
- Method as a function of "disciplinary landscape": C.D. Darlington and cytology, genetics and evolution, 1932-1950Oren Solomon Harman
J Hist Biol 39:165-97. 2006....
- No evolution, no heredity, just development-Julius Schaxel and the end of the Evo-Devo agenda in Jena, 1906-1933: a case studyChristian Reiss
Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Boltzmannstr 22, 14195, Berlin, Germany
Theory Biosci 126:155-64. 2007..Following Garland Allen's dialectical processes that led to the decline of the Evo-Devo research agenda, Schaxel's example is used to investigate these processes...
- Entomological contributions to genetics: studies on insect germ cells linked genes to chromosomes and chromosomes to mendelian inheritanceSusan J Brown
Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66502, USA
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 53:115-8. 2003
- A history of heredity: the wider perspectiveE Henry Nicholls
Endeavour 27:43. 2003
- The Wilhemine E. Key 2003 invitational lecture. Genetics: alive and well. The first hundred years as viewed through the pages of the journal of heredityJ F Crow
Department of Genetics, University of Wisconsin, 445 Henry Mall, Madison, WI 53706 USA
J Hered 95:365-74. 2004
- The reception of Mendelism in Japan, 1900-1920Yoko Matsubara
Graduate School of Core Ethics and Frontier Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 56 1 Toji in Kitamachi Kita ku, Kyoto 603 8577, Japan
Hist Sci (Tokyo) 13:232-40. 2004
- Direct selection on male attractiveness and female preference fails to produce a responseMatthew Hall
School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW, 2052, Australia
BMC Evol Biol 4:1. 2004..We measured the direct and correlated responses of female mate choice and male attractiveness to selection and the correlated responses of male ornamental traits, female fecundity and adult male and female survival...
- Evolutionary genetics: a ring of speciesA J Helbig
Heredity (Edinb) 95:113-4. 2005
- Reversion: going back to Darwin's worksYongsheng Liu
Trends Plant Sci 10:459-60. 2005
- RNA-mediated non-mendelian inheritance of an epigenetic change in the mouseMinoo Rassoulzadegan
INSERM, U636, F 06108 Nice, France
Nature 441:469-74. 2006..Our results identify an unexpected mode of epigenetic inheritance associated with the zygotic transfer of RNA molecules...
- [Geneticists in the service of war? The German Research Foundation, the Reich Research Council, and policy changes in research on heredity]Anne Cottebrune
Ruprech Karls Universität Heildelberg, Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin
Medizinhist J 40:141-68. 2005..note that much of the available funds were concentrated on the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics...
- [Homage to McKusick's "Mendelian inheritance in man"]R Brdicka
Ustav hematologie a krevni transfuze, Praha
Cas Lek Cesk 146:571-2. 2007..It was a pleasure for all of us to congratulate to McKusick's honorary degree obtained this year by the oldest European university in Bologna (with a short biography)...
- [Individual development and lessons of evolutionism]M A Shishkin
Ontogenez 37:179-98. 2006..was predictable initially, since the preformational model of development expressed in the idea of discrete heredity contradicts the systemic properties of ontogenesis...
- [Epigenetic heredity in evolution]E Jablonka
Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and of Ideas, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Tsitologiia 45:1057-72. 2003We discuss the role of cell memory in heredity and evolution...
- What is "epi" about epigenetics?James Griesemer
Department of Philosophy, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 8673, USA
Ann N Y Acad Sci 981:97-110. 2002..An alternative theoretical perspective, the "reproducer" concept, is introduced to facilitate analysis of multiple inheritance systems without labeling all nongenetic inheritance "epigenetic."..
- The reactions on Hugo de Vries's Intracellular pangenesis: the discussion with August WeismannIda H Stamhuis
Department for the History and Social Studies of Science, Faculty of Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Hist Biol 36:119-52. 2003In 1889 Hugo de Vries published Intracellular Pangenesis in which he formulated his ideas on heredity. The expectations of the impression these ideas would make did not come true and publication was negated or reviewed critically...
- [Integration of genetic factors into epidemiological studies]K Bammann
Bremer Institut für Präventionsforschung und Sozialmedizin BIPS, Linzer Strasse 10, 28359 Bremen
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 49:974-81. 2006..The problem of replication of study results is discussed and the concept of Mendelian randomization is presented...
- [Graft hybridization and the specificity of heredity in fruit trees]Yong Sheng Liu
Henan Vocation Technical Teachers College, Xinxiang 453 003, China
Yi Chuan 26:705-10. 2004Emphatically discusses the relationship between graft hybridization and the specificity of heredity in fruit trees on the basis of introducing the recent achievements in plant graft hybridization...
- Perceptions of epigeneticsAdrian Bird
Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Edinburgh University, The King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
Nature 447:396-8. 2007..It encompasses some of the most exciting contemporary biology and is portrayed by the popular press as a revolutionary new science--an antidote to the idea that we are hard-wired by our genes. So what is epigenetics?..
- Harry Potter and the recessive alleleJeffrey M Craig
Nature 436:776. 2005
- Human genetics and politics as mutually beneficial resources: The case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics during the Third ReichSheila Faith Weiss
School of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 5750, USA
J Hist Biol 39:41-88. 2006..premier research institutions for biomedical research, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA) as a test case for the way in which politics and human heredity served as resources for each ..
- In the cradle of heredity; French physicians and l'hérédité naturelle in the early 19th centuryCarlos López-Beltrán
Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas, National University of Mexico UNAM, C Mario de la Cueva
J Hist Biol 37:39-72. 2004This paper argues that our modern concept of biological heredity was first clearly introduced in a theoretical and practical setting by the generation of French physicians that were active between 1810 and 1830...
- Harnessing the power of the pedigreeChantelle M Wolpert
Genetics Interdisciplinary Faculty Training Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
J Midwifery Womens Health 50:189-96. 2005..Family history tools are now being developed and studied to identify which methods are most beneficial in different clinical settings...
- Reconstructing sibling relationships in wild populationsTanya Y Berger-Wolf
Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
Bioinformatics 23:i49-56. 2007..It is the only method that does not rely on a priori knowledge about the population under study. Thus, our method is particularly appropriate for reconstructing sibling groups in wild populations...
- "A gene for...": the nature of gene action in psychiatric disordersKenneth S Kendler
Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatry and Behavioral Genetics, Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, P O Box 980126, Richmond, VA 23298 0126, USA
Am J Psychiatry 162:1243-52. 2005..The phrase "a gene for..." and the preformationist concept of gene action that underlies it are inappropriate for psychiatric disorders...
- Validation of test-day models for genetic evaluation of dairy goats in NorwayS Andonov
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food, University Ss Cyril and Methodus, PO Box 297, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia
J Dairy Sci 90:4863-71. 2007..Thus, a fixed structure with year (year, year-season, or possibly flock-year) was indicated to appropriately separate time trends. Heritability estimates for daily milk yield and milk content were 0.26 and 0.24 to 0.27, respectively...
- Genetic parameters for milk urea nitrogen in relation to milk production traitsW M Stoop
Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
J Dairy Sci 90:1981-6. 2007..85). Herd-test day explained 58% of the variation in MUN, which suggests that management adjustments at herd-level can reduce MUN. This study shows that it is possible to influence MUN by herd practice and by genetic selection...
- Introductory note to a classic article by Francis GaltonArthur J Moss
Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14641, USA
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 8:170. 2003
- A diagram of heredityFrancis Galton
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 8:171-2. 2003
- [From genetics of intraspecific differences to genetics of intraspecific similarity]B F Chadov
Genetika 40:1157-72. 2004Based on the Mendelian approach to heredity, modern genetics describes inheritance of characters belonging to the category of intraspecific difference...
- A unified mixed-model method for association mapping that accounts for multiple levels of relatednessJianming Yu
Institute for Genomic Diversity, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
Nat Genet 38:203-8. 2006..As this new method crosses the boundary between family-based and structured association samples, it provides a powerful complement to currently available methods for association mapping...
- Survival of the sparsest: robust gene networks are parsimoniousRobert D Leclerc
Wagner Lab, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Mol Syst Biol 4:213. 2008..Because a robust system of heredity is necessary for the adaptive evolution of complex phenotypes, the maintenance of frugal network complexity is ..
- Combining the case-control methodology with the small size transmission/disequilibrium test for multiallelic markersWei Guo
Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Eur J Hum Genet 13:1007-12. 2005..In this article, we propose a TDT test, utilizing the available information of a case-control study in the grouping of alleles for multiallelic markers, and thereby increase the statistical power of a TDT test with a small sample size...
- [The use of family trees and the notion of heredity: a case study of hereditary chorea]Yoshio Nugaka
Kagakushi Kenkyu 43:150-60. 2004..in the case of hereditary chorea, family trees were used to support different interpretations of the notion of heredity. The use of family trees was made possible by three conditions including the centralization of medical care, the ..
- Further evidence for paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in the sheep (Ovis aries)X Zhao
Department of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China
Heredity (Edinb) 93:399-403. 2004..A total of 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, which mapped on different chromosomes, were employed to type the sheep population to confirm family relationships. Possible mechanisms of paternal inheritance are discussed...
- New concepts for distinguishing the hidden patterns of linkage disequilibrium which underlie association between genotypes and complex phenotypesJacqueline Wicks
Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
Twin Res Hum Genet 8:95-100. 2005..This provides a basis for distinguishing the hidden LD patterns and might help to locate the functional variants responsible for the association...
- The question of questions: what is a gene? Comments on Rolston and Griffiths & StotzLenny Moss
Department of Sociology and Philosophy, and ESRC Center for Genomics in Society, University of Exeter, Amory BLDG, Rennes Dr, Exeter, Devon, EX44RJ, United Kingdom
Theor Med Bioeth 27:523-34. 2006....
- Heredity mode of genetic polymorphism in aldehyde oxidase activity in Donryu strain ratsM Adachi
Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, Aoba ku, Sendai, Japan
Xenobiotica 38:98-105. 2008..The results indicate that the genetic polymorphism of aldehyde oxidase in Donryu strain rats obeys Mendelian heredity. The reason for a low ratio of the ultrarapid metabolizers rats in the commercially available Donryu strain rats -..
- Tug-of-war over reproduction in a social beePhilipp Langer
Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Biology Building, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Nature 428:844-7. 2004..The alternative view, where the degree of reproductive skew is the outcome of a social contract between potential breeders, was not supported by the data...
- Dynamics of the caring familyRoger Hardling
Department of Animal Ecology, Ecology Building, University of Lund, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
Am Nat 161:395-412. 2003..Instead, it is necessary to consider the inclusive fitness effect of provisioning, which is determined by a combination of relatedness, reproductive value, and the reproductive value of the offspring...
- Public goods, sharing genes, and the formation of large groupsDavid Goetze
Political Science Department, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA
Politics Life Sci 26:7-25. 2007..The argument implies that the mix of goods available and produced in past and present environments impacts the configuration of different-sized groups found in human society...
- Public goods and the evolution of altruism: the case of lawPaul H Rubin
Department of Economics and School of Law, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Politics Life Sci 26:26-32. 2007..I also note that altruism within the group may lead to xenophobia outside the group and thus to ethnic conflict. Finally, I discuss some evidence consistent with this analysis...
- Biological theory: Postmodern evolution?John Whitfield
Nature 455:281-4. 2008
- The acceptance of low prestigeJoseph M Whitmeyer
Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
Politics Life Sci 26:33-45. 2007..I discuss possible mechanisms, through genetic or behavioral selection, by which the capacity to believe in one's own low rank may have developed...
- Alive!Bob Holmes
New Sci 185:28-33. 2005
- Evolutionary biology: to work or not to workDavid C Queller
Nature 444:42-3. 2006
- Further evidence for Darwin's pangenesisYongsheng Liu
Department of Horticulture, Henan Vocation Technical Teachers College, Xinxiang, China
Riv Biol 97:53-66. 2004Darwin's pangenesis, a developmental theory of heredity, has been largely thought to be wrong for more than a century. In this paper, further evidence for the inheritance of acquired characters and graft hybridization is provided...
- The genome of Polaromonas naphthalenivorans strain CJ2, isolated from coal tar-contaminated sediment, reveals physiological and metabolic versatility and evolution through extensive horizontal gene transferJane M Yagi
Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Environ Microbiol 11:2253-70. 2009..of DNA sequences at the individual gene, gene cluster and whole-genome scales revealed strong trends in shared heredity between strain CJ2 and other members of the Comamonadaceae and Burkholderiaceae...
- Obcells as proto-organisms: membrane heredity, lithophosphorylation, and the origins of the genetic code, the first cells, and photosynthesisT Cavalier-Smith
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
J Mol Evol 53:555-95. 2001..Signal recognition particles, chaperones, compartmented proteases, and peptidoglycan arose prior to the last common ancestor of life, a complex autotrophic, anaerobic green bacterium...
- Neuropsychopharmacology and the genetics of schizophrenia: a history of the diagnosis of schizophreniaThomas A Ban
Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 28:753-62. 2004..are reviewed with special reference to family, twin, and adoption studies which have raised the possibility that heredity plays an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia; mathematical analyses are examined which have ruled out ..
- Clinical course of cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance and atopic diseases in childhoodArne Høst
Department of Pediatrics, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13:23-8. 2002..Standardized questionnaires on atopic heredity, environmental factors and presence of atopic symptoms were answered at 0, 6, 12 and 18 months and at 5, 10 and ..
- [Etiological aspects of anterior open bite]Ljiljana Stojanović
Klinika za ortopediju vilica, Stomatoloski fakultet Beograd
Med Pregl 60:151-5. 2007..Etiology plays an important role in diagnosis. Heredity, unfavorable growth patterns, incorrect jaw postoure, are the characteristics of skeletal open bite.
- [Cancer between infection and heredity: genes, viruses and mice at National Cancer Institute (1937-1977)]J P Gaudilliere
Hopital des Enfants Malades, Pavillon Archkambault, Paris, France
Rev Hist Sci Paris 47:57-89. 1994..Mouse models thus provided tractable resources which favored the alternation between heredity and infection...
- Red blood cell Na-Li countertransport, hypertensive heredity, and cardiovascular risk in young adultsJ M Krzesinski
University of Liege, Belgium
Am J Hypertens 6:314-6. 1993..Thus, an increase of RBC Na-Li CT activity in young adults would suggest a higher cardiovascular risk rather than to be a simple marker of a hypertensive risk...
- Human heredity and politics: A comparative institutional study of the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor (United States), the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics (Germany), and the Maxim Gorky Medical GeneticsMark B Adams
Department of the History and Sociology of Science, Univ of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6304, USA
Osiris 20:232-62. 2005Despite the fact that much has been written in recent years about the science of heredity under the Third Reich, there is as yet no satisfying analysis of two central questions: What, if anything, was peculiarly "Nazi" about human ..
- Henry Friesen Award Lecture. Work, the clinician-scientist and human biochemical geneticsC R Scriver
Department of Human Genetics, McGill University and McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Que
Clin Invest Med 24:179-95. 2001..It led him to think about metabolic pathways and to recognize that variation in Mendelian heredity could explain an "inborn error of metabolism." At the time, Garrod had no idea about the nature of a gene...
- Palmar erythemaRocco Serrao
Department of Dermatology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Am J Clin Dermatol 8:347-56. 2007..Primary or physiologic PE can be due to heredity, occurs in at least 30% of pregnant women as a result of associated alterations in the function of the skin and ..
- Is there progress in the autopsy diagnosis of sudden unexpected death in adults?Geoffroy Lorin de la Grandmaison
Department of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Faculte de Medecine Paris Ile de France Ouest, 104 boulevard Raymond Poincaré, F 92380 Garches, France
Forensic Sci Int 156:138-44. 2006..Many risk factors of sudden cardiac death are identified: age, gender, heredity factors such as malignant mutations, left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricle function impairment...
- [Are demographic characteristics of hypertensive patients different with renal artery stenosis?]O Jaboureck
Service de médecine interne et HTA, Hopital Cardiologique, CHRU, 59037 Lille
Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 94:828-33. 2001..The goal of this work was to study the demographic differences between hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS) or without RAS...
- Toyama Kametaro and Vernon Kellogg: silkworm inheritance experiments in Japan, Siam, and the United States, 1900-1912Lisa Onaga
Department of Science and Technology Studies, Cornell University, 311 Rockefeller Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
J Hist Biol 43:215-64. 2010..scrutiny at a time when analyses of inheritance flourished after the "rediscovery" of Mendel's laws of heredity in 1900...
- Biological investigations of higher and lower plants aboard Soyuz 19N P Dubinin
USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, USSR
Life Sci Space Res 15:113-8. 1977..objective of the experiment "Genetic investigations" was to determine the effect of space flight factors on the heredity of lower (Chlamydomonas reinhardi Dang) and higher (Crepis capillaris (L) Wallr and Arabidopsis thaliana (L) ..
- The genetic effect on refractive error and anterior corneal aberration: twin eye studyLung Kun Yeh
Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine
J Refract Surg 23:257-65. 2007To investigate the role of heredity in determining refractive variables, anterior corneal curvature, and anterior corneal aberrations.
- [From the seduction theory to the oedipus complex]Bernardo Alvarez Lince
Sociedad Colombiana de Psicoanálisis
Vertex 16:386-97. 2005..In 1896 in Heredity and the Aetiology of the Neuroses, Freud considered the seduction as the specific cause of the psychoneurosis, ..
- C-reactive protein, an 'intermediate phenotype' for inflammation: human twin studies reveal heritability, association with blood pressure and the metabolic syndrome, and the influence of common polymorphism at catecholaminergic/beta-adrenergic pathway locJennifer Wessel
Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, California 92093 0838, USA
J Hypertens 25:329-43. 2007C-reactive protein (CRP) both reflects and participates in inflammation, and its circulating concentration marks cardiovascular risk. Here we sought to understand the role of heredity in determining CRP secretion.
- [Creating a 'Germanic' public health: national-socialism, human genetics, and eugenics in the Netherlands]Stephen Snelders
VU Medisch Centrum, Afdeling Metamedica, k D 326, Postbus 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam
Gewina 30:62-74. 2007The consequences of the uses of concepts of heredity in society and health care are not simply determined. This is demonstrated by a study of Dutch National Socialist doctors and biologists in the Second World War...
- A study of heredity as a risk factor in strabismusN G Ziakas
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, UK
Eye (Lond) 16:519-21. 2002..The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of heredity in different types of strabismus.
- Sources of Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype theoryNils Roll-Hansen
Department of Philosophy, Classics, History of Art and Ideas, University of Oslo, P O Box 1020, Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway
J Hist Biol 42:457-93. 2009..ontological foundation of population analysis was a self-evident presupposition in Johannsen's studies of heredity in populations from their start in the early 1890s till his death in 1927...
- Incorrect orofacial functions until 5 years of age and their association with posterior crossbiteMaja Ovsenik
Department of Orthodontics, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 136:375-81. 2009In addition to heredity, sucking habits, impaired nasal breathing, and atypical swallowing patterns are considered important factors in the etiology of posterior crossbite...
- [The occurrence of the cleft lip and/or palate in cleft-twins]Małgorzata Kot
Klinika Chirurgii Plastycznej Instytutu Chirurgii Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Lodzi
Pol Merkur Lekarski 19:614-6. 2005..The etiopathogenesis of this malformation, in 17-20%, results from genetic factors. Researches on the occurrence of cleft lip and palate in twins strongly confirm the heredity of the malformation.
- Desulfovibrio species are potentially important in regressive autismSydney M Finegold
Infectious Diseases Section 111 F, VA Medical Center West Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
Med Hypotheses 77:270-4. 2011..The financial burden on families and communities is enormous. In terms of predisposing factors, heredity plays a role in some subjects, but it is clear that environmental factors are also important...
- [Not Available]B Theunissen
Instituut voor Geschiedenis der Natuurwetenschappen, Utrecht
Gewina 17:191-205. 1994..Beijerinck's focus, however, was not chemical bacteriology, but heredity and variability in microorganisms...
- Heredity, reproduction, and perfectibility in revolutionary and Napoleonic France, 1789-1815Sean Quinlan
Department of History, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 3175, United States
Endeavour 34:142-50. 2010During the French Revolution, there appeared a striking and far-ranging medical literature on heredity, reproduction and biological 'perfectibility'...
- SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED NONINVASIVE MONITORING OF MOUSE SLEEP AND BEHAVIORSridhar Sunderam; Fiscal Year: 2013..parasomnias, REM (rapid eye movement sleep) behavioral disorder (RBD), narcolepsy-many of which are influenced by heredity. There is an increasing focus on characterizing mouse behaviors for genetic and drug studies...
- Roles of RNA helicase and ribosomal biogenesis in normal and diseased muscleVandana Gupta; Fiscal Year: 2013..These conditions, characterized by muscle weakness and impaired locomotion, form a group of heredity diseases affecting both children and adults...
- Genetic Analysis of Human First Trimester Trophoblast in Ongoing PregnanciesMichael Peter Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2013..This information can be utilized to anticipate genetic disorders brought about by heredity or chromosomal errors that increase with maternal age...
- Cartilage Degeneration and Repair By ADAMTSs and Hyaluronan Binding ProteinsAnna H Plaas; Fiscal Year: 2013..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) include joint injury, obesity, aging and heredity. Hallmark symptoms are joint stiffness and swelling with associated pain, and these are accompanied by ..
- Translational Research in Polycystic Ovary SyndromeJohn E Nestler; Fiscal Year: 2012..The three Key Projects and the Pilot Project all focus on the contributions of insulin resistance and heredity to infertility in PCOS. Project I (Dr...
- Native American Pain Disparities: Exploring Nociceptive Processing DifferencesJAMIE LYNN RHUDY; Fiscal Year: 2013..Thus, pain coping (e.g., pain catastrophizing), sociocultural variables (e.g., ethnic identity), and heredity (i.e...
- Mitophagy-driven selection against heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA mutationsDavid K Simon; Fiscal Year: 2012..harboring different levels of a heteroplasmic G11778A complex I (CI) gene mutation associated with Leber's Heredity Optic Neuropathy (LHON), all prepared at the same time from members of a single family...
- Analysis of RORA and other candidate genes in PTSDMark W Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013..Numerous factors contribute to the probability of developing the disorder including heredity. Twin studies have shown that a 30-70% of variation in PTSD risk is explained by genetic factors...
- Center for the Epigenetics of Common Human DiseaseAndrew P Feinberg; Fiscal Year: 2013DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Epigenetics, the study of non-DNA sequence-related heredity, is at the epicenter of modern medicine because it can help to explain the relationship between an individual's genetic background, the ..
- STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF CONNEXIN26 GAP JUNCTIONSGina E Sosinsky; Fiscal Year: 2013..1) To investigate the stability of the transmembrane region of the Cx26 hexamer using mutations known to cause heredity deafness. These experiments will be correlated with ones probing channel function and structure...
- GRADUATE TRAINING IN GENETICSAlice Barkan; Fiscal Year: 2013..with an appreciation for the evolutionary, molecular, cellular, and developmental contexts of gene function and heredity. We aim to help students develop the skills to lead research programs of their own, communicate science to the ..
- Refining a Taxonomy for Externalizing Psychopatholgy Using Genomic ImagingNathaniel Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2013..recognize that these outcome variables are partially dependent upon genetics, the complex relationships between heredity, environment, and physiology makes estimates of direct relationships between genes and observable psychiatric ..
- GENETICS OF ALCOHOLISM IN AMERICAN INDIANSRichard Deitrich; Fiscal Year: 1993There is increasing evidence that heredity plays a role in the development of alcoholism. The proposed research will examine some of the genetic antecedents of alcoholism in the American Indian population...
- Medical Marvels Interactive Translational Research Experience (MITRE)MICHAEL FETTERS; Fiscal Year: 2009..in a real-life research study;and 2) to develop, implement and evaluate an educational workshop with genetics and heredity content consistent with the Michigan Curriculum Framework for science education that will stimulate middle and ..
- CHROMOSOME STRUCTURES AND MEIOTIC MECHANISMSMARJORIE MAGUIRE; Fiscal Year: 1990Research is designed to yield new insights into basic mechanisms of heredity in higher organisms...
- Beliefs about Genes & Environment as Causes of BehaviorEleanor Singer; Fiscal Year: 2004..aim is to investigate experimentally the determinants of people's beliefs about the relative contribution of heredity and environment to differences in such behavioral characteristics as aggression, shyness, and alcoholism...
- GENETIC ANALYSIS OF MG-TETRAPYRROLE BIOSYNTHESISCarl Bauer; Fiscal Year: 2005..from 5-aminolevulinate to protoporphyrin IX, has received much attention owing to the fact that a number of heredity diseases (porphyrias) are caused by the overproduction of heme precursors...
- Indiana and the Legacy of State and Local Eugenics 1907-2007William Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2007..at the local level, has left an extensive record resulting from public policy based on specific ideas about heredity. The name given to these activities, eugenics, is generally known, but research about it at the state and local ..
- Population Genomics of Geographically and Ethnically Diverse AfricansJOSEPH L LACHANCE; Fiscal Year: 2013..This proposed study is also highly relevant to the NIH's Human Heredity and Health in Africa Project (H3Africa), and this research project will contribute substantially to postdoctoral ..
- Dental Caries Traits: The Genetic ContributionWalter Bretz; Fiscal Year: 2007..phenotypic expression by detailing its onset and progression; Specific Aim 3- to determine the relative role of heredity and environment in phenotypic variation related to the onset and progression of dental caries...
- GENETICS OF JOINT FAILUREMatthew Warman; Fiscal Year: 2001..The causes of hip and knee OA are multifactorial. That heredity is one of the factors influencing OA susceptibility and progression is not in doubt, even though it may not be ..
- JAPANESE AMERICAN COMMUNITY DIABETES STUDYWilfred Fujimoto; Fiscal Year: 1990..We hypothesize that in conjunction with heredity and other biologic factors, including aging, these variables influence the development of a distinctive pattern ..
- MOLECULAR GENETICS OF MYOPIATerri Young; Fiscal Year: 2002..Several studies support the hypothesis that heredity is a major factor...
- H3ABioNet: a sustainable African Bioinformatics Network for H3AfricaNicola Mulder; Fiscal Year: 2013..in genomic medicine, high throughput biology, systems biology, genetics, and medicine, for the study of human heredity and health;S) develop tools and bioinformatics solutions appropriate for exploitation and interpretation of ..
- INFLUENCE OF ALLERGIC RHINITIS ON FACIAL TYPEVIKEN SASSOUNI; Fiscal Year: 1980..Skeletal deformity has been attributed to a variety of factors such as heredity, pathology, trauma, and allergy. The purpose of this project is: 1...
- NOVEL ANTIMUTAGENIC COMPOUNDSLESTER MITSCHER; Fiscal Year: 1991..mutagenic phenomenon and the other biological areas where mutagenicity is believed to play an important role (ageing, heredity, carcinogenicity, environmental concerns) these compounds may have some potential in preventive human medicine.
- EYE MOVEMENT MEASUREMENTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIAGunvant Thaker; Fiscal Year: 1991..dysfunction is thought to be, at least partly, genetically determined and its tranmission linked with the heredity of schizophrenia...
- HUMAN HEREDITY IN AMERICAN POPULAR CULTUREDorothy Nelkin; Fiscal Year: 1993..of human genetics in popular culture, placing contemporary view within the context of changing ideas about heredity and eugenics since the turn of the century...
- GENE EFFECTS ON STRENGTH RESPONSES TO AGE AND EXERCISEBernard Hurley; Fiscal Year: 2005..that twin studies show that a major portion of the variance in strength and muscle mass can be accounted for by heredity, suggest that genetic factors may explain a large portion of interindividual differences in strength and muscle ..
- PROSTATIC CANCER: GENETIC AND ENDOCRINE RISK FACTORSA Meikle; Fiscal Year: 1980..as compared to age-matched in-law controls and whether the plasma concentrations of the hormone are affected by heredity; (2) the risk of the development of prostatic cancer is higher in first-order relatives and maternal and paternal ..
- DISCOVERY LAB: A PARTNERSHIP FOR SCIENCE EDUCATIONScott Basinger; Fiscal Year: 2005..First, to provide Houston area students with innovative opportunities to explore molecular biology and heredity in a hands-on, inquiry-based manner...
- CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH IN CHILDREN AND YOUTH (CHIC III)Joanne Harrell; Fiscal Year: 2004..The contribution of obesity, heredity and environmental factors (broadly defined), as well as a newer risk factor (lipid particle subclass profiles), ..
- MOLECULAR GENETICS OF SCHIZOPHENIARichard Straub; Fiscal Year: 1999A number of different lines of evidence suggest a strong role for heredity in the etiology of schizophrenia, a relatively common, chronic and debilitating psychiatric disorder...
- LOADING EXERCISE PROGRAMS AND BONE GAIN IN YOUNG WOMENPeter Cavanagh; Fiscal Year: 2000..The major determinants of peak bone mass appear to be heredity, gender, age, adolescent hormonal status, calcium nutrition and physical activity...
- MEASUREMENT OF MAJOR STRESSFUL EVENTS OVER LIFE COURSESBRUCE DOHRENWEND; Fiscal Year: 2005DESCRIPTION (Applicant's abstract): Powerful research designs for studying the roles of heredity and environment in the etiology of psychiatric disorders have outstripped our ability to measure the relevant variables...
- AN ANIMAL MODEL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MYOPIAWilliam Hodos; Fiscal Year: 1990..Many causes have been suggested for myopia ranging from heredity, nutritional deficiency, hormonal imbalance and childhood fever to excessive accommodation (focusing of the eye ..
- ASSESSING THE ADEQUACY OF HEALTH MANPOWER SUPPLYJack Hadley; Fiscal Year: 1980..sets of factors thought to influence health: medical care, life-style or behavior, environment, and genetics or heredity. The resultant criterion for identifying health manpower shortage areas and assessing health manpower supply is ..
- Leprosy in Premodern MedicineLuke Demaitre; Fiscal Year: 2004..theory of humors and particularly about the role of melancholy ("black bile"), raised issues of contagion and heredity, straddled the dichotomy of skin and whole body, and challenged dietary assumptions...
- PARTNERSHIP FOR RESEARCH & EDUCATION IN PLANTSErin Dolan; Fiscal Year: 2007..expand PREP in the following ways: improve student understanding of additional standards-based biology concepts (heredity and evolution, as well as ethical, legal, and social issues related to biotechnology) in the context of ..
- CONFERENCE ON THE CELL BIOLOGY OF CHLAMYDOMONASLynne Quarmby; Fiscal Year: 2000..and behaviour, flagellar structure, function and assembly, basal body architecture and duplication, organelle heredity, gametic differentiation, cell-cell adhesion, signal transduction, cell fusion, metabolism and photosynthesis...
- HEREDITY, ALCOHOL USE, TEMPERAMENT & CHD RISK FACTORSErnest Harburg; Fiscal Year: 1980..About 265 Sets (after losses) are available with questionnaires collected in 1977 with data on alcohol usage, temperament, and health habits...
- NORMAL AND ABNORMAL CELL GROWTH AND HEREDITYTRACY SONNEBORN; Fiscal Year: 1980....
- Genetics of Addiction ProgramLOUISA STARK; Fiscal Year: 2004..While a predisposition to addiction can run in families, it is important for society to understand that heredity cannot wholly predetermine addiction...
- INFLUENCE OF SEX AND HLA ON RHEUMATOID ARTHRITISGeorge Moxley; Fiscal Year: 2003..The immediate goal is to examine how sex and HLA interact in RA heredity, while the long-term goal is to describe RA disease mechanisms in such detail that effective prevention or ..
- Symposium on Mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesisJUDY BOLTON; Fiscal Year: 2001..Besides heredity, the known risk factors for women developing these cancers are all associated with longer estrogen exposure: ..
- DIABETES HEREDITY AND VIRAL PANCREOPATHYROGER LORIA; Fiscal Year: 1980..Virus localization in the pancreas of animals with diabetic heredity will be done by fluorescent antibody and peroxidase-anti-peroxidase procedures...
- Mitotic Checkpoint & Genomic Stability in Ovarian CancerDong Yan Jin; Fiscal Year: 2006..The molecular mechanisms of ovarian carcinogenesis are not known, although a role for heredity has been suggested. We have shown recently that defects in the mitotic checkpoint are common in ovarian cancer...
- SPECIALIZED CENTER OF RESEARCH IN ARTERIOSCLEROSISRICHARD ST CLAIR; Fiscal Year: 1991..function of atherosclerotic rhesus monkeys, the structure and function of lipoproteins as affected by diet and heredity, studies on arterial metabolism, and finally, a new project concerned with factors which diminish or abolish the ..
- PREFERENCE FOR ALCOHOL EFFECT OF TRAINING AND HEREDITYMartin Schechter; Fiscal Year: 1991..learned behavior and heredity. It is not known why some people after initial contact with alcohol can "take it or leave it", whereas other ..
- INFLUENCE OF HEREDITY ON MEAL PATTERNS IN HUMANSJOHN DE CASTRO; Fiscal Year: 1991Recent evidence has strongly suggested that the adult body weight of humans is greatly influenced by heredity (Bouchard et. al., 1985; 1986; Bray; 1981; Stunkard et. al., 1986a; 1986b)...
- GENETIC ARCHITECTURE OF RISK FOR ANTISOCIAL ALCOHOLISMSCOTT STOLTENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2004..behavior-genetic research to a clinically based program of research focused on understanding the influence of heredity on risk for antisocial alcoholism (AAL) and its comorbid disorders (CDs)...
- Carolina Cardiopulmonary Gene Expression ServicesWINSTON PATTERSON; Fiscal Year: 2005..past two decades, gene expression has been analyzed on a gene-by-gene basis in order to explain the cell biology, heredity, and pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary diseases...
- Urban Watersheds & Their Impact on CommunitiesDonna Perry; Fiscal Year: 2006..effects of exposure to contaminants within an urban watershed and a variety of other factors including heredity, lifestyle, land and zoning decisions, mental stress and others...
- Newborn Screening for Hearing ImpairmentEdwin Naylor; Fiscal Year: 2003..Hearing loss owing to heredity factors and cytomegalovirus are analyzed...
- Twin Study of Language DevelopmentJennifer Ganger; Fiscal Year: 2004..a behavior genetic technique that uses identical and fraternal twins to estimate the relative contributions of heredity and environment to variation in a trait, can help to resolve these issues...
- FASEB CONFERENCE ON AMYLOID & OTHER PROTEIN ASSEMBLYSusan Lindquist; Fiscal Year: 2000..diseases, structural basis of amyloid formation by peptides, the amyloid pathway in AD, new roles for amyloid in heredity, physical methods for the study of insoluble protein complexes, factors associated with amyloid in vivo and new ..
- CAUSES OF DIABETES AND OBESITY IN OKLAHOMA INDIANSPaul Anderson; Fiscal Year: 1980..This will allow a determination of the inter-relationships of obesity and heredity, including an assessment of the extent to which the familial aggregation of maturity-onset diabetes is secondary ..
- GENETICS OF MACULAR DEGENERATIONAlbert Edwards; Fiscal Year: 2007..b>Heredity, diet, and environmental factors have been identified as risk factors for AMD in population studies...
- AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT STARGARDT LIKE MACULAR DYSTROPHYAlbert Edwards; Fiscal Year: 2002..b>Heredity plays a major role, not only in the early-onset forms, but also in the more common later-onset macular ..
- Adf1 transcription in behaviorial & synaptic plasticityTIMOTHY TULLY; Fiscal Year: 2007..Ultimately, such knowledge will help to reveal various forms of cognitive dysfunction that result from heredity, disease, injury or age...