Genomes and Genes
erbb 2 genes
Summary: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
Articles from Journal RESEARCH
Articles from Journal RESEARCH1
Publications244 found, 100 shown here
- Comparison of HER-2/neu oncogene amplification detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in lobular and ductal breast cancerSeth I Rosenthal
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Albany Medical Center, New York, USA
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 10:40-6. 2002..The comparative incidence and significance of HER-2/neu gene amplification for lobular and ductal breast cancer have not been previously characterized...
- American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancerAntonio C Wolff
American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, VA, USA
J Clin Oncol 25:118-45. 2007..To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in invasive breast cancer and its utility as a predictive marker...
- Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data setsTherese Sorlie
Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8418-23. 2003..Our results strongly support the idea that many of these breast tumor subtypes represent biologically distinct disease entities...
- The ErbB2/ErbB3 heterodimer functions as an oncogenic unit: ErbB2 requires ErbB3 to drive breast tumor cell proliferationThomas Holbro
Friedrich Miescher Institute, P O Box 2543, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8933-8. 2003..Furthermore, we identify ErbB3's role, which is to couple active ErbB2 to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway. Thus, the ErbB2/ErbB3 dimer functions as an oncogenic unit to drive breast tumor cell proliferation...
- Efficacy and safety of trastuzumab as a single agent in first-line treatment of HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancerCharles L Vogel
University of Miami School of Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Research Group Inc, and Columbia Cancer Research Network of Florida, Miami, FL, USA
J Clin Oncol 20:719-26. 2002..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of first-line, single-agent trastuzumab in women with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer...
- Expression of p95HER2, a truncated form of the HER2 receptor, and response to anti-HER2 therapies in breast cancerMaurizio Scaltriti
Medical Oncology Program, Medical Oncology Department, Vall d Hebron University Hospital and Research Institute, Barcelona 08035, Spain
J Natl Cancer Inst 99:628-38. 2007....
- A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated, node-negative breast cancerSoonmyung Paik
Division of Pathology, Operation Center, and the Biostatistics Center, National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project, Pittsburgh 15212, USA
N Engl J Med 351:2817-26. 2004..The likelihood of distant recurrence in patients with breast cancer who have no involved lymph nodes and estrogen-receptor-positive tumors is poorly defined by clinical and histopathological measures...
- Evaluation of clinical outcomes according to HER2 detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization in women with metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumabRobert D Mass
Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
Clin Breast Cancer 6:240-6. 2005..Breast cancer tissue specimens were evaluated using a direct labeled, dual-probe FISH assay...
- Conference summary, Strategic Science symposium. Her-2/neu testing of breast cancer patients in clinical practiceRichard J Zarbo
Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital and Medical Group, Detroit, Mich 48202, USA
Arch Pathol Lab Med 127:549-53. 2003..This dilemma becomes especially acute when the assay is the sole determinant for selection of a specific therapy...
- Distal ERBB2 promoter fragment displays specific transcriptional and nuclear binding activities in ERBB2 overexpressing breast cancer cellsLaurence Delacroix
Molecular Oncology Laboratory, GIGA Experimental Cancer Research Centre, University of Liege, Belgium
DNA Cell Biol 24:582-94. 2005..Our results thus highlight the importance of ERBB2 distal promoter region and further implicate AP-2 in ERBB2 overexpression in breast cancer cells...
- Her-2/neu gene amplification and response to paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancerGottfried E Konecny
Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7077, USA
J Natl Cancer Inst 96:1141-51. 2004....
- HER2 status in ovarian carcinomas: a multicenter GINECO study of 320 patientsMarianne Tuefferd
JE2492, Universite Paris Sud, IFR69, Villejuif, France
PLoS ONE 2:e1138. 2007....
- Adjuvant docetaxel or vinorelbine with or without trastuzumab for breast cancerHeikki Joensuu
Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
N Engl J Med 354:809-20. 2006..We compared docetaxel with vinorelbine for the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer. Women with tumors that overexpressed HER2/neu were also assigned to receive concomitant treatment with trastuzumab or no such treatment...
- Molecular determinants of the response of glioblastomas to EGFR kinase inhibitorsIngo K Mellinghoff
Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology and Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles 90095 1732, USA
N Engl J Med 353:2012-24. 2005..The mechanism of responsiveness of glioblastomas to these inhibitors is unknown...
- Disease-free survival according to degree of HER2 amplification for patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy with or without 1 year of trastuzumab: the HERA TrialMitch Dowsett
Department of Academic Biochemistry, Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK
J Clin Oncol 27:2962-9. 2009....
- Evaluation of HER-2/neu gene amplification and overexpression: comparison of frequently used assay methods in a molecularly characterized cohort of breast cancer specimensMichael F Press
Breast Cancer Research Program of the Lee Breast Center, Department of Pathology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA
J Clin Oncol 20:3095-105. 2002..To compare and evaluate HER-2/neu clinical assay methods...
- Determination of HER2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization and concordance with the clinical trials immunohistochemical assay in women with metastatic breast cancer evaluated for treatment with trastuzumabNoel Dybdal
Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
Breast Cancer Res Treat 93:3-11. 2005..The IHC protocol used was a research assay, known as the Clinical Trial Assay (CTA), developed to select women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) for three pivotal clinical trials of trastuzumab therapy...
- Expression of the HER1-4 family of receptor tyrosine kinases in breast cancerCaroline J Witton
University Department of Surgery, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow G31 2ER, UK
J Pathol 200:290-7. 2003..The development of HER-targeted agents (eg Herceptin, Iressa), and agents targeted at the downstream signalling pathways, therefore provides new possibilities in the treatment of breast cancer...
- A quality assurance exercise to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of chromogenic in situ hybridisation for HER2 analysis in breast cancerS Di Palma
Department of Histopathology, Royal Surrey County Hospital and University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK
J Clin Pathol 61:757-60. 2008..Although CISH is being used increasingly in routine diagnostics, there are no established inter-laboratory quality assurance programmes for this test...
- HER2 status and benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab in breast cancerSoonmyung Paik
N Engl J Med 358:1409-11. 2008
- HER2+ breast cancer: review of biologic relevance and optimal use of diagnostic toolsDavid G Hicks
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
Am J Clin Pathol 129:263-73. 2008..Rigorous quality control and standardization of the testing process, from the handling of tissue samples to interpretation and reporting of results, are essential for achieving accurate and reproducible assay results...
- A putative molecular-activation switch in the transmembrane domain of erbB2Sarel J Fleishman
Department of Biochemistry, The George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69987, Israel Middle East
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:15937-40. 2002....
- IkappaB kinase alpha kinase activity is required for self-renewal of ErbB2/Her2-transformed mammary tumor-initiating cellsYixue Cao
Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0723, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15852-7. 2007..IKKalpha may represent a novel and specific target for treatment of ErbB2-positive breast cancer...
- Identification and characterization of the immunodominant rat HER-2/neu MHC class I epitope presented by spontaneous mammary tumors from HER-2/neu-transgenic miceAnne M Ercolini
Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Graduate Program in Immunology, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
J Immunol 170:4273-80. 2003..Discovery of this epitope allows for better characterization of the CD8(+) T cell responses in the neu-N mouse model in which neu-specific tolerance must be overcome to produce effective antitumor immunity...
- HER2 analysis in breast cancer: reduced immunoreactivity in FISH non-informative cancer biopsiesCoya Tapia
Institute of Pathology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Int J Oncol 25:1551-7. 2004..Poor tissue quality can be easily identified in FISH analyses because of a lack of hybridization signals. Inappropriate tissue handling is more dangerous in IHC because an artificial lack of staining can be regarded as 'negative' result...
- Correlation of HER2 status between primary tumors and corresponding circulating tumor cells in advanced breast cancer patientsMarta Pestrin
Translational Research Unit c o Department of Oncology, Hospital of Prato, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Piazza dell Ospedale 2, 59100, Prato, Italy
Breast Cancer Res Treat 118:523-30. 2009..278). Our study suggests that a subset of patients with HER2-negative primary tumors develops HER2-positive CTCs during disease progression...
- Laboratory assessment of the status of Her-2/neu protein and oncogene in breast cancer specimens: comparison of immunohistochemistry assay with fluorescence in situ hybridisation assaysS Wang
Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235 9072, USA
J Clin Pathol 53:374-81. 2000....
- Prognostic relevance of gene amplifications and coamplifications in breast cancerKhawla Al-Kuraya
King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Cancer Res 64:8534-40. 2004..In conclusion, these data support a major prognostic impact of genomic instability as determined by a broad gene amplification survey in breast cancer...
- Proteomic study reveals that proteins involved in metabolic and detoxification pathways are highly expressed in HER-2/neu-positive breast cancerDaohai Zhang
Department of Laboratory Medicine, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074
Mol Cell Proteomics 4:1686-96. 2005....
- HER2 overexpression in various tumor types, focussing on its relationship to the development of invasive breast cancerS Menard
The Molecular Targeting Unit, Istituto Nazional Tumori, Milan, Italy
Ann Oncol 12:S15-9. 2001..It is anticipated that the emerging wealth of standardized data for HER2 status will help to elucidate the role of HER2 in tumor progression...
- HER-2 testing in breast cancer using parallel tissue-based methodsHadi Yaziji
PhenoPath Laboratories, Seattle, Wash 98103, USA
JAMA 291:1972-7. 2004..However, critical examination of FISH on a screening basis has yet to be performed...
- HER-2 testing and trastuzumab therapy for metastatic breast cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysisElena B Elkin
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, Box 44, New York, NY 10021, USA
J Clin Oncol 22:854-63. 2004..Several tests of varying accuracy and cost are available to identify candidates for trastuzumab. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of alternative HER-2 testing and trastuzumab treatment strategies...
- Breast cancer biomarkers and HER2 testing after 10 years of anti-HER2 therapyJeffrey S Ross
Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA
Drug News Perspect 22:93-106. 2009..Also of significant interest are the evolving lists of biomarkers proposed to predict resistance to the major anti-HER2 therapies, trastuzumab and lapatinib...
- The ErbB2 and ErbB3 receptors and their ligand, neuregulin-1, are essential for development of the sympathetic nervous systemS Britsch
Department of Medical Genetics, Max Delbruck Center MDC for Molecular Medicine, 13122 Berlin, Germany
Genes Dev 12:1825-36. 1998..Together with previous observations, these findings establish the neuregulin signaling system as a key regulator in the development of neural crest cells...
- Trastuzumab: a review of its use in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer overexpressing HER2Kate McKeage
Adis International Limited, Auckland, New Zealand
Drugs 62:209-43. 2002..Thus, combination therapy with anthracyclines is not recommended. Symptomatic or asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction occurred in 13% of patients receiving trastuzumab plus paclitaxel and in 4.7% of patients receiving trastuzumab alone...
- The oncogene HER2: its signaling and transforming functions and its role in human cancer pathogenesisM M Moasser
Department of Medicine and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0875, USA
Oncogene 26:6469-87. 2007..Here I review the evidence supporting the oncogenic function of HER2, the mechanisms that are felt to mediate its oncogenic functions, and the evidence that links the experimental evidence with human cancer pathogenesis...
- Biology of HER2 and its importance in breast cancerY Yarden
Department of Biological Regulation, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Oncology 61:1-13. 2001..The reported clinical therapeutic efficacy of anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies in breast cancer highlights the importance of understanding the biology of HER2...
- Investigation of ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression for therapeutic targeting in primary liver tumoursA Altimari
Pathology Unit of the F Addarii Institute of Oncology, Department of Oncology and Hematology, University of Bologna, Viale Ercolani 412, 40138 Bologna, Italy
Dig Liver Dis 35:332-8. 2003..Molecular targets are needed for primary liver tumours...
- A mutant TP53 gene status is associated with a poor prognosis and anthracycline-resistance in breast cancer patientsE Rahko
Department of Oncology, Oulu University Hospital, PL 22, FIN 90229 Oulu, Finland
Eur J Cancer 39:447-53. 2003..Patients with a mutant p53 status and overexpressing c-erbB-2 should be regarded as high-risk cases...
- Phase II study of receptor-enhanced chemosensitivity using recombinant humanized anti-p185HER2/neu monoclonal antibody plus cisplatin in patients with HER2/neu-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer refractory to chemotherapy treatmentM D Pegram
Department of Medical Oncology, The University of California at Los Angeles, USA
J Clin Oncol 16:2659-71. 1998..v.) administration of recombinant, humanized anti-p185HER2 monoclonal antibody (rhuMAb HER2) plus cisplatin (CDDP) in a phase II, open-label, multicenter clinical trial for patients with HER2/neu-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer...
- Prognostic and predictive value of HER2/neu oncogene in breast cancerShahla Masood
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida Health Science Center Jacksonville, Jacksonville, Florida 32209, USA
Microsc Res Tech 59:102-8. 2002..Metastatic lesions, when they occur, can be sampled by fine needle aspiration biopsy or core needle biopsy for assessment of HER2/Neu status...
- Constitutively active FOXO4 inhibits Akt activity, regulates p27 Kip1 stability, and suppresses HER2-mediated tumorigenicityHuiling Yang
Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
Oncogene 24:1924-35. 2005..These findings indicate the applicability of employing FOXO4 regulation as a therapeutic intervention in HER2-overexpressing cancers...
- The HER2 I655V polymorphism and risk of breast cancer in women < age 40 yearsKaren G Montgomery
Cancer Genetics Laboratory, Victorian Breast Cancer Research Consortium, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, St Andrews Place, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:1109-11. 2003..3-6.2; P = 0.005), gave the best fit under parsimony. Although the biological role of the I655V polymorphism is not known, large independent studies of early onset breast cancer are warranted to attempt to replicate this finding...
- Re: Population-based, case-control study of HER2 genetic polymorphism and breast cancer riskAsahi Hishida
J Natl Cancer Inst 94:1807-8. 2002
- HER2 signaling downregulation by trastuzumab and suppression of the PI3K/Akt pathway: an unexpected effect on TRAIL-induced apoptosisLenka Dubska
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Zluty kopec 7, 656 53 Brno, Czech Republic
FEBS Lett 579:4149-58. 2005..We show that HER2/PI3K/Akt pathway may play a specific pro-apoptotic role in certain cell type by inducing TRAIL-R1 and -R2 expression and thereby enhancing responsiveness to TRAIL...
- HER2 codon 655 polymorphism and breast cancer: results from kin-cohort and case-control analysesRobert C Millikan
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, CB 7435, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
Breast Cancer Res Treat 89:309-12. 2005..The results provide additional evidence that HER2 codon 655 genotype may predispose to early-onset breast cancer...
- High concordance between immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization testing for HER2 status in breast cancer requires a normalized IHC scoring systemAllen M Gown
PhenoPath Laboratories, Seattle, WA 98103, USA
Mod Pathol 21:1271-7. 2008....
- The incidence of topoisomerase II-alpha genomic alterations in adenocarcinoma of the breast and their relationship to human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 gene amplification: a fluorescence in situ hybridization studyDavid G Hicks
Department of Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Hum Pathol 36:348-56. 2005..If TOP2A gene dosage can be confirmed to correlate with tumor responsiveness to anthracycline-based therapy in the clinical setting, FISH testing for TOP2A status may be warranted to aid in the selection of the most appropriate therapy...
- Novel bright field molecular morphology methods for detection of HER2 gene amplificationRaymond Tubbs
Department of Anatomic, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation and The Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
J Mol Histol 35:589-94. 2004....
- Vaccination with cytoplasmic ErbB-2 DNA protects mice from mammary tumor growth without anti-ErbB-2 antibodyS A Pilon
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, and Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
J Immunol 167:3201-6. 2001..Taken together, cytoplasmic ErbB-2 DNA induced anti-tumor CTL, but not humoral response, demonstrating the feasibility of eliciting individual effector mechanism by targeted DNA vaccine...
- Increased HER2 gene copy number is associated with response to gefitinib therapy in epidermal growth factor receptor-positive non-small-cell lung cancer patientsFederico Cappuzzo
University of Colorado Cancer Center, Department of Medicine and Pathology, Aurora, CO 80010, USA
J Clin Oncol 23:5007-18. 2005..Preclinical data indicate that HER2, a member of the EGFR family, could enhance TKI sensitivity...
- Distribution of HER2(V655) genotypes in breast cancer cases and controls in the United StatesC Keshava
Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, WV 26505 2888, USA
Cancer Lett 173:37-41. 2001..4-4.2). Nor was there a significant association when each racial group was considered separately. The current study suggests the HER2(V655) allele is not a breast cancer risk factor for Caucasians, African-Americans, or Latinas...
- The correlation between dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization in assessing HER2 gene amplification in breast cancerMarianne Pedersen
Department of Pathology, Roskilde Hospital, Roskilde, Denmark
Diagn Mol Pathol 18:96-102. 2009..In conclusion, it is possible by dual-color CISH method to demonstrate HER2 genes and chromosome 17 genes, in the same tissue section and reliably assess HER2 status. The CISH method is a very promising alternative to the FISH method...
- The ErbB2/Neu/HER2 receptor is a new calmodulin-binding proteinHongbing Li
Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas and Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Arturo Duperier 4, E 28029 Madrid, Spain
Biochem J 381:257-66. 2004..We conclude that ErbB2 is a new CaM-binding protein, and that CaM plays a role in the regulation of this receptor and its downstream signalling pathways in vivo...
- A light, nontoxic interleukin 12 protocol inhibits HER-2/neu mammary carcinogenesis in BALB/c transgenic mice with established hyperplasiaL Cifaldi
Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Orbassano, Italy
Cancer Res 61:2809-12. 2001..A lower-dose and less toxic treatment may thus be envisaged as a possible option in the management of preneoplastic mammary lesions...
- Cure of mammary carcinomas in Her-2 transgenic mice through sequential stimulation of innate (neoadjuvant interleukin-12) and adaptive (DNA vaccine electroporation) immunityMichela Spadaro
Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Ospedale San Luigi Gonzaga, Regione Gonzole 10, I 10043 Orbassano, Italy
Clin Cancer Res 11:1941-52. 2005..In a model of Her-2 spontaneous mammary cancer, we investigated the efficacy of neoadjuvant interleukin 12 (IL-12) followed by "immune-surgery" of the residual tumor...
- The induction of apoptosis in human mammary luminal epithelial cells by expression of activated c-neu and its abrogation by glucocorticoidsR A Harris
Cell Signalling Group, Wellcome Research Laboratories, Beckenham, Kent, UK
Br J Cancer 72:386-92. 1995....
- Immunobiology of her-2/neu transgenic miceTania Pannellini
Aging Research Center, University G d Annunzio Foundation, Chieti, Italy
Breast Dis 20:33-42. 2004..This suggests that induction of a specific immune reaction against a tumor target antigen may provide a way of preventing the onset of tumours in subjects with a high genetic risk of developing cancer...
- HER-2/neu is a tumor rejection target in tolerized HER-2/neu transgenic miceR T Reilly
Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Cancer Res 60:3569-76. 2000..These transgenic mice provide a spontaneous tumor model for identifying vaccine approaches potent enough to overcome mechanisms of immune tolerance that are likely to exist in patients with cancer...
- Biologic and therapeutic role of HER2 in cancerSylvie Menard
Molecular Targeting Unit, Department of Experimental Oncology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, 20133 Milan, Italy
Oncogene 22:6570-8. 2003....
- Systems biology reveals new strategies for personalizing cancer medicine and confirms the role of PTEN in resistance to trastuzumabDana Faratian
University of Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
Cancer Res 69:6713-20. 2009....
- Her2-positive breast cancer: herceptin and beyondWindy Dean-Colomb
Department of Cancer Medicine, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Eur J Cancer 44:2806-12. 2008....
- Effects of HER2 overexpression on cell signaling networks governing proliferation and migrationAlejandro Wolf-Yadlin
Biological Engineering Division, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA
Mol Syst Biol 2:54. 2006..Combining these modeling approaches enabled association of epidermal growth factor receptor family dimerization to activation of specific phosphorylation sites, which appear to most critically regulate proliferation and/or migration...
- Cyclin D1-dependent kinase activity in murine development and mammary tumorigenesisMark W Landis
Molecular Oncology Research Institute and Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts New England Medical Center, 750 Washington Street 5609, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
Cancer Cell 9:13-22. 2006..These results demonstrate a differential requirement for cyclin D1-CDK4/6 kinase activity in development versus tumorigenesis and strongly support cyclin D1-dependent kinase activity as a specific therapeutic target in breast cancer...
- HER2 testing by local, central, and reference laboratories in specimens from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N9831 intergroup adjuvant trialEdith A Perez
Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
J Clin Oncol 24:3032-8. 2006..To evaluate concordance between local and central laboratory HER2 testing results in patients from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) N9831 adjuvant trial of trastuzumab...
- Frequent homogeneous HER-2 amplification in primary and metastatic adenocarcinoma of the esophagusUta Reichelt
Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
Mod Pathol 20:120-9. 2007..The strong concordance of the HER-2 status in primary and metastatic cancers argues for a possible response of metastases from patients with HER-2-positive primary tumors to Herceptin...
- Topoisomerase IIalpha gene amplification in gastric carcinomas: correlation with the HER2 gene. An immunohistochemical, immunoblotting, and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization studySammy Yasmin Kanta
Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi 409 3898, Japan
Hum Pathol 37:1333-43. 2006..Therefore, results of the current study will provide further insight for the clinical application of anthracycline in gastric cancers...
- Agreement between chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) and FISH in the determination of HER2 status in breast cancerL Arnould
Department of Pathology, Centre GF Leclerc, 1 rue Pr Marion, 21034 Dijon Cedex, France
Br J Cancer 88:1587-91. 2003..Our results allow us to think that, in many laboratories, CISH may also be an excellent method to calibrate the IHC procedures or, as a quality control test, to check regularly that the IHC signal is in agreement with the gene status...
- Rates of topoisomerase II-alpha and HER-2 gene amplification and expression in epithelial ovarian carcinomaM S Mano
Unite de Chimiotherapie, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels, Belgium
Gynecol Oncol 92:887-95. 2004..In this study, we investigated the actual rates of T2a and HER-2 amplification and overexpression by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively...
- Cofactor competition between the ligand-bound oestrogen receptor and an intron 1 enhancer leads to oestrogen repression of ERBB2 expression in breast cancerS P Newman
ICRF Molecular Oncology Unit, ICSM Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
Oncogene 19:490-7. 2000....
- Comparison of automated silver enhanced in situ hybridisation (SISH) and fluorescence ISH (FISH) for the validation of HER2 gene status in breast carcinoma according to the guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of AmericaM Dietel
Institute of Pathology, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Virchows Arch 451:19-25. 2007..Because SISH combines bright field microscopy with molecular analysis and full automation, it appears to be particularly suited for routine application in surgical pathology...
- Determination of HER-2 status and chromosome 17 polysomy in breast carcinomas comparing HercepTest and PathVysion FISH assayDolly Varshney
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Am J Clin Pathol 121:70-7. 2004..Weak overexpression of HER-2 protein in a majority of cases seems to represent an artifactual staining pattern. Chromosome 17 polysomy is a major factor in strong HER-2 protein overexpression in 3+ nonamplified cases...
- Effect of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor on development of estrogen receptor-negative mammary tumorsChunhua Lu
Department of Medicine, Breast Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
J Natl Cancer Inst 95:1825-33. 2003..We examined whether ZD1839 blocks signal transduction and prevents the development of ER-negative breast cancer...
- HER2 and responsiveness of breast cancer to adjuvant chemotherapyKathleen I Pritchard
Toronto Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
N Engl J Med 354:2103-11. 2006....
- Comparison of fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization for detection of HER-2/neu oncogene in breast cancerDeepali Gupta
Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, USA
Am J Clin Pathol 119:381-7. 2003..If a probe for chromosome 17 (now available for CISH) is used in cases of questionable HER-2/neu amplification, CISH seems to be as accurate and more practical than FISH...
- Chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) should be an accepted method in the routine diagnostic evaluation of HER2 status in breast cancerS Di Palma
Histopathology, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Egerton Road, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XX, UK
J Clin Pathol 60:1067-8. 2007
- Phosphorylated HER-2 tyrosine kinase and Her-2/neu gene amplification as predictive factors of response to trastuzumab in patients with HER-2 overexpressing metastatic breast cancer (MBC)Rosa Giuliani
Translational Research Unit, Jules Bordet Institute, 125, boulevard de Waterloo, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
Eur J Cancer 43:725-35. 2007....
- Simultaneous detection of HER2/neu gene amplification and protein overexpression in paraffin-embedded breast cancerChristian Lottner
Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg, 93042 Regensburg, Germany
J Pathol 205:577-84. 2005..3%) had HER2/neu gene amplification without protein overexpression. The main advantage of this novel approach is that polysomy, aneuploidy, gene amplification, and protein content can be analysed simultaneously in the same cell...
- Trastuzumab: mechanism of action, resistance and future perspectives in HER2-overexpressing breast cancerG Valabrega
University Division of Medical Oncology and Haematology, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Strada Provinciale 142, 10060 Candiolo, Torino, Italy
Ann Oncol 18:977-84. 2007....
- Weekly trastuzumab and paclitaxel therapy for metastatic breast cancer with analysis of efficacy by HER2 immunophenotype and gene amplificationA D Seidman
Breast Cancer Medicine Service, Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
J Clin Oncol 19:2587-95. 2001..Efficacy was correlated with immunohistochemical and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay results...
- Herceptin-induced inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and Akt Is required for antibody-mediated effects on p27, cyclin D1, and antitumor actionF Michael Yakes
Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
Cancer Res 62:4132-41. 2002....
- Laboratory testing for HER2/neu in breast carcinoma: an evolving strategy to predict response to targeted therapyN M Diaz
Interdisciplinary Oncology Program, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa 33612, USA
Cancer Control 8:415-8. 2001..Many weak overexpressors on IHC testing are not gene amplified on FISH analysis. Such weak overexpressors may be considered false-positives and raise the question of how best to test for HER2/neu...
- The effect of chromosome 17 polysomy on HER-2/neu status in breast cancerC L Hyun
Department of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
J Clin Pathol 61:317-21. 2008..To investigate the effect of polysomy 17 on HER-2 status as evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH)...
- Evaluation of two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis for proteomic expression analysis of a model breast cancer cell systemSeverine Gharbi
Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, 91 Riding House Street, London W1W 7BS, United Kingdom
Mol Cell Proteomics 1:91-8. 2002..DeCyder (Amersham Biosciences, Inc.) software was used to distinguish clear statistical differences in protein expression over time and between the cell lines...
- Close association between HER-2 amplification and overexpression in human tumors of non-breast originCoya Tapia
Institute of Pathology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Mod Pathol 20:192-8. 2007..Such tumor entities should be carefully evaluated for a possible utility of trastuzumab treatment...
- HER-2 and topoisomerase II as predictors of response to chemotherapyKathleen I Pritchard
Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Ave, Toronto, ON, Canada
J Clin Oncol 26:736-44. 2008..Additional studies will be required to clarify these relationships...
- Amplification of erbB2 and erbB2 expression are superior to estrogen receptor status as risk factors for distant recurrence in pT1N0M0 breast cancer: a nationwide population-based studyHeikki Joensuu
Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 4, PO Box 180, FIN 00029 Helsinki, Finland
Clin Cancer Res 9:923-30. 2003..To assess the relative importance of 10 prognostic factors in pT1N0M0 breast cancer (< or =2 cm in diameter, node negative)...
- The HER-2/neu oncogene in tumors of the gastrointestinal tractJ S Ross
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine MC 81, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY 12208, USA
Cancer Invest 19:554-68. 2001....
- Level of HER2/neu gene amplification as a predictive factor of response to trastuzumab-based therapy in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancerGiuseppe Gullo
Oncology and Hematology Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas IRCCS, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
Invest New Drugs 27:179-83. 2009..If confirmed in larger cohorts of patients, HER2/CEP17 ratio could represent a reliable and economical predictor of response to trastuzumab-based therapy in MBC...
- HER-2 is an independent prognostic factor in endometrial cancer: association with outcome in a large cohort of surgically staged patientsCarl Morrison
Department of Pathology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology Center for Biostatistics, The Arthur James Cancer Hospital, and the Richard Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University Medical School Columbus, OH 43210, USA
J Clin Oncol 24:2376-85. 2006..To evaluate HER-2 expression and amplification in a large cohort of endometrial cancer with complete surgical staging and outcome data...
- HER-2/neu protein overexpression and gene amplification in human transitional cell carcinoma of the bladderChristopher L Coogan
Department of Urology, Rush Medical College, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Urology 63:786-90. 2004..In breast carcinoma, HER-2/neu gene amplification and receptor protein overexpression are tightly correlated and have prognostic and therapeutic implications...
- Her-2/neu oncogene amplification and protein over-expression in interval and screen-detected breast cancersJorma Anttinen
Department of Pathology, Jyvaskyla Central Hospital, Keskussairaalantie 19, 40620 Jyvaskyla, Finland
Anticancer Res 23:4213-8. 2003..Studies of Her-2/neu protein expression in interval and screen-detected breast cancers have been conflicting. Therefore we assessed the Her-2/neu amplification status in these groups by using in situ hybridization...
- Somatic mutations of the HER2 kinase domain in lung adenocarcinomasHisayuki Shigematsu
Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 8593, USA
Cancer Res 65:1642-6. 2005..EGFR, HER2, and KRAS mutations are mutually exclusive, suggesting different pathways to lung cancer in smokers and never smokers...
- Chromogenic in situ hybridization: a multicenter study comparing silver in situ hybridization with FISHJ M S Bartlett
Endocrine Cancer Group, Edinburgh University Cancer Research Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XR, England
Am J Clin Pathol 132:514-20. 2009..The Ventana INFORM HER-2 SISH assay is robust and reproducible, shows good concordance with a standard FISH assay, and complies with requirements in national guidelines for performance of diagnostic tests...
- Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER2/neu expression and its consequences for the management of advanced breast cancerP H Cottu
Ann Oncol 19:595-7. 2008
- Chromogenic in situ hybridization is a reliable method for detecting HER2 gene status in breast cancer: a multicenter study using conventional scoring criteria and the new ASCO/CAP recommendationsYun Gong
Department of Pathology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Am J Clin Pathol 131:490-7. 2009..0% among 3 sites using the manufacturers' criteria and 100.0% between 2 sites using the ASCO/CAP criteria. Our results confirm that CISH is reliable for HER2 testing per ASCO/CAP guidelines...
- HER2 overexpression and amplification in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is associated with MYC coamplification in a subset of casesDonna E Hansel
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Am J Clin Pathol 130:274-81. 2008..Further studies into the role of MYC coamplification in this population are needed to determine impacts on treatment with HER2-targeted therapy...
- Increased epidermal growth factor receptor gene copy number detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization associates with increased sensitivity to gefitinib in patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma subtypes: a Southwest Oncology Group StudyFred R Hirsch
University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USA
J Clin Oncol 23:6838-45. 2005..Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors demonstrated response rates of 20% to 30% in patients with advanced BAC subtypes, but selection methods for patient therapy are not established...
- Significance of HER2 low-level copy gain in Barrett's cancer: implications for fluorescence in situ hybridization testing in tissuesSandra Rauser
Institute of Pathology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany
Clin Cancer Res 13:5115-23. 2007..We compared three HER2 laboratory methods, standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), image-based three-dimensional FISH in thick (16 microm) sections, and immunohistochemistry, to predict patient outcome...
- Reliability and discriminant validity of HER2 gene quantification and chromosome 17 aneusomy analysis by real-time PCR in primary breast cancerP J Lamy
Laboratoire de Biologie Spécilaisée Transfert en Cancérologie Clinique, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Montpellier
Int J Biol Markers 21:20-9. 2006..5%) samples. Overall, these results demonstrate that quantitative PCR is a reliable method for analyzing HER2 status and chromosome 17 polysomy...
- Gene expression profiling shows medullary breast cancer is a subgroup of basal breast cancersFrancois Bertucci
Institut de Cancérologie de Marseille, Département d Oncologie Moléculaire, Institut Paoli Calmettes et Unité Mixte de Recherche 599 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Marseilles, France
Cancer Res 66:4636-44. 2006..Finally, MBCs overexpress a series of genes located on the 12p13 and 6p21 chromosomal regions known to contain pluripotency genes. Our results contribute to a better understanding of MBC and of mammary oncogenesis in general...
- TOPOISOMERASE II EXPRESSION IN DRUG RESISTANCEShu wing Ng; Fiscal Year: 2001..Elucidating the mechanisms of regulating tip Iialpha expression is also important in studying the roles of top II in different cell functions. ..
- Pilot studies to develop probes for in vivo imaging of P13K/Akt pathway activityMark Moasser; Fiscal Year: 2008..If successful, this modality could potentially lead to a ground-breaking predictive clinical monitoring tool. ..
- Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy for Cervical CancerAlessandro Santin; Fiscal Year: 2004..This study will determine whether E7 antigen-loaded autologous DC vaccination offers the potential of therapeutic benefit for patients with HPV16 or HPV18-associated cervical cancer. ..
- Adhesion signaling by a novel mitotic substrate of srcMark Moasser; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..
- HLA classl complex expression in breast cancer immunityKeith Knutson; Fiscal Year: 2009..The results will likely lead to the identification of specific molecule associated with antigen presentation that could be either a novel therapeutic target or biomarker of disease outcome. ..
- Ex vivo expansion of HER-2/neu specific T helper cellsKeith Knutson; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- Biology of Breast Cancers Arising in Older WomenChristopher Benz; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Preoperative chemotherapy for breast cancerLajos Pusztai; Fiscal Year: 2007..We expect that our work will lead to the development of microarray-based clinical tests to personalize chemotherapy selection for an individual with newly diagnosed breast cancer. ..
- Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer with BBICFrank Meyskens; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Phase-I-II Study of DAB389 (ONTAK) in Patients with Adv. Refractory Breast CancerLupe Salazar; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Depo-Provera and Breast Cancer: Epidemiology/PathologyChristopher Li; Fiscal Year: 2009..such as parity and body mass index, modify this association?;and (3) Does the association between DMPA and breast cancer risk vary by histologic type or by the expression of steroid receptors including ERq, ERft, and PR? ..
- Nanoparticle targeting of cathepsin-L inhibitor and doxorubicin in breast cancerShaker Mousa; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Tilting the balance in cancer immunotherapy and autoimmunityWei Zen Wei; Fiscal Year: 2010..Establish a vaccination regimen to inhibit spontaneous tumorigenesis and tumor metastasis, and 3. Amplify the immunogenicity of a growing tumor by in situ transfection with TetC DNA. ..
- Protein Biomarkers of Cancer Risk in Older PersonsChristopher Li; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Radiosensitization with the HIV protease inhibior Nelfinavir in NSCLCAnjali Gupta; Fiscal Year: 2008..Specific Aim 3. To investigate in vitro the molecular mechanisms by which NFV results in sensitization. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Mitochondrial Haplogroups and Breast Cancer RiskDavid Cox; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- The Hedgehog Pathway and Pancreatic NeoplasiaSarah Thayer; Fiscal Year: 2008..This will allow us to better understand the role of this pathway in human pancreatic cancer, so that it may be exploited for new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- T Cell Memory After Immunization with a HER2 DNA VaccineLupe Salazar; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Phase III Colon Cancer Prevention TrialFrank Meyskens; Fiscal Year: 2006..The overall goal of our work is to develop safe combinations of chemoprevention agents that can be used in the practice setting and complement current surveillance efforts. ..
- Chemotherapy plus vaccine for metastatic breast cancerElizabeth Jaffee; Fiscal Year: 2005..In addition, characterization of breast tumor antigens may lead to the development of recombinant vaccines that can more efficiently activate antitumor immunity...
- Regulation of Skp2 Expression in Urinary Bladder WallSTEVEN WEINTRAUB; Fiscal Year: 2005..These studies will be aimed at identifying targets for intervention to inhibit the hypertrophic response of the bladder wall that occurs in response to bladder outlet obstruction. ..
- ALLOGENIC PANCREATIC TUMOR VACCINE CELL LINEElizabeth Jaffee; Fiscal Year: 2003..g. breast and prostate). In addition, characterization of pancreatic tumor antigens may lead to the development of recombinant vaccines that can more efficiently activate antitumor immunity. ..
- ERBB 2 ERBB 3 HETERODIMERIC RECEPTOR OF CARCINOMASYosef Yarden; Fiscal Year: 2004..This model will be examined by using mutant receptors, and the recycling machinery characterized in details. The suspected cancer-inhibitory activity of drugs interfering with ErbB routing will be tested in vivo. ..
- IDENTIFICATION OF CD8+ T CELL TARGETS ON RENAL CANCERElizabeth Jaffee; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- GENETIC MECHANISM OF BRCA LINKED OVARIAN TUMORIGENESISJeff Boyd; Fiscal Year: 2004..Data from these studies may lead to the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for genetically-defined subsets of ovarian cancer patients. ..
- THERAPEUTIC MODULATION OF BREAST CANCER ONCOGENESChristopher Benz; Fiscal Year: 2007..tumor-targeted uptake of selected candidates by encapsulation into anti-ErbB2 immunoliposomes (ILs), and these ErbB2 receptor- and promoter-targeted ILs agents will be evaluated in vivo for further clinical development ..
- Ethnicity-based proteomic biomarkers in breast cancerHelena Chang; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- Protein Profiling in Nipple Aspirate FluidEdward Sauter; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- MMAC1/PTEN TUMOR SUPPRESSOR AND BREAST CANCERGordon Mills; Fiscal Year: 2003..Specific Aim #1: To determine the role of MMAC1 in signal transduction in breast cancer cells. Specific Aim #2: To determine the functional role of MMAC1 in breast cancer pathogenesis. ..
- Analysis of serum folate receptor and antibody level for ovarian cancer detectionKeith Knutson; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- PanAmerican Society for Pigment Cell Research (PASPCR)Frank Meyskens; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- The rpL7a in neuronal developmentJia Luo; Fiscal Year: 2006..Furthermore, the studies will provide an important insight into the mechanisms of extra-ribosomal function of ribosomal proteins. ..
- c-erbB-2 and Risk of Contralateral Breast CancerChristopher Li; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- CD SIGNALING THROUGH EMT/ITK TYROSINE KINASEGordon Mills; Fiscal Year: 2001..2. To determine the mechanisms regulating the activation of EMT. 3. To determine the mechanisms by which CD28 regulates physiological responses. ..
- AKT MEDIATED TAMOXIFEN RESISTANCE IN BREAST CANCER CELLSHarikrishna Nakshatri; Fiscal Year: 2005..3) By inactivating PTEN, through a dominant-negative mutant or antisense RNA, we will determine whether loss of PTEN leads to increased ERalpha activity and tamoxifen-resistant growth of breast cancer cells. ..
- Chemoprevention Through Activation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Induced SenescenceHarikrishna Nakshatri; Fiscal Year: 2007..Our long- term goal is to identify molecular targets for senescence-based chemoprevention strategies for ERa-positive breast cancers. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Animal Model for Local Inflammation-Induced Breast CancerHarikrishna Nakshatri; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Breast Cancer Prediction Using Nipple Aspirate FluidEdward Sauter; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Treatment of Older Patients with Early Breast CancerArash Naeim; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Altered Breast Methylation after Low/Hi Dose IsoflavonesEdward Sauter; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- The Effect of Black Cohosh Extract on the Human BreastEdward Sauter; Fiscal Year: 2004..The findings should allow us to design a high quality R01 submission involving a larger, randomized study of longer duration which should provide some answers on the potential role of BCE in breast cancer. ..
- ARP--GENE TARGET OF THE ALL1 GENE IN ACUTE LEUKEMIASCarlo Croce; Fiscal Year: 2002..Acute lymphoblastic and acute myelogenous leukemias will be investigated for the expression, rearrangements and mutations of ALL-1 target genes. ..
- 8P22 ALTERATIONS, IN PROSTATE, BREAST AND ESOPHAGEAL CACarlo Croce; Fiscal Year: 2004..We will also determine whether Fez1 loss of function makes cancer cells more resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs. Finally, we will determine whether FHIT and Fez1 are collaborating tumor suppressor genes ..