gene conversion

Summary

Summary: The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Biased gene conversion and the evolution of mammalian genomic landscapes
    Laurent Duret
    Universite de Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, F 69622, Villeurbanne, France
    Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 10:285-311. 2009
  2. ncbi The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes
    Helen Skaletsky
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Whitehead Institute, and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 423:825-37. 2003
  3. ncbi Gene conversion: mechanisms, evolution and human disease
    Jian Min Chen
    INSERM, U613, 29220 Brest, France
    Nat Rev Genet 8:762-75. 2007
  4. pmc The impact of recombination on nucleotide substitutions in the human genome
    Laurent Duret
    Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France
    PLoS Genet 4:e1000071. 2008
  5. pmc Increased mutagenesis and unique mutation signature associated with mitotic gene conversion
    Wade M Hicks
    Department of Biology and Rosenstiel Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 9110, USA
    Science 329:82-5. 2010
  6. pmc High-resolution mapping of meiotic crossovers and non-crossovers in yeast
    Eugenio Mancera
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nature 454:479-85. 2008
  7. pmc Targeted heritable mutation and gene conversion by Cas9-CRISPR in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Iskra Katic
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Genetics 195:1173-6. 2013
  8. pmc The FANCM ortholog Fml1 promotes recombination at stalled replication forks and limits crossing over during DNA double-strand break repair
    Weili Sun
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK
    Mol Cell 32:118-28. 2008
  9. ncbi Recombination drives the evolution of GC-content in the human genome
    Julien Meunier
    UMR 5558 CNRS, Université Lyon I, Villeurbanne, France
    Mol Biol Evol 21:984-90. 2004
  10. ncbi Generating samples under a Wright-Fisher neutral model of genetic variation
    Richard R Hudson
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, 1101 E 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Bioinformatics 18:337-8. 2002

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications260 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Biased gene conversion and the evolution of mammalian genomic landscapes
    Laurent Duret
    Universite de Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, F 69622, Villeurbanne, France
    Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 10:285-311. 2009
    ..Recombination events, however, are also accompanied by short-scale, unidirectional exchanges known as gene conversion in the neighborhood of the initiating double-strand break...
  2. ncbi The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes
    Helen Skaletsky
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Whitehead Institute, and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 423:825-37. 2003
    ..9% identity, which is maintained by frequent gene conversion (non-reciprocal transfer)...
  3. ncbi Gene conversion: mechanisms, evolution and human disease
    Jian Min Chen
    INSERM, U613, 29220 Brest, France
    Nat Rev Genet 8:762-75. 2007
    b>Gene conversion, one of the two mechanisms of homologous recombination, involves the unidirectional transfer of genetic material from a 'donor' sequence to a highly homologous 'acceptor'...
  4. pmc The impact of recombination on nucleotide substitutions in the human genome
    Laurent Duret
    Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France
    PLoS Genet 4:e1000071. 2008
    ..This effect of recombination is most probably a consequence of the neutral process of biased gene conversion (BGC) occurring within recombination hotspots...
  5. pmc Increased mutagenesis and unique mutation signature associated with mitotic gene conversion
    Wade M Hicks
    Department of Biology and Rosenstiel Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 9110, USA
    Science 329:82-5. 2010
    ..the fidelity of DNA synthesis during double-strand break (DSB) repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we studied gene conversion in which both strands of DNA are newly synthesized...
  6. pmc High-resolution mapping of meiotic crossovers and non-crossovers in yeast
    Eugenio Mancera
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nature 454:479-85. 2008
    ..crossover and non-crossover, increase genetic diversity, but have the potential to homogenize alleles by gene conversion. Whereas crossover rates vary considerably across the genome, non-crossovers and gene conversions have only ..
  7. pmc Targeted heritable mutation and gene conversion by Cas9-CRISPR in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Iskra Katic
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Genetics 195:1173-6. 2013
    ..This system rapidly creates precise genomic changes, including knockouts and transgene-instructed gene conversion.
  8. pmc The FANCM ortholog Fml1 promotes recombination at stalled replication forks and limits crossing over during DNA double-strand break repair
    Weili Sun
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK
    Mol Cell 32:118-28. 2008
    ..We show that Fml1 has at least two roles in homologous recombination-it promotes Rad51-dependent gene conversion at stalled/blocked replication forks and limits crossing over during mitotic double-strand break repair...
  9. ncbi Recombination drives the evolution of GC-content in the human genome
    Julien Meunier
    UMR 5558 CNRS, Université Lyon I, Villeurbanne, France
    Mol Biol Evol 21:984-90. 2004
    ..that recombination drives the evolution of base composition in human (probably via the process of biased gene conversion)...
  10. ncbi Generating samples under a Wright-Fisher neutral model of genetic variation
    Richard R Hudson
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, 1101 E 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Bioinformatics 18:337-8. 2002
    ..The program assumes an infinite-sites model of mutation, and allows recombination, gene conversion, symmetric migration among subpopulations, and a variety of demographic histories...
  11. pmc Frequent recombination events generate diversity within the multi-copy variant antigen gene families of Plasmodium falciparum
    Matthias Frank
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 62, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Int J Parasitol 38:1099-109. 2008
    ..falciparum...
  12. pmc Efficient copying of nonhomologous sequences from ectopic sites via P-element-induced gap repair
    N Nassif
    Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin Madison 53706
    Mol Cell Biol 14:1613-25. 1994
    ..These single strands then pair, and synthesis is completed by each using the other as a template. This synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) model as a possible general mechanism in complex organisms is discussed...
  13. ncbi Meiotic synapsis in the absence of recombination
    K S McKim
    Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Science 279:876-8. 1998
    ..for either of two meiotic mutants (mei-W68 and mei-P22), which eliminate both meiotic crossing over and gene conversion, revealed normal synaptonemal complex formation...
  14. pmc Frequent gene conversion events between the X and Y homologous chromosomal regions in primates
    Mineyo Iwase
    The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies Sokendai, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240 0193, Japan
    BMC Evol Biol 10:225. 2010
    ..To examine the evolutionary mechanism for this low p-distance region, sequences of a corresponding region including KALX/Y from seven species of non-human primates were analyzed...
  15. ncbi The role of gene conversion in preserving rearrangement hotspots in the human genome
    Jeffrey A Fawcett
    Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240 0193, Japan
    Trends Genet 29:561-8. 2013
    ..Here, we propose an evolutionary model of SDs that incorporates the effect of gene conversion and compare it with a null model that assumes SDs evolve independently without gene conversion...
  16. ncbi Gene conversion rapidly generates major histocompatibility complex diversity in recently founded bird populations
    Lewis G Spurgin
    School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    Mol Ecol 20:5213-25. 2011
    ..While de novo MHC sequence variation is generated by point mutation, gene conversion can generate new haplotypes by transferring sections of DNA within and across duplicated MHC loci...
  17. pmc Great majority of recombination events in Arabidopsis are gene conversion events
    Sihai Yang
    State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:20992-7. 2012
    ..with allelic shuffling caused by crossing-over but also have to do with its more immediate effects such as gene conversion. Although estimates of the crossing-over rate are often well resolved, the gene conversion rate is much less ..
  18. pmc Efficient neocentromere formation is suppressed by gene conversion to maintain centromere function at native physical chromosomal loci in Candida albicans
    Jitendra Thakur
    Molecular Mycology Laboratory, Molecular Biology and Genetics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 064, India
    Genome Res 23:638-52. 2013
    ..Interestingly, repositioning of CENPA chromatin from the neocentromere to the native centromere occurs by gene conversion in C. albicans.
  19. pmc The role of GC-biased gene conversion in shaping the fastest evolving regions of the human genome
    Dennis Kostka
    Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 29:1047-57. 2012
    GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) is a recombination-associated evolutionary process that accelerates the fixation of guanine or cytosine alleles, regardless of their effects on fitness...
  20. pmc Hierarchy of nonhomologous end-joining, single-strand annealing and gene conversion at site-directed DNA double-strand breaks
    Wael Y Mansour
    Laboratory of Radiobiology and Experimental Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical School Hamburg Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, D 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:4088-98. 2008
    ..cells, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by three pathways, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), gene conversion (GC) and single-strand annealing (SSA)...
  21. pmc Fission yeast Mus81.Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase is required for meiotic crossing over but not for gene conversion
    Gerald R Smith
    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    Genetics 165:2289-93. 2003
    ..We report here that Schizosaccharomyces pombe mus81 mutants have normal or elevated frequencies of gene conversion but 20- to 100-fold reduced frequencies of crossing over...
  22. pmc Detecting positive selection within genomes: the problem of biased gene conversion
    Abhirami Ratnakumar
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Box 582, 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365:2571-80. 2010
    ..Notably, GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) is a recombination-associated process that results in the biased fixation of G and C nucleotides...
  23. pmc Recombination and gene flux caused by gene conversion and crossing over in inversion heterokaryotypes
    A Navarro
    Departament de Genetica i de Microbiologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain
    Genetics 146:695-709. 1997
    ..analysis of the effects of inversions on recombination and gene flux between arrangements caused by gene conversion and crossing over was carried out...
  24. pmc Recombination dynamics of a human Y-chromosomal palindrome: rapid GC-biased gene conversion, multi-kilobase conversion tracts, and rare inversions
    Pille Hallast
    Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom
    PLoS Genet 9:e1003666. 2013
    ..9%, due to gene conversion activity...
  25. pmc Microhomology-mediated deletion and gene conversion in African trypanosomes
    Lucy Glover
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:1372-80. 2011
    ..We also identified interchromosomal gene conversion involving HR and MMEJ at different ends of a duplicated sequence...
  26. pmc Multiple heterologies increase mitotic double-strand break-induced allelic gene conversion tract lengths in yeast
    J A Nickoloff
    Department of Cancer Biology, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genetics 153:665-79. 1999
    ..was seen for all markers centromere distal to the HO site in 50% of products; such loss could reflect gene conversion, break-induced replication, chromosome loss, or G2 crossovers...
  27. pmc Interlocus gene conversion events introduce deleterious mutations into at least 1% of human genes associated with inherited disease
    Claudio Casola
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Genome Res 22:429-35. 2012
    ..by nonreciprocal recombination events between paralogous sequences, a phenomenon known as interlocus gene conversion (IGC). IGC events have thus far been linked to pathology in more than 20 human genes...
  28. pmc A yeast-endonuclease-generated DNA break induces antigenic switching in Trypanosoma brucei
    Catharine E Boothroyd
    Laboratory of Lymphocyte Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nature 459:278-81. 2009
    ..VSG switching is thought to occur predominantly through gene conversion, a form of homologous recombination initiated by a DNA lesion that is used by other pathogens (for example, ..
  29. ncbi Evidence of gene conversion associated with a selective sweep in Drosophila melanogaster
    Sascha Glinka
    Section of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biology II, Ludwig Maximilians University, Planegg Martinsried, Germany
    Mol Biol Evol 23:1869-78. 2006
    ..This region, however, was interrupted by gene conversion events leading to a strong haplotype structure in the center of the valley of reduced variation.
  30. pmc Complex signatures of selection and gene conversion in the duplicated globin genes of house mice
    Jay F Storz
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA
    Genetics 177:481-500. 2007
    ..Interparalog gene conversion on the Hbbs haplotype has produced a highly unusual situation in which the two paralogs are more similar to ..
  31. pmc Widespread gene conversion in centromere cores
    Jinghua Shi
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000327. 2010
    ..Although classical crossing over is fully suppressed across CENH3 domains, two gene conversion events (i.e., non-crossover marker exchanges) were identified in a mapping population...
  32. ncbi Elimination of deleterious mutations in plastid genomes by gene conversion
    Olga Khakhlova
    Max Planck Institut fur Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Am Muhlenberg 1, D 14476 Potsdam Golm, Germany
    Plant J 46:85-94. 2006
    ..Whether or not polyploidy helps asexual genetic systems to escape Muller's ratchet is unknown. Gene conversion, particularly when slightly biased, represents a potential mechanism that could allow asexual genetic systems ..
  33. pmc KIR2DS4 is a product of gene conversion with KIR3DL2 that introduced specificity for HLA-A*11 while diminishing avidity for HLA-C
    Thorsten Graef
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Exp Med 206:2557-72. 2009
    ..KIR2DS is the proline-valine motif at positions 71-72, which is shared with KIR3DL2 and was introduced by gene conversion before separation of the human and chimpanzee lineages...
  34. ncbi Somatic hyperconversion diversifies the single Vh gene of the chicken with a high incidence in the D region
    C A Reynaud
    Basel Institute for Immunology, Switzerland
    Cell 59:171-83. 1989
    ..this D region possesses distinct characteristics, allowing higher combinatorial possibilities in the gene conversion process...
  35. ncbi DNA damage response pathway uses histone modification to assemble a double-strand break-specific cohesin domain
    Elcin Unal
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Embryology, The Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA
    Mol Cell 16:991-1002. 2004
    ..We also provide evidence that the DSB-induced cohesin domain functions in postreplicative repair...
  36. ncbi Gene conversion and concerted evolution in bacterial genomes
    Gustavo Santoyo
    Programa de Ingeniería Genómica, Centro de Ciencias Genomicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 565 A, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:169-83. 2005
    b>Gene conversion is defined as the non-reciprocal transfer of information between homologous sequences. Despite methodological problems to establish non-reciprocity, gene conversion has been demonstrated in a wide variety of bacteria...
  37. ncbi Population genetic models of duplicated genes
    Hideki Innan
    Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa, 240 0193, Japan
    Genetica 137:19-37. 2009
    ..Because of increasing evidence for concerted evolution by gene conversion, this review introduces recently developed gene conversion models...
  38. pmc Dynamics of a human interparalog gene conversion hotspot
    Elena Bosch
    Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    Genome Res 14:835-44. 2004
    b>Gene conversion between paralogs can alter their patterns of sequence identity, thus obscuring their evolutionary relationships and affecting their propensity to sponsor genomic rearrangements...
  39. pmc Horizontal acquisition of multiple mitochondrial genes from a parasitic plant followed by gene conversion with host mitochondrial genes
    Jeffrey P Mower
    Department of Biology, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana 47403, USA
    BMC Biol 8:150. 2010
    ..Previous results indicate that parasitic plants are often involved as either transfer donors or recipients, suggesting that direct contact between parasite and host facilitates genetic transfer among plants...
  40. pmc From the Cover: mitotic gene conversion events induced in G1-synchronized yeast cells by gamma rays are similar to spontaneous conversion events
    Phoebe S Lee
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7383-8. 2010
    ..About three-quarters of the crossovers were associated with gene conversion tracts...
  41. ncbi Alu repeats and human genomic diversity
    Mark A Batzer
    Department of Biological Sciences, Biological Computation and Visualization Center, Louisiana State University, 202 Life Sciences Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 3:370-9. 2002
    ..Alu elements affect the genome in several ways, causing insertion mutations, recombination between elements, gene conversion and alterations in gene expression...
  42. ncbi Break-induced replication and telomerase-independent telomere maintenance require Pol32
    John R Lydeard
    MS029 Rosenstiel Centre, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454 9110, USA
    Nature 448:820-3. 2007
    ..HO-induced gene conversion, in which both ends of a double-strand break engage in homologous recombination, does not require Pol32...
  43. pmc The effect of gene conversion on the divergence between duplicated genes
    Kosuke M Teshima
    Center for Genome Information, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA
    Genetics 166:1553-60. 2004
    ..The model incorporates mutation and gene conversion: the former increases d, the divergence between two duplicated regions, while the latter decreases d...
  44. ncbi Intense and highly localized gene conversion activity in human meiotic crossover hot spots
    Alec J Jeffreys
    Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    Nat Genet 36:151-6. 2004
    Meiotic gene conversion has an important role in allele diversification and in the homogenization of gene and other repeat DNA sequence families, sometimes with pathological consequences...
  45. ncbi Homing endonuclease genes: the rise and fall and rise again of a selfish element
    Austin Burt
    Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 14:609-15. 2004
    ..HEGs may also be domesticated by their hosts, and are currently being put to human uses...
  46. pmc Characterization of meiotic crossovers and gene conversion by whole-genome sequencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Ji Qi
    Center for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    BMC Genomics 10:475. 2009
    ..Differences at the nucleotide level associated with COs and NCOs enable us to detect these recombination events and their distributions...
  47. pmc Duplication, selection and gene conversion in a Drosophila mojavensis female reproductive protein family
    Erin S Kelleher
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Genetics 181:1451-65. 2009
    ..and adaptive evolution and further exhibit dynamic patterns of pseudogenation, copy number variation, gene conversion, and selection within geographically isolated populations of D. mojavensis...
  48. pmc Gene conversion occurs within the mating-type locus of Cryptococcus neoformans during sexual reproduction
    Sheng Sun
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 8:e1002810. 2012
    ..Recent studies reveal that recombination, in the form of gene conversion, is widely distributed within and may have played important roles in the evolution of some chromosomal ..
  49. ncbi A major recombination hotspot in the XqYq pseudoautosomal region gives new insight into processing of human gene conversion events
    Shriparna Sarbajna
    Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 21:2029-38. 2012
    Recombination plays a fundamental role in meiosis. Non-exchange gene conversion (non-crossover, NCO) may facilitate homologue pairing, while reciprocal crossover (CO) physically connects homologues so they orientate appropriately on the ..
  50. pmc Mre11 and Ku regulation of double-strand break repair by gene conversion and break-induced replication
    Sanchita Krishna
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131, United States
    DNA Repair (Amst) 6:797-808. 2007
    ..A prior plasmid gap repair study showed that mre11 mutations, which slow single-strand resection, reduce gene conversion tract lengths and the frequency of associated crossovers...
  51. pmc Molecular evolution of the vertebrate TLR1 gene family--a complex history of gene duplication, gene conversion, positive selection and co-evolution
    Yinhua Huang
    Division of Genetics and Genomics, The Roslin Institute and R D SVS, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9PS, UK
    BMC Evol Biol 11:149. 2011
    ....
  52. ncbi Structure of the murine serum amyloid A gene family. Gene conversion
    C A Lowell
    J Biol Chem 261:8442-52. 1986
    ..by short inverted repeats containing alternating purine and pyrimidine residues, as described for other gene conversion units. The third SAA gene has evolved separately, although all are closely linked on chromosome 7...
  53. ncbi GC-biased gene conversion impacts ribosomal DNA evolution in vertebrates, angiosperms, and other eukaryotes
    Juan S Escobar
    Institut des Sciences de l Evolution, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5554 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Montpellier II, Montpellier, France
    Mol Biol Evol 28:2561-75. 2011
    ..The multiples copies of rDNA in the genome evolve in a concerted manner, through unequal crossing over and/or gene conversion, two mechanisms related to homologous recombination...
  54. ncbi Analysis of spontaneous gene conversion tracts within and between mammalian chromosomes
    Ania Rukść
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    J Mol Biol 377:337-51. 2008
    In the present study, we report the first characterization of gene conversion tract length, continuity and fidelity for pathways of gene targeting, ectopic and intrachromosomal homologous recombination using the same locus and mammalian ..
  55. ncbi Gene conversion results in the equalization of genome copies in the polyploid haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii
    Christian Lange
    Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Institute for Molecular Biosciences, Max von Laue Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt a M, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 80:666-77. 2011
    ..Also in the absence of selection gene conversion led to a fast equalization of genomes and resulted in homozygous leuB-containing cells...
  56. pmc GC-biased gene conversion in yeast is specifically associated with crossovers: molecular mechanisms and evolutionary significance
    Yann Lesecque
    Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, UMR CNRS 5558, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France
    Mol Biol Evol 30:1409-19. 2013
    GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) is a process associated with recombination that favors the transmission of GC alleles over AT alleles during meiosis. gBGC plays a major role in genome evolution in many eukaryotes...
  57. pmc The hyper-gene conversion hpr5-1 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an allele of the SRS2/RADH gene
    L Rong
    Department of Biochemistry, New York University Medical Center, New York 10016
    Genetics 127:75-85. 1991
    The HPR5 gene has been defined by the mutation hpr5-1 that results in an increased rate of gene conversion. This mutation suppresses the UV sensitive phenotype of rad18 mutations in hpr5-1 rad18 double mutants by channeling the aborted ..
  58. pmc Genome copy numbers and gene conversion in methanogenic archaea
    Catherina Hildenbrand
    Goethe University, Biocentre, Institute for Molecular Biosciences, Max von Laue Str 9, D 60438 Frankfurt, Germany
    J Bacteriol 193:734-43. 2011
    ..A mechanism to equalize the genome copies, such as gene conversion, would counteract this phenomenon...
  59. pmc Assessment of anti-recombination and double-strand break-induced gene conversion in human cells by a chromosomal reporter
    Keqian Xu
    From the School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 7520
    J Biol Chem 287:29543-53. 2012
    b>Gene conversion is one of the frequent end results of homologous recombination, and it often underlies the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells...
  60. ncbi Revertant mosaicism in epidermolysis bullosa caused by mitotic gene conversion
    M F Jonkman
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Groningen, The Netherlands
    Cell 88:543-51. 1997
    Mitotic gene conversion acting as reverse mutation has not been previously demonstrated in human...
  61. ncbi Ploidy and gene conversion in Archaea
    Jörg Soppa
    Goethe University, Biocentre, Institute for Molecular Biosciences, Max von Laue Strasse 9, D 60438 Frankfurt, Germany
    Biochem Soc Trans 39:150-4. 2011
    ..An escape from Muller's ratchet would be a mechanism leading to the equalization of genome copies, such as gene conversion. Using two species of methanogenic and halophilic archaea, it was shown that heterozygous cells containing ..
  62. pmc The coalescent with gene conversion
    C Wiuf
    Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TG, England
    Genetics 155:451-62. 2000
    In this article we develop a coalescent model with intralocus gene conversion. The distribution of the tract length is geometric in concordance with results published in the literature...
  63. pmc Comparison of splice sites in mammals and chicken
    Josep F Abril
    Grup de Recerca en Informàtica Biomèdica, Institut Municipal d Investigacio Medica, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, and Programa de Bioinformàtica i Genòmica, Centre de Regulacio Genomica, C Dr Aiguader 80, E 08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Genome Res 15:111-9. 2005
    ..Switching between GT-AG and the noncanonical GC-AG U2 subtypes, on the contrary, does not appear to be unusual; in particular, T to C mutations appear to be relatively well tolerated in GT-AG introns with very strong donor sites...
  64. ncbi GC-biased gene conversion and selection affect GC content in the Oryza genus (rice)
    Aline Muyle
    Institut des Sciences de l Evolution, UMR 5554 CNRS, Universite Montpellier II, France
    Mol Biol Evol 28:2695-706. 2011
    ..Although mutational bias and selection have initially been invoked, more recently GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) has been proposed to play a central role in shaping nucleotide landscapes, especially in yeast, ..
  65. pmc Analysis of Arabidopsis genome-wide variations before and after meiosis and meiotic recombination by resequencing Landsberg erecta and all four products of a single meiosis
    Pingli Lu
    Department of Biology and the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Genome Res 22:508-18. 2012
    ..In particular, meiosis provides a rapid mechanism to generate copy-number variation (CNV) of sequences that have different chromosomal positions in Col and Ler...
  66. pmc Gene conversion and DNA sequence polymorphism in the sex-determination gene fog-2 and its paralog ftr-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Hallie S Rane
    Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, NM, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 27:1561-9. 2010
    b>Gene conversion, a form of concerted evolution, bears enormous potential to shape the trajectory of sequence and functional divergence of gene paralogs subsequent to duplication events...
  67. pmc Mammalian BEX, WEX and GASP genes: coding and non-coding chimaerism sustained by gene conversion events
    Eitan E Winter
    Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX, UK
    BMC Evol Biol 5:54. 2005
    ....
  68. ncbi Antigenic variation in Babesia bovis occurs through segmental gene conversion of the ves multigene family, within a bidirectional locus of active transcription
    Basima Al-Khedery
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611, USA
    Mol Microbiol 59:402-14. 2006
    ..evidence that variation of both transcriptionally active genes occurs through a mechanism of segmental gene conversion involving sequence donor genes of similar organization...
  69. pmc Extensive gene conversion drives the concerted evolution of paralogous copies of the SRY gene in European rabbits
    Armando Geraldes
    CIBIO, Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrário de Vairão, Vairao, Portugal
    Mol Biol Evol 27:2437-40. 2010
    The human Y chromosome consists of ampliconic genes, which are located in palindromes and undergo frequent gene conversion, and single-copy genes including the primary sex-determining locus, SRY...
  70. ncbi Biased gene conversion affects patterns of codon usage and amino acid usage in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group of yeasts
    Richard J Harrison
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Evol 28:117-29. 2011
    ..Here we show that an additional neutral process, GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), plays a part in shaping patterns of both synonymous codon usage and amino acid composition in a ..
  71. pmc Gene conversion and crossing over along the 405-kb left arm of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VII
    Anna Malkova
    Department of Biology and Rosenstiel Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454 9110, USA
    Genetics 168:49-63. 2004
    ....
  72. ncbi msHOT: modifying Hudson's ms simulator to incorporate crossover and gene conversion hotspots
    Garrett Hellenthal
    Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3TG, UK
    Bioinformatics 23:520-1. 2007
    We have incorporated both crossover and gene conversion hotspots into an existing coalescent-based program for simulating genetic variation data for a sample of chromosomes from a population.
  73. pmc Gene conversion and purifying selection of a placenta-specific ERV-V envelope gene during simian evolution
    Anders L Kjeldbjerg
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    BMC Evol Biol 8:266. 2008
    ..However, a few intact and very old HERV genes exist, and likely are beneficial for the host. We here address evolutionary aspects of two HERV-V envelope genes, ENVV1 and ENVV2, located in tandem and containing a long open reading frame...
  74. pmc Meiotic gene conversion tract length distribution within the rosy locus of Drosophila melanogaster
    A J Hilliker
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Genetics 137:1019-26. 1994
    ..we determine the parameters of meiotic gene conversion tract length distribution...
  75. ncbi Orthologs, paralogs and genome comparisons
    J P Gogarten
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 06269, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 9:630-6. 1999
    ..Complete or partial gene conversion between duplicated genes can yield phylogenetic trees with several, apparently independent gene duplications, ..
  76. ncbi Footprints of X-to-Y gene conversion in recent human evolution
    Beniamino Trombetta
    Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Rome, Italy
    Mol Biol Evol 27:714-25. 2010
    ..The possible role of X-to-Y nonallelic gene conversion in contributing to these differences remains poorly understood...
  77. pmc Gene duplication, gene conversion and the evolution of the Y chromosome
    Tim Connallon
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 2703, USA
    Genetics 186:277-86. 2010
    ..However, gene duplication, coupled with gene conversion between duplicate pairs, can potentially counteract forces of evolutionary decay that accompany asexual ..
  78. ncbi Evolution of synonymous codon usage in metazoans
    Laurent Duret
    Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive UMR CNRS 5558, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 69622, Cedex, Villeurbanne, France
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 12:640-9. 2002
    ..But variations in mutation patterns and processes of biased gene conversion make it difficult to distinguish between selective and neutral evolutionary processes.
  79. ncbi The gene conversion hypothesis of MHC evolution: a review
    J T Martinsohn
    Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Zulpicher Strasse 47, D 50674 Cologne, Germany
    Immunogenetics 50:168-200. 1999
    b>Gene conversion is often invoked to explain the evolution of sequence patterns observed in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes and their alleles. This is the gene conversion hypothesis of MHC sequence evolution...
  80. pmc Evidence that strong positive selection drives neofunctionalization in the tandemly duplicated polyhomeotic genes in Drosophila
    Steffen Beisswanger
    Section of Evolutionary Biology, Biocenter, University of Munich, Grosshaderner Strasse 2, 82152 Planegg Martinsried, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5447-52. 2008
    ..very similar to each other at both the DNA and the protein levels, probably because of the action of frequent gene conversion. Despite this homogenizing force, differential regulation of both transcriptional units suggests that the ..
  81. ncbi Universal fluorescent multiplex PCR and capillary electrophoresis for evaluation of gene conversion between SMN1 and SMN2 in spinal muscular atrophy
    Chun Chi Wang
    School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
    Anal Bioanal Chem 397:2375-83. 2010
    ..Those patients have deletion of the SMN1 gene or gene conversion between SMN1 and SMN2...
  82. pmc A two-pathway analysis of meiotic crossing over and gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Franklin W Stahl
    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 1229, USA
    Genetics 186:515-36. 2010
    Several apparently paradoxical observations regarding meiotic crossing over and gene conversion are readily resolved in a framework that recognizes the existence of two recombination pathways that differ in mismatch repair, structures of ..
  83. ncbi Haplotype variation, recombination, and gene conversion within the turkey MHC-B locus
    Lee D Chaves
    Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206, USA
    Immunogenetics 62:465-77. 2010
    ..Examination of pedigreed families provides direct evidence of gene conversion and recombination within the B locus...
  84. ncbi BRCA1 regulates RAD51 function in response to DNA damage and suppresses spontaneous sister chromatid replication slippage: implications for sister chromatid cohesion, genome stability, and carcinogenesis
    Isabelle Cousineau
    Molecular Biology Program and Department of Biochemistry, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Cancer Res 65:11384-91. 2005
    ..we measured the effect of BRCA1 on the competition between RAD51-mediated homologous recombination (gene conversion and crossover) versus RAD51-independent homologous recombination [single-strand annealing (SSA)] for ssDNA at ..
  85. pmc A W-linked palindrome and gene conversion in New World sparrows and blackbirds
    Jamie K Davis
    Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA
    Chromosome Res 18:543-53. 2010
    ..These palindromes are maintained in a state of near identity via gene conversion between the arms of the palindrome, and both neutral and selection-based theories have been proposed to ..
  86. pmc Pch2 links chromosome axis remodeling at future crossover sites and crossover distribution during yeast meiosis
    Neeraj Joshi
    Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000557. 2009
    ..Pch2 is proposed to reorganize chromosome axes into a tiling array of long-range crossover control modules, resulting in chiasma formation at minimum levels and with maximum spacing...
  87. pmc Widespread gene conversion of alpha-2-fucosyltransferase genes in mammals
    Joana Abrantes
    CIBIO UP, Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos, Vairao, Portugal
    J Mol Evol 69:22-31. 2009
    ..Despite gene conversion being considered the main mechanism of concerted evolution in gene families, previous studies of primates ..
  88. pmc Meiotic recombination at the ends of chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Arnold B Barton
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, International Center for Public Health, Newark, New Jersey 07101 1709, USA
    Genetics 179:1221-35. 2008
    ..Thus, the distribution of crossovers in S. cerevisiae appears to resemble that found in several higher eukaryotes where the outermost chromosomal regions show increased crossing over...
  89. pmc Sgs1 helicase and two nucleases Dna2 and Exo1 resect DNA double-strand break ends
    Zhu Zhu
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Cell 134:981-94. 2008
    ..generate, in a stepwise manner, only few hundred nucleotides of ssDNA at the break, resulting in inefficient gene conversion and G2/M damage checkpoint arrest...
  90. pmc Sex change by gene conversion in a Caenorhabditis elegans fog-2 mutant
    Vaishali Katju
    Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA
    Genetics 180:669-72. 2008
    Caenorhabditis elegans primarily reproduces as a hermaphrodite. Independent gene conversion events in mutant obligately outcrossing populations of C...
  91. ncbi Interaction between selection and biased gene conversion in mammalian protein-coding sequence evolution revealed by a phylogenetic covariance analysis
    Nicolas Lartillot
    Centre Robert Cedergren pour la Bioinformatique, Departement de Biochimie, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Biol Evol 30:356-68. 2013
    ..GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), on the other hand, is increasingly recognized as a major evolutionary force shaping genome nucleotide ..
  92. pmc Comparative genomics of Esx genes from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis provides evidence for gene conversion and epitope variation
    Swapna Uplekar
    Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 19, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Infect Immun 79:4042-9. 2011
    ..The esx gene family is dynamic, and sequence changes likely lead to immune variation...
  93. ncbi Evolution of the porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) immunoglobulin kappa locus through germline gene conversion
    John C Schwartz
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, 1971 Commonwealth Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Immunogenetics 64:303-11. 2012
    ..In addition, many IGKV2 CDR1 are shared between genes but not between alleles, suggesting extensive diversification of this locus through gene conversion.
  94. pmc Pollen tetrad-based visual assay for meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis
    Kirk E Francis
    Department of Biology and Carolina Center for Genome Scientists, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:3913-8. 2007
    Recombination, in the form of cross-overs (COs) and gene conversion (GC), is a highly conserved feature of meiosis from fungi to mammals. Recombination helps ensure chromosome segregation and promotes allelic diversity...
  95. pmc Can intra-Y gene conversion oppose the degeneration of the human Y chromosome? A simulation study
    Gabriel A B Marais
    Universite Lyon 1, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, Villeurbanne, France
    Genome Biol Evol 2:347-57. 2010
    ..of the remaining human Y genes are in large duplicated segments (ampliconic regions) undergoing intense Y-Y gene conversion. It has been suggested that Y-Y gene conversion may help these genes getting rid of deleterious mutations ..
  96. pmc Recombination-associated sequence homogenization of neighboring Alu elements: signature of nonallelic gene conversion
    Alexey Aleshin
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 27:2300-11. 2010
    ..genomics studies, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of the genomic impact of nonallelic gene conversion. Drawing on previous successes in characterizing this phenomenon over protein-coding gene families, we ..
  97. pmc Identifying concerted evolution and gene conversion in mammalian gene pairs lasting over 100 million years
    Andrew R Carson
    The Centre for Applied Genomics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    BMC Evol Biol 9:156. 2009
    ..Here we identify human gene pairs that have undergone concerted evolution, caused by ongoing gene conversion, since at least the human-mouse divergence...
  98. ncbi Frequent gene conversion between human red and green opsin genes
    Z Zhao
    J Mol Evol 46:494-6. 1998
    ..mechanism of introns and the 3' flanking sequence of human red and green opsin genes is probably gene conversion, which also occurred in exons 1 and 6...
  99. pmc Mechanisms of genetic exchange within the chromosomal inversions of Drosophila pseudoobscura
    Stephen W Schaeffer
    Department of Biology and Institute of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics, Pennsylvania State University, 208 Erwin W Mueller Laboratories, University Park, PA 16802 5301, USA
    Genetics 171:1729-39. 2005
    ..The patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at seven loci were used to infer gene conversion events between pairs of different gene arrangements...
  100. pmc Minimal effect of ectopic gene conversion among recent duplicates in four mammalian genomes
    Casey L McGrath
    School of Informatics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Genetics 182:615-22. 2009
    b>Gene conversion between duplicated genes has been implicated in homogenization of gene families and reassortment of variation among paralogs...
  101. pmc Gene conversion and end-joining-repair double-strand breaks in the Caenorhabditis elegans germline
    Valérie J Robert
    Ecole Normale Superieure, Biologie Cellulaire de la Synapse, Paris, France
    Genetics 180:673-9. 2008
    ..We demonstrate that breaks are most prominently repaired by gene conversion from the homolog, but also rarely by nonhomologous end-joining...

Research Grants64

  1. Recombinant Antibodies from the Sea Lamprey
    ZEEV contact PANCER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..VLRs consist of highly diverse leucine-rich repeat modules, which are assembled by DNA recombination via gene conversion, resulting in a potential repertoire of over 1014 unique receptors...
  2. Recombination in a Minimal Organism
    Patricia A Totten; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..those of other bacteria in which antigenic variation is achieved by unidirectional recombination (also termed gene conversion) between the genes encoding their surface proteins and archived donor sequences...
  3. The Regulation of Somatic Hypermutation
    F Nina Papavasiliou; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..gene, generating U:G mismatches that are resolved in a variety of ways to generate point mutations, gene conversion or switch recombination...
  4. VIRULENCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS IN LYME DISEASE
    Steven J Norris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and a series of vls silent cassettes, which serve as the source of sequences for random, segmental gene conversion events that change the sequence of the central cassette region of vlsE...
  5. Modulation of Outer Membrane Protein Expressin in Helicobacter pylori
    Jay V Solnick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In some cases the babA gene was replaced by babB (an apparent gene conversion event) and in other cases the babA gene was not expressed due to alteration in the number of dinucleotide CT ..
  6. RECOMBINATION MECHANISMS IN YEAST CELL DIFFERENTIATION
    James E Haber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This proposal continues the study of DSB repair by the most common pathway - gene conversion - in the model system, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  7. Role of ABH1's AP endonuclease activity in immunoglobulin gene diversification
    TINA A MUELLER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abasic sites and generate breaks that are the requisite intermediate for class switch recombination (CSR) and gene conversion (GC) and that may promote certain types of somatic hypermutations (SH) during B cell affinity maturation...
  8. Parameters that govern initiation of VSG switching in T.brucei
    F Nina Papavasiliou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Work over the last 25 years has determined (a) that the majority of switching occurs by duplicative gene conversion and (b) that there is semi-predictable hierarchy with regard to the types of VSGs that appear early vs...
  9. An.gambiae immune signaling gene SNPs and natural P. falciparum infection
    Shirley Luckhart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..gambiae cell lines and a combination of over expression, knock-down, and gene conversion techniques to confirm predictions of function from sequence and to prioritize SNPs for in vivo studies...
  10. Mycoplasma genitalium Antigenic Variation
    Patricia Totten; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..genitalium, to assess whether this heterogeneity is generated by gene conversion or reciprocal homologous recombination, and to determine the frequency, and effect of recombination genes, on ..
  11. Mechanism of meiotic recombination in yeast
    Scott Keeney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3) To determine the relationship between DSB location and gene conversion tracts...
  12. RECOMBINATION IN YEAST
    THOMAS PETES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The mechanism of mitotic gene conversion will be examined by analyzing yeast strains with mutations that eliminate DNA mismatch repair and the ..
  13. Mutational analysis of the vlp/vsp antigenic variation system of the relapsing fe
    TROY MICHAEL BANKHEAD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hypothesis is that UHS and DHS sites function as cis-acting DNA elements that are necessary for efficient gene conversion at the vlp/vsp expression site...
  14. Structure, function and engineering of nuclease catalysts
    Barry L Stoddard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also (c) compare their relative efficiencies of gene conversion when they introduce double strand breaks, versus when engineered "nickase" versions of the same enzymes ..
  15. VIRULENCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS IN LYME DISEASE
    Steven J Norris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and a series of vls silent cassettes, which serve as the source of sequences for random, segmental gene conversion events that change the sequence of the central cassette region of vlsE...
  16. Regulation of DNA recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    GRZEGORZ A IRA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Both pathways play different yet important roles in cells. One is the simple repair of two-ended DSBs by gene conversion where both 3'ends prime DNA synthesis and thus only short leading strands are synthesized...
  17. Mechanisms of AID-dependent Adaptive and Innate Immunity
    Reuben S Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..processes of somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch recombination (CSR) and, in some vertebrates, Ig gene conversion (IGC). Most evidence indicates that AID triggers these processes by deaminating Ig gene cytosines to uracils...
  18. DNA repair and recombination within the var gene family of P. falciparum
    Kirk W Deitsch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are unknown, but the process appears to involve frequent "shuffling" of segments, a hallmark of gene conversion events that are a product of DSB repair...
  19. Antigenic variation in microbial transmission
    GUY HUGHES PALMER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, we are focused on microbial pathogens that employ gene conversion as a mechanism to generate antigenic variants, evade clearance by the immune system, and persist within ..
  20. Role of H. pylori Outer Membrane Proteins in Colonization and Host Response
    Jay V Solnick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In some cases the babA gene was replaced by babB (an apparent gene conversion event) and in other cases the babA gene was not expressed due to alteration in the number of dinucleotide CT ..
  21. Sequence Variations in Low Copy Repeats on 22q11.2
    Bernice E Morrow; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of shared polymorphic sequences (SPSs) between the two LCR22s, representing intervals of enhanced historic gene conversion events. Such regions might serve as recombination hotspots responsible for NAHR events...
  22. A role for chromatin factors in regulating antigenic variation in T. brucei.
    Danae Schulz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Switching occurs when a new VSG is copied into the active expression site (gene conversion), or when a new expression site becomes active (transcriptional switching)...
  23. ADPKD: Disease Spectrum &Genotype-Phenotype Correlations
    Peter C Harris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..atypical mutations to regulatory regions, including potential miRNA binding sites;cryptic splicing;mosaicism;gene conversion to PKD1;and further genetic heterogeneity...
  24. Mechanisms of Gonococcal Pilin Antigenic and Phase Variation
    Hank S Seifert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..High frequency changes in the pilin amino acid sequence are mediated by gene conversion reactions between one of 18 silent pilin copies and the single expressed pilin gene...
  25. Artiodactyl Gene Modification with Tal Effector Nucleases
    SCOTT CHRISTOPHER FAHRENKRUG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Gene inactivation and gene conversion are powerful approaches for creating genocopies of alleles that cause disease in patients and for the ..
  26. Mechanism of the BLM/Sgs1 Helicase Complex
    Steven J Brill; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Sgs1 proteins lacking the SSD will be assayed for effects on gene conversion and crossing- over...
  27. Analysis of Break-Induced Replication
    James E Haber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A novel PCNA allele that prevents BIR but not replication or gene conversion will be characterized...
  28. Meiotic recombination in Drosophila
    JEFF JOSEPH SEKELSKY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also analyze both products of reciprocal crossovers to map gene conversion tracts...
  29. Gene conversion and end processing mechanisms during double-strand break repair
    JEANNINE LAROCQUE KAPPAS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..First, using genetic approaches, the mechanisms of gene conversion associated with HR repair of DSBs will be investigated...
  30. DEVELOPING ZFN'S AS MOLECULAR TOOLS FOR TARGETED INTEGRATION
    Srinivasan Chandrasegaran; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..uses an extra-chromosomal fragment of template DNA and invokes the cell's own repair machinery for gene conversion. Gene targeting is not a very efficient process in mammalian cells;about only 1 in a million treated cells ..
  31. Neisseria gonorrhoeae G4-binding proteins that regulate pilin antigenic variation
    ELLA ROSE ROTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Pilin antigenic variation is a gene conversion event that is dependent on recombination proteins as well as a 16 bp guanine quartet (G4) structure upstream ..
  32. Break-induced replication and genome rearrangements
    Lorraine S Symington; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The homology-dependent repair of DSBs usually occurs by a conservative gene conversion mechanism, preventing extensive loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or chromosome rearrangements...
  33. Mathematical Models and Statistical Methods for Genome Analysis
    Yun S Song; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A common thread that runs through this proposal is recombination. Both crossover and gene conversion recombinations will be considered...
  34. Population genetics of gene duplications and copy-number variants in the Drosophi
    Kevin R Thornton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Additionally, these data will provide valuable insight on the extent of ectopic gene conversion in the genus...
  35. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT LYMPHOCYTES
    Edmond Yunis; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..These results will clarify whether single or double gene conversion events and responsible for the generation of DR3 subtypes. 3...
  36. AID in somatic mutation of immunoglobulin genes
    URSULA B STORB; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by deleting the pseudo V genes of the parent DT40 line so that the modified cells cannot carry out Ig gene conversion. In response to AID, the modified pseudoV-del DT40 cells undergo only SHM and do so at a high rate since AID- ..
  37. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MSP2 VARIATION IN RICKETTSIAE
    Anthony Barbet; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In the prior project period, we identified segmental gene conversion of single expression sites for MSP2, and a related surface paralogue MSP3, as a primary mechanism for ..
  38. GENE CONVERSION IN MYC INDUCED BURSAL LYMPHOMAS
    Craig Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..for genetic instability in these cells results from the fact that the cells are constitutively undergoing gene conversion of their immunoglobulin gene loci...
  39. The repetitive DNA structure of the human genome
    PETER WARBURTON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of repetitive DNA in our genome, including genomic duplication, transposition, unequal crossing over, and gene conversion, which have a huge impact on the structure of our genome over the course of evolution...
  40. HLA-DP SEQUENCE POLYMORPHISM AND DISEASE PREDISPOSITION
    Henry Erlich; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..that the patchwork patterns of polymorphism at the DPB1 and at other HLA loci reflects the operation of gene conversion (segmental exchange) will be tested by using a PCR-based method to measure the frequency of rare variant DPB1 ..
  41. MECHANISMS OF GENE TARGETING BY RNA-DNA OLIGONUCLEOTIDE
    Kyonggeun Yoon; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..limitation in the application of the RDO technology has been the lack of standardized systems to measure gene conversion in cells in a reproducible manner. A shuttle vector containing the E...
  42. CHIMERIC RNA/DNA OLIGONUCLEOTIDE BASED GENE THERAPY
    YEONG HAU LIEN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The investigators propose to develop an optimal gene targeting system to improve gene conversion in the kidney by testing different routes and liposomes, by modifying oligonucleotides with different lengths ..
  43. Mechanisms controlling babesial antigenic variation
    DAVID ALLRED; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..participant in antigenic variation on the IRBC surface, and found evidence this occurs through segmental gene conversion. Recently, we have discovered this gene family to be consistently organized as palindromic (head-to-head) ..
  44. PHYSICAL MONITORING OF MEIOTIC DNA RECOMBINATION
    James Haber; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..1) A study of the relation between gene conversion and crossing-over in a well-defined 9 kilobase interval will include a measurement of the length of ..
  45. Homologous recombination in Xenopus and Zebrafish
    Sigrid Reinsch; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The protein pairs have been employed for both efficient gene conversion and gap repair using short homology regions...
  46. PATHOGENESIS OF AUTOIMMUNITY IN NEW ZEALAND MICE
    MERRILL GERSHWIN; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Thus, the gene conversion at amino acid glomerulonephritis at autopsy...
  47. Intestinal Bacteria and Rabbit Antibody Diversification
    Dennis Lanning; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The initial repertoire is diversified by somatic hypermutation and a somatic gene conversion-like mechanism in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) 1 to 2 months after birth...
  48. MECHANISMS OF MAMMALIAN MEIOTIC SYNAPSIS
    Terry Ashley; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Aim 2 will attempt to distinguish between two leading models of synaptic initiation. The gene conversion model involves double-strand breaks which by interaction with a RecA molecule, form a presynaptic filament ..
  49. B CELL ONTOGENY AND ANTIBODY REPERTOIRE
    Katherine Knight; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..model proposes that shortly after birth the B cells migrate to GALT and the VDJ genes diversify by somatic gene conversion, resulting in the primary antibody repertoire that makes the rabbit immunocompetent...
  50. MECHANISMS OF DNA DAMAGE INDUCED RECOMBINATION
    Jac Nickoloff; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..are to clarify the mechanisms and genetic consequences of mismatch repair double-strand break (DSB)- induced gene conversion, UV damage induction, and delayed genomic instability induced by low-dose ionizing Radiation, and to ..
  51. THE J-C INTRON: A MUTATION INDICATOR IN BOVINE V GENES
    RICHARD GOLDSBY; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Untemplated somatic mutation, gene conversion, or a combination of both, is thought to be the major generator of repertoire diversification in the Bovidae...
  52. NgCAM/L1 misexpression in developing brain
    Deni Galileo; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..brain by ectopic expression of specific mutated Ll cDNAs, or by attenuation of endogenous Ll using direct gene conversion or antisense sequences. Human Ll mutations can be grouped according to the type of mutation...
  53. Radiation-Induced Mutagenesis and Apoptotic Regulation
    Amy Kronenberg; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will use an integrated DR-GFP reporter to measure gene conversion following a single, site-specific DSB...
  54. MISMATCH ENDONUCLEASES
    Anthony Yeung; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The hypothesis is that the plant systems provide a good means for understanding mismatch repair and gene conversion and for carrying out genetics, and that mismatch-specific multi-purpose endonucleases in plants may be ..
  55. GENETIC REPAIR OF THE SICKLE CELL ANEMIA MUTATION
    Eric Kmiec; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..This proposal seeks to investigate the feasibility of genetic repair of HbS mutations by a process of gene conversion. Dr...
  56. Gene diversification by directed retrotransposition
    Edward Cambareri; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..active eukaryotic proteins, and the ability to "shuffle" DNA sequences in vivo by high-frequency meiotic gene conversion. The addition of a method to induce targeted mutations into an expressed heterologous gene would allow rapid ..
  57. TRIPLET REPEAT INSTABILITY IN YEAST AND HUMAN CELLS
    Tadayoshi Bessho; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..contractions occur by multiple genetic mechanisms, including aberrant DNA replication, repair, and possibly gene conversion. The goal of this work is to define more thoroughly how DNA replication and repair contribute to TNR ..
  58. GENETIC AND PHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF RECOMBINATION REPAIR
    Jac Nickoloff; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Five Aims are proposed. Aim 1 focuses on the role of mismatch repair during DSB-induced gene conversion. We will determine whether allelic gene conversion is mediated by mismatch repair; whether conversion on ..
  59. GENETIC AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE
    RICHARD KOSTRIKEN; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Mating type switching occurs when the information located at the distal silent HMR or HML locus is used in a gene conversion event that results in its insertion at the MAT locus...
  60. Novel Methods for Characterizing Recombination and Selection
    Yun Song; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Some motivations for the proposed research are as follows: (1) Gene conversion has been hard to study in populations because of the lack of analytical tools and the lack of fine-scale data...
  61. GENETICS AND REGULATION OF THE IG VH REGION
    KENNETH ROUX; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..diversity, somatic mutation, the insertion of additional nucleotides at junctions (N segments) and possibly gene conversion. The relative contribution of the various diversity generating mechanisms to an immune response is poorly ..
  62. SOMATIC MUTATION OF AN ANTIBODY TRANSGENE
    Erik Selsing; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..We have recently found that sequence transfers which resemble gene conversion events can occur within a murine antibody H-chain transgene and that these sequence transfers correlate with ..
  63. ISOLATION OF THE B GENE: A REGULATORY LOCUS IN MAIZE
    Vicki Chandler; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Many models have been proposed to explain paramutation, including gene conversion, alterations in chromatin structure, DNA modification, or the interaction or transposition of DNA elements...
  64. Chromosome Rearrangements and Mental Retardation
    JAMES LUPSKI; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Sequence analysis revealed evidence for frequent gene conversion events within LCR22-2 and LCR22-4, the two LCR22s responsible for the common recurrent VCFS/DGS deletion, ..