Genomes and Genes
Summary: The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.
Publications260 found, 100 shown here
- Biased gene conversion and the evolution of mammalian genomic landscapesLaurent Duret
Universite de Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, F 69622, Villeurbanne, France
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 10:285-311. 2009..Recombination events, however, are also accompanied by short-scale, unidirectional exchanges known as gene conversion in the neighborhood of the initiating double-strand break...
- The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classesHelen Skaletsky
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Whitehead Institute, and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
Nature 423:825-37. 2003..9% identity, which is maintained by frequent gene conversion (non-reciprocal transfer)...
- Gene conversion: mechanisms, evolution and human diseaseJian Min Chen
INSERM, U613, 29220 Brest, France
Nat Rev Genet 8:762-75. 2007b>Gene conversion, one of the two mechanisms of homologous recombination, involves the unidirectional transfer of genetic material from a 'donor' sequence to a highly homologous 'acceptor'...
- The impact of recombination on nucleotide substitutions in the human genomeLaurent Duret
Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France
PLoS Genet 4:e1000071. 2008..This effect of recombination is most probably a consequence of the neutral process of biased gene conversion (BGC) occurring within recombination hotspots...
- Increased mutagenesis and unique mutation signature associated with mitotic gene conversionWade M Hicks
Department of Biology and Rosenstiel Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 9110, USA
Science 329:82-5. 2010..the fidelity of DNA synthesis during double-strand break (DSB) repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we studied gene conversion in which both strands of DNA are newly synthesized...
- High-resolution mapping of meiotic crossovers and non-crossovers in yeastEugenio Mancera
European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Nature 454:479-85. 2008..crossover and non-crossover, increase genetic diversity, but have the potential to homogenize alleles by gene conversion. Whereas crossover rates vary considerably across the genome, non-crossovers and gene conversions have only ..
- Targeted heritable mutation and gene conversion by Cas9-CRISPR in Caenorhabditis elegansIskra Katic
Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland
Genetics 195:1173-6. 2013..This system rapidly creates precise genomic changes, including knockouts and transgene-instructed gene conversion.
- The FANCM ortholog Fml1 promotes recombination at stalled replication forks and limits crossing over during DNA double-strand break repairWeili Sun
Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK
Mol Cell 32:118-28. 2008..We show that Fml1 has at least two roles in homologous recombination-it promotes Rad51-dependent gene conversion at stalled/blocked replication forks and limits crossing over during mitotic double-strand break repair...
- Recombination drives the evolution of GC-content in the human genomeJulien Meunier
UMR 5558 CNRS, Université Lyon I, Villeurbanne, France
Mol Biol Evol 21:984-90. 2004..that recombination drives the evolution of base composition in human (probably via the process of biased gene conversion)...
- Generating samples under a Wright-Fisher neutral model of genetic variationRichard R Hudson
Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, 1101 E 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Bioinformatics 18:337-8. 2002..The program assumes an infinite-sites model of mutation, and allows recombination, gene conversion, symmetric migration among subpopulations, and a variety of demographic histories...
- Frequent recombination events generate diversity within the multi-copy variant antigen gene families of Plasmodium falciparumMatthias Frank
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 62, New York, NY 10021, USA
Int J Parasitol 38:1099-109. 2008..falciparum...
- Efficient copying of nonhomologous sequences from ectopic sites via P-element-induced gap repairN Nassif
Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin Madison 53706
Mol Cell Biol 14:1613-25. 1994..These single strands then pair, and synthesis is completed by each using the other as a template. This synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) model as a possible general mechanism in complex organisms is discussed...
- Meiotic synapsis in the absence of recombinationK S McKim
Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Science 279:876-8. 1998..for either of two meiotic mutants (mei-W68 and mei-P22), which eliminate both meiotic crossing over and gene conversion, revealed normal synaptonemal complex formation...
- Frequent gene conversion events between the X and Y homologous chromosomal regions in primatesMineyo Iwase
The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies Sokendai, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240 0193, Japan
BMC Evol Biol 10:225. 2010..To examine the evolutionary mechanism for this low p-distance region, sequences of a corresponding region including KALX/Y from seven species of non-human primates were analyzed...
- The role of gene conversion in preserving rearrangement hotspots in the human genomeJeffrey A Fawcett
Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240 0193, Japan
Trends Genet 29:561-8. 2013..Here, we propose an evolutionary model of SDs that incorporates the effect of gene conversion and compare it with a null model that assumes SDs evolve independently without gene conversion...
- Gene conversion rapidly generates major histocompatibility complex diversity in recently founded bird populationsLewis G Spurgin
School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
Mol Ecol 20:5213-25. 2011..While de novo MHC sequence variation is generated by point mutation, gene conversion can generate new haplotypes by transferring sections of DNA within and across duplicated MHC loci...
- Great majority of recombination events in Arabidopsis are gene conversion eventsSihai Yang
State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:20992-7. 2012..with allelic shuffling caused by crossing-over but also have to do with its more immediate effects such as gene conversion. Although estimates of the crossing-over rate are often well resolved, the gene conversion rate is much less ..
- Efficient neocentromere formation is suppressed by gene conversion to maintain centromere function at native physical chromosomal loci in Candida albicansJitendra Thakur
Molecular Mycology Laboratory, Molecular Biology and Genetics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 064, India
Genome Res 23:638-52. 2013..Interestingly, repositioning of CENPA chromatin from the neocentromere to the native centromere occurs by gene conversion in C. albicans.
- The role of GC-biased gene conversion in shaping the fastest evolving regions of the human genomeDennis Kostka
Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, University of California, San Francisco, USA
Mol Biol Evol 29:1047-57. 2012GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) is a recombination-associated evolutionary process that accelerates the fixation of guanine or cytosine alleles, regardless of their effects on fitness...
- Hierarchy of nonhomologous end-joining, single-strand annealing and gene conversion at site-directed DNA double-strand breaksWael Y Mansour
Laboratory of Radiobiology and Experimental Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical School Hamburg Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, D 20246 Hamburg, Germany
Nucleic Acids Res 36:4088-98. 2008..cells, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by three pathways, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), gene conversion (GC) and single-strand annealing (SSA)...
- Fission yeast Mus81.Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase is required for meiotic crossing over but not for gene conversionGerald R Smith
Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
Genetics 165:2289-93. 2003..We report here that Schizosaccharomyces pombe mus81 mutants have normal or elevated frequencies of gene conversion but 20- to 100-fold reduced frequencies of crossing over...
- Detecting positive selection within genomes: the problem of biased gene conversionAbhirami Ratnakumar
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Box 582, 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365:2571-80. 2010..Notably, GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) is a recombination-associated process that results in the biased fixation of G and C nucleotides...
- Recombination and gene flux caused by gene conversion and crossing over in inversion heterokaryotypesA Navarro
Departament de Genetica i de Microbiologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain
Genetics 146:695-709. 1997..analysis of the effects of inversions on recombination and gene flux between arrangements caused by gene conversion and crossing over was carried out...
- Recombination dynamics of a human Y-chromosomal palindrome: rapid GC-biased gene conversion, multi-kilobase conversion tracts, and rare inversionsPille Hallast
Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom
PLoS Genet 9:e1003666. 2013..9%, due to gene conversion activity...
- Microhomology-mediated deletion and gene conversion in African trypanosomesLucy Glover
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
Nucleic Acids Res 39:1372-80. 2011..We also identified interchromosomal gene conversion involving HR and MMEJ at different ends of a duplicated sequence...
- Multiple heterologies increase mitotic double-strand break-induced allelic gene conversion tract lengths in yeastJ A Nickoloff
Department of Cancer Biology, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Genetics 153:665-79. 1999..was seen for all markers centromere distal to the HO site in 50% of products; such loss could reflect gene conversion, break-induced replication, chromosome loss, or G2 crossovers...
- Interlocus gene conversion events introduce deleterious mutations into at least 1% of human genes associated with inherited diseaseClaudio Casola
Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
Genome Res 22:429-35. 2012..by nonreciprocal recombination events between paralogous sequences, a phenomenon known as interlocus gene conversion (IGC). IGC events have thus far been linked to pathology in more than 20 human genes...
- A yeast-endonuclease-generated DNA break induces antigenic switching in Trypanosoma bruceiCatharine E Boothroyd
Laboratory of Lymphocyte Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA
Nature 459:278-81. 2009..VSG switching is thought to occur predominantly through gene conversion, a form of homologous recombination initiated by a DNA lesion that is used by other pathogens (for example, ..
- Evidence of gene conversion associated with a selective sweep in Drosophila melanogasterSascha Glinka
Section of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biology II, Ludwig Maximilians University, Planegg Martinsried, Germany
Mol Biol Evol 23:1869-78. 2006..This region, however, was interrupted by gene conversion events leading to a strong haplotype structure in the center of the valley of reduced variation.
- Complex signatures of selection and gene conversion in the duplicated globin genes of house miceJay F Storz
School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA
Genetics 177:481-500. 2007..Interparalog gene conversion on the Hbbs haplotype has produced a highly unusual situation in which the two paralogs are more similar to ..
- Widespread gene conversion in centromere coresJinghua Shi
Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America
PLoS Biol 8:e1000327. 2010..Although classical crossing over is fully suppressed across CENH3 domains, two gene conversion events (i.e., non-crossover marker exchanges) were identified in a mapping population...
- Elimination of deleterious mutations in plastid genomes by gene conversionOlga Khakhlova
Max Planck Institut fur Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Am Muhlenberg 1, D 14476 Potsdam Golm, Germany
Plant J 46:85-94. 2006..Whether or not polyploidy helps asexual genetic systems to escape Muller's ratchet is unknown. Gene conversion, particularly when slightly biased, represents a potential mechanism that could allow asexual genetic systems ..
- KIR2DS4 is a product of gene conversion with KIR3DL2 that introduced specificity for HLA-A*11 while diminishing avidity for HLA-CThorsten Graef
Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
J Exp Med 206:2557-72. 2009..KIR2DS is the proline-valine motif at positions 71-72, which is shared with KIR3DL2 and was introduced by gene conversion before separation of the human and chimpanzee lineages...
- Somatic hyperconversion diversifies the single Vh gene of the chicken with a high incidence in the D regionC A Reynaud
Basel Institute for Immunology, Switzerland
Cell 59:171-83. 1989..this D region possesses distinct characteristics, allowing higher combinatorial possibilities in the gene conversion process...
- DNA damage response pathway uses histone modification to assemble a double-strand break-specific cohesin domainElcin Unal
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Embryology, The Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA
Mol Cell 16:991-1002. 2004..We also provide evidence that the DSB-induced cohesin domain functions in postreplicative repair...
- Gene conversion and concerted evolution in bacterial genomesGustavo Santoyo
Programa de Ingeniería Genómica, Centro de Ciencias Genomicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 565 A, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:169-83. 2005b>Gene conversion is defined as the non-reciprocal transfer of information between homologous sequences. Despite methodological problems to establish non-reciprocity, gene conversion has been demonstrated in a wide variety of bacteria...
- Population genetic models of duplicated genesHideki Innan
Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa, 240 0193, Japan
Genetica 137:19-37. 2009..Because of increasing evidence for concerted evolution by gene conversion, this review introduces recently developed gene conversion models...
- Dynamics of a human interparalog gene conversion hotspotElena Bosch
Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
Genome Res 14:835-44. 2004b>Gene conversion between paralogs can alter their patterns of sequence identity, thus obscuring their evolutionary relationships and affecting their propensity to sponsor genomic rearrangements...
- Horizontal acquisition of multiple mitochondrial genes from a parasitic plant followed by gene conversion with host mitochondrial genesJeffrey P Mower
Department of Biology, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana 47403, USA
BMC Biol 8:150. 2010..Previous results indicate that parasitic plants are often involved as either transfer donors or recipients, suggesting that direct contact between parasite and host facilitates genetic transfer among plants...
- From the Cover: mitotic gene conversion events induced in G1-synchronized yeast cells by gamma rays are similar to spontaneous conversion eventsPhoebe S Lee
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7383-8. 2010..About three-quarters of the crossovers were associated with gene conversion tracts...
- Alu repeats and human genomic diversityMark A Batzer
Department of Biological Sciences, Biological Computation and Visualization Center, Louisiana State University, 202 Life Sciences Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA
Nat Rev Genet 3:370-9. 2002..Alu elements affect the genome in several ways, causing insertion mutations, recombination between elements, gene conversion and alterations in gene expression...
- Break-induced replication and telomerase-independent telomere maintenance require Pol32John R Lydeard
MS029 Rosenstiel Centre, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454 9110, USA
Nature 448:820-3. 2007..HO-induced gene conversion, in which both ends of a double-strand break engage in homologous recombination, does not require Pol32...
- The effect of gene conversion on the divergence between duplicated genesKosuke M Teshima
Center for Genome Information, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA
Genetics 166:1553-60. 2004..The model incorporates mutation and gene conversion: the former increases d, the divergence between two duplicated regions, while the latter decreases d...
- Intense and highly localized gene conversion activity in human meiotic crossover hot spotsAlec J Jeffreys
Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
Nat Genet 36:151-6. 2004Meiotic gene conversion has an important role in allele diversification and in the homogenization of gene and other repeat DNA sequence families, sometimes with pathological consequences...
- Homing endonuclease genes: the rise and fall and rise again of a selfish elementAustin Burt
Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK
Curr Opin Genet Dev 14:609-15. 2004..HEGs may also be domesticated by their hosts, and are currently being put to human uses...
- Characterization of meiotic crossovers and gene conversion by whole-genome sequencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeJi Qi
Center for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
BMC Genomics 10:475. 2009..Differences at the nucleotide level associated with COs and NCOs enable us to detect these recombination events and their distributions...
- Duplication, selection and gene conversion in a Drosophila mojavensis female reproductive protein familyErin S Kelleher
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Genetics 181:1451-65. 2009..and adaptive evolution and further exhibit dynamic patterns of pseudogenation, copy number variation, gene conversion, and selection within geographically isolated populations of D. mojavensis...
- Gene conversion occurs within the mating-type locus of Cryptococcus neoformans during sexual reproductionSheng Sun
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
PLoS Genet 8:e1002810. 2012..Recent studies reveal that recombination, in the form of gene conversion, is widely distributed within and may have played important roles in the evolution of some chromosomal ..
- A major recombination hotspot in the XqYq pseudoautosomal region gives new insight into processing of human gene conversion eventsShriparna Sarbajna
Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
Hum Mol Genet 21:2029-38. 2012Recombination plays a fundamental role in meiosis. Non-exchange gene conversion (non-crossover, NCO) may facilitate homologue pairing, while reciprocal crossover (CO) physically connects homologues so they orientate appropriately on the ..
- Mre11 and Ku regulation of double-strand break repair by gene conversion and break-induced replicationSanchita Krishna
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131, United States
DNA Repair (Amst) 6:797-808. 2007..A prior plasmid gap repair study showed that mre11 mutations, which slow single-strand resection, reduce gene conversion tract lengths and the frequency of associated crossovers...
- Molecular evolution of the vertebrate TLR1 gene family--a complex history of gene duplication, gene conversion, positive selection and co-evolutionYinhua Huang
Division of Genetics and Genomics, The Roslin Institute and R D SVS, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9PS, UK
BMC Evol Biol 11:149. 2011....
- Structure of the murine serum amyloid A gene family. Gene conversionC A Lowell
J Biol Chem 261:8442-52. 1986..by short inverted repeats containing alternating purine and pyrimidine residues, as described for other gene conversion units. The third SAA gene has evolved separately, although all are closely linked on chromosome 7...
- GC-biased gene conversion impacts ribosomal DNA evolution in vertebrates, angiosperms, and other eukaryotesJuan S Escobar
Institut des Sciences de l Evolution, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5554 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Montpellier II, Montpellier, France
Mol Biol Evol 28:2561-75. 2011..The multiples copies of rDNA in the genome evolve in a concerted manner, through unequal crossing over and/or gene conversion, two mechanisms related to homologous recombination...
- Analysis of spontaneous gene conversion tracts within and between mammalian chromosomesAnia Rukść
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
J Mol Biol 377:337-51. 2008In the present study, we report the first characterization of gene conversion tract length, continuity and fidelity for pathways of gene targeting, ectopic and intrachromosomal homologous recombination using the same locus and mammalian ..
- Gene conversion results in the equalization of genome copies in the polyploid haloarchaeon Haloferax volcaniiChristian Lange
Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Institute for Molecular Biosciences, Max von Laue Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt a M, Germany
Mol Microbiol 80:666-77. 2011..Also in the absence of selection gene conversion led to a fast equalization of genomes and resulted in homozygous leuB-containing cells...
- GC-biased gene conversion in yeast is specifically associated with crossovers: molecular mechanisms and evolutionary significanceYann Lesecque
Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, UMR CNRS 5558, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France
Mol Biol Evol 30:1409-19. 2013GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) is a process associated with recombination that favors the transmission of GC alleles over AT alleles during meiosis. gBGC plays a major role in genome evolution in many eukaryotes...
- The hyper-gene conversion hpr5-1 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an allele of the SRS2/RADH geneL Rong
Department of Biochemistry, New York University Medical Center, New York 10016
Genetics 127:75-85. 1991The HPR5 gene has been defined by the mutation hpr5-1 that results in an increased rate of gene conversion. This mutation suppresses the UV sensitive phenotype of rad18 mutations in hpr5-1 rad18 double mutants by channeling the aborted ..
- Genome copy numbers and gene conversion in methanogenic archaeaCatherina Hildenbrand
Goethe University, Biocentre, Institute for Molecular Biosciences, Max von Laue Str 9, D 60438 Frankfurt, Germany
J Bacteriol 193:734-43. 2011..A mechanism to equalize the genome copies, such as gene conversion, would counteract this phenomenon...
- Assessment of anti-recombination and double-strand break-induced gene conversion in human cells by a chromosomal reporterKeqian Xu
From the School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 7520
J Biol Chem 287:29543-53. 2012b>Gene conversion is one of the frequent end results of homologous recombination, and it often underlies the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells...
- Revertant mosaicism in epidermolysis bullosa caused by mitotic gene conversionM F Jonkman
Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Groningen, The Netherlands
Cell 88:543-51. 1997Mitotic gene conversion acting as reverse mutation has not been previously demonstrated in human...
- Ploidy and gene conversion in ArchaeaJörg Soppa
Goethe University, Biocentre, Institute for Molecular Biosciences, Max von Laue Strasse 9, D 60438 Frankfurt, Germany
Biochem Soc Trans 39:150-4. 2011..An escape from Muller's ratchet would be a mechanism leading to the equalization of genome copies, such as gene conversion. Using two species of methanogenic and halophilic archaea, it was shown that heterozygous cells containing ..
- The coalescent with gene conversionC Wiuf
Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TG, England
Genetics 155:451-62. 2000In this article we develop a coalescent model with intralocus gene conversion. The distribution of the tract length is geometric in concordance with results published in the literature...
- Comparison of splice sites in mammals and chickenJosep F Abril
Grup de Recerca en Informàtica Biomèdica, Institut Municipal d Investigacio Medica, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, and Programa de Bioinformàtica i Genòmica, Centre de Regulacio Genomica, C Dr Aiguader 80, E 08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Genome Res 15:111-9. 2005..Switching between GT-AG and the noncanonical GC-AG U2 subtypes, on the contrary, does not appear to be unusual; in particular, T to C mutations appear to be relatively well tolerated in GT-AG introns with very strong donor sites...
- GC-biased gene conversion and selection affect GC content in the Oryza genus (rice)Aline Muyle
Institut des Sciences de l Evolution, UMR 5554 CNRS, Universite Montpellier II, France
Mol Biol Evol 28:2695-706. 2011..Although mutational bias and selection have initially been invoked, more recently GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) has been proposed to play a central role in shaping nucleotide landscapes, especially in yeast, ..
- Analysis of Arabidopsis genome-wide variations before and after meiosis and meiotic recombination by resequencing Landsberg erecta and all four products of a single meiosisPingli Lu
Department of Biology and the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Genome Res 22:508-18. 2012..In particular, meiosis provides a rapid mechanism to generate copy-number variation (CNV) of sequences that have different chromosomal positions in Col and Ler...
- Gene conversion and DNA sequence polymorphism in the sex-determination gene fog-2 and its paralog ftr-1 in Caenorhabditis elegansHallie S Rane
Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, NM, USA
Mol Biol Evol 27:1561-9. 2010b>Gene conversion, a form of concerted evolution, bears enormous potential to shape the trajectory of sequence and functional divergence of gene paralogs subsequent to duplication events...
- Mammalian BEX, WEX and GASP genes: coding and non-coding chimaerism sustained by gene conversion eventsEitan E Winter
Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX, UK
BMC Evol Biol 5:54. 2005....
- Antigenic variation in Babesia bovis occurs through segmental gene conversion of the ves multigene family, within a bidirectional locus of active transcriptionBasima Al-Khedery
Department of Pathobiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611, USA
Mol Microbiol 59:402-14. 2006..evidence that variation of both transcriptionally active genes occurs through a mechanism of segmental gene conversion involving sequence donor genes of similar organization...
- Extensive gene conversion drives the concerted evolution of paralogous copies of the SRY gene in European rabbitsArmando Geraldes
CIBIO, Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrário de Vairão, Vairao, Portugal
Mol Biol Evol 27:2437-40. 2010The human Y chromosome consists of ampliconic genes, which are located in palindromes and undergo frequent gene conversion, and single-copy genes including the primary sex-determining locus, SRY...
- Biased gene conversion affects patterns of codon usage and amino acid usage in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group of yeastsRichard J Harrison
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
Mol Biol Evol 28:117-29. 2011..Here we show that an additional neutral process, GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), plays a part in shaping patterns of both synonymous codon usage and amino acid composition in a ..
- Gene conversion and crossing over along the 405-kb left arm of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIIAnna Malkova
Department of Biology and Rosenstiel Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454 9110, USA
Genetics 168:49-63. 2004....
- msHOT: modifying Hudson's ms simulator to incorporate crossover and gene conversion hotspotsGarrett Hellenthal
Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3TG, UK
Bioinformatics 23:520-1. 2007We have incorporated both crossover and gene conversion hotspots into an existing coalescent-based program for simulating genetic variation data for a sample of chromosomes from a population.
- Gene conversion and purifying selection of a placenta-specific ERV-V envelope gene during simian evolutionAnders L Kjeldbjerg
Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
BMC Evol Biol 8:266. 2008..However, a few intact and very old HERV genes exist, and likely are beneficial for the host. We here address evolutionary aspects of two HERV-V envelope genes, ENVV1 and ENVV2, located in tandem and containing a long open reading frame...
- Meiotic gene conversion tract length distribution within the rosy locus of Drosophila melanogasterA J Hilliker
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Genetics 137:1019-26. 1994..we determine the parameters of meiotic gene conversion tract length distribution...
- Orthologs, paralogs and genome comparisonsJ P Gogarten
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 06269, USA
Curr Opin Genet Dev 9:630-6. 1999..Complete or partial gene conversion between duplicated genes can yield phylogenetic trees with several, apparently independent gene duplications, ..
- Footprints of X-to-Y gene conversion in recent human evolutionBeniamino Trombetta
Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Rome, Italy
Mol Biol Evol 27:714-25. 2010..The possible role of X-to-Y nonallelic gene conversion in contributing to these differences remains poorly understood...
- Gene duplication, gene conversion and the evolution of the Y chromosomeTim Connallon
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 2703, USA
Genetics 186:277-86. 2010..However, gene duplication, coupled with gene conversion between duplicate pairs, can potentially counteract forces of evolutionary decay that accompany asexual ..
- Evolution of synonymous codon usage in metazoansLaurent Duret
Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive UMR CNRS 5558, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 69622, Cedex, Villeurbanne, France
Curr Opin Genet Dev 12:640-9. 2002..But variations in mutation patterns and processes of biased gene conversion make it difficult to distinguish between selective and neutral evolutionary processes.
- The gene conversion hypothesis of MHC evolution: a reviewJ T Martinsohn
Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Zulpicher Strasse 47, D 50674 Cologne, Germany
Immunogenetics 50:168-200. 1999b>Gene conversion is often invoked to explain the evolution of sequence patterns observed in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes and their alleles. This is the gene conversion hypothesis of MHC sequence evolution...
- Evidence that strong positive selection drives neofunctionalization in the tandemly duplicated polyhomeotic genes in DrosophilaSteffen Beisswanger
Section of Evolutionary Biology, Biocenter, University of Munich, Grosshaderner Strasse 2, 82152 Planegg Martinsried, Germany
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5447-52. 2008..very similar to each other at both the DNA and the protein levels, probably because of the action of frequent gene conversion. Despite this homogenizing force, differential regulation of both transcriptional units suggests that the ..
- Universal fluorescent multiplex PCR and capillary electrophoresis for evaluation of gene conversion between SMN1 and SMN2 in spinal muscular atrophyChun Chi Wang
School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Anal Bioanal Chem 397:2375-83. 2010..Those patients have deletion of the SMN1 gene or gene conversion between SMN1 and SMN2...
- A two-pathway analysis of meiotic crossing over and gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeFranklin W Stahl
Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 1229, USA
Genetics 186:515-36. 2010Several apparently paradoxical observations regarding meiotic crossing over and gene conversion are readily resolved in a framework that recognizes the existence of two recombination pathways that differ in mismatch repair, structures of ..
- Haplotype variation, recombination, and gene conversion within the turkey MHC-B locusLee D Chaves
Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206, USA
Immunogenetics 62:465-77. 2010..Examination of pedigreed families provides direct evidence of gene conversion and recombination within the B locus...
- BRCA1 regulates RAD51 function in response to DNA damage and suppresses spontaneous sister chromatid replication slippage: implications for sister chromatid cohesion, genome stability, and carcinogenesisIsabelle Cousineau
Molecular Biology Program and Department of Biochemistry, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Cancer Res 65:11384-91. 2005..we measured the effect of BRCA1 on the competition between RAD51-mediated homologous recombination (gene conversion and crossover) versus RAD51-independent homologous recombination [single-strand annealing (SSA)] for ssDNA at ..
- A W-linked palindrome and gene conversion in New World sparrows and blackbirdsJamie K Davis
Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA
Chromosome Res 18:543-53. 2010..These palindromes are maintained in a state of near identity via gene conversion between the arms of the palindrome, and both neutral and selection-based theories have been proposed to ..
- Pch2 links chromosome axis remodeling at future crossover sites and crossover distribution during yeast meiosisNeeraj Joshi
Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America
PLoS Genet 5:e1000557. 2009..Pch2 is proposed to reorganize chromosome axes into a tiling array of long-range crossover control modules, resulting in chiasma formation at minimum levels and with maximum spacing...
- Widespread gene conversion of alpha-2-fucosyltransferase genes in mammalsJoana Abrantes
CIBIO UP, Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos, Vairao, Portugal
J Mol Evol 69:22-31. 2009..Despite gene conversion being considered the main mechanism of concerted evolution in gene families, previous studies of primates ..
- Meiotic recombination at the ends of chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeArnold B Barton
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, International Center for Public Health, Newark, New Jersey 07101 1709, USA
Genetics 179:1221-35. 2008..Thus, the distribution of crossovers in S. cerevisiae appears to resemble that found in several higher eukaryotes where the outermost chromosomal regions show increased crossing over...
- Sgs1 helicase and two nucleases Dna2 and Exo1 resect DNA double-strand break endsZhu Zhu
Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Cell 134:981-94. 2008..generate, in a stepwise manner, only few hundred nucleotides of ssDNA at the break, resulting in inefficient gene conversion and G2/M damage checkpoint arrest...
- Sex change by gene conversion in a Caenorhabditis elegans fog-2 mutantVaishali Katju
Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA
Genetics 180:669-72. 2008Caenorhabditis elegans primarily reproduces as a hermaphrodite. Independent gene conversion events in mutant obligately outcrossing populations of C...
- Interaction between selection and biased gene conversion in mammalian protein-coding sequence evolution revealed by a phylogenetic covariance analysisNicolas Lartillot
Centre Robert Cedergren pour la Bioinformatique, Departement de Biochimie, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Mol Biol Evol 30:356-68. 2013..GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), on the other hand, is increasingly recognized as a major evolutionary force shaping genome nucleotide ..
- Comparative genomics of Esx genes from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis provides evidence for gene conversion and epitope variationSwapna Uplekar
Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 19, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Infect Immun 79:4042-9. 2011..The esx gene family is dynamic, and sequence changes likely lead to immune variation...
- Evolution of the porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) immunoglobulin kappa locus through germline gene conversionJohn C Schwartz
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, 1971 Commonwealth Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
Immunogenetics 64:303-11. 2012..In addition, many IGKV2 CDR1 are shared between genes but not between alleles, suggesting extensive diversification of this locus through gene conversion.
- Pollen tetrad-based visual assay for meiotic recombination in ArabidopsisKirk E Francis
Department of Biology and Carolina Center for Genome Scientists, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:3913-8. 2007Recombination, in the form of cross-overs (COs) and gene conversion (GC), is a highly conserved feature of meiosis from fungi to mammals. Recombination helps ensure chromosome segregation and promotes allelic diversity...
- Can intra-Y gene conversion oppose the degeneration of the human Y chromosome? A simulation studyGabriel A B Marais
Universite Lyon 1, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, Villeurbanne, France
Genome Biol Evol 2:347-57. 2010..of the remaining human Y genes are in large duplicated segments (ampliconic regions) undergoing intense Y-Y gene conversion. It has been suggested that Y-Y gene conversion may help these genes getting rid of deleterious mutations ..
- Recombination-associated sequence homogenization of neighboring Alu elements: signature of nonallelic gene conversionAlexey Aleshin
Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
Mol Biol Evol 27:2300-11. 2010..genomics studies, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of the genomic impact of nonallelic gene conversion. Drawing on previous successes in characterizing this phenomenon over protein-coding gene families, we ..
- Identifying concerted evolution and gene conversion in mammalian gene pairs lasting over 100 million yearsAndrew R Carson
The Centre for Applied Genomics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
BMC Evol Biol 9:156. 2009..Here we identify human gene pairs that have undergone concerted evolution, caused by ongoing gene conversion, since at least the human-mouse divergence...
- Frequent gene conversion between human red and green opsin genesZ Zhao
J Mol Evol 46:494-6. 1998..mechanism of introns and the 3' flanking sequence of human red and green opsin genes is probably gene conversion, which also occurred in exons 1 and 6...
- Mechanisms of genetic exchange within the chromosomal inversions of Drosophila pseudoobscuraStephen W Schaeffer
Department of Biology and Institute of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics, Pennsylvania State University, 208 Erwin W Mueller Laboratories, University Park, PA 16802 5301, USA
Genetics 171:1729-39. 2005..The patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at seven loci were used to infer gene conversion events between pairs of different gene arrangements...
- Minimal effect of ectopic gene conversion among recent duplicates in four mammalian genomesCasey L McGrath
School of Informatics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
Genetics 182:615-22. 2009b>Gene conversion between duplicated genes has been implicated in homogenization of gene families and reassortment of variation among paralogs...
- Gene conversion and end-joining-repair double-strand breaks in the Caenorhabditis elegans germlineValérie J Robert
Ecole Normale Superieure, Biologie Cellulaire de la Synapse, Paris, France
Genetics 180:673-9. 2008..We demonstrate that breaks are most prominently repaired by gene conversion from the homolog, but also rarely by nonhomologous end-joining...
- Recombinant Antibodies from the Sea LampreyZEEV contact PANCER; Fiscal Year: 2010..VLRs consist of highly diverse leucine-rich repeat modules, which are assembled by DNA recombination via gene conversion, resulting in a potential repertoire of over 1014 unique receptors...
- Recombination in a Minimal OrganismPatricia A Totten; Fiscal Year: 2013..those of other bacteria in which antigenic variation is achieved by unidirectional recombination (also termed gene conversion) between the genes encoding their surface proteins and archived donor sequences...
- The Regulation of Somatic HypermutationF Nina Papavasiliou; Fiscal Year: 2012..gene, generating U:G mismatches that are resolved in a variety of ways to generate point mutations, gene conversion or switch recombination...
- VIRULENCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS IN LYME DISEASESteven J Norris; Fiscal Year: 2013..and a series of vls silent cassettes, which serve as the source of sequences for random, segmental gene conversion events that change the sequence of the central cassette region of vlsE...
- Modulation of Outer Membrane Protein Expressin in Helicobacter pyloriJay V Solnick; Fiscal Year: 2012..In some cases the babA gene was replaced by babB (an apparent gene conversion event) and in other cases the babA gene was not expressed due to alteration in the number of dinucleotide CT ..
- RECOMBINATION MECHANISMS IN YEAST CELL DIFFERENTIATIONJames E Haber; Fiscal Year: 2013..This proposal continues the study of DSB repair by the most common pathway - gene conversion - in the model system, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
- Role of ABH1's AP endonuclease activity in immunoglobulin gene diversificationTINA A MUELLER; Fiscal Year: 2010..abasic sites and generate breaks that are the requisite intermediate for class switch recombination (CSR) and gene conversion (GC) and that may promote certain types of somatic hypermutations (SH) during B cell affinity maturation...
- Parameters that govern initiation of VSG switching in T.bruceiF Nina Papavasiliou; Fiscal Year: 2013..Work over the last 25 years has determined (a) that the majority of switching occurs by duplicative gene conversion and (b) that there is semi-predictable hierarchy with regard to the types of VSGs that appear early vs...
- An.gambiae immune signaling gene SNPs and natural P. falciparum infectionShirley Luckhart; Fiscal Year: 2013..gambiae cell lines and a combination of over expression, knock-down, and gene conversion techniques to confirm predictions of function from sequence and to prioritize SNPs for in vivo studies...
- Mycoplasma genitalium Antigenic VariationPatricia Totten; Fiscal Year: 2009..genitalium, to assess whether this heterogeneity is generated by gene conversion or reciprocal homologous recombination, and to determine the frequency, and effect of recombination genes, on ..
- Mechanism of meiotic recombination in yeastScott Keeney; Fiscal Year: 2013..3) To determine the relationship between DSB location and gene conversion tracts...
- RECOMBINATION IN YEASTTHOMAS PETES; Fiscal Year: 2013..The mechanism of mitotic gene conversion will be examined by analyzing yeast strains with mutations that eliminate DNA mismatch repair and the ..
- Mutational analysis of the vlp/vsp antigenic variation system of the relapsing feTROY MICHAEL BANKHEAD; Fiscal Year: 2013..hypothesis is that UHS and DHS sites function as cis-acting DNA elements that are necessary for efficient gene conversion at the vlp/vsp expression site...
- Structure, function and engineering of nuclease catalystsBarry L Stoddard; Fiscal Year: 2013..We will also (c) compare their relative efficiencies of gene conversion when they introduce double strand breaks, versus when engineered "nickase" versions of the same enzymes ..
- VIRULENCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS IN LYME DISEASESteven J Norris; Fiscal Year: 2010..and a series of vls silent cassettes, which serve as the source of sequences for random, segmental gene conversion events that change the sequence of the central cassette region of vlsE...
- Regulation of DNA recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeGRZEGORZ A IRA; Fiscal Year: 2013..Both pathways play different yet important roles in cells. One is the simple repair of two-ended DSBs by gene conversion where both 3'ends prime DNA synthesis and thus only short leading strands are synthesized...
- Mechanisms of AID-dependent Adaptive and Innate ImmunityReuben S Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010..processes of somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch recombination (CSR) and, in some vertebrates, Ig gene conversion (IGC). Most evidence indicates that AID triggers these processes by deaminating Ig gene cytosines to uracils...
- DNA repair and recombination within the var gene family of P. falciparumKirk W Deitsch; Fiscal Year: 2013..are unknown, but the process appears to involve frequent "shuffling" of segments, a hallmark of gene conversion events that are a product of DSB repair...
- Antigenic variation in microbial transmissionGUY HUGHES PALMER; Fiscal Year: 2013..Specifically, we are focused on microbial pathogens that employ gene conversion as a mechanism to generate antigenic variants, evade clearance by the immune system, and persist within ..
- Role of H. pylori Outer Membrane Proteins in Colonization and Host ResponseJay V Solnick; Fiscal Year: 2013..In some cases the babA gene was replaced by babB (an apparent gene conversion event) and in other cases the babA gene was not expressed due to alteration in the number of dinucleotide CT ..
- Sequence Variations in Low Copy Repeats on 22q11.2Bernice E Morrow; Fiscal Year: 2010..of shared polymorphic sequences (SPSs) between the two LCR22s, representing intervals of enhanced historic gene conversion events. Such regions might serve as recombination hotspots responsible for NAHR events...
- A role for chromatin factors in regulating antigenic variation in T. brucei.Danae Schulz; Fiscal Year: 2013..Switching occurs when a new VSG is copied into the active expression site (gene conversion), or when a new expression site becomes active (transcriptional switching)...
- ADPKD: Disease Spectrum &Genotype-Phenotype CorrelationsPeter C Harris; Fiscal Year: 2013..atypical mutations to regulatory regions, including potential miRNA binding sites;cryptic splicing;mosaicism;gene conversion to PKD1;and further genetic heterogeneity...
- Mechanisms of Gonococcal Pilin Antigenic and Phase VariationHank S Seifert; Fiscal Year: 2013..High frequency changes in the pilin amino acid sequence are mediated by gene conversion reactions between one of 18 silent pilin copies and the single expressed pilin gene...
- Artiodactyl Gene Modification with Tal Effector NucleasesSCOTT CHRISTOPHER FAHRENKRUG; Fiscal Year: 2012..Gene inactivation and gene conversion are powerful approaches for creating genocopies of alleles that cause disease in patients and for the ..
- Mechanism of the BLM/Sgs1 Helicase ComplexSteven J Brill; Fiscal Year: 2013..Sgs1 proteins lacking the SSD will be assayed for effects on gene conversion and crossing- over...
- Analysis of Break-Induced ReplicationJames E Haber; Fiscal Year: 2013..A novel PCNA allele that prevents BIR but not replication or gene conversion will be characterized...
- Meiotic recombination in DrosophilaJEFF JOSEPH SEKELSKY; Fiscal Year: 2013..We will also analyze both products of reciprocal crossovers to map gene conversion tracts...
- Gene conversion and end processing mechanisms during double-strand break repairJEANNINE LAROCQUE KAPPAS; Fiscal Year: 2010..First, using genetic approaches, the mechanisms of gene conversion associated with HR repair of DSBs will be investigated...
- DEVELOPING ZFN'S AS MOLECULAR TOOLS FOR TARGETED INTEGRATIONSrinivasan Chandrasegaran; Fiscal Year: 2010..uses an extra-chromosomal fragment of template DNA and invokes the cell's own repair machinery for gene conversion. Gene targeting is not a very efficient process in mammalian cells;about only 1 in a million treated cells ..
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae G4-binding proteins that regulate pilin antigenic variationELLA ROSE ROTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013..Pilin antigenic variation is a gene conversion event that is dependent on recombination proteins as well as a 16 bp guanine quartet (G4) structure upstream ..
- Break-induced replication and genome rearrangementsLorraine S Symington; Fiscal Year: 2013..The homology-dependent repair of DSBs usually occurs by a conservative gene conversion mechanism, preventing extensive loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or chromosome rearrangements...
- Mathematical Models and Statistical Methods for Genome AnalysisYun S Song; Fiscal Year: 2013..A common thread that runs through this proposal is recombination. Both crossover and gene conversion recombinations will be considered...
- Population genetics of gene duplications and copy-number variants in the DrosophiKevin R Thornton; Fiscal Year: 2013..Additionally, these data will provide valuable insight on the extent of ectopic gene conversion in the genus...
- GENETIC ANALYSIS OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT LYMPHOCYTESEdmond Yunis; Fiscal Year: 1991..These results will clarify whether single or double gene conversion events and responsible for the generation of DR3 subtypes. 3...
- AID in somatic mutation of immunoglobulin genesURSULA B STORB; Fiscal Year: 2010..by deleting the pseudo V genes of the parent DT40 line so that the modified cells cannot carry out Ig gene conversion. In response to AID, the modified pseudoV-del DT40 cells undergo only SHM and do so at a high rate since AID- ..
- MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MSP2 VARIATION IN RICKETTSIAEAnthony Barbet; Fiscal Year: 2007..In the prior project period, we identified segmental gene conversion of single expression sites for MSP2, and a related surface paralogue MSP3, as a primary mechanism for ..
- GENE CONVERSION IN MYC INDUCED BURSAL LYMPHOMASCraig Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2001..for genetic instability in these cells results from the fact that the cells are constitutively undergoing gene conversion of their immunoglobulin gene loci...
- The repetitive DNA structure of the human genomePETER WARBURTON; Fiscal Year: 2009..of repetitive DNA in our genome, including genomic duplication, transposition, unequal crossing over, and gene conversion, which have a huge impact on the structure of our genome over the course of evolution...
- HLA-DP SEQUENCE POLYMORPHISM AND DISEASE PREDISPOSITIONHenry Erlich; Fiscal Year: 2003..that the patchwork patterns of polymorphism at the DPB1 and at other HLA loci reflects the operation of gene conversion (segmental exchange) will be tested by using a PCR-based method to measure the frequency of rare variant DPB1 ..
- MECHANISMS OF GENE TARGETING BY RNA-DNA OLIGONUCLEOTIDEKyonggeun Yoon; Fiscal Year: 2001..limitation in the application of the RDO technology has been the lack of standardized systems to measure gene conversion in cells in a reproducible manner. A shuttle vector containing the E...
- CHIMERIC RNA/DNA OLIGONUCLEOTIDE BASED GENE THERAPYYEONG HAU LIEN; Fiscal Year: 2003..The investigators propose to develop an optimal gene targeting system to improve gene conversion in the kidney by testing different routes and liposomes, by modifying oligonucleotides with different lengths ..
- Mechanisms controlling babesial antigenic variationDAVID ALLRED; Fiscal Year: 2003..participant in antigenic variation on the IRBC surface, and found evidence this occurs through segmental gene conversion. Recently, we have discovered this gene family to be consistently organized as palindromic (head-to-head) ..
- PHYSICAL MONITORING OF MEIOTIC DNA RECOMBINATIONJames Haber; Fiscal Year: 1993..1) A study of the relation between gene conversion and crossing-over in a well-defined 9 kilobase interval will include a measurement of the length of ..
- Homologous recombination in Xenopus and ZebrafishSigrid Reinsch; Fiscal Year: 2005..The protein pairs have been employed for both efficient gene conversion and gap repair using short homology regions...
- PATHOGENESIS OF AUTOIMMUNITY IN NEW ZEALAND MICEMERRILL GERSHWIN; Fiscal Year: 2000..Thus, the gene conversion at amino acid glomerulonephritis at autopsy...
- Intestinal Bacteria and Rabbit Antibody DiversificationDennis Lanning; Fiscal Year: 2006..The initial repertoire is diversified by somatic hypermutation and a somatic gene conversion-like mechanism in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) 1 to 2 months after birth...
- MECHANISMS OF MAMMALIAN MEIOTIC SYNAPSISTerry Ashley; Fiscal Year: 2000..Aim 2 will attempt to distinguish between two leading models of synaptic initiation. The gene conversion model involves double-strand breaks which by interaction with a RecA molecule, form a presynaptic filament ..
- B CELL ONTOGENY AND ANTIBODY REPERTOIREKatherine Knight; Fiscal Year: 1999..model proposes that shortly after birth the B cells migrate to GALT and the VDJ genes diversify by somatic gene conversion, resulting in the primary antibody repertoire that makes the rabbit immunocompetent...
- MECHANISMS OF DNA DAMAGE INDUCED RECOMBINATIONJac Nickoloff; Fiscal Year: 2002..are to clarify the mechanisms and genetic consequences of mismatch repair double-strand break (DSB)- induced gene conversion, UV damage induction, and delayed genomic instability induced by low-dose ionizing Radiation, and to ..
- THE J-C INTRON: A MUTATION INDICATOR IN BOVINE V GENESRICHARD GOLDSBY; Fiscal Year: 2001..Untemplated somatic mutation, gene conversion, or a combination of both, is thought to be the major generator of repertoire diversification in the Bovidae...
- NgCAM/L1 misexpression in developing brainDeni Galileo; Fiscal Year: 2004..brain by ectopic expression of specific mutated Ll cDNAs, or by attenuation of endogenous Ll using direct gene conversion or antisense sequences. Human Ll mutations can be grouped according to the type of mutation...
- Radiation-Induced Mutagenesis and Apoptotic RegulationAmy Kronenberg; Fiscal Year: 2006..We will use an integrated DR-GFP reporter to measure gene conversion following a single, site-specific DSB...
- MISMATCH ENDONUCLEASESAnthony Yeung; Fiscal Year: 1999..The hypothesis is that the plant systems provide a good means for understanding mismatch repair and gene conversion and for carrying out genetics, and that mismatch-specific multi-purpose endonucleases in plants may be ..
- GENETIC REPAIR OF THE SICKLE CELL ANEMIA MUTATIONEric Kmiec; Fiscal Year: 2000..This proposal seeks to investigate the feasibility of genetic repair of HbS mutations by a process of gene conversion. Dr...
- Gene diversification by directed retrotranspositionEdward Cambareri; Fiscal Year: 2002..active eukaryotic proteins, and the ability to "shuffle" DNA sequences in vivo by high-frequency meiotic gene conversion. The addition of a method to induce targeted mutations into an expressed heterologous gene would allow rapid ..
- TRIPLET REPEAT INSTABILITY IN YEAST AND HUMAN CELLSTadayoshi Bessho; Fiscal Year: 2007..contractions occur by multiple genetic mechanisms, including aberrant DNA replication, repair, and possibly gene conversion. The goal of this work is to define more thoroughly how DNA replication and repair contribute to TNR ..
- GENETIC AND PHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF RECOMBINATION REPAIRJac Nickoloff; Fiscal Year: 2002..Five Aims are proposed. Aim 1 focuses on the role of mismatch repair during DSB-induced gene conversion. We will determine whether allelic gene conversion is mediated by mismatch repair; whether conversion on ..
- GENETIC AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF CHROMOSOME STRUCTURERICHARD KOSTRIKEN; Fiscal Year: 2000..Mating type switching occurs when the information located at the distal silent HMR or HML locus is used in a gene conversion event that results in its insertion at the MAT locus...
- Novel Methods for Characterizing Recombination and SelectionYun Song; Fiscal Year: 2007..Some motivations for the proposed research are as follows: (1) Gene conversion has been hard to study in populations because of the lack of analytical tools and the lack of fine-scale data...
- GENETICS AND REGULATION OF THE IG VH REGIONKENNETH ROUX; Fiscal Year: 1990..diversity, somatic mutation, the insertion of additional nucleotides at junctions (N segments) and possibly gene conversion. The relative contribution of the various diversity generating mechanisms to an immune response is poorly ..
- SOMATIC MUTATION OF AN ANTIBODY TRANSGENEErik Selsing; Fiscal Year: 1999..We have recently found that sequence transfers which resemble gene conversion events can occur within a murine antibody H-chain transgene and that these sequence transfers correlate with ..
- ISOLATION OF THE B GENE: A REGULATORY LOCUS IN MAIZEVicki Chandler; Fiscal Year: 1993..Many models have been proposed to explain paramutation, including gene conversion, alterations in chromatin structure, DNA modification, or the interaction or transposition of DNA elements...
- Chromosome Rearrangements and Mental RetardationJAMES LUPSKI; Fiscal Year: 2005..Sequence analysis revealed evidence for frequent gene conversion events within LCR22-2 and LCR22-4, the two LCR22s responsible for the common recurrent VCFS/DGS deletion, ..