Genomes and Genes
Summary: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Publications330 found, 100 shown here
- Tissue-specific expression and regulation of sexually dimorphic genes in miceXia Yang
Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
Genome Res 16:995-1004. 2006..They also showed evidence of chromosomal enrichment, not only on the sex chromosomes, but also on several autosomes...
- Steps in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomesD Charlesworth
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK
Heredity (Edinb) 95:118-28. 2005We review some recently published results on sex chromosomes in a diversity of species...
- The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chickenCraig A Smith
Murdoch Children s Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Royal Children s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3052, Australia
Nature 461:267-71. 2009Sex in birds is chromosomally based, as in mammals, but the sex chromosomes are different and the mechanism of avian sex determination has been a long-standing mystery...
- Stage-specific expression profiling of Drosophila spermatogenesis suggests that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation drives genomic relocation of testis-expressed genesMaria D Vibranovski
Department of Ecology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
PLoS Genet 5:e1000731. 2009..These results suggest MSCI as a general mechanism affecting the evolution of some testis-expressed genes...
- Progressive recombination suppression and differentiation in recently evolved neo-sex chromosomesHeini M Natri
Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Mol Biol Evol 30:1131-44. 2013Recombination suppression leads to the structural and functional differentiation of sex chromosomes and is thus a crucial step in the process of sex chromosome evolution...
- The genome of a songbirdWesley C Warren
The Genome Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
Nature 464:757-62. 2010..These results indicate an active involvement of the genome in neural processes underlying vocal communication and identify potential genetic substrates for the evolution and regulation of this behaviour...
- A W-linked DM-domain gene, DM-W, participates in primary ovary development in Xenopus laevisShin Yoshimoto
Department of Bioscience, School of Science, Kitasato University, 1 15 1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228 8555, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2469-74. 2008..Taken together, these results suggest that DM-W is a likely sex (ovary)-determining gene in X. laevis...
- Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivationColin D Meiklejohn
Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States of America
PLoS Biol 9:e1001126. 2011The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g...
- Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus and its implication for sex chromosome evolutionBeatriz Vicoso
Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:6453-8. 2013b>Sex chromosomes originate from autosomes...
- Sex determination: insights from the chickenCraig A Smith
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, Royal Childrens Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
Bioessays 26:120-32. 2004..The Z-linked gene, DMRT1, supports the Z-dosage model of avian sex determination. Two novel W-linked genes, ASW and FET1, represent candidate female determinants...
- Evolutionary erosion of yeast sex chromosomes by mating-type switching accidentsJonathan L Gordon
Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:20024-9. 2011..We suggest that, despite its mutational cost, switching confers an evolutionary benefit by providing a way for an isolated germinating spore to reform spores if the environment is too poor...
- Linkage analysis reveals the independent origin of Poeciliid sex chromosomes and a case of atypical sex inheritance in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)Namita Tripathi
Max Plank Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Genetics 182:365-74. 2009..Different pairs of autosomes have evolved as sex chromosomes among species in the same genus without evidence for a master sex-determining locus being identical...
- Chromosomal gene movements reflect the recent origin and biology of therian sex chromosomesLukasz Potrzebowski
Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2 INSERM U625, IFR 140, Universite Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, Rennes, France
PLoS Biol 6:e80. 2008Mammalian sex chromosomes stem from ancestral autosomes and have substantially differentiated. It was shown that X-linked genes have generated duplicate intronless gene copies (retrogenes) on autosomes due to this differentiation...
- Sex chromosomes and the evolution of sexual dimorphism: lessons from the genomeJudith E Mank
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
Am Nat 173:141-50. 2009..Additionally, theory has long suggested that the evolution of sexual dimorphism is facilitated by sex chromosomes, as these are the only portions of the genome that differ between males and females...
- Some inconvenient truths about sex chromosome dosage compensation and the potential role of sexual conflictJudith E Mank
Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
Evolution 65:2133-44. 2011..We show there exists a tremendous diversity in the mechanisms that regulate gene dosage and argue that sexual conflict may be an overlooked agent responsible for some of the variation seen in sex chromosome gene dose regulation...
- Effective population size and the Faster-X effect: empirical results and their interpretationJudith E Mank
Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Evolution 64:663-74. 2010..Our results suggest that differences in effective population size and mechanisms of dosage compensation may influence the perceived extent of Faster-X evolution, and help to explain several clade-specific patterns that we observe...
- Mechanisms and evolutionary patterns of mammalian and avian dosage compensationPhilippe Julien
Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
PLoS Biol 10:e1001328. 2012..autosomal genes interacting with X-linked genes have become downregulated in placentals upon the emergence of sex chromosomes. Thus, different driving forces may underlie the evolution of XCI and the highly efficient equilibration of X ..
- The evolution of restricted recombination in sex chromosomesRoberta Bergero
University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
Trends Ecol Evol 24:94-102. 2009..often has a genetic basis, and in a wide diversity of taxa a pair of cytologically distinguishable 'sex chromosomes' are found such that the chromosome complements of males and females differ (males are often XY and females ..
- Are all sex chromosomes created equal?Doris Bachtrog
Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Trends Genet 27:350-7. 2011..We suggest directions for research that will greatly increase our general understanding of the forces driving sex-chromosome evolution in diverse organisms...
- Incomplete sex chromosome dosage compensation in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, based on de novo transcriptome assemblyPeter W Harrison
Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, United Kingdom
Genome Biol Evol 4:1118-26. 2012Males and females experience differences in gene dose for loci in the nonrecombining region of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. If not compensated, this leads to expression imbalances, with the homogametic sex on average exhibiting greater ..
- Female-biased expression on the X chromosome as a key step in sex chromosome evolution in threespine sticklebacksErica H Leder
Division of Genetics and Physiology, Department of Biology Vesilinnantie 5, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Mol Biol Evol 27:1495-503. 2010..with the exception of genes on the Y (or W) chromosome or sex-determining alleles (in organisms without sex chromosomes), it is likely that many downstream processes resulting in sexual dimorphism are produced by changes in ..
- Sex bias and dosage compensation in the zebra finch versus chicken genomes: general and specialized patterns among birdsYuichiro Itoh
Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
Genome Res 20:512-8. 2010..These patterns suggest that different avian taxa may have evolved specific compensatory mechanisms...
- Isolation and physical mapping of sex-linked AFLP markers in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)M Tariq Ezaz
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
Mar Biotechnol (NY) 6:435-45. 2004..This confirmed previous evidence, based on meiotic chromosome pairing and fluorescence in situ hybridization probes obtained through chromosome microdissection, that chromosome pair 1 is the sex chromosomes.
- The origin and evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensationA M Livernois
Evolution Ecology and Genetics, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
Heredity (Edinb) 108:50-8. 2012..Homology shared by Xs and Ys (and Zs and Ws) within species demonstrates that differentiated sex chromosomes were once homologous, and that the sex-specific non-recombining Y (or W) was progressively degraded...
- Sex chromosomes and speciation in DrosophilaDaven C Presgraves
Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
Trends Genet 24:336-43. 2008Two empirical rules suggest that sex chromosomes play a special role in speciation. The first is Haldane's rule - the preferential sterility and inviability of species hybrids of the heterogametic (XY) sex...
- About PAR: the distinct evolutionary dynamics of the pseudoautosomal regionSarah P Otto
Department of Zoology, 6270 University Boulevard, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
Trends Genet 27:358-67. 2011b>Sex chromosomes differ from other chromosomes in the striking divergence they often show in size, structure, and gene content...
- The evolution of sex-biased genes and sex-biased gene expressionHans Ellegren
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
Nat Rev Genet 8:689-98. 2007..Sex-biased gene expression has implications beyond just evolutionary biology, including for medical genetics...
- Progress and prospects toward our understanding of the evolution of dosage compensationBeatriz Vicoso
Department of Integrative Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Chromosome Res 17:585-602. 2009In many eukaryotic organisms, gender is determined by a pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Degeneration of the non-recombining Y chromosome is a general facet of sex chromosome evolution...
- A role for a neo-sex chromosome in stickleback speciationJun Kitano
Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
Nature 461:1079-83. 2009..Our data indicate that sex-chromosome turnover might have a greater role in speciation than was previously appreciated...
- The role of repetitive DNA in structure and evolution of sex chromosomes in plantsE Kejnovsky
Laboratory of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics ASCR, Brno, Czech Republic
Heredity (Edinb) 102:533-41. 2009..b>Sex chromosomes, especially non-recombining regions of the Y chromosome, are subject to different evolutionary forces ..
- Turnover of sex chromosomes in the stickleback fishes (gasterosteidae)Joseph A Ross
Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
PLoS Genet 5:e1000391. 2009..Several mechanisms have been proposed for the rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, including the transposition of an existing sex-determination gene, the appearance of a new sex-determination ..
- Sex-determining mechanisms in insectsLucas Sanchez
Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas C S I C, Madrid, Spain
Int J Dev Biol 52:837-56. 2008..Representative examples of sex determination mechanisms that differ in their primary signal are also described. Finally, some evolutionary aspects of these mechanisms are discussed...
- General lack of global dosage compensation in ZZ/ZW systems? Broadening the perspective with RNA-seqJochen Bw Wolf
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, August Thienemannstr, 2, 24306 Plön, Germany
BMC Genomics 12:91. 2011Species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes face the challenge of large-scale imbalance in gene dose...
- Genetics of sex determination in tilapiine speciesA Cnaani
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA
Sex Dev 2:43-54. 2008..This variation in sex determination mechanisms among closely related species makes tilapias an excellent model system for studying the evolution of sex chromosomes in vertebrates.
- All dosage compensation is local: gene-by-gene regulation of sex-biased expression on the chicken Z chromosomeJ E Mank
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
Heredity (Edinb) 102:312-20. 2009....
- Evidence for different origin of sex chromosomes in snakes, birds, and mammals and step-wise differentiation of snake sex chromosomesKazumi Matsubara
Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics, Department of Genome Dynamics, Hokkaido University, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 0810, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:18190-5. 2006All snake species exhibit genetic sex determination with the ZZ/ZW type of sex chromosomes. To investigate the origin and evolution of snake sex chromosomes, we constructed, by FISH, a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat ..
- Sex chromosome evolution in non-mammalian vertebratesManfred Schartl
Physiologische Chemie I, Biozentrum der Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
Curr Opin Genet Dev 14:634-41. 2004..This variety is the consequence of the extremely dynamic process of the evolution of sex determination mechanisms and sex chromosomes, which is prone to create differences rather than uniformity.
- Conservation and de novo acquisition of dosage compensation on newly evolved sex chromosomes in DrosophilaArtyom A Alekseyenko
Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Genes Dev 27:853-8. 2013..We found evidence for the creation of new CESs, with the analogous sequence and spacing as in D. melanogaster, providing strong support for the spreading model in the establishment of dosage compensation...
- Trade-off between selection for dosage compensation and masculinization on the avian Z chromosomeAlison E Wright
Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
Genetics 192:1433-45. 2012..At the same time, due to their unequal pattern of inheritance in males and females, the sex chromosomes are subject to unbalanced sex-specific selection, which contributes to a nonrandom distribution of sex-biased ..
- Sex chromosome-linked species recognition and evolution of reproductive isolation in flycatchersStein A Saether
Department of Animal Population Biology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Post Office Box 40, 6666 ZG Heteren, Netherlands
Science 318:95-7. 2007..Limited recombination on the Z chromosome maintains associations of Z-linked genes despite hybridization, suggesting that the sex chromosomes may be a hotspot for adaptive speciation.
- Bird-like sex chromosomes of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomesFrederic Veyrunes
Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra 2601, Australia
Genome Res 18:965-73. 2008..There is no equivalent in other amniotes, although some taxa (notably birds and snakes) have differentiated sex chromosomes. Birds have a ZW female: ZZ male system with no homology with mammal sex chromosomes, in which dosage of a Z-..
- RNF8 regulates active epigenetic modifications and escape gene activation from inactive sex chromosomes in post-meiotic spermatidsHo Su Sin
Division of Reproductive Sciences, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
Genes Dev 26:2737-48. 2012b>Sex chromosomes are uniquely subject to chromosome-wide silencing during male meiosis, and silencing persists into post-meiotic spermatids...
- The contrasting role of heterochromatin in the differentiation of sex chromosomes: an overview from Neotropical fishesM B Cioffi
Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil
J Fish Biol 80:2125-39. 2012During the evolutionary process of the sex chromosomes, a general principle that arises is that cessation or a partial restriction of recombination between the sex chromosome pair is necessary...
- Rapid de novo evolution of X chromosome dosage compensation in Silene latifolia, a plant with young sex chromosomesAline Muyle
Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Évolutive UMR 5558, CNRS Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France
PLoS Biol 10:e1001308. 2012Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that have originated only ∼10 million years ago and is a promising model organism to study sex chromosome evolution in plants. Previous work suggests that S...
- Unravelling the evolutionary origins of X chromosome inactivation in mammals: insights from marsupials and monotremesJanine E Deakin
Comparative Genomics Group, School of Biology, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
Chromosome Res 17:671-85. 2009..Availability of sequence data, and new techniques for studying expression and chromatin modification, now make rapid advance possible...
- Opposite roles of DMRT1 and its W-linked paralogue, DM-W, in sexual dimorphism of Xenopus laevis: implications of a ZZ/ZW-type sex-determining systemShin Yoshimoto
Department of Bioscience, School of Science, Kitasato University, 1 15 1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228 8555, Japan
Development 137:2519-26. 2010..e. as a ;neofunctionalization' gene for the ZZ/ZW-type system. Finally, we discuss a conserved role of DMRT1 in testis formation during vertebrate evolution...
- Preservation of the Y transcriptome in a 10-million-year-old plant sex chromosome systemRoberta Bergero
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
Curr Biol 21:1470-4. 2011..systems allow study of the time course of degeneration, because they evolved from a state wholly without sex chromosomes (rather than after a large genome region fused to a preexisting sex chromosome), and, in several taxa, ..
- The (r)evolution of SINE versus LINE distributions in primate genomes: sex chromosomes are importantErika M Kvikstad
Center for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Genome Res 20:600-13. 2010..substantial variation both within individual chromosomes and among chromosome types (autosomes and the two sex chromosomes)...
- Lack of global dosage compensation in Schistosoma mansoni, a female-heterogametic parasiteBeatriz Vicoso
Department of Integrative Biology and Center for Theoretical and Evolutionary Genomics, UC Berkeley, USA
Genome Biol Evol 3:230-5. 2011Many species have morphologically and genetically differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the XY pair of mammals...
- Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chickenSam Schoenmakers
Department of Reproduction and Development, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
PLoS Genet 5:e1000466. 2009..It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis...
- The different levels of genetic diversity in sex chromosomes and autosomesHans Ellegren
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
Trends Genet 25:278-84. 2009b>Sex chromosomes and autosomes differ in their effective population size, mutation and demography, all of which affect the relative level of genetic diversity within the genome...
- Sex-dimorphic gene expression and ineffective dosage compensation of Z-linked genes in gastrulating chicken embryosShaobing O Zhang
Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 E, 50th Street, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
BMC Genomics 11:13. 2010..Sex determination is still poorly understood in birds and few key determinants have so far been identified. In contrast to most other species, dosage compensation of bird sex chromosomal genes appears rather ineffective...
- Sex-chromosome evolution: recent progress and the influence of male and female heterogametyHans Ellegren
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvgen 18D, SE752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
Nat Rev Genet 12:157-66. 2011It is now clear that sex chromosomes differ from autosomes in many aspects of genome biology, such as organization, gene content and gene expression. Moreover, sex linkage has numerous evolutionary genetic implications...
- MDC1 directs chromosome-wide silencing of the sex chromosomes in male germ cellsYosuke Ichijima
Division of Reproductive Sciences, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
Genes Dev 25:959-71. 2011Chromosome-wide inactivation is an epigenetic signature of sex chromosomes. The mechanism by which the chromosome-wide domain is recognized and gene silencing is induced remains unclear...
- Extensive meiotic asynapsis in mice antagonises meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin and consequently disrupts meiotic sex chromosome inactivationShantha K Mahadevaiah
Division of Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, England, UK
J Cell Biol 182:263-76. 2008..Apoptosis does not occur in mice with a single additional asynapsed chromosome with unrepaired meiotic DSBs and no disturbance of MSCI...
- An accumulation of tandem DNA repeats on the Y chromosome in Silene latifolia during early stages of sex chromosome evolutionRoman Hobza
Laboratory of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Kralovopolska Street 135, Brno 612 65, Czech Republic
Chromosoma 115:376-82. 2006b>Sex chromosomes in mammals are about 300 million years old and typically have a highly degenerated Y chromosome...
- Genetic mapping in a natural population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis): conserved synteny but gene order rearrangements on the avian Z chromosomeNiclas Backstrom
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
Genetics 174:377-86. 2006..Interestingly, the rate of recombination on the Z chromosome of collared flycatchers was only approximately 50% that of chicken, challenging the widely held view that birds generally have high recombination rates...
- The silkworm Z chromosome is enriched in testis-specific genesK P Arunkumar
Centre of Excellence for Genetics and Genomics of Silkmoths, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Centre for DNA Fingerprintingand Diagnostics, Tuljaguda, Nampally, Hyderabad, India
Genetics 182:493-501. 2009The role of sex chromosomes in sex determination has been well studied in diverse groups of organisms. However, the role of the genes on the sex chromosomes in conferring sexual dimorphism is still being experimentally evaluated...
- Sex chromosomes and sex determination in LepidopteraW Traut
Universitat Lubeck, Zentrum fur Medizinische Strukturbiologie, Institut fur Biologie, Lubeck, Germany
Sex Dev 1:332-46. 2007..Special strains have been devised for mass rearing of male-only broods in the silkworm for higher silk production and in pest species for the release of sterile males in pest management programs...
- Contrasting patterns of polymorphism and divergence on the Z chromosome and autosomes in two Ficedula flycatcher speciesThomas Borge
Department of Biology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, University of Oslo, N 0316 Oslo Norway
Genetics 171:1861-73. 2005..Alternatively, reduced variation on the Z chromosome could result from substantially higher levels of introgression at autosomal than at Z-linked loci or from a complex demographic history, such as a population bottleneck...
- The chicken (Gallus gallus) Z chromosome contains at least three nonlinear evolutionary strataKiwoong Nam
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
Genetics 180:1131-6. 2008Birds have female heterogamety with Z and W sex chromosomes. These evolved from different autosomal precursor chromosomes than the mammalian X and Y...
- Plant Y chromosome degeneration is retarded by haploid purifying selectionMargarita V Chibalina
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK
Curr Biol 21:1475-9. 2011b>Sex chromosomes evolved many times independently in many different organisms ...
- The role of chromosomal rearrangements in the evolution of Silene latifolia sex chromosomesRoman Hobza
Institute of Integrative Biology, Plant Ecological Genetics, ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
Mol Genet Genomics 278:633-8. 2007..In comparison to mammalian sex chromosomes that evolved 300 mya, sex chromosomes of S. latifolia appeared approximately 20 mya...
- Are some chromosomes particularly good at sex? Insights from amniotesDenis O'Meally
Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
Chromosome Res 20:7-19. 2012Several recent studies have produced comparative maps of genes on amniote sex chromosomes, revealing homology of gene content and arrangement across lineages as divergent as mammals and lizards...
- An integrated cytogenetic and physical map reveals unevenly distributed recombination spots along the papaya sex chromosomesChing Man Wai
Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
Chromosome Res 20:753-67. 2012..This cytogenetic map provides essential information for evolutionary study of sex chromosomes in Caricaceae and will facilitate the analysis of papaya sex chromosomes.
- Linkage map of the peppered moth, Biston betularia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a model of industrial melanismA E Van't Hof
Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, UK
Heredity (Edinb) 110:283-95. 2013..found a W homolog of a Z-linked gene (laminin A), possibly resulting from ectopic recombination between the sex chromosomes. The B...
- Convergent evolution of chicken Z and human X chromosomes by expansion and gene acquisitionDaniel W Bellott
Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
Nature 466:612-6. 2010..By contrast, the sex chromosomes found in both sexes--the Z and X chromosomes--are assumed to have diverged little from their autosomal ..
- Sex chromosomes and associated rDNA form a heterochromatic network in the polytene nuclei of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)Elena Drosopoulou
Department of Genetics, Development and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Genetica 140:169-80. 2012The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, has a diploid set of 2n = 12 chromosomes including a pair of sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males, but polytene nuclei show only five polytene chromosomes, obviously formed by five ..
- W chromosome expression responds to female-specific selectionHooman K Moghadam
Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:8207-11. 2012..Taken together, these data provide evidence for the importance of the sex-limited chromosome in a female heterogametic species and show that sex-specific selection can act to preserve sex-limited chromosomes from degrading forces...
- Plant sex determination and sex chromosomesDeborah Charlesworth
Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratory King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, Scotland, UK
Heredity (Edinb) 88:94-101. 2002..Theories for Y chromosome degeneration are reviewed in the light of recent results from genes on plant sex chromosomes.
- Microsatellite distribution on sex chromosomes at different stages of heteromorphism and heterochromatinization in two lizard species (Squamata: Eublepharidae: Coleonyx elegans and lacertidae: Eremias velox)Martina Pokorná
Department of Ecology, Charles University in Prague, Vinicna 7, 128 44 Praha 2, Czech Republic
BMC Genet 12:90. 2011The accumulation of repetitive sequences such as microsatellites during the differentiation of sex chromosomes has not been studied in most squamate reptiles (lizards, amphisbaenians and snakes), a group which has a large diversity of ..
- Neo-sex chromosomes and adaptive potential in tortricid pestsPetr Nguyen
Laboratory of Molecular Cytogenetics, Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:6931-6. 2013..This effect may be further enhanced by involvement of sex chromosomes playing a disproportionate role in reproductive isolation...
- Lack of dosage compensation accompanies the arrested stage of sex chromosome evolution in ostrichesSofia Adolfsson
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Mol Biol Evol 30:806-10. 2013..Our results indicate that dosage compensation is a prerequisite for, not only a consequence of, sex chromosome evolution...
- Explosive chromosome evolution and speciation in the gerbil genus Taterillus (Rodentia, Gerbillinae): a case of two new cryptic speciesG Dobigny
Laboratoire Mammifères et Oiseaux, Museum national d histoire naturelle, Paris, France
Cytogenet Genome Res 96:117-24. 2002..Possible factors responsible for the rapid karyotypic evolution and speciation in this West African gerbil complex are discussed...
- The effects of selection and genetic drift on the genomic distribution of sexually antagonistic allelesCharles Mullon
CoMPLEX, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
Evolution 66:3743-53. 2012..remains, however, considerable debate over the distribution of SA genetic variation across autosomes and sex chromosomes, with contradictory evidence coming from data and theory...
- The molecular basis of chromosome orthologies and sex chromosomal differentiation in palaeognathous birdsChizuko Nishida-Umehara
Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics, Division of Genome Dynamics, Creative Research Initiative Sousei, Hokkaido University, North 10 West 8, Kita ku, Sapporo, 060 0810, Japan
Chromosome Res 15:721-34. 2007..Struthioniformes and Tinamiformes) have morphologically conserved karyotypes and less differentiated ZW sex chromosomes. To delineate interspecific chromosome orthologies in palaeognathous birds we conducted comparative ..
- Homologous sex chromosomes in three deeply divergent anuran speciesAlan Brelsford
Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland
Evolution 67:2434-40. 2013..are surprisingly labile in cold-blooded vertebrates, with frequent transitions between different pairs of sex chromosomes. It was recently suggested that, in context of this high turnover, some chromosome pairs might be more likely ..
- Multiple sex-associated regions and a putative sex chromosome in zebrafish revealed by RAD mapping and population genomicsJennifer L Anderson
Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e40701. 2012..In zebrafish (Danio rerio), neither heteromorphic sex chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified...
- Identification of the sex chromosomes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and their comparison with the corresponding chromosomes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)J Li
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B C, Canada
Cytogenet Genome Res 133:25-33. 2011..We set out to identify the sex chromosomes in brown trout...
- Chromosomal sex-determining regions in animals, plants and fungiJames A Fraser
Departments of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Medicine, and Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Curr Opin Genet Dev 15:645-51. 2005The independent evolution of sex chromosomes in many eukaryotic species raises questions about the evolutionary forces that drive their formation...
- The W, X, Y and Z of sex-chromosome dosage compensationJudith E Mank
University of Oxford, Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
Trends Genet 25:226-33. 2009In species with highly differentiated sex chromosomes, imbalances in gene dosage between the sexes can affect overall organismal fitness...
- A new plant sex-linked gene with high sequence diversity and possible introgression of the X copyV B Kaiser
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
Heredity (Edinb) 106:339-47. 2011..The copies on both sex chromosomes seem to be functional, and each maps close to the respective X- and Y-linked copy of another sex-linked gene ..
- Polymorphism of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) on the putative sex chromosomes of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) is not sex relatedK M Reed
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee 53201, USA
Chromosome Res 5:221-7. 1997Polymorphism of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) on the putative sex chromosomes of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) was examined using conventional cytogenetic and molecular techniques...
- The sex-biased brain: sexual dimorphism in gene expression in two species of songbirdsSara Naurin
Department of Biology, Lund University, Ecology Building, S 223 62 Lund, Sweden
BMC Genomics 12:37. 2011..Studies of gene expression in related species can shed light on the flexibility, or degree of conservation, of the gene expression profiles underlying sexual dimorphism...
- Ellobius lutescens: sex determination and sex chromosomeW Just
Institute of Human Genetics, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
Sex Dev 1:211-21. 2007..A singular X raises questions about the need for X chromosome inactivation in female cells. We present preliminary data that support a hypothesis that the E. lutescens Xist gene may be degenerated and thus non-functional...
- The Y-encoded gene zfy2 acts to remove cells with unpaired chromosomes at the first meiotic metaphase in male miceNadège Vernet
Division of Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
Curr Biol 21:787-93. 2011..These findings provide further insight into the basis for the much lower transmission of chromosomal errors originating at the first meiotic division in men than in women ...
- A ZZ/ZW-type sex determination in Xenopus laevisShin Yoshimoto
Department of Biosciences, Kitasato University, Minamiku, Sagamihara, Japan
FEBS J 278:1020-6. 2011..laevis. Finally, we discuss sex-determining systems and germ-cell development during vertebrate evolution, especially in view of a conserved role of DMRT1 in gonadal masculinization...
- The genomic legacy from the extinct Lepus timidus to the three hare species of Iberia: contrast between mtDNA, sex chromosomes and autosomesJ Melo-Ferreira
CIBIO, Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrário de Vairão, 4485 661 Vairão, Portugal
Mol Ecol 18:2643-58. 2009..Based on lineage-diagnostic SNPs, we detected no trace of L. timidus sex chromosomes in Iberia. From the frequencies of inferred haplotypes, autosomal introgression into L...
- Evolution of sex chromosomes in insectsVera B Kaiser
Department of Integrative Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
Annu Rev Genet 44:91-112. 2010b>Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes...
- Getting a full dose? Reconsidering sex chromosome dosage compensation in the silkworm, Bombyx moriJames R Walters
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Genome Biol Evol 3:491-504. 2011..gene dose or copy number--is classically considered to play a critical role in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. As the X and Y diverge through degradation and gene loss on the Y (or the W in female-heterogametic ZW taxa),..
- Sexual selection and sex linkageMark Kirkpatrick
Section of Integrative Biology, 1 University Station C 0930, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
Evolution 58:683-91. 2004..g., X-linked preferences and autosomal displays), the good-genes mechanism is particularly powerful. These theoretical results suggest empirical tests based on the comparative method...
- The genetic architecture of skeletal convergence and sex determination in ninespine sticklebacksMichael D Shapiro
Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
Curr Biol 19:1140-5. 2009..Comparative genetics in sticklebacks provides an exciting opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling similar phenotypic changes in different animal groups...
- Chromosome-wide gene-specific targeting of the Drosophila dosage compensation complexGregor D Gilfillan
Adolf Butenandt Institut, Molekularbiologie, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, 80336 Munchen, Germany
Genes Dev 20:858-70. 2006..Within the targeted genes, the DCC exhibits a strong preference for exons and coding sequences. Our results demonstrate gene-specific binding of the DCC, and identify several sequence elements that may partly direct its targeting...
- Are homologies in vertebrate sex determination due to shared ancestry or to limited options?Jennifer A Marshall Graves
Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
Genome Biol 11:205. 2010The same candidate genes and the same autosomes are repeatedly used as sex chromosomes in vertebrates...
- Meiotic pairing and segregation of achiasmate sex chromosomes in eutherian mammals: the role of SYCP3 proteinRoberto de la Fuente
Unidad de Biologia Celular, Departamento de Biologia, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
PLoS Genet 3:e198. 2007In most eutherian mammals, sex chromosomes synapse and recombine during male meiosis in a small region called pseudoautosomal region...
- DNA methylation and heterochromatinization in the male-specific region of the primitive Y chromosome of papayaWenli Zhang
Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
Genome Res 18:1938-43. 2008b>Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes. Recombination suppression in the sex-determining region and accumulation of deleterious mutations lead to degeneration of the Y chromosomes in many species with heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes...
- Fgf9 induces proliferation and nuclear localization of FGFR2 in Sertoli precursors during male sex determinationJennifer Schmahl
Department of Cell Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Development 131:3627-36. 2004..The nuclear localization of FGFR2 coincides with the initiation of Sry expression and the nuclear localization of SOX9 during the early differentiation of Sertoli cells and the determination of male fate...
- The mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma represents a model for early evolution of sex chromosomesAudrius Menkis
Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
PLoS Genet 4:e1000030. 2008..This study highlights the shared features between the sex chromosomes found in the animal and plant kingdoms and the fungal mating-type chromosome, despite fungi having no ..
- Effect of location, organization, and repeat-copy number in satellite-DNA evolutionR Navajas-Pérez
Departamento de Genetica, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071, Spain
Mol Genet Genomics 282:395-406. 2009....
- Reassignment of chicken W chromosome sequences to the Z chromosome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)R Stiglec
Comparative Genomics Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
Cytogenet Genome Res 116:132-4. 2007..Our results demonstrate that the 17 genes on these BACs are Z-specific, and points to the inadequacy of assigning regions of the genome based exclusively on repetitive sequences...
- Different origins of ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in closely related medaka fishes, Oryzias javanicus and O. hubbsiYusuke Takehana
Laboratory of Bioresources, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan
Chromosome Res 16:801-11. 2008..Furthermore, sex chromosomes were not homologous in these species...
- Role of Sex Chromosome Complement in the CNS during Autoimmune DiseaseSienmi Du; Fiscal Year: 2013..All sex differences ultimately arise from sex chromosomes, either directly from sex-linked transcriptional products or secondarily from sex hormones produced after the ..
- Gender Bias in Lupus: Contribution of Sex ChromosomesRam Raj Singh; Fiscal Year: 2012..The fundamental basis for such gender bias remains unclear. Sex hormones, sex chromosomes or both may contribute to such sex difference...
- Sex and Stress Mechanisms of Vulnerability to AddictionRajita Sinha; Fiscal Year: 2011..sex are independent to test the hypothesis that components of addiction are differentially mediated by sex chromosomes and gonadal hormones...
- Environmental Endocrine Disruptors and Human Sperm Chromosomal AbnormalitiesMelissa Perry; Fiscal Year: 2012..Most new gene mutations seen in offspring and most abnormalities in the numbers of the sex chromosomes arise from the father's sperm...
- Epigenetic control of sex chromosome behavior in meiosis.JoAnne Engebrecht; Fiscal Year: 2013..In males, sex chromosomes are largely hemizygous (i.e...
- Genetic conflict shapes centromeres and heterochromatinHarmit S Malik; Fiscal Year: 2013..These essential functions range from segregating chromosomes to ensuring transcriptional parity at sex chromosomes via dosage compensation and defending the germline against transposons...
- Sexual conflict and relocation of genes by duplicationESTHER BETRAN; Fiscal Year: 2013..e., for parental alleles) and in autosomes and that it will continue after heteromorphic sex chromosomes and MSCI have evolved...
- Germline Silencing of Unpaired ChromatinEleanor M Maine; Fiscal Year: 2013..While the natural targets of meiotic silencing are the male sex chromosomes, the process will be activated to repress any unpaired chromosomes or chromosomal regions that arise due to ..
- Evolution of Sexually Dimorphic Germ Cells in Volvox carteriJames Umen; Fiscal Year: 2013DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The long-term goal of our work is to understand the role of sex chromosomes in the evolution of complex developmental traits...
- Biochemistry of lysine crotonylation pathwayYingming Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2013..In male germinal cells immediately following meiosis, histone Kcr, but not histone Kac, is enriched on sex chromosomes and specifically marks testis-specific genes...
- Sex differences in obesity and metabolic diseaseKaren Reue; Fiscal Year: 2013..the novel mouse model, the "four core genotypes" (FCG), which includes mice with testes that have XX or XY sex chromosomes, and mice with ovaries that also have either XX or XY sex chromosomes...
- Dmrt1 in gonadal sex maintenanceRobin E Lindeman; Fiscal Year: 2013..In mammals, the complement of sex chromosomes (XX or XY) in the bipotential fetal gonadal determines sex and dictates whether male or female- fate ..
- DOSAGE COMPENSATION IN DROSOPHILAJames A Birchler; Fiscal Year: 2012..a similar type of up-regulation of the autosomes in Drosophila has been muted during the evolution of the sex chromosomes by the sequestration of a histone acetylase to the X via the action of the male specific lethal (MSL) complex,..
- X-linked Genes, Histone Modifications, and BehaviorJun Xu; Fiscal Year: 2013..In mice, aggression is influenced by both steroid hormones and sex chromosomes. We propose to test the possible connection between aggression and an X-linked gene whose mutations in human ..
- Sex Differences in Early Brain Development;Brain Development in Turner SyndromeREBECCA KNICKMEYER SANTELLI; Fiscal Year: 2012..Turner syndrome, a well-defined genetic disorder resulting from the partial or complete loss of one of the sex chromosomes. To address aim 1, high resolution MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), will be used to ..
- Molecular Evolution of Drosophila Y ChromosomeAndrew G Clark; Fiscal Year: 2012..The Y chromosome of Drosophila provides an ideal system for testing many concepts related to the evolution of sex chromosomes. The proposed study entails primary discovery of most of the Y- linked genes across a group of 12 species and ..
- GENETIC REGULATION IN DROSOPHILA: DOSAGE COMPENSATIONJohn Lucchesi; Fiscal Year: 2012..We are studying a specific modification that affects the expression of genes on one of the sex chromosomes of the fruitfly Drosophila in order to uncover some general principles underlying epigenetic regulation;..
- Brain Development &Sex Chromosomes: Imaging of Turner and Klinefelter SyndromesAllan L Reiss; Fiscal Year: 2013..that underlying mechanisms for these sex dimorphisms arise from: (1) differential expression of genes on the sex chromosomes and, (2) extensive influence of sex hormones on the brain during critical windows of development...
- Sex Chromosomes in Fetal Programming and Susceptibility to EAECory Teuscher; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- t(8;21) and SON in Blood Cell Proliferation and DifferentiationDong Er Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013..mutations, such as abnormal hematopoietic growth factor signal transduction due to loss of one of the human sex chromosomes or deletion or mutation of the NHR4 zinc finger domain of AML1- ETO, cooperate with t(8;21) in AML ..
- Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and the developmental basis of hybrid male stJEFFREY GOOD; Fiscal Year: 2013DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Proper genetic and epigenetic regulation of the sex chromosomes during spermatogenesis is crucial for the development of normal male fertility...
- Role of Spo11 and recombination in mouse meiosisScott Keeney; Fiscal Year: 2013..Aims are: 1. To define mechanisms that ensure X-Y recombination. Sex chromosomes pose significant challenges to male meiotic cells because the X and Y share only a small region of homology (..
- Understanding genetics of spermatogenic failure by resequencing the sex chromosomeRENEE GEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2013..I will then identify mutations that are responsible for male infertility by resequencing the sex chromosomes of men with nonobstructive azoospermia, a condition where no sperm is detected in their semen...
- DNA Damage Response Pathways in Meiotic Sex Chromosome InactivationSatoshi Namekawa; Fiscal Year: 2013..In this proposal, we aim to dissect the molecular basis of epigenetic silencing of sex chromosomes. An intriguing link between epigenetic silencing of sex chromosomes and components involved in DNA damage ..
- The impact of sex chromosomes on the ability to recover from sleep lossKETEMA NNAMDI PAUL; Fiscal Year: 2013..This finding led us to hypothesize that sex chromosomes directly influence the ability to recover from sleep loss...
- Understanding how developmental systems compensate for and are affected by changeSusan E Lott; Fiscal Year: 2011..2) characterize dosage compensation in a species with recently derived sex chromosomes to identify genes with a strong requirement for compensation, and A.3) manipulate gene dose in transgenic D...
- Sex Differences in Angiotensin-Induced Vascular DiseasesLisa A Cassis; Fiscal Year: 2013..We propose that sex hormones, as well as sex chromosomes, mediate sexual dimorphism of AngII-induced AAAs...
- Sex chromosome effects on neural and behavioral differentiationEmilie F Rissman; Fiscal Year: 2011..Another potential source of differences between males and females are the genes that reside on the sex chromosomes. A transgenic mouse model in which gonadal and chromosomal sex are uncoupled is being employed to test this ..
- Sex chromosome control of chromatin in the gametesBLUMA JESSICA LESCH; Fiscal Year: 2013DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The sex chromosomes of mammalian germ cells must match those of the surrounding soma in order for the germ cells to successfully complete development as sperm or eggs...
- Understanding how developmental systems compensate for and are affected by changeSusan E Lott; Fiscal Year: 2013..2) characterize dosage compensation in a species with recently derived sex chromosomes to identify genes with a strong requirement for compensation, and A.3) manipulate gene dose in transgenic D...
- The Evolutionary and Functional Genomics of Dosage Compensation in DrosophilaDoris Bachtrog; Fiscal Year: 2013..Drosophila miranda - a species for which we recently generated a de novo genome sequence assembly - has three sex chromosomes of different age and at different stages of transition from ordinary autosomes into heteromorphic sex ..
- The X-factor of complex disease: From population genetics to GWAS of Chromosome XAlon Keinan; Fiscal Year: 2013..disease genes and to elucidate how evolutionary history has shaped human genetic variation differently on the sex chromosomes. The objective of this application is to discover X-linked loci underlying various complex diseases while ..
- "Gene Trafficking on an Evolving X Chromosome in Drosophila"Doris Bachtrog; Fiscal Year: 2013..D.)miranda)therefore)provides)a)unique) system)to)study)the)mechanisms)of)gene)trafficking)on)an)evolving)X)chromosome) and)its)evolutionary)causes)in)action)using)a)comparative)and)functional)genomics) approach.) ..
- RADIATION CYTOGENETICSJoel Bedford; Fiscal Year: 1993..V. and x-rays occur predominantly in one or the other in Microtus agrestus cells with giant heterochromatic sex chromosomes. Studies on the inhibition of rejoining or increased expression of x-ray induced PCC breaks using anisotonic ..
- Molecular Genetics of Speciation Driven by Intragenomic ConflictsYun Tao; Fiscal Year: 2012..Sex- ratio meiotic drive is a phenomenon of non-Mendelian segregation manifested by genetic conflicts between sex chromosomes and autosomes...
- Evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in ReptiliaDANIEL JANES; Fiscal Year: 2007..creation of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries will allow us to sequence and compare portions of sex chromosomes among reptiles and birds...
- Chromatin Structure during SpermatogenesisMary Ann Handel; Fiscal Year: 2009DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Accurate meiotic segregation of physically and genetically intact sex chromosomes is essential for male reproduction and species survival;chromosome segregation is set up in meiotic prophase...
- CLONING HOMOLOGOUS SEGMENTS OF HUMAN XP AND YQPAULINE YEN; Fiscal Year: 1999DESCRIPTION (Adapted from Investigator's Abstract): The human sex chromosomes are thought to have evolved from a common ancestral homologous chromosome pair, and, therefore, share many regions of homology. The long- term objectives of Dr...
- Medical anthropological approaches to gender confusionSHERINE HAMDY; Fiscal Year: 2004..form of depression specific to confusion over one?s gender identity) and intersexuality (a condition in which sex chromosomes, genitalia, and/or secondary sex characteristics are neither clearly male nor female)...
- MECHANISM OF HUMAN X-INACTIVATIONTHULUVANCHERI MOHANDAS; Fiscal Year: 1990..will be constructed from the fusion of cells from individuals with these genetic conditions to separate their sex chromosomes. DNA of individual X or Y chromosomes will then be evaluated with a number of probes located at the distal ..
- Genetic Analysis of Germ Cell FormationRenee Reijo Pera; Fiscal Year: 2009..This is most-plainly illustrated by contrasting the roles of the sex chromosomes in germ cell development in humans and mice...
- CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION DURING MEIOSISMary Ann Handel; Fiscal Year: 1999..occur? What is the nature of these events? How are these events related to meiotic condensation of the sex chromosomes? What Proteins mediate them? The specific aims are designed to fill these gaps in our knowledge...
- XIX North American Testis WorkshopMichael Griswold; Fiscal Year: 2007..has the broad theme of "Chromosome structure and gene expression," it has been organized into five sessions: Sex chromosomes and genomics; Germ-line stem cells; Regulation of gene expression; Testicular somatic cells; and Testicular ..
- Mammalian Genomes - Stasis and ChangeHOLLY WICHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009..to estimate the rate of mutation at methylated CpG sites on the autosomes and sex chromosomes;ii...
- Rapid Human Sex Chromosomes Aneuploidy FISH TestJOAN AURICH COSTA; Fiscal Year: 2006..The ultimate goal of this SBIR project is to develop a full set of chromosome specific FISH probes for PGD. ..
- GENE EXPRESSION DURING SPERMATOGENESISNORMAN HECHT; Fiscal Year: 2006..transport through intercellular bridges will be examined focusing on a kinesin and specific mRNAs encoded on sex chromosomes. These studies will provide important and novel data on critical mechanisms that regulate the expression of ..
- GENETIC BASIS OF SPECIES DIFFERENCES IN DROSOPHILAJerry Coyne; Fiscal Year: 1993..Are the genes involved in mating discrimination concentrated on the sex chromosomes, like those causing hybrid sterility and inviability? 6...
- The Effect of Sex Chromosomes on Immune ResponsesRhonda Voskuhl; Fiscal Year: 2009..Mice which differ in the complement of sex chromosomes, while having the same gonadal type, have been created and backcrossed onto the SJL strain to determine the ..
- NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATIONArthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2008..circuit for song in zebra finches conflicts with this classic dogma, and indicates that genes encoded on the sex chromosomes, which are differently expressed in male and female brain cells, acts within those cells to cause sexual ..
- GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF BRAIN SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATIONArthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2001..not induced by gonadal steroids, and the proposed studies test an alternative hypothesis, that genes on the sex chromosomes are differentially expressed in male and female brain and lead, via non- hormonal mechanisms, to sex ..
- Sex Differences in Dopamine SystemsArthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2006..direct or indirect on dopamine neurons; the cellular mechanisms of the sex chromosome effect; and whether the sex chromosomes contribute to sex differences in the development and adult structure of the nigrostriatal dopamine system in ..
- GENETIC STUDIES OF DEPRESSIVE DISORDERSMyrna Weissman; Fiscal Year: 2003..patient samples using 391 microsatellite markers spaced on average every 9cM over all 22 autosomes and both sex chromosomes. Preliminary analyses indicate a number of strong results...
- ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON BRAIN PLASTICITYDavid Crews; Fiscal Year: 2002..The final category of experiments is particularly important as it will discern whether the incubation temperature effects are direct or indirect. ..
- EVOLUTION OF BRAIN-BEHAVIOR CONTROLLING MECHANISMSDavid Crews; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..
- Epigenetic Influences on Brain and BehaviorDavid Crews; Fiscal Year: 2004..Specific Aim III. To establish if the different behavioral profiles exhibited in such animals in adulthood are reflected in different patterns of activity in a network of interconnected limbic nuclei. ..
- TRAINING PROGRAM IN NEUROBIOLOGY AND BEHAVIORDavid Crews; Fiscal Year: 2003..All of the laboratories comply with NIH requirements. ..
- Regulation of Spermiogenesis in MicePEIJING WANG; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- ASYMMETRICALLY EXPRESSED GENES IN DEVELOPING CEREBRUMDaniel Geschwind; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- DOSAGE COMPENSATION OF THE ACTIVE X CHROMOSOME IN MAMMALSChristine M Disteche; Fiscal Year: 2010..Maintenance of the balance of gene expression is critical for normal development, as can be seen from the presence of multiple congenital abnormalities in individuals with chromosomal imbalance due to autosomal monosomy. ..
- Evolutionary genomics of new Drosophila genesDAVEN PRESGRAVES; Fiscal Year: 2004..The methods developed will be applicable in comparative analysis of other genomes, including those of humans and their primate relatives. ..
- Mechanism of Meiotic Pairing in DrosophilaBRUCE MCKEE; Fiscal Year: 2007..3) What is the molecular basis for homologous pairing in early prophase. 4) How are homologous pairing and conjunction related? We will use predominant genetic and cell biological methods to address these questions. ..