chromosomes

Summary

Summary: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Crossover/noncrossover differentiation, synaptonemal complex formation, and regulatory surveillance at the leptotene/zygotene transition of meiosis
    G Valentin Börner
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Cell 117:29-45. 2004
  2. ncbi Drosophila enhancer of Zeste/ESC complexes have a histone H3 methyltransferase activity that marks chromosomal Polycomb sites
    Birgit Czermin
    Adolf Butenandt Institut, University of Munich, Schillerstrasse 44, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Cell 111:185-96. 2002
  3. ncbi Circular chromosome conformation capture (4C) uncovers extensive networks of epigenetically regulated intra- and interchromosomal interactions
    Zhihu Zhao
    Department of Development and Genetics, Evolution Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18A, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Nat Genet 38:1341-7. 2006
  4. ncbi Endosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes
    Jeremy N Timmis
    School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
    Nat Rev Genet 5:123-35. 2004
  5. doi 53BP1 nuclear bodies form around DNA lesions generated by mitotic transmission of chromosomes under replication stress
    Claudia Lukas
    Centre for Genotoxic Stress Research, Institute of Cancer Biology, Danish Cancer Society, Strandboulevarden 49, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Nat Cell Biol 13:243-53. 2011
  6. pmc Cytoskeletal forces span the nuclear envelope to coordinate meiotic chromosome pairing and synapsis
    Aya Sato
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815 USA
    Cell 139:907-19. 2009
  7. pmc Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote
    Jonathan A Eisen
    The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 4:e286. 2006
  8. pmc Condensins: universal organizers of chromosomes with diverse functions
    Tatsuya Hirano
    Chromosome Dynamics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, Japan
    Genes Dev 26:1659-78. 2012
  9. ncbi The mouse Spo11 gene is required for meiotic chromosome synapsis
    P J Romanienko
    Genetics and Biochemistry Branch National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases National Institutes of Health 20892, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mol Cell 6:975-87. 2000
  10. ncbi The genome of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei
    Matthew Berriman
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK
    Science 309:416-22. 2005

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications311 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Crossover/noncrossover differentiation, synaptonemal complex formation, and regulatory surveillance at the leptotene/zygotene transition of meiosis
    G Valentin Börner
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Cell 117:29-45. 2004
    ....
  2. ncbi Drosophila enhancer of Zeste/ESC complexes have a histone H3 methyltransferase activity that marks chromosomal Polycomb sites
    Birgit Czermin
    Adolf Butenandt Institut, University of Munich, Schillerstrasse 44, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Cell 111:185-96. 2002
    ..lysine 9 position is trimethylated and this mark is closely associated with Polycomb binding sites on polytene chromosomes but is also found in centric heterochromatin, chromosome 4, and telomeric sites...
  3. ncbi Circular chromosome conformation capture (4C) uncovers extensive networks of epigenetically regulated intra- and interchromosomal interactions
    Zhihu Zhao
    Department of Development and Genetics, Evolution Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18A, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Nat Genet 38:1341-7. 2006
    Accumulating evidence converges on the possibility that chromosomes interact with each other to regulate transcription in trans...
  4. ncbi Endosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes
    Jeremy N Timmis
    School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
    Nat Rev Genet 5:123-35. 2004
  5. doi 53BP1 nuclear bodies form around DNA lesions generated by mitotic transmission of chromosomes under replication stress
    Claudia Lukas
    Centre for Genotoxic Stress Research, Institute of Cancer Biology, Danish Cancer Society, Strandboulevarden 49, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Nat Cell Biol 13:243-53. 2011
    ..partially suppressed by knocking down SMC2, a condensin subunit required for mechanical stability of mitotic chromosomes. Finally, we provide evidence that 53BP1 nuclear bodies shield chromosomal fragile sites sequestered in these ..
  6. pmc Cytoskeletal forces span the nuclear envelope to coordinate meiotic chromosome pairing and synapsis
    Aya Sato
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815 USA
    Cell 139:907-19. 2009
    ..For a video summary of this article, see the PaperFlick file with the Supplemental Data available online...
  7. pmc Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote
    Jonathan A Eisen
    The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 4:e286. 2006
    ..thermophila, which is approximately 104 Mb in length and composed of approximately 225 chromosomes. Overall, the gene set is robust, with more than 27,000 predicted protein-coding genes, 15,000 of which have ..
  8. pmc Condensins: universal organizers of chromosomes with diverse functions
    Tatsuya Hirano
    Chromosome Dynamics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, Japan
    Genes Dev 26:1659-78. 2012
    ..multisubunit protein complexes that play a fundamental role in the structural and functional organization of chromosomes in the three domains of life...
  9. ncbi The mouse Spo11 gene is required for meiotic chromosome synapsis
    P J Romanienko
    Genetics and Biochemistry Branch National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases National Institutes of Health 20892, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mol Cell 6:975-87. 2000
    ..Spo11 localizes to discrete foci during leptotene and to homologously synapsed chromosomes. Other mouse mutants that arrest during meiotic prophase (Atm -/-, Dmc1 -/-, mei1, and Morc(-/-)) showed ..
  10. ncbi The genome of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei
    Matthew Berriman
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK
    Science 309:416-22. 2005
    ..We present the sequence and analysis of the 11 megabase-sized chromosomes of Trypanosoma brucei...
  11. ncbi Synaptonemal complex assembly in C. elegans is dispensable for loading strand-exchange proteins but critical for proper completion of recombination
    MONICA P COLAIACOVO
    Department of Developmental Biology, Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Dev Cell 5:463-74. 2003
    ..between assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC) and progression of recombination between homologous chromosomes during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis...
  12. pmc A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms
    Gane Ka Shu Wong
    Beijing Institute of Genomics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing 101300, China
    Nature 432:717-22. 2004
    ..In fact, most of the SNPs originated before domestication, and there is little evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales greater than 100 kilobases...
  13. ncbi Genome duplication in the teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis reveals the early vertebrate proto-karyotype
    Olivier Jaillon
    UMR 8030 Genoscope, CNRS and Université d Evry, 2 rue Gaston Cremieux, 91057 Evry Cedex, France
    Nature 431:946-57. 2004
    ..Here, we report a draft genome sequence with long-range linkage and substantial anchoring to the 21 Tetraodon chromosomes. Genome analysis provides a greatly improved fish gene catalogue, including identifying key genes previously ..
  14. pmc Efficient site-specific integration in Plasmodium falciparum chromosomes mediated by mycobacteriophage Bxb1 integrase
    Louis J Nkrumah
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    Nat Methods 3:615-21. 2006
    ..we report an efficient, site-specific system of genetic integration into Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite chromosomes. This is mediated by mycobacteriophage Bxb1 integrase, which catalyzes recombination between an incoming attP ..
  15. ncbi Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation
    James M A Turner
    Division of Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics, MRC NIMR, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 134:1823-31. 2007
    ..example of a more general mechanism called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC), which silences chromosomes that fail to pair with their homologous partners and, in doing so, may protect against aneuploidy in subsequent ..
  16. doi The SUN rises on meiotic chromosome dynamics
    Yasushi Hiraoka
    Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1 3 Yamadaoka, Suita 565 0871, Japan
    Dev Cell 17:598-605. 2009
    ..During meiotic prophase, the apparent role of these SUN-domain proteins, together with their partner KASH-domain proteins, is to connect chromosomes through the intact nuclear envelope to force-generating mechanisms in the cytoplasm.
  17. ncbi Mechanism and control of meiotic recombination initiation
    S Keeney
    Molecular Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Curr Top Dev Biol 52:1-53. 2001
    ....
  18. ncbi At the heart of the chromosome: SMC proteins in action
    Tatsuya Hirano
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:311-22. 2006
    Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins are ubiquitous in organisms from bacteria to humans, and function as core components of the condensin and cohesin complexes in eukaryotes...
  19. pmc The spatial arrangement of chromosomes during prometaphase facilitates spindle assembly
    Valentin Magidson
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 509, USA
    Cell 146:555-67. 2011
    ..These transient interactions lead to the reproducible arrangement of chromosomes in an equatorial ring on the surface of the nascent spindle...
  20. pmc Megabase chromatin domains involved in DNA double-strand breaks in vivo
    E P Rogakou
    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Division of Basic Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Cell Biol 146:905-16. 1999
    ..The results further suggest the possible existence of units of higher order chromatin structure involved in monitoring DNA integrity...
  21. pmc The protein composition of mitotic chromosomes determined using multiclassifier combinatorial proteomics
    Shinya Ohta
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Cell 142:810-21. 2010
    ..series of independent classifiers that describe the approximately 4,000 proteins identified in isolated mitotic chromosomes. Integrating these classifiers by machine learning uncovers functional relationships between protein complexes ..
  22. pmc Chromosome territories
    Thomas Cremer
    Biozentrum, Department of Biology II, Ludwig Maximilians University, Grosshadernerstrasse 2, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a003889. 2010
    ..account of the CT concept and the final compelling experimental evidence of a territorial organization of chromosomes in all eukaryotes studied to date...
  23. pmc Mitotic chromosomes are compacted laterally by KIF4 and condensin and axially by topoisomerase IIα
    Kumiko Samejima
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    J Cell Biol 199:755-70. 2012
    ..Depletion of either caused sister chromatids to expand and compromised the "intrinsic structure" of the chromosomes (defined in an in vitro assay), with loss of condensin showing stronger effects...
  24. ncbi Chromosome-induced microtubule assembly mediated by TPX2 is required for spindle formation in HeLa cells
    Oliver J Gruss
    EMBL, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69 117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nat Cell Biol 4:871-9. 2002
    In Xenopus laevis egg extracts, TPX2 is required for the Ran-GTP-dependent assembly of microtubules around chromosomes. Here we show that interfering with the function of the human homologue of TPX2 in HeLa cells causes defects in ..
  25. doi Holocentric chromosomes: convergent evolution, meiotic adaptations, and genomic analysis
    Daniël P Melters
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Genome Center, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    Chromosome Res 20:579-93. 2012
    In most eukaryotes, the kinetochore protein complex assembles at a single locus termed the centromere to attach chromosomes to spindle microtubules...
  26. ncbi Homologous chromosome interactions in meiosis: diversity amidst conservation
    Jennifer L Gerton
    The Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 East 50th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 6:477-87. 2005
    ..Meiosis poses a special problem in which homologous chromosomes must first pair and then separate at the first meiotic division before sister chromatids separate at the second ..
  27. ncbi Meiotic prophase arrest with failure of chromosome synapsis in mice deficient for Dmc1, a germline-specific RecA homolog
    D L Pittman
    Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA
    Mol Cell 1:697-705. 1998
    ..b>Chromosomes in mutant spermatocytes fail to synapse, despite the formation of axial elements that are the precursor to the ..
  28. pmc Chromosome sites play dual roles to establish homologous synapsis during meiosis in C. elegans
    Amy J MacQueen
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Cell 123:1037-50. 2005
    ..the role of pairing centers (PCs), cis-acting sites required for accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis in C. elegans...
  29. pmc The transcriptome of the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle of Plasmodium falciparum
    Zbynek Bozdech
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    PLoS Biol 1:E5. 2003
    ..The data reveal that genes contiguous along the chromosomes are rarely coregulated, while transcription from the plastid genome is highly coregulated and likely ..
  30. doi The consequences of asynapsis for mammalian meiosis
    Paul S Burgoyne
    Division of Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA
    Nat Rev Genet 10:207-16. 2009
    During mammalian meiosis, synapsis of paternal and maternal chromosomes and the generation of DNA breaks are needed to allow reshuffling of parental genes...
  31. ncbi The cellular geography of aurora kinases
    Mar Carmena
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, Kings Buildings, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:842-54. 2003
  32. pmc A second generation genetic map for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    Caird E Rexroad
    USDA ARS National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, Leetown, West Virginia, USA
    BMC Genet 9:74. 2008
    ....
  33. pmc Tension directly stabilizes reconstituted kinetochore-microtubule attachments
    Bungo Akiyoshi
    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    Nature 468:576-9. 2010
    Kinetochores are macromolecular machines that couple chromosomes to dynamic microtubule tips during cell division, thereby generating force to segregate the chromosomes...
  34. ncbi Meiotic chromosomes: integrating structure and function
    D Zickler
    Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France
    Annu Rev Genet 33:603-754. 1999
    Meiotic chromosomes have been studied for many years, in part because of the fundamental life processes they represent, but also because meiosis involves the formation of homolog pairs, a feature which greatly facilitates the study of ..
  35. doi Meiotic chromosome homology search involves modifications of the nuclear envelope protein Matefin/SUN-1
    Alexandra M Penkner
    Department of Chromosome Biology, Max F Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Cell 139:920-33. 2009
    Genome haploidization during meiosis depends on recognition and association of parental homologous chromosomes. The C. elegans SUN/KASH domain proteins Matefin/SUN-1 and ZYG-12 have a conserved role in this process...
  36. ncbi Interaction of the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein with Brd4 tethers the viral DNA to host mitotic chromosomes
    Jianxin You
    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 117:349-60. 2004
    The papillomavirus E2 protein tethers viral genomes to host mitotic chromosomes to ensure genome maintenance. We have identified the bromodomain protein Brd4 as a major cellular interacting partner of the bovine papillomavirus E2...
  37. doi Genome architecture: domain organization of interphase chromosomes
    Wendy A Bickmore
    MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH42XU, UK
    Cell 152:1270-84. 2013
    The architecture of interphase chromosomes is important for the regulation of gene expression and genome maintenance. Chromosomes are linearly segmented into hundreds of domains with different protein compositions...
  38. pmc Bridging the resolution gap in structural modeling of 3D genome organization
    Marc A Marti-Renom
    Structural Genomics Laboratory, Bioinformatics and Genomics Department, Centro de Investigacion Principe Felipe, Valencia, Spain
    PLoS Comput Biol 7:e1002125. 2011
    ..Our outlook describes computational approaches for integrating experimental data with polymer physics, thereby bridging the resolution gap for structural determination of genomes and genomic domains...
  39. pmc The impressionistic landscape of meiotic recombination
    Michael Lichten
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell 147:267-70. 2011
    ..These studies offer new insights into the relationships between recombination, chromosome structure, and genome evolution...
  40. ncbi Early decision; meiotic crossover interference prior to stable strand exchange and synapsis
    Douglas K Bishop
    Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Cell 117:9-15. 2004
    ..Chromosome synapsis occurs after CO/NCO designation and is not required for the regulated distribution of COs along chromosomes manifested as CO interference.
  41. ncbi Zebrafish hox clusters and vertebrate genome evolution
    A Amores
    Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Science 282:1711-4. 1998
    ..Thus, teleosts, the most species-rich group of vertebrates, appear to have more copies of these developmental regulatory genes than do mammals, despite less complexity in the anterior-posterior axis...
  42. ncbi Phosphorylation of histone H3 is required for proper chromosome condensation and segregation
    Y Wei
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Cell 97:99-109. 1999
    ..During meiosis, micronuclei underwent abnormal chromosome condensation and failed to faithfully transmit chromosomes. These results demonstrate that H3 serine 10 phosphorylation is causally linked to chromosome condensation and ..
  43. pmc NUP-1 Is a large coiled-coil nucleoskeletal protein in trypanosomes with lamin-like functions
    Kelly N DuBois
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 10:e1001287. 2012
    ..NUP-1 knockdown also disrupts organization of nuclear pore complexes and chromosomes. Most significantly, we find that NUP-1 is required to maintain the silenced state of developmentally regulated ..
  44. doi Synaptonemal complex-dependent centromeric clustering and the initiation of synapsis in Drosophila oocytes
    Satomi Takeo
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    Curr Biol 21:1845-51. 2011
    The pairing of homologous chromosomes and the intimate synapsis of the paired homologs by the synaptonemal complex (SC) are essential for subsequent meiotic processes including recombination and chromosome segregation...
  45. pmc Dynein-dependent processive chromosome motions promote homologous pairing in C. elegans meiosis
    David J Wynne
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Cell Biol 196:47-64. 2012
    ..This quantitative analysis of chromosome dynamics in a living animal extends our understanding of the mechanisms governing faithful genome inheritance...
  46. pmc Extensive synteny conservation of holocentric chromosomes in Lepidoptera despite high rates of local genome rearrangements
    E d'Alençon
    Unité Mixte de Recherche 1231, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Universite Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7680-5. 2010
    The recent assembly of the silkworm Bombyx mori genome with 432 Mb on 28 holocentric chromosomes has become a reference in the genomic analysis of the very diverse Order of Lepidoptera...
  47. pmc Probing spindle assembly mechanisms with monastrol, a small molecule inhibitor of the mitotic kinesin, Eg5
    T M Kapoor
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Cell Biol 150:975-88. 2000
    ..The mitotic arrest due to monastrol is also rapidly reversible. Chromosomes in monastrol-treated cells frequently have both sister kinetochores attached to microtubules extending to the ..
  48. ncbi Gene action in the X-chromosome of the mouse (Mus musculus L.)
    M F Lyon
    Nature 190:372-3. 1961
  49. ncbi Mitotic kinases as regulators of cell division and its checkpoints
    E A Nigg
    Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Cell Biology, Am Klopferspitz 18a, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2:21-32. 2001
    ..Here, I give an overview of the many mitotic kinases that regulate cell division and the fidelity of chromosome transmission...
  50. ncbi A secreted serine-threonine kinase determines virulence in the eukaryotic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii
    S Taylor
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Science 314:1776-80. 2006
    ..These attributes of ROP18 required kinase activity, which revealed that secretion of effectors is a major component of parasite virulence...
  51. ncbi The shortest telomere, not average telomere length, is critical for cell viability and chromosome stability
    M T Hemann
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cell 107:67-77. 2001
    ..of the telomerase null offspring was similar to that of the late generation parent, although only half of the chromosomes were short...
  52. ncbi Molecular architecture of the kinetochore-microtubule interface
    Iain M Cheeseman
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9:33-46. 2008
    ..Recent studies have identified more than 80 kinetochore components, and are revealing how these proteins are organized into the higher order kinetochore structure, as well as how they function to achieve proper chromosome segregation...
  53. ncbi Chromosome-wide control of meiotic crossing over in C. elegans
    Kenneth J Hillers
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Curr Biol 13:1641-7. 2003
    ..only one crossover per chromosome pair per meiosis, by constructing genetic maps of end-to-end fusions of whole chromosomes. Fusion of chromosomes removes the requirement for a crossover in each component chromosome segment and thereby ..
  54. pmc Selection at linked sites shapes heritable phenotypic variation in C. elegans
    Matthew V Rockman
    Department of Biology and Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Science 330:372-6. 2010
    ..elegans exhibit different levels of variation less because of their own attributes than because of differences in the effective population sizes of the genomic regions harboring their underlying loci...
  55. ncbi Impaired meiotic DNA-damage repair and lack of crossing-over during spermatogenesis in BRCA1 full-length isoform deficient mice
    Xiaoling Xu
    Department of Physiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Development 130:2001-12. 2003
    ..During spermatogenesis, homologous chromosomes from the mutant mice synapsed and advanced to the pachytene stage but failed to progress to the diplotene stage...
  56. ncbi Isochores and the evolutionary genomics of vertebrates
    G Bernardi
    Laboratorio di Evoluzione Molecolare, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Napoli, Italy
    Gene 241:3-17. 2000
    ....
  57. doi Chromosome alignment and transvection are antagonized by condensin II
    Tom A Hartl
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, 1007 East Lowell Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 0106, USA
    Science 322:1384-7. 2008
    ..We propose that condensin II restricts trans-chromosomal interactions that affect transcription through its ability to spatially separate aligned interphase chromosomes.
  58. ncbi Polycomb response elements mediate the formation of chromosome higher-order structures in the bithorax complex
    Chiara Lanzuolo
    Dulbecco Telethon Institute at IGB CNR, Epigenetics and Genome Reprogramming, Via Pietro Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy
    Nat Cell Biol 9:1167-74. 2007
    ....
  59. pmc Aurora kinases and protein phosphatase 1 mediate chromosome congression through regulation of CENP-E
    Yumi Kim
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Cell 142:444-55. 2010
    ..This phosphorylation is required for CENP-E-mediated towing of initially polar chromosomes toward the cell center...
  60. ncbi Phosphorylation of histone H3: a balancing act between chromosome condensation and transcriptional activation
    Scott J Nowak
    Department of Biology, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Trends Genet 20:214-20. 2004
    ..3 variant, which has a conserved N-terminal tail, can replace histone H3 at sites of active transcription, adds a new layer of complexity and possibilities to the regulation of transcription through changes in chromatin structure...
  61. pmc Reconstruction of the vertebrate ancestral genome reveals dynamic genome reorganization in early vertebrates
    Yoichiro Nakatani
    Department of Computational Biology, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277 0882, Japan
    Genome Res 17:1254-65. 2007
    ..the chicken genome, which was not considered in the reconstruction step, and observed that many ancestral proto-chromosomes were retained in the chicken genome and had one-to-one correspondence to chicken microchromosomes, thereby ..
  62. pmc Breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and large insertions contribute to the rapid evolution of accessory chromosomes in a fungal pathogen
    Daniel Croll
    Plant Pathology, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    PLoS Genet 9:e1003567. 2013
    ..offspring from experimental crosses to show that this pathogen harbors a highly diverse complement of accessory chromosomes that exhibits strong global geographic differentiation in numbers and lengths of chromosomes...
  63. doi Chromosome dynamics, molecular crowding, and diffusion in the interphase cell nucleus: a Monte Carlo lattice simulation study
    Christian C Fritsch
    Biophysics of Macromolecules, German Cancer Research Center Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany
    Chromosome Res 19:63-81. 2011
    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we have investigated the decondensation of chromosomes during interphase and the diffusive transport of spherical probe particles in the chromatin network...
  64. ncbi Zebrafish comparative genomics and the origins of vertebrate chromosomes
    J H Postlethwait
    Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA
    Genome Res 10:1890-902. 2000
    ..Despite genome duplication, zebrafish and humans have about the same number of chromosomes, and zebrafish chromosomes are mosaically orthologous to several human chromosomes...
  65. pmc Meiotic cohesin REC8 marks the axial elements of rat synaptonemal complexes before cohesins SMC1beta and SMC3
    Maureen Eijpe
    Molecular Genetics Group, Botanical Center, Wageningen University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, Netherlands
    J Cell Biol 160:657-70. 2003
    ..We propose that REC8 then provides cohesion. RAD51 and/or DMC1 coimmunoprecipitates with REC8, suggesting that REC8 may also provide a basis for assembly of recombination complexes...
  66. ncbi Meiotic synapsis in the absence of recombination
    K S McKim
    Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Science 279:876-8. 1998
    ..Furthermore, the basic processes of early meiosis may have different functional or temporal relations, or both, in yeast and Drosophila...
  67. pmc Nuclear reorganization and homologous chromosome pairing during meiotic prophase require C. elegans chk-2
    A J MacQueen
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5329, USA
    Genes Dev 15:1674-87. 2001
    ..has uncovered a role for Caenorhabditis elegans chk-2 in initial establishment of pairing between homologous chromosomes during early meiotic prophase...
  68. pmc Tissue-specific spatial organization of genomes
    Luis A Parada
    National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Genome Biol 5:R44. 2004
    Genomes are organized in vivo in the form of chromosomes. Each chromosome occupies a distinct nuclear subvolume in the form of a chromosome territory...
  69. pmc Drosophila ISWI regulates the association of histone H1 with interphase chromosomes in vivo
    Giorgia Siriaco
    Adolf Butenandt Institute, Molecular Biology, Munich Center of Integrated Protein Science, Ludwig Maximilians University, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Genetics 182:661-9. 2009
    ..The association of H1 with salivary gland polytene chromosomes is regulated by a dynamic, ATP-dependent process...
  70. pmc A phospho/methyl switch at histone H3 regulates TFIID association with mitotic chromosomes
    Radhika A Varier
    Department of Physiological Chemistry and Netherlands Proteomics Center, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    EMBO J 29:3967-78. 2010
    ..immunofluorescence and live-cell microscopy studies showed an increased association of TFIID with mitotic chromosomes upon haspin knockdown...
  71. pmc Prelude to a division
    Needhi Bhalla
    Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 24:397-424. 2008
    Accurate segregation of chromosomes during meiosis requires physical links between homologs. These links are usually established through chromosome pairing, synapsis, and recombination, which occur during meiotic prophase...
  72. pmc Aurora B regulates formin mDia3 in achieving metaphase chromosome alignment
    Lina Cheng
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Dev Cell 20:342-52. 2011
    ..by Aurora B kinase in vitro, and cells expressing the nonphosphorylatable mDia3 mutant cannot position chromosomes at the metaphase plate...
  73. pmc The small chromosomes of Trypanosoma brucei involved in antigenic variation are constructed around repetitive palindromes
    Bill Wickstead
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
    Genome Res 14:1014-24. 2004
    ..The numerous small chromosomes of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei fall into this category, yet are critical to understanding the genome ..
  74. pmc B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes
    Kohta Yoshida
    Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002203. 2011
    ..B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85%) in these ..
  75. ncbi A bouquet makes ends meet
    H Scherthan
    Department of Human Biology and Human Genetics, University of Kaiserslautern, D 67653 Kaiserslautern, Germany
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2:621-7. 2001
    ..There have been many hypotheses about its role in the pairing of meiotic chromosomes, but until recently these have been difficult to test.
  76. pmc Chromosomes in the flow to simplify genome analysis
    Jaroslav Dolezel
    Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Institute of Experimental Botany, Sokolovska 6, Olomouc, Czech Republic
    Funct Integr Genomics 12:397-416. 2012
    Nuclear genomes of human, animals, and plants are organized into subunits called chromosomes. When isolated into aqueous suspension, mitotic chromosomes can be classified using flow cytometry according to light scatter and fluorescence ..
  77. ncbi RNAi components are required for nuclear clustering of Polycomb group response elements
    Charlotte Grimaud
    Institute of Human Genetics, CNRS, 141 rue de la Cardonille, 34396 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Cell 124:957-71. 2006
    ..This suggests a novel role for the RNAi machinery in regulating the nuclear organization of PcG chromatin targets...
  78. pmc Polymorphic secreted kinases are key virulence factors in toxoplasmosis
    J P J Saeij
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 314:1780-3. 2006
    ..Both are hypervariable rhoptry proteins that are secreted into the host cell upon invasion. These results suggest that secreted kinases unique to the Apicomplexa are crucial in the host-pathogen interaction...
  79. ncbi The medaka draft genome and insights into vertebrate genome evolution
    Masahiro Kasahara
    Department of Computational Biology, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277 0882, Japan
    Nature 447:714-9. 2007
    ....
  80. ncbi A mutant with a defect in telomere elongation leads to senescence in yeast
    V Lundblad
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    Cell 57:633-43. 1989
    ....
  81. pmc Interactions among Polycomb domains are guided by chromosome architecture
    Bas Tolhuis
    Division of Molecular Genetics and Centre for Biomedical Genetics, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS Genet 7:e1001343. 2011
    ..Our results demonstrate that many interactions among PcG target genes exist and that these interactions are guided by overall chromosome architecture...
  82. pmc A fragmented metazoan organellar genome: the two mitochondrial chromosomes of Hydra magnipapillata
    Oliver Voigt
    Courant Research Center Geobiology, Georg August Universitat Gottingen, Goldschmidtstr, 3, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    BMC Genomics 9:350. 2008
    ..In the genus Hydra, the mt genome comprises one or two mt chromosomes. Here, we present the whole mt genome sequence from the hydrozoan Hydra magnipapillata, comprising the first ..
  83. pmc Creation of low-copy integrated transgenic lines in Caenorhabditis elegans
    V Praitis
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Genetics 157:1217-26. 2001
    ..In addition, we find that low-copy integrated lines can also be used to express transgenes in the C. elegans germline, where conventional extrachromosomal arrays typically fail to express due to germline silencing...
  84. ncbi Chromosome synapsis defects and sexually dimorphic meiotic progression in mice lacking Spo11
    F Baudat
    Cell Biology Program Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center New York, NY 10021, USA
    Mol Cell 6:989-98. 2000
    ..Our results also support the view that mammalian checkpoint responses to meiotic recombination and/or synapsis defects are sexually dimorphic...
  85. pmc How telomeres solve the end-protection problem
    Titia de Lange
    Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 326:948-52. 2009
    The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes have the potential to be mistaken for damaged or broken DNA and must therefore be protected from cellular DNA damage response pathways...
  86. ncbi The yeast genome project: what did we learn?
    B Dujon
    Unité de Génétique Moléculaire des Levures URA 1149 CNRS, Paris, France
    Trends Genet 12:263-70. 1996
    ..Offering the possibility of large-scale reverse genetics, yeast will be a powerful model for post-sequencing studies. But geneticists are now faced with the difficulty of asking novel questions...
  87. ncbi Interphase chromosomes undergo constrained diffusional motion in living cells
    W F Marshall
    Department of Biochemistry, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, 94143, USA
    Curr Biol 7:930-9. 1997
    Structural studies of fixed cells have revealed that interphase chromosomes are highly organized into specific arrangements in the nucleus, and have led to a picture of the nucleus as a static structure with immobile chromosomes held in ..
  88. ncbi Survivin and the inner centromere protein INCENP show similar cell-cycle localization and gene knockout phenotype
    A G Uren
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Post Office Royal Melbourne Hospital, 3050, Victoria, Australia
    Curr Biol 10:1319-28. 2000
    ..To determine the function of Survivin in mammals, we analyzed the pattern of localization of Survivin protein during the cell cycle, and deleted its gene by homologous recombination in mice...
  89. pmc Human chromokinesin KIF4A functions in chromosome condensation and segregation
    Manjari Mazumdar
    National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 41, Rm B 507, 41 Library Dr, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Cell Biol 166:613-20. 2004
    Accurate chromosome alignment at metaphase and subsequent segregation of condensed chromosomes is a complex process involving elaborate and only partially characterized molecular machinery...
  90. pmc ZHP-3 acts at crossovers to couple meiotic recombination with synaptonemal complex disassembly and bivalent formation in C. elegans
    Needhi Bhalla
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
    PLoS Genet 4:e1000235. 2008
    Crossover recombination and the formation of chiasmata normally ensure the proper segregation of homologous chromosomes during the first meiotic division...
  91. pmc Transcriptional regulation constrains the organization of genes on eukaryotic chromosomes
    Sarath Chandra Janga
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Medical Research Council, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:15761-6. 2008
    Genetic material in eukaryotes is tightly packaged in a hierarchical manner into multiple linear chromosomes within the nucleus...
  92. ncbi The ins and outs of gene regulation and chromosome territory organisation
    Edith Heard
    CNRS UMR 218, Curie Institute, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 19:311-6. 2007
    ..Recent work suggests that chromosome territory reorganisation can be an important step in the gene silencing process...
  93. doi Microdissection and chromosome painting of X and B chromosomes in Locusta migratoria
    María Teruel
    Departamento de Genetica, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain
    Chromosome Res 17:11-8. 2009
    Acquisition of knowledge of the nature and DNA content of B chromosomes has been triggered by a collection of molecular techniques, one of which, microdissection, has provided interesting results in a number of B chromosome systems...
  94. pmc Polytene chromosomal maps of 11 Drosophila species: the order of genomic scaffolds inferred from genetic and physical maps
    Stephen W Schaeffer
    Department of Biology and Institute of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Genetics 179:1601-55. 2008
    ..Despite the conservation of genes within homologous chromosome arms across species, the karyotypes of these species have changed through the fusion of chromosomal arms followed by subsequent rearrangement events...
  95. pmc Sequencing of Culex quinquefasciatus establishes a platform for mosquito comparative genomics
    Peter Arensburger
    Center for Disease Vector Research, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Science 330:86-8. 2010
    ....
  96. doi RNF168 binds and amplifies ubiquitin conjugates on damaged chromosomes to allow accumulation of repair proteins
    Carsten Doil
    Institute of Cancer Biology and Centre for Genotoxic Stress Research, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Cell 136:435-46. 2009
    ..Thus, RNF168 defines a new pathway involving sequential ubiquitylations on damaged chromosomes and uncovers a functional cooperation between E3 ligases in genome maintenance.
  97. pmc Aurora B and Cdk1 mediate Wapl activation and release of acetylated cohesin from chromosomes by phosphorylating Sororin
    Tomoko Nishiyama
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:13404-9. 2013
    ..We propose that the stepwise loss of cohesion between chromosome arms and centromeres is caused by local regulation of Wapl activity, which is controlled by the phosphorylation state of Sororin. ..
  98. ncbi Cellular roles of DNA topoisomerases: a molecular perspective
    James C Wang
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Fairchild Building, 7 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:430-40. 2002
    ..In this review, the cellular roles of these enzymes are examined from a molecular point of view...
  99. pmc Dynamic chromosome movements during meiosis: a way to eliminate unwanted connections?
    Romain Koszul
    CNRS URA2171, Institut Pasteur, Unité de Génétique Moléculaire des Levures, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    Trends Cell Biol 19:716-24. 2009
    ..Turbulent chromosome movements observed during bipolar orientation of chromosomes for segregation could also serve similar roles during mitosis...
  100. pmc Molecular structure of double-minute chromosomes bearing amplified copies of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene in gliomas
    Nicolas Vogt
    Instabilité du Génome et Cancer, FRE 2584, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut Curie, 26 Rue d Ulm, 75248 Paris, 5, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:11368-73. 2004
    ..Furthermore, the corresponding chromosomal loci were not rearranged, which strongly suggests that a postreplicative event was responsible for the formation of each of these initial amplicons...
  101. pmc Structure and dynamics of interphase chromosomes
    Angelo Rosa
    Max Planck Institut fur Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden, Germany
    PLoS Comput Biol 4:e1000153. 2008
    During interphase chromosomes decondense, but fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments reveal the existence of distinct territories occupied by individual chromosomes inside the nuclei of most eukaryotic cells...

Research Grants71

  1. Transcription factors regulating sensory gene expression and pain pathways
    Eric E Turner; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..mice and controls, and we will examine how Islet1 regulates its target genes by modifying gene structure in chromosomes. Third, we will use a system for induced genetic rearrangement to test the function of Brn3a and Islet1 in the ..
  2. Genetics and Haloperidol Response
    Robert J Hitzemann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g. non-synonymous coding SNPs and b) to mask striatal gene expression data. 2) To interrogate two QTLs found on chromosomes 1 and 14 and which have been repeatedly shown to be associated with the catalepsy response...
  3. Weight Loss &Exercise Effects on Telomere Length in Postmenopausal Women
    ANNE M MCTIERNAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The telomeric regions of chromosomes comprise the molecular caps or ends of the chromosomes...
  4. Exome re-sequencing candidate loci for familial essential tremor
    Barry E Kosofsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Three genetic susceptibility loci for familial ET exist on chromosomes 3p13...
  5. Functional Analysis of the Dual Specificity Kinase NEK1 in Mammalian Meiosis
    JOANNA KIM HOLLOWAY; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): During meiosis, homologous chromosomes seek each other out and are then tethered together by the synaptonemal complex (SC) and sister chromatid cohesion, without which homologous recombination and ..
  6. Environmental Risk Factors for Copy Number Variation in Human Chromosomes
    THOMAS EDWARD WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  7. X chromosome, injury and infection
    Zoltan Spolarics; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Cells from females carry both parental X chromosomes (maternal, Xm and paternal, Xp) whereas males carry only one X chromosome that is derived from the mother (Xm)...
  8. Novel genomic effects of Y-linked polymorphisms
    Daniel L Hartl; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will also develop theoretical models for the population dynamics of polymorphic Y chromosomes associated with YRV to determine whether a model based on competitive binding is possible with realistic values ..
  9. MAPPING OF ARTHRITIS SUSCEPTIBILITY GENES
    Tibor T Glant; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..H2d MHC allele, and we have generated five congenic strains containing DBA/2 (PGIA-resistant strain) alleles in chromosomes 3, 7, 8, 15 and 19 in BALB/c (PGIA-susceptible strain) background...
  10. CPG METHYLATION AND MUTATION
    Gerd P Pfeifer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will analyze DNA methylation changes within 27,800 CpG islands and along the entire short arms of chromosomes 3, 7, and 9...
  11. CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY OF PLATINUM ANTICANCER DRUGS
    Stephen J Lippard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Nucleosomes, the building blocks of chromosomes, will be constructed with site-specific Pt-DNA adducts and structurally characterized in solution by ..
  12. A novel telomerase expressing lung fibroblast phenotype
    Sem H Phan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This enzyme is responsible for maintaining the length of telomeres, repeated pieces of DNA at the ends of chromosomes, but it is unknown why this enzyme is expressed at high levels in diseased lungs...
  13. Hepatitis B virus replication and DDB1
    Betty L Slagle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The role of HBV in mediating carcinogenesis is complex and includes integration of viral DNA into host chromosomes, the host immune system, and expression of the viral regulatory HBx protein...
  14. Role of Sex Chromosome Complement in the CNS during Autoimmune Disease
    Sienmi Du; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..All sex differences ultimately arise from sex chromosomes, either directly from sex-linked transcriptional products or secondarily from sex hormones produced after the ..
  15. Protein composition and interactions of telemeric chromatin
    Michael P Killoran; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and molecular biology techniques for studying telomere chromatin in order to understand its role in stabilizing chromosomes and controlling cell proliferation...
  16. Herpesvirus-induced telomerase dysregulation and tumor formation
    Keith William Jarosinski; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..virus (EBV) or human herpesviruses 6 and 7 (HHV-6, HHV-7), is capable of integrating its DNA genome into host chromosomes without any obvious hotspot of integration...
  17. Genomic Enhancers at 8q24 and Prostate Cancer
    Gerhard A Coetzee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We intend to employ three approaches: (i) large bacterial artificial chromosomes to test alleles under different physiologic conditions in cell culture and in mice (subaim 2...
  18. Functional study of C53 protein as a novel regulator of checkpoint kinases
    Honglin Li; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..regulated process that includes accurate replication of DNA during the S phase, correct segregation of chromosomes during mitosis (M phase) and final separation of daughter cells in cytokinesis...
  19. ATM Controls Genomic Stability in Pluripotent Stem Cells
    JASON MARK BECKTA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Decatenation, the process of untangling chromosomes that become entwined during replication, contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability...
  20. Gender Bias in Lupus: Contribution of Sex Chromosomes
    Ram Raj Singh; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The fundamental basis for such gender bias remains unclear. Sex hormones, sex chromosomes or both may contribute to such sex difference...
  21. Chromosomal Control of Segregation of C. Elegans
    Abby F Dernburg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of two sets of chromosomes - one from each parent - to form a new zygote...
  22. Structural mechanism of DNA segregation by the pSK41 par system
    Maria Schumacher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Essential to this process are the accurate movement and positioning of chromosomes and plasmids to daughter cells at cell division...
  23. Functional Analysis of the Dual Specificity Kinase NEK1 in Mammalian Meiosis
    JOANNA KIM HOLLOWAY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Project Summary During meiosis, homologous chromosomes seek each other out and are then tethered together by the synaptonemal complex (SC) and sister chromatid cohesion, without which homologous recombination and meiotic division cannot ..
  24. Genetic Vulnerability to Alcohol Withdrawal and Genetically Correlated Behaviors
    Kari J Buck; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have confirmed QTL on chromosomes (Chr) 1, 4, 11 and 19 that have a major influence on alcohol withdrawal in mice...
  25. Derivation of cerebral cortical GABAergic interneurons from human iPS cells
    Lorenz P Studer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposal builds on the progress in the Anderson and Studer labs at i) using modified bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) to obtain tissue-specific expression of reporter genes in transgenic mice as well as in mouse and human ..
  26. 2011 Epigenetics Gordon Research Conference
    Marisa S Bartolomei; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..b>Chromosomes are not naked DNA molecules, but DNA-protein complexes known as chromatin...
  27. ANALYSIS OF NEMATODE SEX DETERMINATION
    Barbara J Meyer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We defined a protein complex (DCC) that binds both X chromosomes of XX animals to repress X expression by half...
  28. Centromere Structure and Function in Candida albicans
    Judith G Berman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Centromeres (CENs) are the DNA regions where proteins assemble to form kinetochores, the structures that tether chromosomes to the mitotic spindle...
  29. The role fo the TPP1 peotein in telomerase function and cancer cell survival
    Jayakrishnan Nandakumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Summary: Mammalian telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase that extends the 3'ends of chromosomes with telomeric DNA...
  30. Molecular Analysis of Pericentric Sister Chromatid Cohesion
    PAUL CONNOR MEGEE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cohesin's spatial distribution on budding yeast chromosomes is highly reproducible, suggesting that it plays important roles in chromosome structure and function...
  31. Assembly and Maintenance of Centromeres in Filamentous Fungi
    Michael Freitag; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Centromeres form the foundation of kinetochores, the attachment points for spindle microtubules that transport chromosomes into daughter nuclei during nuclear division...
  32. FASEB SRC on Yeast Chromosome Structure, Replication and Segregation
    Scott Keeney; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..nicotine and other natural products - can have profound effects on the replication, segregation, and repair of chromosomes. Moreover, an organism's environment has a strong impact on gene expression patterns...
  33. ANALYSIS OF MEIOTIC CHROMOSOME SYNAPSIS IN YEAST
    Nancy M Hollingsworth; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To promote proper orientation at Metaphase I of meiosis, homologous chromosomes are physically connected by a combination of sister chromatid cohesion and reciprocal crossovers (COs)...
  34. CSHL Eukaryotic DNA Replication Conference
    David J Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in organisms as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, Xenopus and mammalian cells;(2) the replication of viral chromosomes, including SV40, polyomavirus, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, papillomaviruses, and Epstein-Barr virus;(3) ..
  35. Sex chromosome aneuploidies in autoimmune disease
    R Hal Scofield; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, these data strongly support the hypothesis that increasing number of X chromosomes imparts additional risk of SLE without regard to sex hormones...
  36. Defining the telomerase holoenzyme in progenitor cells with aging
    Steven E Artandi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One such change is the shortening of telomeres, the caps that protect the ends of our chromosomes. This proposal will study a new component of the enzyme telomerase that is required for maintaining telomeres...
  37. Monogonont Rotifers as a Model to Investigate the Biology of Aging
    Terry W Snell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..haploid males, allowing direct expression of alleles and simplifying crosses in the absence of complex marker chromosomes;5) production of highly stable diapausing eggs;5) many closely related strains and species that differ in life ..
  38. Mechanics and regulation of chromosome dynamics in meiotic prophase
    MICHAEL EDWARD DRESSER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..chromosome missegregations and rearrangements appear to stem from problems in the processes that link partner chromosomes during meiotic prophase, i. e., synapsis and crossing over...
  39. Genetic and Cellular Basis of Resistance/Sensitivity to Myocardial Ischemia
    Howard J Jacob; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..2. Pursue the identification of the genes responsible for resistance to ischemia on rat chromosomes 3 and 12. Using SS.BN3 and SS...
  40. 2011 EUKARYOTIC DNA REPLICATION &GENOME MAINTENANCE
    David J Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..in organisms as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, Xenopus and mammalian cells;(2) the replication of viral chromosomes, including SV40, polyomavirus, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, papillomaviruses, and Epstein-Barr virus;(3) ..
  41. Globin Gene Expression during Erythroid Differentiation
    Gordon D Ginder; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..mouse model systems containing single-copy yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAG) harboring the human ?-globin locus;chromatin immunoprecipitation assays;biochemical purification methods;..
  42. Separation-of-function Mutants to Study the Biological Significance of Telomerase
    Jayakrishnan Nandakumar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by applicant): Mammalian telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase that extends the 3'ends of chromosomes with telomeric DNA...
  43. Sex and Stress Mechanisms of Vulnerability to Addiction
    Rajita Sinha; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..sex are independent to test the hypothesis that components of addiction are differentially mediated by sex chromosomes and gonadal hormones...
  44. Biochemistry and Cell Biology of CHC22 Clathrin
    Frances M Brodsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): In humans, there are two isoforms of clathrin protein, CHC17 and CHC22, named for their encoding chromosomes. The CHC17 isoform is well studied and forms the outer layer of clathrin-coated vesicles, which sort cargo ..
  45. Suppression of genomic instability by tuning the DNA damage response at telomeres
    RACHEL L FLYNN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Telomeres protect the natural ends of linear chromosomes from recognition by the DNA damage response machinery...
  46. Environmental Endocrine Disruptors and Human Sperm Chromosomal Abnormalities
    Melissa Perry; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Most new gene mutations seen in offspring and most abnormalities in the numbers of the sex chromosomes arise from the father's sperm...
  47. Long-Range Genetic and Epigenetic Control of Igh Gene Assembly
    Eugene M Oltz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..receptor gene assembly and prevent aberrant interactions that may lead to oncogenic translocations with other chromosomes. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The packaging and spatial organization of DNA in the nucleus are key determinants of ..
  48. Suppression of genomic instability by tuning the DNA damage response at telomeres
    RACHEL L FLYNN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Project Summary/Abstract Telomeres protect the natural ends of linear chromosomes from recognition by the DNA damage response machinery...
  49. Non-coding RNAs in the epigenetics of human centromere formation
    PETER WARBURTON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Dicentric chromosomes contain inactivated centromeres but retain the array of alpha satellite...
  50. Novel histone biotinylation sites and relationships to other epigenetic marks
    JANOS contact ZEMPLENI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..into biological functions will be generated by mapping these modified histone isoforms in Drosophila polytene chromosomes. (3) Ongoing projects in our laboratories suggest that HCS interacts with H3 K9-methyl transferases and that ..
  51. Recombination Repair Complex in Human Cells
    Richard Fishel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Chromosomes are a complex assortment of proteins and DNA (chromatin)...
  52. Determinants of Telomere Length in Chronic SCI: A Pilot Study
    Eric Garshick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..provided by applicant): Telomeres are made up of repeat sequences of nucleotides at the ends of human chromosomes. The function of telomeres is to protect chromosomes from degradation and to maintain their structural ..
  53. Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion
    Douglas E Koshland; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chromosomes are organized into morphologically distinct higher-order structures during chromosome segregation, DNA repair, and transcription...
  54. Regulation of chromosome segregation by SMC complexes and Top2 in S. pombe
    MATTHEW J O'CONNELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Three multi-protein complexes scaffolded by members of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) family of protein are key regulators of chromosome dynamics: cohesin (Smc1/3), condensin (Smc2/4) and the ..
  55. Design of a high-throughput screen for chemicals that cause meiotic aneuploidy
    Patrick Allard; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant) Aneuploidies or abnormal numbers of chromosomes in a cell, originate from errors in the segregation of chromosomes during the two highly regulated programs of cell division, mitosis and meiosis...
  56. High Throughput Transcriptome Sequencing for Systematic Detection of Recurrent Tr
    Chandan Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cancer genome is often highly aneuploid (aberrant chromosome numbers) or polyploid (with aberrant sets of chromosomes), and almost always highly rearranged, with several areas of gains and losses (10)...
  57. 2011 Cold Spring Harbor Conference on Telomeres and Telomerase
    David J Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Telomeres are specialized protein-DNA complexes that protect the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. In most eukaryotes, telomeres contain short DNA repeats that are maintained by the telomerase reverse ..
  58. LANA and Cellular Gene Expression
    ROLF F RENNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our model is that LANA recruits cellular enzymes, which usually regulate gene expression by modifying host chromosomes, to organize viral genomes into chromosome-like structures...
  59. The Synapsis Checkpoint in C. elegans Meiosis
    Needhi Bhalla; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proper segregation of chromosomes during the meiotic divisions depends on events in meiotic prophase, such as synapsis of homologous chromosomes ..
  60. Epigenetic control of sex chromosome behavior in meiosis.
    JoAnne Engebrecht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..chromosome pairing, synapsis and crossing over rely on homology between the paternal and maternal homologous chromosomes to ensure proper segregation and formation of gametes with the correct number of chromosomes...
  61. Determining the Roles of ATRX and DAXX Abnormalities in Cancer Telomere Biology
    ALAN KEITH MEEKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Telomeres are stabilizing elements located at the ends of the chromosomes. Telomere maintenance is central to unlimited replication - a key hallmark of the uncontrolled growth of cancer...
  62. Advanced Immunocytochemistry, In Situ Hybridization and Live Cell Imaging Course
    TERRI I GRODZICKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Students gain first-hand experience in localizing genes, chromosomes, mRNAs and proteins, by immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), preparing and using ..
  63. Prenatal Exposures & Procarcinogenic Mutations
    Manuela Orjuela; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..the CCCEH population using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole chromosome painting probes for chromosomes 1-6...
  64. PAIRING OF HOMOLOGOUS SEQUENCES IN DROSOPHILA
    KENT GOLIC; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION: The mechanisms by which homologous chromosomes pair with each other remains mysterious; evidence can be mustered to support the existence or non-existence of discrete sites of pairing initiation...
  65. Sperm DNA damage in fertilization
    MONIKA WARD; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..that prevents the transmission of potentially damaged DNA to the embryo by disruption of the paternal chromosomes that this mechanism is based on the activity of endogenous nucleases, and that it can be active within sperm ..
  66. DOSAGE COMPENSATION IN DROSOPHILA
    Bruce Baker; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..elegans reduces the expression of each of the two females X chromosomes, and human dosage compensation is achieved via inactivation of one of the female X-chromosomes...
  67. Novel Informatics for Highly Reliable Multi-Locus Allele Calling for Embryo Scree
    Matthew Rabinowitz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..SupportTM (PS), for determining the embryonic DNA at hundreds of loci together with copy numbers for 23 chromosomes, with error rates below 0.1%, from a single cell...
  68. MEIOTIC CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION IN YEAST
    Dean Dawson; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..In the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes migrate to opposite poles of the cell (disjoin)...
  69. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF TELOMERASE RNAS
    Daniel Romero; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Telomeres are specialized DNA-protein structures found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes which are necessary for the stable maintenance and normal replication of chromosomes...
  70. S POMBE PROTEIN/CENTROMERIC DNA INTERACTION
    Jerard Hurwitz; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..begun to be attacked at the biochemical level concerns mitosis, the important biological process by which chromosomes are sorted, paired and accurately distributed to each daughter cell...
  71. Development of a HTS Assay Targeting End Protection of Telomeres
    DEBORAH WUTTKE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The ends of linear chromosomes are unique structures that require special handling by the cell...