centromere

Summary

Summary: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Genome sequence, comparative analysis, and population genetics of the domestic horse
    C M Wade
    Broad Institute, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 326:865-7. 2009
  2. ncbi The genome sequence of Schizosaccharomyces pombe
    V Wood
    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK
    Nature 415:871-80. 2002
  3. pmc Cohesin, condensin, and the intramolecular centromere loop together generate the mitotic chromatin spring
    Andrew D Stephens
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Cell Biol 193:1167-80. 2011
  4. pmc RNAi-mediated targeting of heterochromatin by the RITS complex
    Andre Verdel
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA02115, USA
    Science 303:672-6. 2004
  5. pmc Cell-cycle-coupled structural oscillation of centromeric nucleosomes in yeast
    Manjunatha Shivaraju
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    Cell 150:304-16. 2012
  6. pmc CENP-T-W-S-X forms a unique centromeric chromatin structure with a histone-like fold
    Tatsuya Nishino
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetics and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies SOKENDAI, Mishima, Shizuoka 411 8540, Japan
    Cell 148:487-501. 2012
  7. ncbi Drosophila CENH3 is sufficient for centromere formation
    María José Mendiburo
    Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology, Stubeweg 51, 79108 Freiburg, Germany
    Science 334:686-90. 2011
  8. pmc In vitro centromere and kinetochore assembly on defined chromatin templates
    Annika Guse
    Department of Biochemistry, Stanford Medical School, Beckman 409A, Stanford, California 94305 5307, USA
    Nature 477:354-8. 2011
  9. ncbi The ABCs of CENPs
    Marinela Perpelescu
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetics and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mishima, Shizuoka, Japan
    Chromosoma 120:425-46. 2011
  10. pmc CENP-A exceeds microtubule attachment sites in centromere clusters of both budding and fission yeast
    Valerie C Coffman
    Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    J Cell Biol 195:563-72. 2011

Detail Information

Publications311 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Genome sequence, comparative analysis, and population genetics of the domestic horse
    C M Wade
    Broad Institute, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 326:865-7. 2009
    ..Equine chromosome 11 is shown to have an evolutionary new centromere devoid of centromeric satellite DNA, suggesting that centromeric function may arise before satellite repeat ..
  2. ncbi The genome sequence of Schizosaccharomyces pombe
    V Wood
    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK
    Nature 415:871-80. 2002
    ....
  3. pmc Cohesin, condensin, and the intramolecular centromere loop together generate the mitotic chromatin spring
    Andrew D Stephens
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Cell Biol 193:1167-80. 2011
    ..The centromere lies on the surface of the chromosome at the apex of each loop...
  4. pmc RNAi-mediated targeting of heterochromatin by the RITS complex
    Andre Verdel
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA02115, USA
    Science 303:672-6. 2004
    ..The results suggest a mechanism for the role of the RNAi machinery and small RNAs in targeting of heterochromatin complexes and epigenetic gene silencing at specific chromosomal loci...
  5. pmc Cell-cycle-coupled structural oscillation of centromeric nucleosomes in yeast
    Manjunatha Shivaraju
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    Cell 150:304-16. 2012
    The centromere is a specialized chromosomal structure that regulates chromosome segregation. Centromeres are marked by a histone H3 variant. In budding yeast, the histone H3 variant Cse4 is present in a single centromeric nucleosome...
  6. pmc CENP-T-W-S-X forms a unique centromeric chromatin structure with a histone-like fold
    Tatsuya Nishino
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetics and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies SOKENDAI, Mishima, Shizuoka 411 8540, Japan
    Cell 148:487-501. 2012
    ..These data suggest that the CENP-T-W-S-X complex forms a unique nucleosome-like structure to generate contacts with DNA, extending the "histone code" beyond canonical nucleosome proteins...
  7. ncbi Drosophila CENH3 is sufficient for centromere formation
    María José Mendiburo
    Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology, Stubeweg 51, 79108 Freiburg, Germany
    Science 334:686-90. 2011
    CENH3 is a centromere-specific histone H3 variant essential for kinetochore assembly. Despite its central role in centromere function, there has been no conclusive evidence supporting CENH3 as sufficient to determine centromere identity...
  8. pmc In vitro centromere and kinetochore assembly on defined chromatin templates
    Annika Guse
    Department of Biochemistry, Stanford Medical School, Beckman 409A, Stanford, California 94305 5307, USA
    Nature 477:354-8. 2011
    ..Kinetochores are assembled on a specialized chromatin domain called the centromere, which is characterized by the replacement of nucleosomal histone H3 with the histone H3 variant centromere ..
  9. ncbi The ABCs of CENPs
    Marinela Perpelescu
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetics and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mishima, Shizuoka, Japan
    Chromosoma 120:425-46. 2011
    ..Onto centromeric CENP-A chromatin is assembled the so-called constitutive centromere-associated network (CCAN) of 16 proteins distributed in several functional groups as follows: CENP-C, CENP-H/..
  10. pmc CENP-A exceeds microtubule attachment sites in centromere clusters of both budding and fission yeast
    Valerie C Coffman
    Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    J Cell Biol 195:563-72. 2011
    ..One Cse4-containing nucleosome exists in the centromere (CEN) of each chromosome, so it has been assumed that each anaphase CEN/kinetochore cluster contains 32 Cse4 ..
  11. pmc Cell-cycle-dependent structural transitions in the human CENP-A nucleosome in vivo
    Minh Bui
    Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell 150:317-26. 2012
    ..Our results reveal a cyclical nature to CENP-A nucleosome structure and have implications for the maintenance of epigenetic memory after centromere replication.
  12. pmc Tension sensing by Aurora B kinase is independent of survivin-based centromere localization
    Christopher S Campbell
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 497:118-21. 2013
    ..Localization of the CPC to the inner centromere is central to the current model for how tension ensures chromosome biorientation: kinetochore-spindle ..
  13. ncbi CENP-T proteins are conserved centromere receptors of the Ndc80 complex
    Alexander Schleiffer
    IMP IMBA Bioinformatics Core Facility, Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Nat Cell Biol 14:604-13. 2012
    ..Here we demonstrate that centromere-binding proteins are highly conserved between budding yeast and humans...
  14. ncbi Two histone marks establish the inner centromere and chromosome bi-orientation
    Yuya Yamagishi
    Laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan
    Science 330:239-43. 2010
    ..Aurora B and survivin must be localized at the center of paired kinetochores, at the site called the inner centromere. It is largely unknown what defines the inner centromere and how the CPC is targeted to this site...
  15. ncbi Role of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation in epigenetic control of heterochromatin assembly
    J Nakayama
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Post Office Box 100, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Science 292:110-3. 2001
    ..These data define a conserved pathway wherein sequential histone modifications establish a "histone code" essential for the epigenetic inheritance of heterochromatin assembly...
  16. pmc Cse4 is part of an octameric nucleosome in budding yeast
    Raymond Camahort
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    Mol Cell 35:794-805. 2009
    ..Taken together, our experimental evidence supports the model that the Cse4 nucleosome is an octamer, containing two copies each of Cse4, H2A, H2B, and H4...
  17. pmc Efficient yeast ChIP-Seq using multiplex short-read DNA sequencing
    Philippe Lefrançois
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    BMC Genomics 10:37. 2009
    ....
  18. pmc H3.3 is deposited at centromeres in S phase as a placeholder for newly assembled CENP-A in G₁ phase
    Elaine M Dunleavy
    Department of Genome Biology, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA
    Nucleus 2:146-57. 2011
    ..In most eukaryotes, centromere identity is defined epigenetically by the presence of a centromeric histone H3 variant CenH3, called CENP-A in ..
  19. pmc Epigenetic engineering shows H3K4me2 is required for HJURP targeting and CENP-A assembly on a synthetic human kinetochore
    Jan H Bergmann
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    EMBO J 30:328-40. 2011
    ..Our data provide a functional link between the centromeric chromatin, α-satellite transcription, maintenance of CENP-A levels and kinetochore stability...
  20. ncbi DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are essential for de novo methylation and mammalian development
    M Okano
    Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown 02129, USA
    Cell 99:247-57. 1999
    ..Our results indicate that both Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b function as de novo methyltransferases that play important roles in normal development and disease...
  21. ncbi Shugoshin collaborates with protein phosphatase 2A to protect cohesin
    Tomoya S Kitajima
    Laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Nature 441:46-52. 2006
    ..Thus, we have revealed a conserved mechanism of centromeric protection of eukaryotic chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis...
  22. pmc Dicer-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells are defective in differentiation and centromeric silencing
    Chryssa Kanellopoulou
    The Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Cancer Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genes Dev 19:489-501. 2005
    ..Our data suggest that Dicer participates in multiple, fundamental biological processes in a mammalian organism, ranging from stem cell differentiation to the maintenance of centromeric heterochromatin structure and centromeric silencing...
  23. pmc Centromere-specific assembly of CENP-a nucleosomes is mediated by HJURP
    Daniel R Foltz
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, CA 92093 0670, USA
    Cell 137:472-84. 2009
    The centromere is responsible for accurate chromosome segregation...
  24. pmc The spatial arrangement of chromosomes during prometaphase facilitates spindle assembly
    Valentin Magidson
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 509, USA
    Cell 146:555-67. 2011
    ..Thus, spindle formation involves a previously overlooked stage of chromosome prepositioning which promotes formation of amphitelic attachments...
  25. pmc Tetrameric structure of centromeric nucleosomes in interphase Drosophila cells
    Yamini Dalal
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 5:e218. 2007
    ..that are responsible for equal segregation of chromosomes at mitosis, are epigenetically maintained by a centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CenH3). However, the mechanistic basis for centromere maintenance is unknown...
  26. ncbi Cdk activity couples epigenetic centromere inheritance to cell cycle progression
    Mariana C C Silva
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, 2780 156 Oeiras, Portugal
    Dev Cell 22:52-63. 2012
    ..key CENP-A assembly factor Mis18BP1(HsKNL2) is phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner that controls its centromere localization during mitotic exit...
  27. ncbi Regulation of heterochromatic silencing and histone H3 lysine-9 methylation by RNAi
    Thomas A Volpe
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Watson School of Biological Sciences, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Science 297:1833-7. 2002
    ..This is accompanied by transcriptional de-repression of transgenes integrated at the centromere, loss of histone H3 lysine-9 methylation, and impairment of centromere function...
  28. pmc Point centromeres contain more than a single centromere-specific Cse4 (CENP-A) nucleosome
    Josh Lawrimore
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Cell Biol 195:573-82. 2011
    ..Budding yeast is unique in having only one kinetochore microtubule attachment site per centromere. The centromere is specified by CEN DNA, a sequence-specific binding complex (CBF3), and a Cse4-containing ..
  29. pmc Distribution of centromere-like parS sites in bacteria: insights from comparative genomics
    Jonathan Livny
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston MA 02115, USA
    J Bacteriol 189:8693-703. 2007
    Partitioning of low-copy-number plasmids to daughter cells often depends on ParA and ParB proteins acting on centromere-like parS sites. Similar chromosome-encoded par loci likely also contribute to chromosome segregation...
  30. pmc The structure of (CENP-A-H4)(2) reveals physical features that mark centromeres
    Nikolina Sekulic
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6059, USA
    Nature 467:347-51. 2010
    ..Divergence from H3 raises the possibility that CENP-A generates unique chromatin features to mark physically centromere location...
  31. pmc CENP-C recruits M18BP1 to centromeres to promote CENP-A chromatin assembly
    Ben Moree
    Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Cell Biol 194:855-71. 2011
    ..Kinetochores assemble on a specialized chromosomal locus termed the centromere, which is characterized by the replacement of histone H3 in centromeric nucleosomes with the essential histone ..
  32. pmc A conserved mechanism for centromeric nucleosome recognition by centromere protein CENP-C
    Hidenori Kato
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 340:1110-3. 2013
    Chromosome segregation during mitosis requires assembly of the kinetochore complex at the centromere. Kinetochore assembly depends on specific recognition of the histone variant CENP-A in the centromeric nucleosome by centromere protein C ..
  33. pmc Repeatless and repeat-based centromeres in potato: implications for centromere evolution
    Zhiyun Gong
    Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Plant Cell 24:3559-74. 2012
    ..An unknown question in centromere evolution is how satellite repeat-based centromeres evolve from neocentromeres...
  34. ncbi Shugoshins: from protectors of cohesion to versatile adaptors at the centromere
    Cristina Gutiérrez-Caballero
    Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer CSIC USAL, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
    Trends Genet 28:351-60. 2012
    ..Here, we compare and contrast these remarkable features of shugoshins in model organisms and humans...
  35. pmc Epigenetic centromere propagation and the nature of CENP-a nucleosomes
    Ben E Black
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 19104, USA
    Cell 144:471-9. 2011
    ..This model reconciles divergent data for CENP-A-containing nucleosomes and provides a basis for how centromere identity is stably inherited.
  36. pmc Histone H3-variant Cse4-induced positive DNA supercoiling in the yeast plasmid has implications for a plasmid origin of a chromosome centromere
    Chu Chun Huang
    Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13671-6. 2011
    ..The plasmid's partitioning system poaches host factors, including the centromere-specific histone H3-variant Cse4 and the cohesin complex, enabling replicated plasmid copies to segregate ..
  37. pmc Dual recognition of CENP-A nucleosomes is required for centromere assembly
    Christopher W Carroll
    Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94503, USA
    J Cell Biol 189:1143-55. 2010
    Centromeres contain specialized nucleosomes in which histone H3 is replaced by the histone variant centromere protein A (CENP-A). CENP-A nucleosomes are thought to act as an epigenetic mark that specifies centromere identity...
  38. ncbi Condensin I stabilizes chromosomes mechanically through a dynamic interaction in live cells
    Daniel Gerlich
    Gene Expression and Cell Biology Biophysics Programmes, EMBL, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Curr Biol 16:333-44. 2006
    ..Their function under physiological conditions still needs to be defined...
  39. pmc Temporal characterization of homology-independent centromere coupling in meiotic prophase
    David Obeso
    Cell Cycle and Cancer Biology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e10336. 2010
    ..Recently, the homology-independent pairwise association of centromeres, termed centromere coupling, was also reported in budding yeast...
  40. pmc Identification of noncoding transcripts from within CENP-A chromatin at fission yeast centromeres
    Eun Shik Choi
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology and Institute of Cell Biology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 286:23600-7. 2011
    The histone H3 variant CENP-A is the most favored candidate for an epigenetic mark that specifies the centromere. In fission yeast, adjacent heterochromatin can direct CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin establishment, but the underlying features ..
  41. ncbi HJURP is a cell-cycle-dependent maintenance and deposition factor of CENP-A at centromeres
    Elaine M Dunleavy
    Laboratory of Nuclear Dynamics and Genome Plasticity, UMR CNRS Institut Curie, Paris, France
    Cell 137:485-97. 2009
    ..HJURP centromeric localization is cell cycle regulated, and its transient appearance at the centromere coincides precisely with the proposed time window for new CENP-A deposition...
  42. pmc Assembly of Drosophila centromeric nucleosomes requires CID dimerization
    Weiguo Zhang
    Department of Genome Dynamics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Mol Cell 45:263-9. 2012
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that CID nucleosomes are octameric in vivo and that CID dimerization is essential for correct centromere assembly.
  43. pmc Chickens possess centromeres with both extended tandem repeats and short non-tandem-repetitive sequences
    Wei Hao Shang
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetics and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies SOKENDAI, Mishima, Shizuoka 411 8540, Japan
    Genome Res 20:1219-28. 2010
    The centromere is essential for faithful chromosome segregation by providing the site for kinetochore assembly...
  44. pmc Survivin reads phosphorylated histone H3 threonine 3 to activate the mitotic kinase Aurora B
    Alexander E Kelly
    Laboratory of Chromosome and Cell Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Science 330:235-9. 2010
    ..These findings establish a direct cellular role for mitotic histone H3T3 phosphorylation, which is read and translated by the CPC to ensure accurate cell division...
  45. pmc Centromeres: unique chromatin structures that drive chromosome segregation
    Jolien S Verdaasdonk
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 12:320-32. 2011
    Fidelity during chromosome segregation is essential to prevent aneuploidy. The proteins and chromatin at the centromere form a unique site for kinetochore attachment and allow the cell to sense and correct errors during chromosome ..
  46. ncbi Establishment and maintenance of a heterochromatin domain
    Ira M Hall
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Post Office Box 100, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Science 297:2232-7. 2002
    ..We demonstrate that a centromere-homologous repeat (cenH) present at the silent mating-type region is sufficient for heterochromatin formation at ..
  47. pmc The CENP-S complex is essential for the stable assembly of outer kinetochore structure
    Miho Amano
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mishima, Shizuoka 411 8540, Japan
    J Cell Biol 186:173-82. 2009
    The constitutive centromere-associated network (CCAN) proteins are central to kinetochore assembly...
  48. pmc Defects in RNA quality control factors reveal RNAi-independent nucleation of heterochromatin
    Francisca E Reyes-Turcu
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 18:1132-8. 2011
    ..These results suggest that RNAi-independent mechanisms exploit transcription and non-coding RNAs to nucleate heterochromatin...
  49. pmc Global analysis of the meiotic crossover landscape
    Stacy Y Chen
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Dev Cell 15:401-15. 2008
    ..Lastly, we uncover a surprising role for the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 in repressing crossing over at the centromere.
  50. ncbi Disjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiosis I depends on proteolytic cleavage of the meiotic cohesin Rec8 by separin
    S B Buonomo
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, University of Vienna, Austria
    Cell 103:387-98. 2000
    ..We show here that cleavage of Rec8 by separin at one of two different sites is necessary for the resolution of chiasmata and the disjunction of homologous chromosomes during meiosis...
  51. pmc A 3D map of the yeast kinetochore reveals the presence of core and accessory centromere-specific histone
    Julian Haase
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3280, USA
    Curr Biol 23:1939-44. 2013
    ..This study suggests an inner kinetochore plate at the centromere-microtubule interface in budding yeast and yields information on the number of Ndc80 molecules at the ..
  52. ncbi Octameric CENP-A nucleosomes are present at human centromeres throughout the cell cycle
    Abbas Padeganeh
    Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer IRIC, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
    Curr Biol 23:764-9. 2013
    The presence of a single centromere on each chromosome that signals formation of a mitotic kinetochore is central to accurate chromosome segregation...
  53. pmc Csi1 links centromeres to the nuclear envelope for centromere clustering
    Haitong Hou
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
    J Cell Biol 199:735-44. 2012
    ..In this paper, we identified a novel nuclear protein, Csi1, that localized to the site of centromere attachment and interacted with both the inner nuclear envelope SUN domain protein Sad1 and centromeres...
  54. pmc Mouse centric and pericentric satellite repeats form distinct functional heterochromatin
    Mounia Guenatri
    Institut Curie Research section, UMR218 du Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique, 26 Rue d Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France
    J Cell Biol 166:493-505. 2004
    ..Thus, we define functionally independent centromeric subdomains, which spatio-temporal isolation is proposed to be important for centromeric cohesion and dissociation during chromosome segregation...
  55. pmc Replacement of histone H3 with CENP-A directs global nucleosome array condensation and loosening of nucleosome superhelical termini
    Tanya Panchenko
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:16588-93. 2011
    b>Centromere protein A (CENP-A) is a histone H3 variant that marks centromere location on the chromosome...
  56. pmc Tripartite organization of centromeric chromatin in budding yeast
    Kristina Krassovsky
    Basic Sciences Division, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:243-8. 2012
    The centromere is the genetic locus that organizes the proteinaceous kinetochore and is responsible for attachment of the chromosome to the spindle at mitosis and meiosis...
  57. pmc Kinetochore microtubule interaction during S phase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Etsushi Kitamura
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom
    Genes Dev 21:3319-30. 2007
    ..These detachment and displacement events are caused by centromere DNA replication, which results in disassembly of kinetochores...
  58. pmc Misregulation of Scm3p/HJURP causes chromosome instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human cells
    Prashant K Mishra
    Genetics Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002303. 2011
    ..Our results show that altered stoichiometry of Scm3p/HJURP, Cse4p, and histone H4 lead to defects in chromosome segregation. We conclude that stringent regulation of HJURP and SCM3 expression are critical for genome stability...
  59. ncbi Cohesins bind to preferential sites along yeast chromosome III, with differential regulation along arms versus the centric region
    Y Blat
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Cell 98:249-59. 1999
    ..Sites in a approximately 50 kb region around the centromere give especially intense signals...
  60. pmc Neocentromeres form efficiently at multiple possible loci in Candida albicans
    Carrie Ketel
    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000400. 2009
    ..We functionally delimited centromere DNA on Chromosome 5 (CEN5) and then replaced the entire region with the counter-selectable URA3 gene or other ..
  61. ncbi A Mec1- and PP4-dependent checkpoint couples centromere pairing to meiotic recombination
    Jill E Falk
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Dev Cell 19:599-611. 2010
    ..We traced the loss of centromere pairing to the persistent phosphorylation of the chromosomal protein Zip1 on serine 75...
  62. pmc CENP-A: the key player behind centromere identity, propagation, and kinetochore assembly
    Valérie De Rop
    Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer IRIC, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Universite de Montreal, C P 6128, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada
    Chromosoma 121:527-38. 2012
    ..Here, we summarize the current knowledge and highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms controlling epigenetic regulation of chromosome segregation...
  63. pmc The budding yeast point centromere associates with two Cse4 molecules during mitosis
    Pavithra Aravamudhan
    Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Curr Biol 23:770-4. 2013
    The centromere is defined by the incorporation of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant centromere protein A (CENP-A). Like histone H3, CENP-A can form CENP-A-H4 heterotetramers in vitro...
  64. pmc Tetrameric organization of vertebrate centromeric nucleosomes
    Emilios K Dimitriadis
    Scanning Probe Microscopy Unit, Biomedical Engineering and Physical Science Shared Resource, National Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:20317-22. 2010
    ..This process is facilitated by microtubule attachment to each chromosome via its centromere. In centromeres, canonical histone H3 is replaced in nucleosomes by a centromere-specific histone H3 variant (..
  65. ncbi Synaptonemal complex-dependent centromeric clustering and the initiation of synapsis in Drosophila oocytes
    Satomi Takeo
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    Curr Biol 21:1845-51. 2011
    ..Here we show that the centromere clustering plays an important role in initiating homolog synapsis during meiosis in Drosophila females...
  66. pmc Active transcription and essential role of RNA polymerase II at the centromere during mitosis
    F Lyn Chan
    Chromosome and Chromatin Research, Department of Paediatrics, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:1979-84. 2012
    ..Here, we investigate whether transcription also occurs and plays a functional role at the mammalian centromere during mitosis...
  67. pmc HJURP binds CENP-A via a highly conserved N-terminal domain and mediates its deposition at centromeres
    Muhammad Shuaib
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Universite de Strasbourg, Parc d Innovation, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch Cedex, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1349-54. 2010
    ..histone H3 variant, CENP-A, replaces the conventional histone H3 in centromeric chromatin and, together with centromere-specific DNA-binding factors, directs the assembly of the kinetochore...
  68. pmc Systematic reduction of cohesin differentially affects chromosome segregation, condensation, and DNA repair
    Jill M Heidinger-Pauli
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 3520 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Curr Biol 20:957-63. 2010
    ..Our successful application of QR to cohesin suggests that QR is a powerful tool to study other proteins/pathways with multiple functions...
  69. ncbi PP2A is required for centromeric localization of Sgo1 and proper chromosome segregation
    Zhanyun Tang
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Dev Cell 10:575-85. 2006
    ..Our findings suggest that Bub1 targets PP2A to centromeres, which in turn maintains Sgo1 at centromeres by counteracting Plk1-mediated chromosome removal of Sgo1...
  70. ncbi Role of Polo-like kinase CDC5 in programming meiosis I chromosome segregation
    Brian H Lee
    Center for Cancer Research, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E17 233, 40 Ames Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 300:482-6. 2003
    ..Thus, sister-kinetochore coorientation and chromosome segregation during meiosis I are coupled through their dependence on CDC5...
  71. ncbi Polo-like kinase Cdc5 promotes chiasmata formation and cosegregation of sister centromeres at meiosis I
    Rosemary K Clyne
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Vienna A 1030, Austria
    Nat Cell Biol 5:480-5. 2003
    ..kinetochores attach to microtubules from the same pole (mono-polar orientation), causing maternal and paternal centromere pairs (and not sister chromatids) to be separated...
  72. pmc Budding yeast chromosome structure and dynamics during mitosis
    C G Pearson
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Cell Biol 152:1255-66. 2001
    ..The degree of preanaphase separation varies widely, with infrequent centromere reassociations observed before anaphase...
  73. ncbi A genome-wide screen identifies genes required for centromeric cohesion
    Adele L Marston
    Center for Cancer Research, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E17 233, 40 Ames Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 303:1367-70. 2004
    ..The screen described here provides a comprehensive analysis of the genes required for the meiotic cell cycle and identifies three factors important for the stepwise loss of sister chromatid cohesion...
  74. ncbi RNA polymerase II is required for RNAi-dependent heterochromatin assembly
    Hiroaki Kato
    Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Science 309:467-9. 2005
    ..This phenotype resembles mutants in RNAi and suggests that RNAPII couples pericentromeric transcription with siRNA processing and heterochromatin assembly...
  75. pmc Dicer-independent primal RNAs trigger RNAi and heterochromatin formation
    Mario Halic
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 140:504-16. 2010
    ..Our results suggest that a transcriptome surveillance mechanism based on random association of RNA degradation products with Argonaute triggers siRNA amplification and heterochromatin assembly within DNA repeats...
  76. ncbi Structure of a Survivin-Borealin-INCENP core complex reveals how chromosomal passengers travel together
    A Arockia Jeyaprakash
    Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Cell 131:271-85. 2007
    ..Association of the core "passenger" proteins creates a single structural unit, whose composite molecular surface presents conserved residues essential for central spindle and midbody localization...
  77. pmc BLM is required for faithful chromosome segregation and its localization defines a class of ultrafine anaphase bridges
    Kok Lung Chan
    Cancer Research UK Laboratories, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    EMBO J 26:3397-409. 2007
    ..We present a model for the action of BLM in ensuring complete sister chromatid decatenation in anaphase...
  78. ncbi Prelude to a division
    Needhi Bhalla
    Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 24:397-424. 2008
    ..The initiation of synapsis is likely to be a tightly regulated step in a process that must be mechanically coupled to homolog pairing...
  79. pmc Telomere-led bouquet formation facilitates homologous chromosome pairing and restricts ectopic interaction in fission yeast meiosis
    O Niwa
    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 1532 3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292 0812, Japan
    EMBO J 19:3831-40. 2000
    ..Thus, telomere-led chromosome organization facilitates homologous pairing and also restricts irregular chromosome pairing during meiosis...
  80. ncbi Heterochromatin integrity affects chromosome reorganization after centromere dysfunction
    Kojiro Ishii
    Division of Cell Biology, Institute of Life Science, Kurume University, Japan
    Science 321:1088-91. 2008
    The centromere is essential for the inheritance of genetic information on eukaryotic chromosomes. Epigenetic regulation of centromere identity has been implicated in genome stability, karyotype evolution, and speciation...
  81. pmc Initiation of meiotic chromosome synapsis at centromeres in budding yeast
    Tomomi Tsubouchi
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Genes Dev 22:3217-26. 2008
    ..As synapsis progresses and linear stretches of Zip1 are formed, the majority of stretches are associated with a centromere, as expected if the Zip1 protein present at the centromere polymerized outward along the chromosome arm...
  82. pmc Meiotic cohesin promotes pairing of nonhomologous centromeres in early meiotic prophase
    Amit Bardhan
    Cell Cycle and Cancer Biology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 21:1799-809. 2010
    ..This early, homology-independent, centromere pairing, referred to as centromere coupling in budding yeast, gives way to an alignment of homologous ..
  83. pmc Overlapping regulation of CenH3 localization and histone H3 turnover by CAF-1 and HIR proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Jessica Lopes da Rosa
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 947202, USA
    Genetics 187:9-19. 2011
    Accurate chromosome segregation is dependent on the centromere-specific histone H3 isoform known generally as CenH3, or as Cse4 in budding yeast...
  84. pmc Assembly of Drosophila centromeric chromatin proteins during mitosis
    Barbara G Mellone
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002068. 2011
    ..The unusual timing of CID recruitment and unique dynamics of CAL1 identify a distinct centromere assembly pathway in Drosophila and suggest that CAL1 is a key regulator of centromere propagation.
  85. pmc Psh1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets the centromeric histone variant Cse4
    Geetha Hewawasam
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    Mol Cell 40:444-54. 2010
    Cse4 is a variant of histone H3 that is incorporated into a single nucleosome at each centromere in budding yeast...
  86. pmc An E3 ubiquitin ligase prevents ectopic localization of the centromeric histone H3 variant via the centromere targeting domain
    Prerana Ranjitkar
    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P O Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Mol Cell 40:455-64. 2010
    Proper centromere function is critical to maintain genomic stability and to prevent aneuploidy, a hallmark of tumors and birth defects...
  87. ncbi Survivin and the inner centromere protein INCENP show similar cell-cycle localization and gene knockout phenotype
    A G Uren
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Post Office Royal Melbourne Hospital, 3050, Victoria, Australia
    Curr Biol 10:1319-28. 2000
    ..To determine the function of Survivin in mammals, we analyzed the pattern of localization of Survivin protein during the cell cycle, and deleted its gene by homologous recombination in mice...
  88. ncbi SUMOylation promotes de novo targeting of HP1α to pericentric heterochromatin
    Christèle Maison
    Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, Paris, France
    Nat Genet 43:220-7. 2011
    HP1 enrichment at pericentric heterochromatin is considered important for centromere function. Although HP1 binding to H3K9me3 can explain its accumulation at pericentric heterochromatin, how it is initially targeted there remains unclear...
  89. pmc Recognition of the centromere-specific histone Cse4 by the chaperone Scm3
    Uhn Soo Cho
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Jack and Eileen Connors Structural Biology Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:9367-71. 2011
    A specialized nucleosome is a component of all eukaryotic kinetochores. The core of this nucleosome contains a centromere-specific histone, CENP-A (the Cse4 gene product in budding yeast), instead of the usual H3...
  90. pmc Early-replicating heterochromatin
    Soo Mi Kim
    Department of Cancer Genetics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA
    Genes Dev 17:330-5. 2003
    ..Research in other laboratories has shown that occasionally other organisms also replicate some of their heterochromatin in early S phase. Thus, late replication is not an obligatory feature of heterochromatin...
  91. ncbi SYCP2 and SYCP3 are required for cohesin core integrity at diplotene but not for centromere cohesion at the first meiotic division
    Anna Kouznetsova
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 171 77, Sweden
    J Cell Sci 118:2271-8. 2005
    ..Interestingly, it has been shown that SYCP3 and SYCP2 associate with the centromere regions of male, but not female, metaphase-I chromosomes, suggesting a sex-specific function for the two ..
  92. ncbi Nonhistone Scm3 binds to AT-rich DNA to organize atypical centromeric nucleosome of budding yeast
    Hua Xiao
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 4260, USA
    Mol Cell 43:369-80. 2011
    The molecular architecture of centromere-specific nucleosomes containing histone variant CenH3 is controversial. We have biochemically reconstituted two distinct populations of nucleosomes containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae CenH3 (Cse4)...
  93. pmc Epigenetically-inherited centromere and neocentromere DNA replicates earliest in S-phase
    Amnon Koren
    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    PLoS Genet 6:e1001068. 2010
    ..By determining the genome-wide replication timing program of the C. albicans genome, we discovered that each centromere is associated with a replication origin that is the first to fire on its respective chromosome...
  94. pmc CENP-H-containing complex facilitates centromere deposition of CENP-A in cooperation with FACT and CHD1
    Masahiro Okada
    Center for Priority Areas, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192 0397, Japan Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192 0397, Japan Innovative Drug Research Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co, Ltd, Takasaki, Gumma, 370 1295, Japan
    Mol Biol Cell 20:3986-95. 2009
    b>Centromere identity is thought to be determined by epigenetic mechanisms. The centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A plays a central role in specifying the locus where the centromere is constructed...
  95. ncbi Does chromosome 17 centromere copy number predict polysomy in breast cancer? A fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarray-based CGH analysis
    Caterina Marchio
    The Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK
    J Pathol 219:16-24. 2009
    Approximately 8% of breast cancers show increased copy numbers of chromosome 17 centromere (CEP17) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (ie average CEP17 >3.0 per nucleus)...
  96. pmc RNA Pol II subunit Rpb7 promotes centromeric transcription and RNAi-directed chromatin silencing
    Ingela Djupedal
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Biosciences, School of Life Sciences, University College Sodertorn, S 141 89 Huddinge, Sweden
    Genes Dev 19:2301-6. 2005
    ..In contrast to other Pol II subunits, Rpb7 promotes pre-siRNA transcription required for RNAi-directed chromatin silencing...
  97. ncbi A synaptonemal complex protein promotes homology-independent centromere coupling
    Tomomi Tsubouchi
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Science 308:870-3. 2005
    ..During meiosis in wild-type diploids, centromere couples are initially nonhomologous and then undergo switching until all couples involve homologs...
  98. ncbi Phosphorylation of H2A by Bub1 prevents chromosomal instability through localizing shugoshin
    Shigehiro A Kawashima
    Laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan
    Science 327:172-7. 2010
    ..Thus, Bub1 kinase creates a mark for shugoshin localization and the correct partitioning of chromosomes...
  99. pmc Effects of recombination rate and gene density on transposable element distributions in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Stephen I Wright
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh, Scotland EH9 3JT, UK
    Genome Res 13:1897-903. 2003
    ..thaliana. High rates of self-fertilization may reduce the importance of recombination rate in genome structuring in inbreeding organisms such as A. thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans...
  100. ncbi Killer Ig-like receptor haplotype analysis by gene content: evidence for genomic diversity with a minimum of six basic framework haplotypes, each with multiple subsets
    Katharine C Hsu
    Immunology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Immunol 169:5118-29. 2002
    ..Additional rare haplotypes can be identified, and may have arisen by gene duplication, intergenic recombination, or deletions...

Research Grants65

  1. Roles of RNA Polymerases IV and V in siRNA-mediated gene silencing
    CRAIG STUART PIKAARD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Examples include transposon silencing, centromere maintenance, X-chromosome inactivation and imprinting of maternal or paternal alleles...
  2. The role of satellite rasiRNA in the Segregation Distorter system of Drosophila
    AMANDA MARIE LARRACUENTE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by killing sperm carrying sensitive alleles of its target locus, Responder (Rsp-a satellite repeat near the centromere of chromosome 2)...
  3. Assembly and Maintenance of Centromeres in Filamentous Fungi
    Michael Freitag; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A conserved centromere-specific histone variant (CenH3), repeated DNA and posttranslational histone modifications are universally ..
  4. Centromere Structure and Function in Candida albicans
    Judith G Berman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..recently found that acquired resistance to fluconazole is often conferred by genome rearrangements involving the centromere of chromosome 5...
  5. Molecular Analysis of Pericentric Sister Chromatid Cohesion
    PAUL CONNOR MEGEE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We test the veracity of this model in Specific Aim 1 by determining whether loop formation adjacent to the centromere impedes cohesin recruitment in distal sequences...
  6. Non-coding RNAs in the epigenetics of human centromere formation
    PETER WARBURTON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Non-coding RNAs in the epigenetics of human centromere formation...
  7. Identification of DNA Elements Governing Chromatin Function in C elegans
    Jason D Lieb; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..include key histone modifications, histone variants, RNA polymerase II isoforms, dosage-compensation proteins, centromere components, homolog-pairing facilitators, recombination markers, and nuclear-envelope constituents...
  8. Kinetochore Function and Cell Cycle Progression Revision
    Katsumi Kitagawa; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The kinetochore, which consists of centromere DNA and associated proteins, is crucial for maintaining and segregating chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis...
  9. PROTEIN SEQUENCING BY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY
    Donald F Hunt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..modifications that exist on the histone, H3 variant, CENP-A, that is located in nucleosomes at the centromere and also continue our efforts to characterize post-translational modifications on histone and histone binding ..
  10. Age and molecular mechanisms contributing to aneuploidy in oocytes
    Richard M Schultz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific Aim 3 will test whether specific centromere and kinetochore proteins identified from our expression profiling studies are required for accurate chromosome ..
  11. Mammalian Centromere Assembly
    Don W Cleveland; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of chromosomes, the basic units of inheritance, to each daughter cell during cell division is mediated by the centromere. Unlike typical genes, in metazoans this central genetic element is not determined by DNA sequence...
  12. Regulation of cell division by mitotic kinases
    MICHAEL ALTERMAN LAMPSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..One of these kinases, Aurora B, localizes to the centromere until anaphase and regulates the attachments of chromosomes to the mitotic spindle...
  13. Molecular mechanisms underlying chromosomal instability and aneuploidy
    Wei Dai; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In vertebrates, cohesin dissociates from the chromosome arm during prophase, but not from its centromere. Recent studies revealed that Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1), an evolutionarily conserved protein, protects centromeric ..
  14. RNAi in DNA Sequence Elimination in Tetrahymena
    Martin A Gorovsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of aberrant transcripts, developmental regulation of utilization of specific mRNAs, heterochromatic silencing, centromere function and maintenance of genome stability by suppression of activity of transposable elements...
  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Chromosome Segregation in Yeast
    Jennifer L Gerton; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Centromeres are cis acting sequences on chromosomes that are required for their correct segregation. Although centromere sequence is highly variable between organisms, centromeres are universally marked by a histone H3 variant, known ..
  16. microRNA Regulation of the Nicotine Dependence Susceptibility Locus CHRNA5/A3/B4
    Paul D Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..these three nAChR genes are tightly clustered in the genome (in the order CHRNA5/A3/B4 relative to the centromere) and their products assemble to form a major subtype of nicotinic receptors expressed in the nervous system...
  17. RNAi, Histone Modification and the DDB1/CPSF-like Complex Rik1
    Robert A Martienssen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is inherited through mitosis and has roles in transcriptional silencing, centromere specification and genome integrity, which profoundly impact epigenetic mechanisms in human health and disease...
  18. Dissection of the Inner Centromere Regulatory Network
    P Todd Stukenberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Proteins that localize to the inner centromere are central to these processes and these proteins form a network to regulate the Aurora B kinase which is a ..
  19. Cellular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation near DNA double-strand breaks
    Nabil Sayed; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to hypomethylated and decondensed pericentromeric heterochromatin in a disorder known as immunodeficiency, centromere instability and facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome...
  20. Molecular Architecture of the Regional Kinetochore in Fission Yeast
    Xiangwei He; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of a fission yeast kinetochore is composed of an array of well-positioned nucleosomes, among which three contain centromere-specific histone H3 variant Cenp-A (Cnp1p), corresponding to three microtubules bound to the kinetochore...
  21. Regulation of Centromeric Chromatin
    SUSAN BIGGINS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The foundation of all eukaryotic kinetochores is a conserved, inner centromere structure characterized by centromeric chromatin and its associated proteins...
  22. Structure and Function of a Eukaryotic Centromere
    Kerry S Bloom; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..More recently, loss of centromere cohesin and the inability to bind meiotic chromosomes together has been directly linked to mechanisms ..
  23. OMX BLAZE High Speed Super Resolution Imaging System
    Aaron F Straight; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Villeneuve);genetic recombination (Villeneuve);centrosome structure, function and duplication (Stearns);centromere and kinetochore assembly (Straight);biogenesis and function of the primary cilium (Nachury, Rohatgi, Stearns);..
  24. Regulation of Sororin by Cdk1-mediated Phosphorylation.
    William R Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Finally, PP2A appears to dephosphorylate Sororin during mitotic exit. The regulation of Sororin at the inner centromere by PP2A at the kinetochore will be determined. Aim 2...
  25. Condensin and Chromosome Segregation in C. elegans
    Kirsten A Hagstrom; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..condensin is not a simple compaction factor, but plays more complex roles in sister chromatid resolution and centromere organization...
  26. Genome Persistence of KSHV
    Erle S Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Here we will explore the direct connections with LANA and cellular proteins associated with the centromere and kinetochore using state of the art in vivo visualizatin strategies combined with targeted shRNA knockdown of ..
  27. Mechanisms of Kinetochore Assembly
    Aaron F Straight; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Each eukaryotic chromosome possesses a single site called the centromere that is essential for chromosome segregation...
  28. Centromere structure and isochromosome formation in Candida albicans
    Laura S Burrack; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal will examine several proteins associated with the C. albicans centromere to characterize their potential as anti-fungal drug targets...
  29. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF CENTROSOMES IN SOMATIC CELLS
    Alexey L Khodjakov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..concentration of taxol, a condition known to allow satisfaction of the mitotic checkpoint despite the lack of centromere tension vs...
  30. Epigenomic Mechanisms of Centromere Function and Chromosome Rearrangements
    KAITLIN MARIE STIMPSON; Fiscal Year: 2011
    The centromere is essential for chromosome segregation and genome stability...
  31. Cell biology of meiotic drive in mammals
    Richard M Schultz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..away from random segregation is therefore under strong positive selection and has significant consequences for centromere and karyotype evolution and speciation. The mechanistic basis for the phenomenon is unknown...
  32. Genetic Determinants of Genomic Plasticity and Chromosome Evolution
    Forrest A Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..gene deletion vulnerabilities include the presence or absence of a homologous chromosome, genome ploidy, and centromere environment...
  33. Meiotic Centromere Behavior in Yeast
    Dean S Dawson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This pairing is primarily between non-homologous centromeres. This non-homologous, early, meiotic centromere pairing dissolves as homologous chromosomes become aligned in later meiotic prophase...
  34. Centromere identity and function
    Ben E Black; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The centromere is the locus on each chromosome that directs accurate chromosome segregation at cell division in healthy cells...
  35. Mitosis, Aneuploidy and Cancer
    Beth A Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..discovered that aneuploidy caused by reduction of the mitosis-specific kinesin-like motor protein CENP- E (CENtromere associated Protein-E) both promotes and suppresses tumors, depending on the context...
  36. Regulation of Synaptonemal Complex Assembly During Meiosis in S. cerevisiae
    AMY JOY MACQUEEN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Interestingly, the linear SC structures that arise in zip3 fpr3 nuclei originate from centromere regions...
  37. Identification of key hematopoietic fate regulators induced by Notch signaling
    LEIGH ANN AKI HIGA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..spindle at the kinetochore, a multiprotein complex assembled on a specialized chromosomal domain known as the centromere. Once each kinetochore has achieved a stable and bioriented attachment to spindle microtubules from opposite ..
  38. Dicentric chromosome formation and stability in humans
    Beth A Sullivan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The centromere is the locus required for chromosome segregation and genome stability...
  39. Segregation of error-prone chromosomes in meiosis
    Dean S Dawson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2) Test the hypothesis that a centromere-pairing mechanism is used to partition error-prone non-exchange chromosomes in yeast...
  40. Kinetochore Specification and Function
    Arshad Desai; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..player in genome distribution during cell division is the kinetochore, a proteinaceous machine built on the centromere regions of mitotic chromosomes to generate a dynamic interface with spindle microtubules...
  41. KINETOCHORE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    TIMOTHY YEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally, we report a new component of the inner centromere that we call CENP-J...
  42. Research supplement to promote diversity/Towards a comprehensive protein interact
    Haiyuan Yu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cerevisiae. For example, in its large complex centromere structure, the restriction of spindle construction to mitotic entry, redundant and inefficient origins of ..
  43. Mechano-molecular regulation of kinetochore function
    THOMAS JOSEPH MARESCA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..melanogaster tissue culture cells. The central hypothesis is that error correction occurs via two pathways: a centromere-based system and a spindle pole-based mechanism, each of which is impacted by forces that produce tension at ..
  44. Human Endogenous Retroviral Sequences, a Tool to Study the Role of Centromeres in
    RAFAEL ALEJANDRO CONTRERAS-GALINDO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the human genome, which are currently unavailable in the world's genome databanks, and will develop centromere sequence markers to understand the role centromeres play in cancer...
  45. MECHANISMS OF MICTOTIC SPINDLE ASSEMBLY AND FUNCTION
    Edward D Salmon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    The major focus for the next period of this grant will be spindle, kinetochore and centromere protein mechanisms that act to achieve accurate chromosome segregation...
  46. Arrest, Recovery, and Adaptation from DNA Damage
    James E Haber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mad2 shortens checkpoint arrest in wild type cells and suppresses the permanent arrest of adaptation-defective mutations and that this suppression can be mimicked by deleting the centromere on the chromosome suffering an unrepaired DSB.
  47. Interrogation of functional aspects of transcription at heterochromatic loci
    KEITH MICHAEL CONNOLLY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the organization of DNA within eukaryotic genomes and plays an important role in protecting genome integrity, centromere formation and nuclear organization...
  48. The Origins of Chromosomal Instability in Human Tumor Cells
    Nicholas J Dyson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Newly obtained results show that the loss of pRB causes defects in centromere function and chromatid cohesion...
  49. The role of RNA in centromere chromatin
    JONATHAN ISAIAH GENT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): At a superficial level, the concept of a centromere is straightforward: the part of a chromosome that provides a favorable chromatin environment for kinetochore assembly and microtubule attachments ..
  50. TEST OF NEUTRAL MOLECULAR EVOLUTION
    Martin Kreitman; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..simulans. D. simulans has the ancestral gene order. Recombination on chromosome 3 is suppressed near the centromere (from 81-84), so genes near the breakpoints of this inversion will have changed recombinational environments...
  51. S POMBE PROTEIN/CENTROMERIC DNA INTERACTION
    Jerard Hurwitz; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..During mitosis centromeres direct the movement of chromosomes. The centromere is the site at which the kinetochore forms and it is the last site by which sister chromatids remain associated ..
  52. MITOSIS IN NORMAL AND NEOPLASTIC CELLS
    BILL BRINKLEY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Our proposed research will continue to focus on the centromere-kinetochore complex of mitotic chromosomes with aims designed to advance our knowledge on the structure and ..
  53. GENETIC HETEROGENEITY IN HUMAN DISEASE
    Aravinda Chakravarti; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Third, we propose new methods for studying gene-centromere and gene-gene linkage for ovarian teratomas, trisomies and triploids...
  54. MECHANISMS AND CONSEQUENCES OF CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES
    David Ledbetter; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The goal is 1 STS/50 kb. The map will be anchored at the chromosome 15 centromere by YAC and BAC walking to close the current 1-2cM gap (previously a 12 cM gap)...
  55. CENTROMERE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    John Carbon; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..by applicant): The long-range objective of this research program is to understand in molecular terms how the centromere-kinetochore functions in eukaryotic cell division...
  56. GENETIC STUDIES OF HUMAN CENTROMERES
    ETHYLIN JABS; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The goal of the research is to characterize the structure and function of the human centromeric region. The centromere is the cytologically visible and genetically defined region of human chromosomes which is responsible for proper ..
  57. The meiotic role of SIK19p in yeast
    Dean Dawson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Sustained linkage of sister chromatids through meiosis I is accomplished by association of the chromatids at the centromere region and development of kinetochores that allow both chromatids to be moved as a unit to one pole of the ..
  58. AUTOIMMUNE ANTIGENS AND SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS
    SALLIE HOCH; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..A major specificity is designated anti-centromere, and encompasses at least six target (CENP) antigens...
  59. SEQUENCING HUMAN CHROMOSOME 22 CENTROMERE TO NF2
    Bruce Roe; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Throughout this period, we also will continue to train the next generation of scientists in the basic theories and methods needed to evolve new approaches to sequencing and to data analysis. ..
  60. CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION IN SCHIZOSACCHAROMYCES POMBE
    Louise Clarke; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..An essential component of this process, and the topic of this proposal, is the centromere, a multifaceted chromosomal region that functions to ensure equal distribution of genetic information to the ..
  61. TOOLS FOR GENETIC MAPPING IN YEAST
    David Stillman; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..first phase involves the construction of sixteen plasmids each of which will be targeted to integrate near the centromere of one of the yeast chromosomes...
  62. PHYSICAL MAPPING OF DROSOPHILA HETEROCHROMATIN
    Daniel Hartl; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Although it includes the centromere and other genetic elements and has many novel physical and genetic properties, the molecular structure and ..
  63. YEAST CENTROMERE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    Molly Fitzgerald Hayes; Fiscal Year: 1993
    b>Centromere (CEN) DNA from yeast can be isolated, inserted into plasmids, and shown to exhibit the basic behavioral characteristics of intact centromeres in yeast...
  64. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF A EUKARYOTIC CENTEROMERE
    Kerry Bloom; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..b>Centromere DNA sequences isolated from the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enable foreign DNA introduced into yeast to ..
  65. Fractionation of centromere regions from chromosomal DNA
    JENNIFER MACH; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..will isolate heterochromatic DNA from a variety of crop species, analyze its sequence, and test it for centromere function by constructing an autonomous mini-chromosome vector...