insulator elements

Summary

Summary: Nucleic acid regulatory sequences that limit or oppose the action of ENHANCER ELEMENTS and define the boundary between differentially regulated gene loci.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Identification and characterization of cell type-specific and ubiquitous chromatin regulatory structures in the human genome
    Hualin Xi
    Bioinformatics Program, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 3:e136. 2007
  2. pmc A comprehensive map of insulator elements for the Drosophila genome
    Nicolas Negre
    Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, Department of Human Genetics, and Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000814. 2010
  3. pmc Insulators, long-range interactions, and genome function
    Jingping Yang
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 22:86-92. 2012
  4. pmc Three subclasses of a Drosophila insulator show distinct and cell type-specific genomic distributions
    Ashley M Bushey
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Genes Dev 23:1338-50. 2009
  5. pmc The Drosophila insulator proteins CTCF and CP190 link enhancer blocking to body patterning
    Man Mohan
    Institute for Genetics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich Buff Ring, Giessen, Germany
    EMBO J 26:4203-14. 2007
  6. ncbi Developmentally regulated activation of a SINE B2 repeat as a domain boundary in organogenesis
    Victoria V Lunyak
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Room 345, La Jolla, CA 92093 0648, USA
    Science 317:248-51. 2007
  7. pmc Cell type specificity of chromatin organization mediated by CTCF and cohesin
    ChunHui Hou
    Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:3651-6. 2010
  8. pmc Active promoters and insulators are marked by the centrosomal protein 190
    Marek Bartkuhn
    Institute for Genetics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany
    EMBO J 28:877-88. 2009
  9. pmc Global analysis of the insulator binding protein CTCF in chromatin barrier regions reveals demarcation of active and repressive domains
    Suresh Cuddapah
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Genome Res 19:24-32. 2009
  10. pmc Coordinated control of dCTCF and gypsy chromatin insulators in Drosophila
    Tatiana I Gerasimova
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Mol Cell 28:761-72. 2007

Detail Information

Publications218 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Identification and characterization of cell type-specific and ubiquitous chromatin regulatory structures in the human genome
    Hualin Xi
    Bioinformatics Program, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 3:e136. 2007
    ..Surprisingly, nearly all of these ubiquitous DNaseI HS sites correspond to either promoters or insulator elements: 86% of them are located near annotated transcription start sites and 10% are bound by CTCF, a protein with ..
  2. pmc A comprehensive map of insulator elements for the Drosophila genome
    Nicolas Negre
    Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, Department of Human Genetics, and Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000814. 2010
    ..proteins-dCTCF, CP190, BEAF-32, Su(Hw), Mod(mdg4), and GAF-to obtain the first comprehensive map of insulator elements in Drosophila embryos...
  3. pmc Insulators, long-range interactions, and genome function
    Jingping Yang
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 22:86-92. 2012
    ..Here we provide an overview of new evidence that has uncovered a wide range of functions for these sequences in addition to their two classical roles...
  4. pmc Three subclasses of a Drosophila insulator show distinct and cell type-specific genomic distributions
    Ashley M Bushey
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Genes Dev 23:1338-50. 2009
    ..These findings suggest a model in which insulator subclasses may have distinct functions that together organize the genome in a cell type-specific manner, resulting in differential regulation of gene expression...
  5. pmc The Drosophila insulator proteins CTCF and CP190 link enhancer blocking to body patterning
    Man Mohan
    Institute for Genetics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich Buff Ring, Giessen, Germany
    EMBO J 26:4203-14. 2007
    ..A short pulse of dCTCF expression during larval development rescues the dCTCF loss of function phenotype. Overall, we demonstrate the importance of dCTCF in fly development and in the regulation of abdominal segmentation...
  6. ncbi Developmentally regulated activation of a SINE B2 repeat as a domain boundary in organogenesis
    Victoria V Lunyak
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Room 345, La Jolla, CA 92093 0648, USA
    Science 317:248-51. 2007
    ..These data suggest that transcription of interspersed repetitive sequences may represent a developmental strategy for the establishment of functionally distinct domains within the mammalian genome to control gene activation...
  7. pmc Cell type specificity of chromatin organization mediated by CTCF and cohesin
    ChunHui Hou
    Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:3651-6. 2010
    ..These results support a genome-wide role for CTCF/cohesin sites through loop formation that both influences transcription and contributes to cell-type-specific chromatin organization and function...
  8. pmc Active promoters and insulators are marked by the centrosomal protein 190
    Marek Bartkuhn
    Institute for Genetics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany
    EMBO J 28:877-88. 2009
    ..Loss of either dCTCF or CP190 causes an increase of H3 and H3K27 trimethylation at these sites. Thus, for both types of cis-regulatory elements, domain borders and promoters, the chromatin structure is dependent on CP190...
  9. pmc Global analysis of the insulator binding protein CTCF in chromatin barrier regions reveals demarcation of active and repressive domains
    Suresh Cuddapah
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Genome Res 19:24-32. 2009
    ..Our data indicate that CTCF may play important roles in the barrier activity of insulators, and this study provides a resource for further investigation of the CTCF function in organizing chromatin in the human genome...
  10. pmc Coordinated control of dCTCF and gypsy chromatin insulators in Drosophila
    Tatiana I Gerasimova
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Mol Cell 28:761-72. 2007
    ....
  11. pmc The use of chromatin insulators to improve the expression and safety of integrating gene transfer vectors
    David W Emery
    University of Washington Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, and Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Hum Gene Ther 22:761-74. 2011
    ....
  12. pmc Theoretical analysis of the role of chromatin interactions in long-range action of enhancers and insulators
    Swagatam Mukhopadhyay
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:19919-24. 2011
    ....
  13. pmc Chromatin domains, insulators, and the regulation of gene expression
    Rodolfo Ghirlando
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Key Diseases, National Insitute of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 0540, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1819:644-51. 2012
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chromatin in time and space...
  14. ncbi Chromatin insulator elements: establishing barriers to set heterochromatin boundaries
    Grainne Barkess
    Institute of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
    Epigenomics 4:67-80. 2012
    ..There is good evidence that barrier elements in vertebrates can form repressive chromatin domain boundaries. Future studies will determine whether barriers are frequently used to define repressive domain boundaries in vertebrates...
  15. ncbi RNA interference machinery influences the nuclear organization of a chromatin insulator
    Elissa P Lei
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Nat Genet 38:936-41. 2006
    ..These results suggest that the RNAi machinery acts as a modulator of nuclear architecture capable of effecting global changes in gene expression...
  16. pmc Exploiting position effects and the gypsy retrovirus insulator to engineer precisely expressed transgenes
    Michele Markstein
    Department of Genetics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Genet 40:476-83. 2008
    ..The generality of our approach makes it adaptable to other model systems to identify and modify loci for optimal transgene expression...
  17. pmc Insulators and promoters: closer than we think
    Jesse R Raab
    Department of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology, Sinsheimer Labs, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 11:439-46. 2010
    ..These insights can help to reconcile different models of insulator action...
  18. pmc Analysis of the vertebrate insulator protein CTCF-binding sites in the human genome
    Tae Hoon Kim
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093 0653, USA
    Cell 128:1231-45. 2007
    b>Insulator elements affect gene expression by preventing the spread of heterochromatin and restricting transcriptional enhancers from activation of unrelated promoters...
  19. pmc Protein:protein interactions and the pairing of boundary elements in vivo
    Jason Blanton
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
    Genes Dev 17:664-75. 2003
    ..Moreover, consistent with idea that this protein:protein interaction might facilitate pairing of boundary elements, we find that that scs and scs' are in close proximity to each other in Drosophila nuclei...
  20. pmc DNA topoisomerase II modulates insulator function in Drosophila
    Edward Ramos
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e16562. 2011
    ..2 protein and its binding to polytene chromosomes are restored. Thus, Topo II is required to prevent Mod(mdg4)2.2 degradation and, consequently, to stabilize Su(Hw) insulator-mediated chromatin organization...
  21. ncbi Making connections: boundaries and insulators in Drosophila
    Robert K Maeda
    Department of Zoology and Animal Biology and NCCR Frontiers in Genetics, University of Geneva, 30 quai E Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 17:394-9. 2007
    ..These loops have been proposed to play a crucial role in both controlling enhancer-promoter interactions and packing DNA...
  22. pmc Systematic discovery of regulatory motifs in conserved regions of the human genome, including thousands of CTCF insulator sites
    Xiaohui Xie
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:7145-50. 2007
    ..These sites may thus partition the human genome into domains of expression...
  23. ncbi Insulators: exploiting transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms
    Miklos Gaszner
    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institues of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0540, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 7:703-13. 2006
    ..These new insights also suggest that the mechanisms of action of both enhancer blockers and barriers might not be unique to these types of element, but instead are adaptations of other gene-regulatory mechanisms...
  24. pmc Genome-wide mapping of boundary element-associated factor (BEAF) binding sites in Drosophila melanogaster links BEAF to transcription
    Nan Jiang
    Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 29:3556-68. 2009
    b>Insulator elements play a role in gene regulation that is potentially linked to nuclear organization. Boundary element-associated factors (BEAFs) 32A and 32B associate with hundreds of sites on Drosophila polytene chromosomes...
  25. pmc Stalled Hox promoters as chromosomal boundaries
    Vivek S Chopra
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Division of Genetics, Genomics, and Development, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Genes Dev 23:1505-9. 2009
    ..Thus, promoter-proximal stalling factors might help promote insulator-promoter interactions. We propose that stalled promoters help organize gene complexes within chromosomal loop domains...
  26. pmc Loss of the insulator protein CTCF during nematode evolution
    Peter Heger
    Zoological Institute, University of Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 15, 50937 Koln, Germany
    BMC Mol Biol 10:84. 2009
    ..We therefore searched in nematodes for orthologs of proteins that are involved in chromatin insulation...
  27. pmc The chromosomal association/dissociation of the chromatin insulator protein Cp190 of Drosophila melanogaster is mediated by the BTB/POZ domain and two acidic regions
    Daniel Oliver
    Biology Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
    BMC Cell Biol 11:101. 2010
    ..The Cp190 protein of Drosophila melanogaster is essential to the function of at least three-types of chromatin insulator complexes organized by Su(Hw), CTCF and BEAF32...
  28. ncbi The ubiquitin ligase dTopors directs the nuclear organization of a chromatin insulator
    Maya Capelson
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Mol Cell 20:105-16. 2005
    ..Thus, dTopors appears to be involved in the establishment of chromatin organization through its ability to mediate the association of insulator complexes with a fixed nuclear substrate...
  29. ncbi Insulators form gene loops by interacting with promoters in Drosophila
    Maksim Erokhin
    Department of the Control of Genetic Processes, Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 34 5 Vavilov St, Moscow, 119334 Russia
    Development 138:4097-106. 2011
    ..Both insulators support basal activity of the yellow and white promoters in eyes. Thus, the ability of insulators to interact with promoters might play an important role in the regulation of basal gene transcription...
  30. pmc Mechanism of chromosomal boundary action: roadblock, sink, or loop?
    Daryl Gohl
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
    Genetics 187:731-48. 2011
    ..In the studies reported here, we have designed assays that test these predictions. The results of our assays are inconsistent with the expectations of the roadblock and sink models. Instead, they support the topological loop model...
  31. ncbi Prospects and implications of using chromatin insulators in gene therapy and transgenesis
    Felix Recillas-Targa
    Departamento de Genetica Molecular, Instituto de Fisiologia Celular, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico
    Bioessays 26:796-807. 2004
    ..Therefore, these elements may be very useful tools in gene therapy applications for ensuring high-level and stable expression of transgenes...
  32. pmc DNA polymerase epsilon, acetylases and remodellers cooperate to form a specialized chromatin structure at a tRNA insulator
    Namrita Dhillon
    Department of MCD Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    EMBO J 28:2583-600. 2009
    ..Robust insulation during growth and cell division involves the formation of a hypersensitive site at the insulator during chromatin maturation together with competition between acetylases and deacetylases...
  33. ncbi The phylogenetic distribution of non-CTCF insulator proteins is limited to insects and reveals that BEAF-32 is Drosophila lineage specific
    Todd A Schoborg
    Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Tennessee, M407 Walters Life Sciences, 1414 Cumberland Ave, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
    J Mol Evol 70:74-84. 2010
    ....
  34. pmc A facilitated tracking and transcription mechanism of long-range enhancer function
    Xingguo Zhu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:5532-44. 2007
    ....
  35. pmc Genomic and functional assays demonstrate reduced gammaretroviral vector genotoxicity associated with use of the cHS4 chromatin insulator
    Chang Long Li
    Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7720, USA
    Mol Ther 17:716-24. 2009
    ....
  36. pmc VEZF1 elements mediate protection from DNA methylation
    Jacqueline Dickson
    Section of Pathology and Gene Regulation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000804. 2010
    ....
  37. pmc Red flag on the white reporter: a versatile insulator abuts the white gene in Drosophila and is omnipresent in mini-white constructs
    Darya Chetverina
    Department of the Control of Genetic Processes, Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, University of Oslo, Centre for Medical Studies in Russia, Moscow 199334, Russia
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:929-37. 2008
    ....
  38. pmc A conserved insulator that recruits CTCF and cohesin exists between the closely related but divergently regulated interleukin-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor genes
    Sarion R Bowers
    Experimental Haematology, Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, St James s University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Biol 29:1682-93. 2009
    ..We suggest that one important role of these sites is to enable the independent regulation of the IL-3 and GM-CSF genes...
  39. pmc Genotoxic potential of lineage-specific lentivirus vectors carrying the beta-globin locus control region
    Paritha I Arumugam
    Division of Experimental Hematology Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children s Research Foundation, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Mol Ther 17:1929-37. 2009
    ..Our data indicate that toxicology studies of LCR-containing LV in mice will likely not yield any insertional oncogenesis with the numbers of animals that can be practically studied...
  40. pmc Chromatin insulator elements block transgene silencing in engineered human embryonic stem cell lines at a defined chromosome 13 locus
    Chad C MacArthur
    Primary and Stem Cell Systems, Life Technologies Corporation, Carlsbad, California, USA
    Stem Cells Dev 21:191-205. 2012
    ..To develop an efficient and reliable genetic engineering strategy in hESCs, we used chromatin insulator elements to flank single-copy transgenes and integrated the combined expression constructs via PhiC31/R4 integrase-..
  41. ncbi Boundaries in vertebrate genomes: different solutions to adequately insulate gene expression domains
    Eduardo Moltó
    Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Campus de Cantoblanco, C Darwin 3, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Brief Funct Genomic Proteomic 8:283-96. 2009
    ....
  42. pmc The BEAF-32 insulator coordinates genome organization and function during the evolution of Drosophila species
    Jingping Yang
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Genome Res 22:2199-207. 2012
    ..The results suggest a mechanism for the establishment of differences in transcription patterns during evolution...
  43. pmc Drosophila mini-white model system: new insights into positive position effects and the role of transcriptional terminators and gypsy insulator in transgene shielding
    Margarita Silicheva
    Department of the Control of Genetic Processes, Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:39-47. 2010
    ....
  44. pmc The role of chromatin insulators in nuclear architecture and genome function
    Kevin Van Bortle
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 23:212-8. 2013
    ..Here we reflect on current findings and our rapidly expanding understanding of insulators and their role in nuclear architecture and genome function...
  45. ncbi Chromatin insulators specifically associate with different levels of higher-order chromatin organization in Drosophila
    Heather A Wallace
    Department of Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Tennessee, M407 Walters Life Sciences, 1414 Cumberland Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
    Chromosoma 119:177-94. 2010
    ....
  46. pmc ISWI contributes to ArsI insulator function in development of the sea urchin
    Mamiko Yajima
    MCB Department, Brown University, 185 Meeting Street, BOX GL173, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Development 139:3613-22. 2012
    ..These studies reveal a mechanistic basis for ArsI function in the gene regulatory network of early development...
  47. ncbi Heterochromatin and epigenetic control of gene expression
    Shiv I S Grewal
    Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 301:798-802. 2003
    ..Finally, an unexpected role for noncoding RNAs and RNA interference in the formation of epigenetic chromatin domains has been uncovered...
  48. ncbi SUMO conjugation is required for the assembly of Drosophila Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4) into insulator bodies that facilitate insulator complex formation
    Anton Golovnin
    Department of Molecular Genetics of Drosophila, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119334, Russia
    J Cell Sci 125:2064-74. 2012
    ..These results suggest that insulator bodies function as a depot of sumoylated proteins that are involved in insulation and can facilitate insulator complex formation, but are nonessential for insulator action...
  49. pmc Analysis of chromatin boundary activity in Drosophila cells
    Mo Li
    Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens GA 30602, USA
    BMC Mol Biol 9:109. 2008
    ..However, the mechanisms of boundary action are poorly understood, in part due to our limited knowledge about insulator proteins, and a shortage of standard assays by which diverse boundaries could be compared...
  50. pmc Drosophila CTCF tandemly aligns with other insulator proteins at the borders of H3K27me3 domains
    Kevin Van Bortle
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Genome Res 22:2176-87. 2012
    ..We reveal an important relationship between dCTCF and other Drosophila insulator proteins and speculate that vertebrate CTCF may also align with other nuclear proteins to accomplish similar functions...
  51. pmc A BEAF dependent chromatin domain boundary separates myoglianin and eyeless genes of Drosophila melanogaster
    Hina Sultana
    Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500007, India
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:3543-57. 2011
    ..We also report that BEAF and GAF are the two major proteins responsible for the ME boundary function. Our studies demonstrate a rational approach to search for potential boundaries in genomic regions that are well annotated...
  52. pmc Chromatin insulators: lessons from the fly
    B V Gurudatta
    Department of Biology, Emory University, 1510 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Brief Funct Genomic Proteomic 8:276-82. 2009
    ..Current results suggest that insulators set up cell-specific blueprints of nuclear organization that may contribute to the establishment of different patterns of gene expression during cell differentiation and development...
  53. pmc An insulator embedded in the chicken α-globin locus regulates chromatin domain configuration and differential gene expression
    Mayra Furlan-Magaril
    Instituto de Fisiologia Celular, Departamento de Genetica Molecular, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D F, Mexico
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:89-103. 2011
    ..Our results suggest that the αEHS-1.4 insulator contributes in organizing the chromatin structure of the α-globin gene domain and prevents activation of adult α-globin gene expression at the erythroblast stage via CTCF...
  54. pmc Dioxin receptor and SLUG transcription factors regulate the insulator activity of B1 SINE retrotransposons via an RNA polymerase switch
    Angel Carlos Roman
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz, Spain
    Genome Res 21:422-32. 2011
    ..Hence, B1 SINE retrotransposons represent genome-wide insulators activated by transcription factors that respond to developmental, oncogenic, or toxicological stimuli...
  55. pmc Integrity of the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 BTB domain is critical to insulator function in Drosophila melanogaster
    Anton Golovnin
    Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 34 5 Vavilov St, Moscow 119334, Russia
    Mol Cell Biol 27:963-74. 2007
    ..2 BTB domain with the GAF BTB domain produced a nonfunctional protein. Taken together, these data suggest that the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 BTB domain confers novel activities to gypsy insulator function...
  56. pmc The Mcp element from the bithorax complex contains an insulator that is capable of pairwise interactions and can facilitate enhancer-promoter communication
    Natalia Gruzdeva
    Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 34 5 Vavilov St, 119334 Moscow, Russia
    Mol Cell Biol 25:3682-9. 2005
    ....
  57. pmc CTCF physically links cohesin to chromatin
    Eric D Rubio
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:8309-14. 2008
    ..These results have implications for the functional role of cohesin subunits in the pathogenesis of Cornelia de Lange syndrome and Roberts syndromes...
  58. pmc Chromatin loops in gene regulation
    Stephan Kadauke
    Division of Hematology, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1789:17-25. 2009
    ..We discuss the widespread impact of chromatin loops on gene activation, repression, genomic imprinting and the function of enhancers and insulators...
  59. pmc The tumour suppressor L(3)mbt inhibits neuroepithelial proliferation and acts on insulator elements
    Constance Richter
    Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Science, Dr Bohr Gasse 3, 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Nat Cell Biol 13:1029-39. 2011
    ..We use ChIP-sequencing to identify L(3)mbt binding sites and show that L(3)mbt binds to chromatin insulator elements. Mutating l(3)mbt or inhibiting expression of the insulator protein gene mod(mdg4) results in upregulation ..
  60. pmc Chromatin insulators: a role in nuclear organization and gene expression
    Jingping Yang
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Adv Cancer Res 110:43-76. 2011
    ..As a consequence, disruption of insulator activity could result in the development of cancer or other disease states...
  61. pmc Insulators, not Polycomb response elements, are required for long-range interactions between Polycomb targets in Drosophila melanogaster
    Hua bing Li
    Rutgers University, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 31:616-25. 2011
    ..We conclude that insulator binding proteins rather than PcG complexes are likely to be the major determinants of the long-range higher-order organization of PcG targets in the nucleus...
  62. pmc Complete biallelic insulation at the H19/Igf2 imprinting control region position results in fetal growth retardation and perinatal lethality
    Dong Hoon Lee
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e12630. 2010
    ..We asked the question whether these barrier proteins protected the (ChβGI)(2) sequences from methylation in the male germ line...
  63. ncbi The modifier of mdg4 locus in Drosophila: functional complexity is resolved by trans splicing
    Rainer Dorn
    Institute of Genetics, Biologicum, Martin Luther University Halle, Weinbergweg 10, 06120 Halle, Germany
    Genetica 117:165-77. 2003
    ..We also provide evidence for the evolutionary conservation of several of the isoforms and the unusual structure of the locus...
  64. ncbi Functional characterization of the sea urchin sns chromatin insulator in erythroid cells
    Santina Acuto
    Unità di Ricerca P Cutino, Ematologia II, A O V Cervello, via Trabucco n 180 90146, Palermo, Italy
    Blood Cells Mol Dis 35:339-44. 2005
    ....
  65. pmc CTCFBSDB: a CTCF-binding site database for characterization of vertebrate genomic insulators
    Lei Bao
    Department of Molecular Sciences, Center of Genomics and Bioinformatics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 858 Madison Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:D83-7. 2008
    ..In silico prediction of CTCF-binding motifs is provided to facilitate the identification of candidate insulators in the query sequences submitted by users. The database can be accessed at http://insulatordb.utmem.edu/..
  66. ncbi Insulators are fundamental components of the eukaryotic genomes
    E Brasset
    INSERM U384, Faculte de Medecine, BP38, Clermont Ferrand 63001, France
    Heredity (Edinb) 94:571-6. 2005
    ..This review focuses on recent studies designed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the insulator function, and gives an overview of the critical role of insulators in nuclear organization and functional identity of chromatin...
  67. ncbi Nuclear location of a chromatin insulator in Drosophila melanogaster
    Qinghao Xu
    Department of Cellular Biology, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    J Cell Sci 117:1025-32. 2004
    ..Our results indicate that the suHw insulator can function in the nuclear interior, possibly through local interactions with chromatin components or other nuclear structures...
  68. ncbi Interaction between a pair of gypsy insulators or between heterologous gypsy and Wari insulators modulates Flp site-specific recombination in Drosophila melanogaster
    Margarita Krivega
    Department of Control of Genetic Processes, Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    Chromosoma 119:425-34. 2010
    ....
  69. pmc Promoter activity of the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) nucleosomal H3 and H2A and linker H1 {alpha}-histone genes is modulated by enhancer and chromatin insulator
    Vincenzo Cavalieri
    Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare e dello Sviluppo Alberto Monroy, Universita di Palermo, Parco d O rleans II, 90128 Palermo, Italy
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:7407-15. 2009
    ..In addition, they suggest that both the H2A enhancer and the sns5 insulator may account for the diverse accumulation of the linker H1 versus the core nucleosomal histones during early development of the sea urchin embryo...
  70. pmc The D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat acts as a CTCF and A-type lamins-dependent insulator in facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy
    Alexandre Ottaviani
    Laboratoire de Biologie Moleculaire de la Cellule, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR 5239, UCBL1, IFR128, Lyon, France
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000394. 2009
    ..We propose that contraction of the D4Z4 array contributes to FSHD physio-pathology by acting as a CTCF-dependent insulator in patients...
  71. ncbi Zeste can facilitate long-range enhancer-promoter communication and insulator bypass in Drosophila melanogaster
    Margarita Kostyuchenko
    Department of the Control of Genetic Processes, Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119334, Russia
    Chromosoma 118:665-74. 2009
    ..Zeste is also required for insulator bypass by the eye enhancer. Taken together, these results show that Zeste can support specific long-range interactions between enhancers and promoters...
  72. pmc tRNA insulator function: insight into inheritance of transcription states?
    Jacob G Kirkland
    Department of MCD Biology, Sinsheimer Labs, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, USA
    Epigenetics 5:96-9. 2010
    ....
  73. pmc Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) contributes to the barrier function of a vertebrate chromatin insulator
    Mari Aker
    Division of Medical Genetics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:37589-97. 2010
    ..Taken together, this study demonstrates that binding of PARP-1 plays a key functional role in the barrier activity of the extended cHS4 insulator core element...
  74. pmc Mutation of a barrier insulator in the human ankyrin-1 gene is associated with hereditary spherocytosis
    Patrick G Gallagher
    Departments of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:4453-65. 2010
    ..These data indicate that an upstream region of the ankyrin-1 erythroid promoter acts as a barrier insulator and identify disruption of the barrier element as a potential pathogenetic mechanism of human disease...
  75. pmc A barrier-type insulator forms a boundary between active and inactive chromatin at the murine TCRβ locus
    Juan Carabana
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Immunol 186:3556-62. 2011
    ..We speculate that this transcription, which extends across D(β), J(β) and C(β) gene segments, may play an additional role promoting initial opening of the E(β)-regulated chromatin domain...
  76. pmc Gene density, transcription, and insulators contribute to the partition of the Drosophila genome into physical domains
    ChunHui Hou
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Mol Cell 48:471-84. 2012
    ..These results suggest that the higher-order physical organization of chromatin may impose an additional level of regulation over classical epigenetic marks...
  77. ncbi Gene insulation. Part I: natural strategies in yeast and Drosophila
    Michèle Amouyal
    CNRS Interactions à Distance, Paris, France
    Biochem Cell Biol 88:875-84. 2010
    ....
  78. pmc Analysis of the H19ICR insulator
    Young Soo Yoon
    Laboratory of Mammalian Genes and Development, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 27:3499-510. 2007
    ..Instead, the ICR insulator forms novel loop domains by associating with the blocked promoters and enhancers. We propose that these associations are fundamental to insulator function...
  79. pmc CTCF genomic binding sites in Drosophila and the organisation of the bithorax complex
    Eimear E Holohan
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Genet 3:e112. 2007
    ..CTCF binding sites identified in the BX-C map precisely to the known insulator elements Mcp, Fab-6, and Fab-8...
  80. pmc A novel boundary element may facilitate independent gene regulation in the Antennapedia complex of Drosophila
    Vladimir E Belozerov
    Department of Cellular Biology, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    EMBO J 22:3113-21. 2003
    ....
  81. pmc 'Insulator bodies' are aggregates of proteins but not of insulators
    Anton Golovnin
    Department of the Control of Genetic Processes, Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 34 5 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119334, Russia
    EMBO Rep 9:440-5. 2008
    ..Hence, it is not the functional genomic insulators but rather aggregated proteins that make the so-called 'insulator bodies'...
  82. ncbi [Insulators of higher eukaryotes: properties, mechanisms of action, and role in transcriptional regulation]
    O G Maksimenko
    Genetika 42:1029-44. 2006
    ..The mechanism of action of insulators and their role in the regulation of gene expression are discussed on the basis of available information...
  83. pmc The role of insulator elements in large-scale chromatin structure in interphase
    Elizabeth R Dorman
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 18:682-90. 2007
    b>Insulator elements can be classified as enhancer-blocking or barrier insulators depending on whether they interfere with enhancer-promoter interactions or act as barriers against the spreading of heterochromatin...
  84. ncbi Organizing the genome: enhancers and insulators
    Hui Zhao
    Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, NIDDK, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Biochem Cell Biol 83:516-24. 2005
    ..Novel experimental approaches are helping to reveal the mechanisms underlying nuclear organization of developmentally regulated genes...
  85. pmc New properties of Drosophila fab-7 insulator
    Sergey Rodin
    Department of the Control of Genetic Processes, Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119334, Russia
    Genetics 177:113-21. 2007
    ..It seems likely that Fab-7 strengthens the relatively weak white promoter, which leads to the efficient enhancer-promoter interaction and insulator bypass...
  86. pmc The sea urchin sns5 insulator protects retroviral vectors from chromosomal position effects by maintaining active chromatin structure
    Danilo D'Apolito
    Unità di Ricerca P Cutino, U O C Ematologia II, A O V Cervello, Palermo, Italy
    Mol Ther 17:1434-41. 2009
    ....
  87. pmc CTCF mediates insulator function at the CFTR locus
    Neil P Blackledge
    Paediatric Molecular Genetics, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Biochem J 408:267-75. 2007
    ..that these two DHS possess enhancer-blocking activity and bind proteins that are characteristic of known insulator elements. The DHS core at -20.9 kb binds CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) both in vitro and in vivo; however, the +15...
  88. pmc Chromatin insulators: regulatory mechanisms and epigenetic inheritance
    Ashley M Bushey
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Mol Cell 32:1-9. 2008
    ..This review will discuss the evidence for epigenetic inheritance and regulation of insulator function...
  89. ncbi Extended core sequences from the cHS4 insulator are necessary for protecting retroviral vectors from silencing position effects
    Mari Aker
    Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Hum Gene Ther 18:333-43. 2007
    ....
  90. pmc Postnatal survival of mice with maternal duplication of distal chromosome 7 induced by a Igf2/H19 imprinting control region lacking insulator function
    Li Han
    Division of Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000803. 2010
    ..Our results are consistent with the idea that reduced expression of IGF2 plays a role in the aetiology of the human imprinting-related growth-deficit disorder, Silver-Russell syndrome...
  91. ncbi A chromatin insulator blocks interactions between globin regulatory elements and cellular promoters in erythroid cells
    Byoung Y Ryu
    Division of Experimental Hematology, Department of Hematology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 332 N Lauderdale St, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    Blood Cells Mol Dis 39:221-8. 2007
    ..Promoter activation in K562 cells by vectors containing globin regulatory elements was significantly reduced by addition of flanking insulator elements.
  92. pmc Orientation-dependent interaction between Drosophila insulators is a property of this class of regulatory elements
    Olga Kyrchanova
    Department of the Control of Genetic Processes, Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:7019-28. 2008
    ..These results suggest that insulator proteins can support selective interactions between distant regulatory elements...
  93. ncbi Performance- and safety-enhanced lentiviral vectors containing the human interferon-beta scaffold attachment region and the chicken beta-globin insulator
    Ali Ramezani
    Hematopoiesis Department, Flow Cytometry Facility, American Red Cross, Rockville, MD 20855, USA
    Blood 101:4717-24. 2003
    ....
  94. ncbi The cHS4 chromatin insulator reduces gammaretroviral vector silencing by epigenetic modifications of integrated provirus
    C L Li
    Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7720, USA
    Gene Ther 15:49-53. 2008
    ....
  95. pmc Diverse transcription influences can be insulated by the Drosophila SF1 chromatin boundary
    Parimal Majumder
    Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:4227-33. 2009
    ..Such diverse insulating capabilities are consistent with the proposed roles of SF1 to functionally separate fushi tarazu (ftz), a non-Hox gene, from the enhancers and the organized chromatin of the neighboring Hox genes...
  96. pmc Investigation of the properties of non-gypsy suppressor of hairy-wing-binding sites
    Emily J Kuhn-Parnell
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Genetics 179:1263-73. 2008
    ..These studies extend our understanding of the properties of Su(Hw) and the endogenous genomic regions to which this protein localizes...
  97. pmc Genomic mapping of Suppressor of Hairy-wing binding sites in Drosophila
    Boris Adryan
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Genome Biol 8:R167. 2007
    b>Insulator elements are proposed to play a key role in the organization of the regulatory architecture of the genome...
  98. ncbi Identification, genome mapping, and CTCF binding of potential insulators within the FXYD5-COX7A1 locus of human chromosome 19q13.12
    Sergey B Akopov
    Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117977, Moscow, Russia
    Mamm Genome 17:1042-9. 2006
    ..We believe that the proposed approach could be a useful instrument for functional analysis of genomes...
  99. ncbi CTCF-dependent chromatin insulator is linked to epigenetic remodeling
    Ko Ishihara
    Department of Regeneration Medicine, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2 2 1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860 0811, Japan
    Mol Cell 23:733-42. 2006
    ..These findings provide insight into the role of CTCF-CHD8 complex in insulation and epigenetic regulation at active insulator sites...
  100. pmc Interaction between the GAGA factor and Mod(mdg4) proteins promotes insulator bypass in Drosophila
    Larisa Melnikova
    Department of the Control of Genetic Processes, Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117334, Russia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:14806-11. 2004
    ..Our data provide direct evidence that heterologous insulators can be bypassed by distal enhancers and identify the interaction between GAF and Mod(mdg4) as a possible means to regulate insulator activity...
  101. pmc Identification of genomic sites that bind the Drosophila suppressor of Hairy-wing insulator protein
    Timothy J Parnell
    3135E MERF, Department of Biochemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 26:5983-93. 2006
    ..These studies provide the first direct evidence that the Su(Hw) protein contributes to the regulation of gene expression in the Drosophila genome through the establishment of endogenous insulators...

Research Grants49

  1. Regulation of insulator function and globin gene expression by USF and associated
    Suming Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The studies will provide a novel insight into USF function in the regulation of developmental stage-specific globin gene expression and will lead to novel strategies for the molecular therapy of anemia. ..
  2. Transcriptional Networks Regulating Luminal Environment in the Epididymis
    Ann Harris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will evaluate the cis-acting enhancers and insulator elements that likely establish the looped conformation of the active locus and determine how trans-acting factors ..
  3. Identification of a Molecular Signature for Barrier Insulators
    LAURIE ANN STEINER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Barrier insulator elements function to maintain the boundaries between euchromatin and heterochromatin and are essential for ..
  4. Organization of the inactive X-chromosome
    Yuya Ogawa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed study in gene regulation during X-inactivation will potentially reveal a universal role for long non-protein coding (non-coding) RNAs in a wide variety of biological processes. ..
  5. A Comprehensive Resource for Manipulating the Drosophila Genome
    Hugo J Bellen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Mi{MIC} collection will be made publicly available and will enable researchers to manipulate almost all fly genes at an unprecedented speed and level of sophistication. ..
  6. Var gene regulation and antigenic variation in malaria
    Kirk W Deitsch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The specific aims of the project are 1) to identify and characterize chromatin boundary/insulator elements that regulate chromatin assembly at var genes, 2) to determine the role of noncoding RNAs in targeting ..
  7. Tissue-specific regulation of a gene essential for airway epithelial function
    Ann Harris; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Translational opportunities that may arise from this work include modulating CFTR expression in vivo and the construction of efficient, tissue-specific gene therapy vectors. ..
  8. Regulation of MHC Class II Genes
    Jeremy M Boss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and regulate immunity, the goal of this application is to define the mechanisms by which these novel MHCII-insulator elements function...
  9. A novel ChIP-spec technology to isolate protein complexes at unique genomic loci
    Richard A Young; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The human genome contains protein coding genes, highly conserved non-coding elements, enhancer elements, insulator elements, and expansive transcriptionally silenced domains...
  10. Library Screening for Novel Enhancer Blockers Derived from Human T Lymphocytes
    Brian P Sorrentino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..viral transcriptional elements, the use of self-inactivating lentiviral vectors, and the use of chromatin insulator elements that contain enhancer blocking sequences...
  11. Genome-wide map of active promoters in the mouse cells
    Bing Ren; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..the laboratory mouse as a model system and conduct genome-wide analysis of active promoters, enhancers and insulator elements in a panel of embryonic and adult tissues with medical relevance...
  12. The insulator complex in higher-order chromatin organization
    Edward Ramos; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..organization and compartmentalization of chromatin fibers into higher-order chromatin domains can involve insulator elements. These insulator elements and their binding proteins have been shown to cluster in the nucleus to form ..
  13. Role of CTCF and Cohesin in V(D)J Rearrangement
    Ann J Feeney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, studies such as the ones proposed in this application in the highly complex and developmentally regulated process of V(D)J recombination will broaden our understanding of the many roles of CTCF and cohesin. ..
  14. Chromatin Domain Dynamics
    Rohinton T Kamakaka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..chromatin domains in the nucleus often have antagonistic structural or functional properties and DNA insulator elements separate these domains...
  15. Lentiviral Gene Therapy for Sickle Cell Disease and Immunodeficiency Disorders
    Brian P Sorrentino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The central unifying hypothesis is that self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vectors containing insulator elements and appropriate intemal promoters will be both safe and effective for the treatment of these blood and ..
  16. Deregulation of CTCF in Epigenetic Gene Silencing in Human Cancers
    BEVERLY MARIE EMERSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  17. cis-Acting Elements Regulating Developmental Control of Replication Timing
    David M Gilbert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  18. MOLECULAR AND GENETIC ANALYSIS OF CHROMATIN STRUCTURE
    Paul D Schedl; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The major aims of this proposal are to learn more about the role of boundaries in development and elucidate the mechanisms that enable boundaries to establish independent units of genetic activity. ..
  19. GLIA AND GLYCOCONJUGATES IN THE NEOSTRIATUM
    Dennis Steindler; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  20. The meiotic role of dtopors in male Drosophila
    JOHN TOMKIEL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Additionally, it plays a second role in gene regulation via assembly at insulator elements. Insulator elements are proposed to function by establishing chromatin domains that restrict the activities ..
  21. Dissecting the functions of a novel cis element Promoter Targeting Sequence
    Jumin Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. CONTROL OF LYMPHOCYTE DEVELOPMENT
    Randolph Wall; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies on CCWGG methylation and insulator function address new mechanisms in B cell gene control that supercede the effects of local trans-acting factors that interact with promoters and enhancers. ..
  23. STUDY OF INSULATOR FUNCTION IN DROSOPHILA
    HAINI CAI; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This application proposes to study two insulator elements, focusing on two different aspects of their functions: 1) SF-1 will be analyzed for its regulatory roles in ..
  24. TARGETS AND REQUIREMENTS OF METHYLATION IN HUMAN CELLS
    Chih Lin Hsieh; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..3) Are there boundary elements or factors that can protect regions from de novo methylation? 4) What are the targets of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b? 5) How is a CpG island targeted for methylation in cancer cells? ..
  25. Regulation of Gene Expression in the Th2 Cytokine Locus
    Patrick Fields; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. ENHANCER AND BOUNDARY ELEMENTS FOR MOSQUITO TRANSGENESIS
    Craig Coates; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..aegypti from position effects; 4) determine if the addition of enhancer and boundary elements can improve the levels of expression from tissue-specific promoters. ..
  27. FAST INTEGRAL METHOD FOR THE POISSON-BOLTZMANN EQUATION
    ALEXANDER BOSCHITSCH; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The knowledge gained from such studies will be valuable to the pharmaceutical and biomedical community. ..
  28. Generation and in vivo validation of cis-regulatory maps in eukaryotic genomes
    Marcelo Nobrega; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  29. Engineered Cell Lines for Regulatory Protein Analysis
    John Stamatoyannopoulos; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..5'HS2); (ii) a quantitative selectable marker (secreted alkaline phosphatase); and (iii) paired chromatin insulator elements (either human HS5 or chicken HS4). A qualitative selectable marker (neo) is also included...
  30. MECHANISM OF BOUNDARY SEQUENCES
    MARIETTA DUNAWAY; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..b>Insulator elements are a class of specific sequences that are thought to be critical in specifying a chromosomal domain and ..
  31. ANALYSIS OF CHROMOSOMAL INSULATOR/BOUNDARY ELEMENTS
    David Donze; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  32. Conference on Chromatin Structure and Activity
    JAMES KADONAGA; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Specific emphasis will be placed upon the financial support of individuals from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups. ..
  33. Adolescent Nicotine Exposure and Adult Cognitive Processes in Rats
    STEPHEN FOUNTAIN; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The results will also provide new information regarding the important public health question of the extent to which adolescent nicotine exposure is a threat to adult cognitive capacity. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  34. HUMAN GLOBIN GENE TRANSFER AND EXPRESSION
    Arthur Bank; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  35. TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION DURING SPERMIOGENESIS
    Prabhakara P Reddi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The study is relevant to male reproductive health as leads can be applied to develop novel male contraceptives. The SP-10 promoter will be useful for gene therapy to treat infertility or germ cell defects. ..
  36. Genetic Analysis of H19 and Igf2 Imprinting Regulation
    Nora Engel; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Both aims will be accomplished by gene targeting at the endogenous locus. These experiments will lead to enhanced understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying imprinting. ..
  37. REGULATION OF HUMAN GLOBIN GENE EXPRESSION
    Arthur Bank; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  38. Evolution of Promoter Activity in Conserved Genes
    GLENN MASTON; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  39. Control Of Tcr Data And Tcr Alpha Rearrangement
    MICHAEL KRANGEL; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  40. CHEMOPROT OF HEMATOPOIETIC CELLS BY MDR GENE TRANSFER
    Arthur Bank; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies could lead to conditions for permitting higher doses of chemotherapy to be administered to advanced cancer patients with less hematologic toxicity, longer remissions or potential cure of these patients. ..
  41. Structure and Function of CTCF: Mouse Model Studies
    Galina Filippova; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..1 where CTCF maps. The health-relatedness is that the identified mechanisms can be targeted for both cancer prevention and therapeutic intervention. ..
  42. Gene Delivery into Human Hematopoietic Cells
    Arthur Bank; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The gene delivery technology should also be applicable for use in treating other human diseases as well. ..
  43. Role of Placenta Growth factor in Sickle ACS
    MALIK PUNAM; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..VEGFR-antagonists are in clinical trials and leukotriene blockers are FDA approved and in clinical use for asthma and could be candidates for an ACS prevention trial. ..
  44. Analysis of the COP9 signalosome for Retinoblastoma function
    David N Arnosti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  45. The Genetics of Gene Targeting in Vertebrate Cells
    Matthew Porteus; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..It is hoped that such studies will lead to advances in the field of gene therapy and in the treatment of children with monogenic diseases, such as sickle cell disease. ..
  46. Using Zinc Finger Nucleases to Stimulate Gene Targeting in HSC
    Matthew Porteus; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  47. Molecular Biology of Erythrocyte Ankyrin
    Patrick G Gallagher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies may provide important information to be used for diagnosis and treatment of patients with this disorder. ..
  48. Development of gene targeting in C. elegans and D. rerio using zinc finger
    Matthew Porteus; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..