Summary: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
Publications287 found, 100 shown here
- Sources of variation in consumer-diet delta 15N enrichment: a meta-analysisMathew A Vanderklift
Department of Botany, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, WA 6907 Nedlands, Australia
Oecologia 136:169-82. 2003..The variance of estimates of delta15N enrichment, as well as the fact that enrichment may be different in certain groups of organisms should be taken into account in statistical approaches for studying diet and trophic relationships...
- Is a healthy ecosystem one that is rich in parasites?Peter J Hudson
Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Trends Ecol Evol 21:381-5. 2006....
- Trophic downgrading of planet EarthJames A Estes
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA
Science 333:301-6. 2011..These findings emphasize the urgent need for interdisciplinary research to forecast the effects of trophic downgrading on process, function, and resilience in global ecosystems...
- Global change and species interactions in terrestrial ecosystemsJason M Tylianakis
School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
Ecol Lett 11:1351-63. 2008....
- Impact of climate change on marine pelagic phenology and trophic mismatchMartin Edwards
Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK
Nature 430:881-4. 2004....
- Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystemsBradley J Cardinale
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
Nature 443:989-92. 2006....
- Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biotaDavid A Wardle
Landcare Research, Post Office Box 69, Lincoln, New Zealand
Science 304:1629-33. 2004....
- Cascading effects of the loss of apex predatory sharks from a coastal oceanRansom A Myers
Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, 1355 Oxford Street, Halifax, NS B3H 4J1, Canada
Science 315:1846-50. 2007..Analogous top-down effects may be a predictable consequence of eliminating entire functional groups of predators...
- Predicting ecological consequences of marine top predator declinesMichael R Heithaus
Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, North Miami, FL 33181, USA
Trends Ecol Evol 23:202-10. 2008..We conclude that marine predators should be managed for the maintenance of both density- and risk-driven ecological processes, and not demographic persistence alone...
- Food-web structure and network theory: The role of connectance and sizeJennifer A Dunne
Romberg Tiburon Center, San Francisco State University, 3152 Paradise Drive, Tiburon, CA 94920, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:12917-22. 2002..Although food webs are generally not small-world, scale-free networks, food-web topology is consistent with patterns found within those classes of networks...
- Stability of ecological communities and the architecture of mutualistic and trophic networksElisa Thébault
Division of Biology, Natural Environment Research Council Centre for Population Biology, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK
Science 329:853-6. 2010..We conclude that strong variations in the stability of architectural patterns constrain ecological networks toward different architectures, depending on the type of interaction...
- The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in riversJohn L Sabo
Faculty of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Post Office Box 874501, Tempe, AZ 85287 4501, USA
Science 330:965-7. 2010b>Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure...
- Habitat modification alters the structure of tropical host-parasitoid food websJason M Tylianakis
Agroecology, Georg August University, Waldweg 26, Goettingen D 37073, Germany
Nature 445:202-5. 2007..Altered interaction structure therefore represents an insidious and functionally important hidden effect of habitat modification by humans...
- Cascading top-down effects of changing oceanic predator abundancesJulia K Baum
Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
J Anim Ecol 78:699-714. 2009....
- Can stable isotope ratios provide for community-wide measures of trophic structure?Craig A Layman
Marine Science Program, Department of Biological Sciences, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, Florida 33181, USA
Ecology 88:42-8. 2007..Building from extensive applications of stable isotope ratios by ecologists, the community-wide metrics may provide a new perspective on food web structure, function, and dynamics...
- Interaction of nanoparticles with edible plants and their possible implications in the food chainCyren M Rico
Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968, United States
J Agric Food Chem 59:3485-98. 2011..The possible biomagnification of NPs in the food chain is also unknown.
- Top predators as biodiversity regulators: the dingo Canis lupus dingo as a case studyMike Letnic
Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW, Australia
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 87:390-413. 2012..Finally, we discuss key issues that require consideration or warrant research before the ecological effects of dingoes can be incorporated formally into biodiversity conservation programs...
- Combining sources in stable isotope mixing models: alternative methodsDonald L Phillips
US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Western Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, 200 SW 35th St, Corvallis, OR, 97333, USA
Oecologia 144:520-7. 2005..In this case, a posteriori aggregation of sources allowed strong conclusions about temporal shifts in marine versus terrestrial diets that would not have otherwise been discerned...
- Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing linksKevin D Lafferty
Western Ecological Research Center, U S Geological Survey c o Marine Science Institute, UC, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
Ecol Lett 11:533-46. 2008....
- Incorporating uncertainty and prior information into stable isotope mixing modelsJonathan W Moore
National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA 98112, USA
Ecol Lett 11:470-80. 2008..Isotope mixing models need to fully account for uncertainty in order to accurately estimate source contributions...
- Interaction strength combinations and the overfishing of a marine food webJordi Bascompte
Integrative Ecology Group, Estacion Biologica de Donana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado Postal 1056, E 41080 Seville, Spain
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5443-7. 2005..However, fishing selectively removes predators that are overrepresented in strongly interacting chains. Hence, the potential for strong community-wide effects remains a threat...
- Ecological role of volatiles produced by plants in response to damage by herbivorous insectsJ Daniel Hare
Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
Annu Rev Entomol 56:161-80. 2011..The application of techniques of evolutionary quantitative genetics may facilitate the testing of widely held hypotheses about the evolution of induced production of volatile compounds under natural conditions...
- Impact of extreme temperatures on parasitoids in a climate change perspectiveThierry Hance
Unité d Ecologie et de Biogéographie, Centre de Recherche sur la Biodiversité, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B 1348, Louvain la Neuve, Belgique
Annu Rev Entomol 52:107-26. 2007..A careful analysis on how host-parasitoid systems react to changes in temperature is needed so that researchers may predict and manage the consequences of global change at the ecosystem level...
- Nutritional constraints in terrestrial and freshwater food websJ J Elser
Department of Biology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287, USA
Nature 408:578-80. 2000..These stoichiometric constraints on herbivore growth appear to be qualitatively similar and widespread in both environments...
- Molecular analysis of predation: a review of best practice for DNA-based approachesR A King
Cardiff School of Biosciences, Biomedical Sciences Building, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3US, UK
Mol Ecol 17:947-63. 2008..We look ahead to new technologies, including microarrays and pyrosequencing, which might one day be applied to this field...
- Predator diversity dampens trophic cascadesDeborah L Finke
Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
Nature 429:407-10. 2004..We show that enhancing predator diversity dampens enemy effects on herbivores and weakens trophic cascades. Consequently, changes in diversity at higher trophic levels can significantly alter ecosystem function in natural systems...
- Off the hook--how bacteria survive protozoan grazingCarsten Matz
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Centre for Marine Biofouling and Bio Innovation, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
Trends Microbiol 13:302-7. 2005..We propose that studying predation-driven adaptations will provide an exciting frontier for microbial ecology and evolution at the interface of prokaryotes and eukaryotes...
- Ecological networks--beyond food websThomas C Ings
School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK
J Anim Ecol 78:253-69. 2009..5. We conclude by suggesting a number of 'dead ends' and 'fruitful avenues' for future research into ecological networks...
- Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern OceanAngus Atkinson
British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OET, UK aat bas ac uk
Nature 432:100-3. 2004..As krill densities decreased last century, salps appear to have increased in the southern part of their range. These changes have had profound effects within the Southern Ocean food web...
- Structural asymmetry and the stability of diverse food websNeil Rooney
Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada
Nature 442:265-9. 2006..Alarmingly, the same human actions that have been implicated in the loss of biodiversity also directly erode the very structures and processes that we show to confer stability on food webs...
- Ecological meltdown in predator-free forest fragmentsJ Terborgh
Center for Tropical Conservation, Duke University, Box 90381, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Science 294:1923-6. 2001..The densities of seedlings and saplings of canopy trees are severely reduced on herbivore-affected islands, providing evidence of a trophic cascade unleashed in the absence of top-down regulation...
- Mercury bioavailability and bioaccumulation in estuarine food webs in the Gulf of MaineCelia Y Chen
Department of Biological Sciences, HB 6044 Gilman Hall, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA
Environ Sci Technol 43:1804-10. 2009..These results reveal the importance of both biogeochemical and ecological factors in determining the bioavailability and trophic transfer of MeHg in estuarine food webs...
- Methane carbon supports aquatic food webs to the fish levelAngela M Sanseverino
Institute of Biology, University Federal of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
PLoS ONE 7:e42723. 2012..This combination of stable isotope and fatty acid tracers provides new evidence that assimilation of methane-derived carbon can be an important carbon source for the whole aquatic food web, up to the fish level...
- Network analysis shining light on parasite ecology and diversityRobert Poulin
Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Trends Parasitol 26:492-8. 2010..It also summarizes the first findings to emerge from network analyses of host-parasite interactions and identifies promising future directions made possible by this approach...
- Stability in real food webs: weak links in long loopsAnje Margriet Neutel
Department of Environmental Sciences, Utrecht University, Post Office Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands
Science 296:1120-3. 2002..Loop-weight analysis could be a useful tool for exploring the structure and organization of complex communities...
- Ecology. Food web ecology: playing Jenga and beyondPeter C de Ruiter
Department of Environmental Sciences, Copernicus Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands
Science 309:68-71. 2005
- Ocean acidification erodes crucial auditory behaviour in a marine fishStephen D Simpson
School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
Biol Lett 7:917-20. 2011..This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that ocean acidification affects the auditory response of fishes, with potentially detrimental impacts on early survival...
- Aldehyde suppression of copepod recruitment in blooms of a ubiquitous planktonic diatomAdrianna Ianora
Ecophysiology Laboratory, Stazione Zoologica A Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy
Nature 429:403-7. 2004..Such a transgenerational plant-herbivore interaction could explain the recurringly inefficient use of a predictable, potentially valuable food resource--the spring diatom bloom--by marine zooplankton...
- Limits to trophic levels and omnivory in complex food webs: theory and dataRichard J Williams
Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, P O Box 519, Crested Butte, Colorado 81224, USA
Am Nat 163:458-68. 2004....
- Herbivore physiological response to predation risk and implications for ecosystem nutrient dynamicsDror Hawlena
School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:15503-7. 2010..The general view is that the rate and efficiency of nutrient transfer up the food chain is constrained by herbivore-specific capacity to secure N-rich compounds for survival and production...
- A common scaling rule for abundance, energetics, and production of parasitic and free-living speciesRyan F Hechinger
Marine Science Institute and Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
Science 333:445-8. 2011....
- Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lakePer Arne Amundsen
Department of Aquatic Biosciences, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, Tromsø N 9037, Norway
J Anim Ecol 78:563-72. 2009..5. The study supports a prominent role for parasites in ecological networks and demonstrates that their incorporation may substantially alter considerations of food-web structure and functioning...
- Parasites of the superorganism: are they indicators of ecosystem health?David J Marcogliese
St Lawrence Centre, Environment Canada, 105 McGill, 7th Floor, Montreal, Que, Canada H2Y 2E7
Int J Parasitol 35:705-16. 2005....
- Global patterns in predator-prey size relationships reveal size dependency of trophic transfer efficiencyCarolyn Barnes
Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT, United Kingdom
Ecology 91:222-32. 2010Predator-prey body size relationships influence food chain length, trophic structure, transfer efficiency, interaction strength, and the bioaccumulation of contaminants...
- Consumer-resource body-size relationships in natural food websUlrich Brose
Department of Biology, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany
Ecology 87:2411-7. 2006..If recent studies that relate body-size ratios to interaction strengths are general, our results suggest that mean consumer-resource interaction strengths may vary systematically across different habitat categories and consumer types...
- The effect of dietary protein quality on nitrogen isotope discrimination in mammals and birdsCharles T Robbins
Department of Natural Resource Sciences and School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 4236, USA
Oecologia 144:534-40. 2005..We caution about the care needed in developing studies to understand variation in discrimination and subsequently applying those discrimination factors to estimate assimilated diets of wild animals...
- Direct and indirect effects of resource quality on food web structureTibor Bukovinszky
Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, Post Office Box 8031, 6700 EH Wageningen, Netherlands
Science 319:804-7. 2008..We conclude, on the basis of our data, that changes in the food web are dependent on both trait- and density-mediated interactions among species...
- Predator-prey size relationships in an African large-mammal food webNorman Owen-Smith
Centre for African Ecology, School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, South Africa
J Anim Ecol 77:173-83. 2008..Nevertheless, the large carnivore assemblage was dominated overwhelmingly by the largest predator, which contributed the major share of animals killed across a wide size range...
- Parasites dominate food web linksKevin D Lafferty
Western Ecological Research Center, U S Geological Survey, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:11211-6. 2006..have indicated that including parasites leads to obvious increases in species richness, number of links, and food chain length...
- Compartmentalization increases food-web persistenceDaniel B Stouffer
Integrative Ecology Group, Estacion Biologica de Donana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 41092 Seville, Spain
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:3648-52. 2011..This contribution to persistence is greater the more complex the food web, which helps to reconcile the simultaneous complexity and stability of natural communities...
- Disentangling the web of lifeJordi Bascompte
Integrative Ecology Group, Estacion Biologica de Donana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Calle Américo Vespucio s n, E 41092 Sevilla, Spain
Science 325:416-9. 2009..Understanding how the responses of pairwise interactions scale to entire assemblages remains one of the great challenges that must be met as society faces global ecosystem change...
- Bioaccumulation syndrome: identifying factors that make some stream food webs prone to elevated mercury bioaccumulationDarren M Ward
Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1195:62-83. 2010..Finally, based on an understanding of the ecological drivers of MeHg accumulation, we identify situations when anthropogenic effects and management practices could significantly exacerbate or ameliorate MeHg accumulation in stream fish...
- Guild-specific patterns of species richness and host specialization in plant-herbivore food webs from a tropical forestVojtech Novotny
Biology Center, Czech Academy of Sciences and Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
J Anim Ecol 79:1193-203. 2010..6. A comprehensive classification of insect herbivores into 24 guilds is proposed, providing a framework for comparative analyses across ecosystems and geographical regions...
- Meta-analysis of the effects of human disturbance on seed dispersal by animalsJulia S Markl
Biodiversity, Climate Research Centre BiK F, Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325, Frankfurt Main, Germany
Conserv Biol 26:1072-81. 2012....
- Functional responses modified by predator densityPavel Kratina
Department of Biology, University of Victoria, P O Box 3020, Victoria, BC V8W3N5, Canada
Oecologia 159:425-33. 2009..Our findings imply that ecological theory needs to take realistic levels of predator dependence into account...
- Predator diversity and trophic interactionsOswald J Schmitz
Yale University, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 370 Prospect Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA
Ecology 88:2415-26. 2007..The paper closes by discussing ways to further a research program aimed at using the building blocks presented here to understand predator functional diversity and trophic interactions in complex ecological systems...
- Population-level metrics of trophic structure based on stable isotopes and their application to invasion ecologyMichelle C Jackson
School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, England
PLoS ONE 7:e31757. 2012..Although we have demonstrated their applicability specifically using a detailed temporal dataset of species invasion in a lake, they have a wide array of potential ecological applications...
- Food web connections and the transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma evansi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) in the Pantanal Region, BrazilH M Herrera
Laboratório de Biologia de Tripanosomatídeos, FIOCRUZ RJ Av Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 105:380-7. 2011..cruzi and T. evansi in the southern Pantanal region takes place via an intricate ecological trophic network involving generalist and specialist mammal species that are linked through a robust food-web connection...
- Mycotoxins in the food chain: human health implicationsWayne L Bryden
School of Animal Studies, University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16:95-101. 2007..that 25% of the world's crops are affected by mould or fungal growth and as stable, natural contaminants of the food chain, mycotoxin reduction requires a multifaceted approach, including farmers, government agencies, food processors ..
- Contrasting spatial patterns of taxonomic and functional richness offer insights into potential loss of ecosystem servicesGraeme S Cumming
Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, DST NRF Center of Excellence, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Republic of South Africa
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:1683-92. 2009....
- Herbivore vs. nutrient control of marine primary producers: context-dependent effectsDeron E Burkepile
School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 0230, USA
Ecology 87:3128-39. 2006....
- Quantitative approaches to the analysis of stable isotope food web dataStephanie N Schmidt
Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, 680 North Park Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
Ecology 88:2793-802. 2007..As more ecologists incorporate a food web perspective into ecosystem analysis, these statistical tools can provide a basis for quantifying directional food web differences from standard isotope data...
- Can stable isotope ratios provide for community-wide measures of trophic structure? CommentDavid J Hoeinghaus
Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
Ecology 89:2353-7; discussion 2358-9. 2008
- Simple prediction of interaction strengths in complex food websEric L Berlow
University of California, Merced, Sierra Nevada Research Institute, Wawona Station, Yosemite National Park, CA 95389, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:187-91. 2009..Applied to field data, our model successfully predicts interactions dominated by trophic effects and illuminates the sign and magnitude of important nontrophic interactions...
- Reducing horizontal and vertical diversity in a foodweb triggers extinctions and impacts functionsDiane S Srivastava
Department of Zoology and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
Ecol Lett 12:1016-28. 2009..These results caution that foodweb effects of multitrophic species loss may not be reliably predicted from manipulations of just one dimension of diversity...
- Two degrees of separation in complex food websRichard J Williams
Romberg Tiburon Center and Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 3150 Paradise Drive, Tiburon, CA 94920, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:12913-6. 2002..These results indicate that the dynamics of species within ecosystems may be more highly interconnected and that biodiversity loss and species invasions may affect more species than previously thought...
- Indirect effects and traditional trophic cascades: a test involving wolves, coyotes, and pronghornKim Murray Berger
Department of Wildland Resources, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 5230, USA
Ecology 89:818-28. 2008The traditional trophic cascades model is based on consumer resource interactions at each link in a food chain. However, trophic-level interactions, such as mesocarnivore release resulting from intraguild predation, may also be important ..
- Patterns of predation in a diverse predator-prey systemA R E Sinclair
Centre for Biodiversity Research, 6270 University Boulevard, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V6T 1Z4, Canada
Nature 425:288-90. 2003..Thus, biodiversity allows both predation (top-down) and resource limitation (bottom-up) to act simultaneously to affect herbivore populations. This result may apply generally in systems where there is a diversity of predators and prey...
- Species response to environmental change: impacts of food web interactions and evolutionJason P Harmon
Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Science 323:1347-50. 2009..Our results illustrate how ecological and evolutionary complexities should be incorporated into predictions of the consequences of environmental change for species' populations...
- Dual influences of ecosystem size and disturbance on food chain length in streamsPeter A McHugh
Freshwater Ecology Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand
Ecol Lett 13:881-90. 2010The number of trophic transfers occurring between basal resources and top predators, food chain length (FCL), varies widely in the world's ecosystems for reasons that are poorly understood, particularly for stream ecosystems...
- Uncertainties in a Baltic sea food-web model reveal challenges for future projectionsSusa Niiranen
Baltic Nest Institute, Department of Systems Ecology of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden
Ambio 41:613-25. 2012..These results indicate that presenting model uncertainties is necessary to alleviate ecological surprises in marine ecosystem management...
- Introduced parasites in food webs: new species, shifting structures?J Robert Britton
Centre for Conservation Ecology and Environmental Sciences, School of Applied Sciences, Bournemouth University, Poole, Dorset, BH12 5BB, UK
Trends Ecol Evol 28:93-9. 2013..Nevertheless, I suggest these food web reorganisations represent a further aspect of human-mediated global change resulting in irreversible consequences across multiple trophic levels...
- Culling prey promotes predator recovery--alternative states in a whole-lake experimentLennart Persson
Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
Science 316:1743-6. 2007..Because most animals exhibit food-dependent growth, shifts into alternative stable states resulting from overcompensating prey growth may be common in nature and may require counterintuitive management strategies...
- Increasing enemy biodiversity strengthens herbivore suppression on two plant speciesCory S Straub
Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman 99164, USA
Ecology 89:1605-15. 2008..Further, these functional benefits of diversity appear to be robust to changes in plant species identity...
- Interaction diversity within quantified insect food webs in restored and adjacent intensively managed meadowsMatthias Albrecht
Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
J Anim Ecol 76:1015-25. 2007....
- Ultraviolet-B radiation effects on the structure and function of lower trophic levels of the marine planktonic food webGustavo A Ferreyra
Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 310 allee des Ursulines, Canada G5L 3A1
Photochem Photobiol 82:887-97. 2006..We hypothesize a decrease in the ingestion of TEPs by ciliates, in coincidence with increased DOC release by phytoplankton cells under enhanced UVBR. The consequences of such results for the carbon cycle in the ocean are discussed...
- Lipid corrections in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses: comparison of chemical extraction and modelling methodsJohn M Logan
Zoology Department, Large Pelagics Research Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA
J Anim Ecol 77:838-46. 2008..By analysing a subset of samples before and after lipid extraction, models can be applied to the species and tissues of interest that will improve estimates of dietary sources using stable isotopes...
- The evolution of antiherbivore defenses and their contribution to species coexistence in the tropical tree genus IngaThomas A Kursar
Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:18073-8. 2009..Interactions between plants and their herbivores likely play a key role in the generation and maintenance of the conspicuously high plant diversity in the tropics...
- Trophic interactions between viruses, bacteria and nanoflagellates under various nutrient conditions and simulated climate changeM Bouvy
UMR 5119, ECOSYM, Ecologie des systèmes marins côtiers, UM2, CNRS, IRD, IFREMER, UM1 Université Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, Case 093, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
Environ Microbiol 13:1842-57. 2011..These results show that top-down factors, essentially HNF grazing, control the dynamics of the lagoon bacterioplankton assemblage and that short-term simulated climate changes are only a secondary effect controlling microbial processes...
- Stability criteria for complex ecosystemsStefano Allesina
Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, 1101 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
Nature 483:205-8. 2012..Stable predator-prey networks can be arbitrarily large and complex, provided that predator-prey pairs are tightly coupled. The stability criteria are widely applicable, because they hold for any system of differential equations...
- Landscape heterogeneity shapes predation in a newly restored predator-prey systemMatthew J Kauffman
Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
Ecol Lett 10:690-700. 2007..Elk in this newly restored predator-prey system should be able to mediate their risk of predation by movement and habitat selection across a heterogeneous risk landscape...
- Impacts of fishing low-trophic level species on marine ecosystemsAnthony D M Smith
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
Science 333:1147-50. 2011..Halving exploitation rates would result in much lower impacts on marine ecosystems while still achieving 80% of MSY...
- Simulating climate change-induced alterations in bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in an Arctic marine food webKatrine Borgå
Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway
Environ Toxicol Chem 29:1349-57. 2010..Reduced bioavailability, due to increased C(POC), was the most influential parameter for the less water soluble compounds. Increase in temperature resulted in an overall reduction in net bioaccumulation...
- Sampling effects and the robustness of quantitative and qualitative food-web descriptorsCarolin Banasek-Richter
Zoological Institute, University of Neuchatel, Rue Emile Argand 11 cp2, CH 2007 Neuchatel, Switzerland
J Theor Biol 226:23-32. 2004....
- Plant chemistry and natural enemy fitness: effects on herbivore and natural enemy interactionsPaul J Ode
Department of Entomology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, 58105, USA
Annu Rev Entomol 51:163-85. 2006..Explicit tests are required to determine whether natural enemies can act as selective forces on plant defense. Finally, further studies of natural systems are crucial to understanding the evolution of multitrophic relationships...
- Fluctuations in density of an outbreak species drive diversity cascades in food websEldon S Eveleigh
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Atlantic Forestry Centre, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:16976-81. 2007..Because our results provide a plausible mechanism for boreal forest effects on populations of forest insect pests, they have implications for forest and pest management practices...
- Compartments revealed in food-web structureAnn E Krause
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Educational Psychology, and Special Education, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
Nature 426:282-5. 2003..From this graphic, we explore two scenarios of disturbance to develop a hypothesis for testing how compartmentalized interactions increase stability in food webs...
- Bottom-up ecosystem trophic dynamics determine fish production in the Northeast PacificDaniel M Ware
Aquatic Ecosystem Associates, 3674 Planta Road, Nanaimo, BC V9T 1M2, Canada
Science 308:1280-4. 2005..Zooplankton data for coastal British Columbia confirm strong bottom-up trophic linkages between phytoplankton, zooplankton, and resident fish, extending to regional areas as small as 10,000 square kilometers...
- Whole-lake carbon-13 additions reveal terrestrial support of aquatic food websMichael L Pace
Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York 12545, USA
Nature 427:240-3. 2004....
- Rapid evolution buffers ecosystem impacts of viruses in a microbial food webJay T Lennon
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
Ecol Lett 11:1178-88. 2008..Our results demonstrate that evolutionary processes are important for community dynamics and ecosystem processes on ecologically relevant time scales...
- Cascading extinctions and community collapse in model food websJennifer A Dunne
Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:1711-23. 2009..These and other results, including a surprising sensitivity of more realistic model food webs to loss of species with few links to other species, are compared with prior work based on empirical food-web data...
- When parasites become prey: ecological and epidemiological significance of eating parasitesPieter T J Johnson
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Ramaley N122, Campus Box 334, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
Trends Ecol Evol 25:362-71. 2010..Broader consideration of predation on parasites will enhance our understanding of disease control, food web structure and energy transfer, and the evolution of complex life cycles...
- Mercury cycling in stream ecosystems. 3. Trophic dynamics and methylmercury bioaccumulationLia C Chasar
U S Geological Survey, Florida Integrated Science Center, 2639 North Monroe Street, Suite A 200, Tallahassee, Florida 32303, USA
Environ Sci Technol 43:2733-9. 2009....
- Habitat structure affects intraguild predationArne Janssen
IBED, Section Population Biology, University of Amsterdam, P O Box 94084, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Ecology 88:2713-9. 2007..We conclude that habitat structure may increase persistence of the intraguild prey by decreasing the strength of the interaction between intraguild predator and intraguild prey...
- Ecosystem size determines food-chain length in lakesD M Post
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
Nature 405:1047-9. 2000..We find that food-chain length increases with ecosystem size, but that the length of the food chain is not related to productivity...
- Niche width collapse in a resilient top predator following ecosystem fragmentationCraig A Layman
Marine Sciences Program, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, 3000 NE 151st St, North Miami, FL 33181, USA
Ecol Lett 10:937-44. 2007..Collapsed niche width reflects a homogenization of energy flow pathways to top predators, likely serving to destabilize remnant food webs and render apparently resilient top predators more susceptible to extinction through time...
- Stable isotopes as one of nature's ecological recordersJason B West
Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84115, USA
Trends Ecol Evol 21:408-14. 2006..The melding of advances in genetics, biochemical profiling and spatial analysis with those in isotope analyses and modeling sophistication opens the door to an exciting future in ecological research...
- Parasites reduce food web robustness because they are sensitive to secondary extinction as illustrated by an invasive estuarine snailKevin D Lafferty
U S Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, c o Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:1659-63. 2009..The hypothetical invasion also significantly reduced the connectance of the web because the loss of 17 native trematode species eliminated many links...
- A highly unsaturated fatty acid predicts carbon transfer between primary producers and consumersD C Müller-Navarra
Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
Nature 403:74-7. 2000..This indicates that limitation of zooplankton production by this essential fatty acid is of central importance at the pelagic producer-consumer interface...
- The significance of facultative scavenging in generalist predator nutrition: detecting decayed prey in the guts of predators using PCRPavel Foltan
Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, PO Box 915, Cardiff, CF10 3TL, UK
Mol Ecol 14:4147-58. 2005..This could potentially lead to overestimation of the impact of predation on slugs (and other prey) by carabids. Possible implications of facultative scavenging by invertebrate predators for biocontrol and food-web research are discussed...
- Size, foraging, and food web structureOwen L Petchey
Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, Alfred Denny Building, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4191-6. 2008..The model results support the hypothesis that individual behavior, subject to natural selection, determines individual diets and that food web structure is the sum of these individual decisions...
- Development and transmission of alarm behaviorsAlberto Palleroni; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Health Effects of Lifetime Exposure to Food ContaminantsPhilippe Grandjean; Fiscal Year: 2009..The results may therefore provide new information that could very likely have an impact on the preventive efforts and standard-setting of the EPA and other regulatory agencies in the U.S and elsewhere. ..
- Effect of Selenoprotein SNPs on Prostate Cancer RiskMargaret Rayman; Fiscal Year: 2005..Reduction of cancer incidence in these sub-groups would reduce the incidence of prostate cancer in the population. ..
- Use of an Amphibian as an Alternative Model to Evaluate Effects of Contaminants oMichelle Boone; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Distribution of PCB AtropisomersHans Joachim Lehmler; Fiscal Year: 2008..The long term career goal is to establish Dr. Lehmler as an investigator with independent research status and funding. ..
- C. difficile Toxin Membrane Test with Magnetic ParticlesROBERT CARMAN; Fiscal Year: 2004..perfringens enterotoxin, another cause of AAD. The technology developed in this project will be widely applicable for the development of new highly sensitive stool antigen tests. ..
- Mucin-degrading microflora for prophylactic antibioticsROBERT CARMAN; Fiscal Year: 2008..difficile, and reduces the incidence of C. difficile- induced antibiotic-associated diarrhea. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- PAH/Metal exposure and effects assessment in ChattanoogaSean Richards; Fiscal Year: 2004..5) Quantify the potential for the residents of South Chattanooga to be exposed and affected by PAHs and metals present in area soil by using the data generated in this study in a probabilistic risk assessment. ..
- MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF EIAV PERSISTENCEJERALD OAKS; Fiscal Year: 2001..These studies will provide insight into HIV persistence in HAART patients, and potentially provide a model that can be used to evaluate strategies for actual elimination of lentiviral infections. ..
- Perfluorocarbon Materials As Drug Delivery VehiclesHans Joachim Lehmler; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- Effects of perinatal endocrine disrupters in childrenPhilippe Grandjean; Fiscal Year: 2004..Modern statistical methods will be used to determine whether these outcome variables are associated with estrogen, thyroid, or Ah receptor abnormalities and specific contaminant exposures prenatally or postnatally. ..
- VIBRIO CHOLERAE PLANKTON COLONIZATIONFarooq Azam; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- Three-generation Human Study of Reproductive Effects of Marine Food ContaminantsPHILIPPE ADAM GRANDJEAN; Fiscal Year: 2010..Current evidence already suggests that these pathologies may already affect many populations, and the present proposal aims at identifying whether persistent organochlorine pollutants contribute to these abnormalities. ..
- Bacterial Cell Surfaces Gordon ConferenceBarry Rosen; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..