fungal drug resistance

Summary

Summary: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance
    Richard D Cannon
    Department of Oral Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Otago, P O Box 647, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
    Clin Microbiol Rev 22:291-321, Table of Contents. 2009
  2. ncbi An isochromosome confers drug resistance in vivo by amplification of two genes, ERG11 and TAC1
    Anna Selmecki
    Department of Genetics, Cell and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55305, USA
    Mol Microbiol 68:624-41. 2008
  3. ncbi The evolution of fungal drug resistance: modulating the trajectory from genotype to phenotype
    Leah E Cowen
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building, Room 4368, 1 King s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8, Canada
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:187-98. 2008
  4. pmc Incidence of bloodstream infections due to Candida species and in vitro susceptibilities of isolates collected from 1998 to 2000 in a population-based active surveillance program
    Rana A Hajjeh
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1519-27. 2004
  5. pmc Role of Ndt80p in sterol metabolism regulation and azole resistance in Candida albicans
    Adnane Sellam
    Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Eukaryot Cell 8:1174-83. 2009
  6. pmc Tetracycline-inducible gene expression and gene deletion in Candida albicans
    Yang Nim Park
    Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, Universitat Wurzburg, Rontgenring 11, D 97070 Wurzburg, Germany
    Eukaryot Cell 4:1328-42. 2005
  7. pmc Mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans biofilms: phase-specific role of efflux pumps and membrane sterols
    Pranab K Mukherjee
    Center for Medical Mycology, Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Cleveland and Case Western Reserve University, Ohio 44106, USA
    Infect Immun 71:4333-40. 2003
  8. ncbi Hsp90 potentiates the rapid evolution of new traits: drug resistance in diverse fungi
    Leah E Cowen
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 309:2185-9. 2005
  9. pmc Chemogenomic profiling: identifying the functional interactions of small molecules in yeast
    Guri Giaever
    Stanford Genome Technology Center, 855 California Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 1103, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:793-8. 2004
  10. ncbi Candida albicans drug resistance another way to cope with stress
    Richard D Cannon
    Department of Oral Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
    Microbiology 153:3211-7. 2007

Detail Information

Publications244 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance
    Richard D Cannon
    Department of Oral Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Otago, P O Box 647, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
    Clin Microbiol Rev 22:291-321, Table of Contents. 2009
    ..Potential therapeutic approaches that could overcome azole resistance include targeting efflux pump transcriptional regulators and fungal stress response pathways, blockade of energy supply, and direct inhibition of efflux pumps...
  2. ncbi An isochromosome confers drug resistance in vivo by amplification of two genes, ERG11 and TAC1
    Anna Selmecki
    Department of Genetics, Cell and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55305, USA
    Mol Microbiol 68:624-41. 2008
    ..Thus, the major mechanism by which i(5L) formation causes increased azole resistance is by amplifying two genes: ERG11 and TAC1...
  3. ncbi The evolution of fungal drug resistance: modulating the trajectory from genotype to phenotype
    Leah E Cowen
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building, Room 4368, 1 King s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8, Canada
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:187-98. 2008
    ..Harnessing Hsp90 holds great promise for treating life-threatening infectious diseases...
  4. pmc Incidence of bloodstream infections due to Candida species and in vitro susceptibilities of isolates collected from 1998 to 2000 in a population-based active surveillance program
    Rana A Hajjeh
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1519-27. 2004
    ..7% of isolates, and > or = 2 microg/ml for 0.4% of isolates. Our findings highlight changes in the epidemiology of Candida BSI in the 1990s and provide a basis upon which to conduct further studies of selected high-risk subpopulations...
  5. pmc Role of Ndt80p in sterol metabolism regulation and azole resistance in Candida albicans
    Adnane Sellam
    Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Eukaryot Cell 8:1174-83. 2009
    ..albicans...
  6. pmc Tetracycline-inducible gene expression and gene deletion in Candida albicans
    Yang Nim Park
    Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, Universitat Wurzburg, Rontgenring 11, D 97070 Wurzburg, Germany
    Eukaryot Cell 4:1328-42. 2005
    ..albicans and provides a convenient, versatile new tool to study gene function and manipulate cellular behavior in this model pathogenic fungus...
  7. pmc Mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans biofilms: phase-specific role of efflux pumps and membrane sterols
    Pranab K Mukherjee
    Center for Medical Mycology, Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Cleveland and Case Western Reserve University, Ohio 44106, USA
    Infect Immun 71:4333-40. 2003
    ..001) at intermediate and mature phases, compared to those in early-phase biofilms. These studies suggest that multicomponent, phase-specific mechanisms are operative in antifungal resistance of fungal biofilms...
  8. ncbi Hsp90 potentiates the rapid evolution of new traits: drug resistance in diverse fungi
    Leah E Cowen
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 309:2185-9. 2005
    ..During selection in a human host, drug resistance that was initially Hsp90-dependent evolved toward independence. Thus, Hsp90 can act in diverse ways to couple environmental contingency to the emergence and fixation of new traits...
  9. pmc Chemogenomic profiling: identifying the functional interactions of small molecules in yeast
    Guri Giaever
    Stanford Genome Technology Center, 855 California Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 1103, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:793-8. 2004
    ..The ability to identify on-and-off target effects in vivo is fundamental to understanding the cellular response to small-molecule perturbants...
  10. ncbi Candida albicans drug resistance another way to cope with stress
    Richard D Cannon
    Department of Oral Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
    Microbiology 153:3211-7. 2007
    ..albicans drug resistance from the perspective of it being a stress response and investigates how commonality with other stress-response pathways gives insights into the prospects for overcoming, or preventing, drug resistance...
  11. pmc Heteroresistance to fluconazole in Cryptococcus neoformans is intrinsic and associated with virulence
    Edward Sionov
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2804-15. 2009
    ..Our study showed that heteroresistance to azole is universal and suggests that heteroresistance contributes to relapse of cryptococcosis during azole maintenance therapy...
  12. ncbi In vitro and in vivo activity of tea tree oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic yeasts
    Francesca Mondello
    Laboratory of Bacteriology and Medical Mycology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    J Antimicrob Chemother 51:1223-9. 2003
    ..Overall, the use of a reliable animal model of infection has confirmed and extended our data on the therapeutic effectiveness of TTO against fungi, in particular against C. albicans...
  13. pmc Rare and emerging opportunistic fungal pathogens: concern for resistance beyond Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4419-31. 2004
  14. ncbi Epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida spp. to six antifungal agents: results from a surveillance study on fungaemia in Germany from July 2004 to August 2005
    Margarete Borg-von Zepelin
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, National Reference Centre for Systemic Mycoses, University Clinics, Gottingen, Germany
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:424-8. 2007
    ..Data on fungal infections occurring in Germany are rare to date. The aim of the present study was to survey the epidemiological situation in Germany, to provide data on the susceptibility of the fungal isolates to antifungals...
  15. pmc Resistance to echinocandin-class antifungal drugs
    David S Perlin
    Public Health Research Institute, New Jersey Medical School UMDNJ, Newark, NJ, USA
    Drug Resist Updat 10:121-30. 2007
    ..and can account for intrinsic reduced susceptibility of certain species. Fks1 mutations confer resistance in both yeasts and moulds suggesting that this mechanism is pervasive in the fungal kingdom...
  16. ncbi Antimicrobial resistance: resistance to antifungal agents: mechanisms and clinical impact
    Zeina A Kanafani
    American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon
    Clin Infect Dis 46:120-8. 2008
    ....
  17. pmc High-throughput synergy screening identifies microbial metabolites as combination agents for the treatment of fungal infections
    Lixin Zhang
    Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4606-11. 2007
    ..Such an effect was not achieved even with the high dose of 50 mg/kg KTC. These data support synergism between BEA and KTC and thereby a prospective strategy for antifungal therapy...
  18. pmc Mechanisms of azole resistance in clinical isolates of Candida glabrata collected during a hospital survey of antifungal resistance
    Maurizio Sanguinetti
    Istituto di Microbiologia, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:668-79. 2005
    ..Together, these results provide evidence that the upregulation of the CgCDR1-, CgCDR2-, and CgSNQ2-encoded efflux pumps might explain the azole resistance in our set of isolates...
  19. ncbi Characterization of the transcriptional response to cell wall stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Andre Boorsma
    Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences Microbiology, University of Amsterdam, BioCentrum Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Yeast 21:413-27. 2004
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that cell wall stress results in activation of various signalling pathways including the cell wall integrity pathway...
  20. ncbi Changing epidemiology of systemic fungal infections
    M Richardson
    Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, University of Helsinki, and Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory Diagnostics, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Microbiol Infect 14:5-24. 2008
    ....
  21. ncbi Azole-resistant central nervous system aspergillosis
    Jan W M van der Linden
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 48:1111-3. 2009
    ..Azole resistance significantly complicates the management of aspergillosis by delaying the initiation of adequate therapy and because effective alternative antifungal drugs are lacking...
  22. ncbi Investigation of multidrug efflux pumps in relation to fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans biofilms
    Gordon Ramage
    Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78245, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 49:973-80. 2002
    ....
  23. pmc Azole resistance in Candida glabrata: coordinate upregulation of multidrug transporters and evidence for a Pdr1-like transcription factor
    John Paul Vermitsky
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 Queen Ln, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3773-81. 2004
    ..Additional regulatory factors remain to be identified, as indicated by the lack of PDR1 mutation in a clinical isolate with coordinately upregulated CDR1-PDH1...
  24. ncbi An update on antifungal targets and mechanisms of resistance in Candida albicans
    Robert A Akins
    Wayne State University School of Medicine, Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 540 East Canfield, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    Med Mycol 43:285-318. 2005
    ....
  25. pmc A point mutation in the 14alpha-sterol demethylase gene cyp51A contributes to itraconazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus
    T M Diaz-Guerra
    Unidad de Micologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1120-4. 2003
    ..fumigatus wild-type strain (CM-237) was replaced with the mutated cyp51A gene copy of an ITC-resistant strain (AF-72). Two transformants exhibited resistance to ITC, both of which had incorporated the mutated copy of the cyp51A gene...
  26. pmc Putative role of beta-1,3 glucans in Candida albicans biofilm resistance
    Jeniel Nett
    Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin Electron Microscopy Facility, Madison 53792, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:510-20. 2007
    ....
  27. pmc Candida albicans and Candida glabrata clinical isolates exhibiting reduced echinocandin susceptibility
    Santosh Katiyar
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2892-4. 2006
    ..glabrata confirmed its role in RES. Y641-equivalent Fks residues were identified in intrinsically RES Fusarium species and Candida guilliermondii...
  28. pmc Epidemiology of candidemia in Brazil: a nationwide sentinel surveillance of candidemia in eleven medical centers
    Arnaldo L Colombo
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Botucatu 740, 04023 062 Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2816-23. 2006
    ..Antifungal resistance was rare, but correlation between fluconazole and voriconazole MICs suggests cross-resistance may occur...
  29. ncbi In vitro susceptibility of Candida species to five antifungal agents in a German university hospital assessed by the reference broth microdilution method and Etest
    Ralf Fleck
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Clinical Medicine Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    J Antimicrob Chemother 59:767-71. 2007
    ..Since quick results of in vitro testing are desirable, Etest and the CLSI broth microdilution (BMD) method (reference method) were compared, focusing on the validity of early readings...
  30. ncbi Resistance of Candida species to antifungal agents: molecular mechanisms and clinical consequences
    Dominique Sanglard
    Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Lancet Infect Dis 2:73-85. 2002
    ....
  31. pmc Caspofungin resistance in Candida albicans: correlating clinical outcome with laboratory susceptibility testing of three isogenic isolates serially obtained from a patient with progressive Candida esophagitis
    Steve Hernandez
    Department of Medicine, Division Infectious Diseases 7881, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229 3900, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1382-3. 2004
    ..We concluded that there is a correlation between in vivo failure and rising in vitro caspofungin MICs...
  32. ncbi Evolution of drug resistance in Candida albicans
    Leah E Cowen
    Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Mississauga, Ontario, L5L 1C6, Canada
    Annu Rev Microbiol 56:139-65. 2002
    ..Predicting the evolution of drug resistance is fundamental to prolonging the efficacy of existing drugs and to strategically developing and deploying novel drugs...
  33. ncbi Antifungal drug resistance mechanisms
    Javier Peman
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Avenida Campanar 21, 46009 Valencia, Spain
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 7:453-60. 2009
    ..Acquired resistance to flucytosine results from defects in its metabolism through enzymatic mutations, whereas resistance to amphotericin B may be mediated by increased catalase activity or defects in ergosterol biosynthesis...
  34. pmc Mechanism of increased fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata during prophylaxis
    John E Bennett
    Clinical Mycology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1773-7. 2004
    ..The rapidity and regularity of the rising resistance indicated that C. glabrata is able to upregulate drug efflux without losing the ability to maintain colonization...
  35. pmc Candida glabrata PDR1, a transcriptional regulator of a pleiotropic drug resistance network, mediates azole resistance in clinical isolates and petite mutants
    Huei Fung Tsai
    Clinical Mycology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1384-92. 2006
    ..Thus, CgPDR1 encodes a transcriptional regulator of a pleiotropic drug resistance network and contributes to the azole resistance of clinical isolates and petite mutants...
  36. ncbi Candidosis in the intensive care unit: a 20-year survey
    A M Tortorano
    Istituto di Igiene e Medicina Preventiva, Università degli Studi IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore, Milano, Italy
    J Hosp Infect 57:8-13. 2004
    ..33/1000 patient days). The low rate of ICU-acquired candidaemia despite the inclusion of severely compromised patients in this study confirms the usefulness of routine mycological surveillance in preventing deep-seated candidosis...
  37. pmc The fission yeast Crb2/Chk1 pathway coordinates the DNA damage and spindle checkpoint in response to replication stress induced by topoisomerase I inhibitor
    Ada Collura
    CNRS UMR 2027 Institut Curie, Batiment 110, Centre Universitaire d Orsay, France
    Mol Cell Biol 25:7889-99. 2005
    ..This new pathway enhances cell survival and genome stability when cells undergo replicative stress in the absence of a proficient G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoint...
  38. ncbi Mechanisms of resistance to fungicides in field strains of Botrytis cinerea
    Pierre Leroux
    INRA, Unite de Phytopharmacie et Mediateurs Chimiques, 78026 Versailles, France
    Pest Manag Sci 58:876-88. 2002
    ..Increased sensitivity to inhibitors of sterol 14 alpha-demethylase recorded in Hyd R1 strains was related to two amino-acid changes at positions 15 and 105 of this enzyme...
  39. ncbi Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates in Kuwait: a 10-year study
    Eiman M Mokaddas
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, PO Box 24923, Safat, Kuwait 13110
    J Med Microbiol 56:255-9. 2007
    ..glabrata and C. krusei were susceptible to voriconazole, including those resistant to fluconazole. Although amphotericin B and fluconazole are widely used in clinical practice in Kuwait, resistance to these drugs remained low...
  40. pmc Aneuploidy and isochromosome formation in drug-resistant Candida albicans
    Anna Selmecki
    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota, 6 160 Jackson Hall, 321 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Science 313:367-70. 2006
    ....
  41. ncbi Drug resistance genes and trailing growth in Candida albicans isolates
    Mi Kyung Lee
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, N E, Mailstop G 11, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:217-24. 2004
    ....
  42. ncbi New and emerging treatments for fungal infections
    A C Pasqualotto
    Education and Research Centre, School of Medicine, The University of Manchester and Wythenshawe Hospital, Southmoor Road, Manchester M23 9LT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 61:i19-30. 2008
    ..Licensure and determination of their place in clinical practice requires randomized clinical studies, which are or will be underway...
  43. ncbi Divergent functions of three Candida albicans zinc-cluster transcription factors (CTA4, ASG1 and CTF1) complementing pleiotropic drug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Alix T Coste
    Institute of Microbiology, University of Lausanne and University Hospital Center, CH 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Microbiology 154:1491-501. 2008
    ..In conclusion, C. albicans possesses functional homologues of the S. cerevisiae Pdr1p and Pdr3p transcription factors; however, their properties in C. albicans have been rewired to other functions...
  44. ncbi Function of Candida glabrata ABC transporter gene, PDH1
    Koichi Izumikawa
    Clinical Mycology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Yeast 20:249-61. 2003
    ..Abundance of PDH1 and CgCDR1 mRNA in C. glabrata was increased by rhodamine 6G, cycloheximide and oligomycin, properties in common with PDR5. PDH1, CgCDR1 and PDR5 have striking similarities in function and regulation...
  45. pmc Melanization of Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum reduces their susceptibilities to amphotericin B and caspofungin
    David van Duin
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3394-400. 2002
    ..Furthermore, the results indicate that fungal melanins protect C. neoformans and H. capsulatum from the activities of amphotericin B and caspofungin and that this protection is not demonstrable by standard broth macrodilution assays...
  46. ncbi The role of antifungal susceptibility testing in the therapy of candidiasis
    Duane R Hospenthal
    Infectious Disease Service, Department of Medicine, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234 6200, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 48:153-60. 2004
    ....
  47. ncbi Distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species causing candidemia from 1996 to 1999
    Ming Fang Cheng
    Department of Microbiology, Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 48:33-7. 2004
    ..Only one isolate, a C. glabrata, was resistant to fluconazole. Few patients (13%) having prior fluconazole treatments may explain the low rate of resistance to fluconazole in this study...
  48. pmc Colonization of human immunodeficiency virus-infected outpatients in Taiwan with Candida species
    Chien Ching Hung
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Clin Microbiol 43:1600-3. 2005
    ....
  49. ncbi Evolution of antifungal-drug resistance: mechanisms and pathogen fitness
    James B Anderson
    Department of Botany, 3359 Mississauga Road North, University of Toronto, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:547-56. 2005
    ..In the search for new strategies to manage drug resistance, measuring the limits of adaptation might reveal methods for trapping fungal pathogens in evolutionary dead ends...
  50. pmc Development of caspofungin resistance following prolonged therapy for invasive candidiasis secondary to Candida glabrata infection
    George R Thompson
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:3783-5. 2008
    ..Pre- and posttreatment isolates were confirmed to be isogenic, and sequencing of hot spots known to confer echinocandin resistance revealed an F659V substitution within the FKS2 region of the glucan synthase complex...
  51. ncbi Antifungal susceptibility of 1000 Candida bloodstream isolates to 5 antifungal drugs: results of a multicenter study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, 1995-2003
    Daniel Archimedes da Matta
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, SP 04023 062, Brazil
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 57:399-404. 2007
    ..2% of them were resistant to FCZ. Almost 100% of the strains were susceptible to VCZ. Despite that azole resistance was a rare finding, a trend toward increased resistance among C. rugosa strains to FCZ and ITZ was noted...
  52. pmc In vitro activities of 5-fluorocytosine against 8,803 clinical isolates of Candida spp.: global assessment of primary resistance using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards susceptibility testing methods
    M A Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology Epidemiology Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine, and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3518-21. 2002
    ..5 to 4 h) and concentration-independent activity (optimized at 4x MIC), suggest that 5FC could be used in lower doses to reduce host toxicity while maintaining antifungal efficacy...
  53. pmc Multilocus sequence typing for differentiation of strains of Candida tropicalis
    Arianna Tavanti
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5593-600. 2005
    ..tropicalis to Candida albicans and Candida glabrata as Candida species for which a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) system has been set up. The C. tropicalis MLST database can be accessed at http://pubmlst.org/ctropicalis/...
  54. pmc Potent in vitro synergism of fluconazole and berberine chloride against clinical isolates of Candida albicans resistant to fluconazole
    Hua Quan
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1096-9. 2006
    ..Synergism in fungistatic activity was found with the checkerboard microdilution assay. The findings of agar diffusion tests and time-kill curves confirmed the synergistic interaction, but no antagonistic action was observed...
  55. ncbi Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates in a tertiary medical center in Israel
    Z Samra
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Petach Tikva, 49100, Israel
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 24:592-5. 2005
    ..The findings emphasize the need for continuous surveillance and further clinical investigational studies...
  56. pmc A new Aspergillus fumigatus resistance mechanism conferring in vitro cross-resistance to azole antifungals involves a combination of cyp51A alterations
    E Mellado
    Servicio de Micologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda Pozuelo Km2, 28220 Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:1897-904. 2007
    ....
  57. ncbi Navigating the chaperone network: an integrative map of physical and genetic interactions mediated by the hsp90 chaperone
    Rongmin Zhao
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical Sciences Building, 1 King s College Circle, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada
    Cell 120:715-27. 2005
    ..These cofactors interact physically and functionally with the conserved AAA(+)-type DNA helicases Rvb1/Rvb2, which are key components of several chromatin remodeling factors, thereby linking Hsp90 to epigenetic gene regulation...
  58. pmc Detection of Pneumocystis carinii and characterization of mutations associated with sulfa resistance in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects
    Anna Zingale
    Infectious Diseases Division Clinical Molecular Biology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2709-12. 2003
    ..Mutations were identified in 28 out of 70 (40%) PCR-positive specimens and were significantly more common in patients exposed to sulfa drugs (21 out of 29 [72.4%]) than in those not exposed to sulfa drugs (4 out of 35 [11.4%])...
  59. ncbi Genetics and genomics of Candida albicans biofilm formation
    Clarissa J Nobile
    Department of Microbiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Cell Microbiol 8:1382-91. 2006
    ....
  60. pmc Epidemiology and predictors of mortality in cases of Candida bloodstream infection: results from population-based surveillance, barcelona, Spain, from 2002 to 2003
    Benito Almirante
    Infectious Diseases Division, Hospital Universitari Vall d Hebron, Avda Vall d Hebron, 119 129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 43:1829-35. 2005
    ..Antifungal medication and catheter removal are critical in preventing mortality...
  61. pmc Chemogenomic profiling predicts antifungal synergies
    Gregor Jansen
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Syst Biol 5:338. 2009
    ..Our method is therefore capable of accurately predicting compound synergy to aid the development of combinatorial antifungal therapies...
  62. pmc In vitro susceptibility of invasive isolates of Candida spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin: six years of global surveillance
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:150-6. 2008
    ..Our prospective sentinel surveillance reveals no evidence of emerging echinocandin resistance among invasive clinical isolates of Candida spp...
  63. ncbi Antifungal resistance in pathogenic fungi
    Sofia Perea
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:1073-80. 2002
    ....
  64. ncbi Molecular basis of resistance to azole antifungals
    Antonella Lupetti
    Dept of Experimental Pathology, Medical Biotechnologies, Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, University of Pisa, 35 39, Via S Zeno, 56127 Pisa, Italy
    Trends Mol Med 8:76-81. 2002
    ..The molecular mechanisms of azole resistance might help in devising more effective antifungal therapies...
  65. pmc In vitro susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin: four years of global surveillance
    M A Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology, Epidemiology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine and College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:760-3. 2006
    ..Our prospective sentinel surveillance reveals no evidence of emerging caspofungin resistance among invasive clinical isolates of Candida...
  66. ncbi Multilocus sequence typing of Candida tropicalis shows clonal cluster enriched in isolates with resistance or trailing growth of fluconazole
    Hsiao Hui Chou
    Mycotic Diseases Laboratory, Center of Research and Diagnostics, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei 11561, Taiwan
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 58:427-33. 2007
    ....
  67. pmc Genomewide location analysis of Candida albicans Upc2p, a regulator of sterol metabolism and azole drug resistance
    Sadri Znaidi
    Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Eukaryot Cell 7:836-47. 2008
    ..They also suggest that Upc2p may contribute to azole resistance by regulating the expression of drug efflux pump-encoding genes in addition to ergosterol biosynthesis genes...
  68. pmc Genotypic evolution of azole resistance mechanisms in sequential Candida albicans isolates
    Alix Coste
    Institute of Microbiology, University of Lausanne and University Hospital Center, Rue du Bugnon 48, CH 1011, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Eukaryot Cell 6:1889-904. 2007
    ..With the combination of these different modifications, sophisticated genotypes were obtained. The development of azole resistance in C. albicans is therefore a powerful instrument for generating genetic diversity...
  69. ncbi Antifungal drug resistance mechanisms in fungal pathogens from the perspective of transcriptional gene regulation
    Dominique Sanglard
    Institute of Microbiology, University of Lausanne and University Hospital Center, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    FEMS Yeast Res 9:1029-50. 2009
    ..Here, we review the current understanding of the transcriptional regulation of drug resistance genes from several fungal pathogens including Candida and Aspergillus species...
  70. pmc Epidemiological cutoffs and cross-resistance to azole drugs in Aspergillus fumigatus
    Juan Luis Rodriguez-Tudela
    Servicio de Micologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra Majadahonda Pozuelo km 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:2468-72. 2008
    ..The results obtained in this study will help to develop clinical breakpoints for azole drugs and A. fumigatus...
  71. ncbi Candidaemia in Europe: epidemiology and resistance
    Anna Maria Tortorano
    Istituto di Igiene e Medicina Preventiva, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Pascal 36, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 27:359-66. 2006
    ....
  72. pmc Assessing resistance to the echinocandin antifungal drug caspofungin in Candida albicans by profiling mutations in FKS1
    Sergey V Balashov
    Public Health Research Institute, International Center for Public Health, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2058-63. 2006
    ..These data support the importance of FKS1p substitutions in echinocandin resistance and demonstrate the feasibility of applying molecular screening for routine resistance assessment...
  73. ncbi The zinc cluster transcription factor Tac1p regulates PDR16 expression in Candida albicans
    Sadri Znaidi
    Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7
    Mol Microbiol 66:440-52. 2007
    ..These results demonstrate that: (i) Tac1p controls PDR16 expression; (ii) Asn(972) to Asp(972) is a gain-of-function mutation; and (iii) Tac1p is positively autoregulated, directly or indirectly...
  74. ncbi Identification and characterization of a Cryptococcus neoformans ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter-encoding gene, CnAFR1, involved in the resistance to fluconazole
    Brunella Posteraro
    Istituto Microbiologia, Universita Cattolica del S Cuore, L go F Vito, 1, 00168 Rome, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 47:357-71. 2003
    ..neoformans. Our findings therefore reveal that an active drug efflux mechanism can be involved in the development of azole resistance in this important human pathogen...
  75. pmc Acquired echinocandin resistance in a Candida krusei isolate due to modification of glucan synthase
    Jennifer Nielsen Kahn
    PHRI, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:1876-8. 2007
    ..The resulting Phe655-->Cys substitution altered the sensitivity of glucan synthase to echinocandin drugs, consistent with a common mechanism for echinocandin resistance in Candida spp...
  76. pmc Correlation of MIC with outcome for Candida species tested against caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin: analysis and proposal for interpretive MIC breakpoints
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, 200 Hawkins Drive, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1009, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:2620-9. 2008
    ..Subsequently, the isolates should be submitted to a reference laboratory that will confirm the results by using a CLSI reference dilution method...
  77. ncbi The ATP-binding cassette transporter-encoding gene CgSNQ2 is contributing to the CgPDR1-dependent azole resistance of Candida glabrata
    Riccardo Torelli
    Institute of Microbiology, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 68:186-201. 2008
    ..glabrata. The overlapping in function and regulation between CgSNQ2 and ScSNQ2 further highlight the relationship between S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata...
  78. pmc Paradoxical effect of caspofungin: reduced activity against Candida albicans at high drug concentrations
    David A Stevens
    Department of Medicine, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, 751 S Bascom Ave, San Jose, CA 95128 2699, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3407-11. 2004
    ..We postulate that high drug concentrations derepress or activate resistance mechanisms. The abilities of subpopulations to survive at high drug concentrations could have in vivo consequences...
  79. pmc Reverse genetics in Candida albicans predicts ARF cycling is essential for drug resistance and virulence
    Elias Epp
    Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000753. 2010
    ..This work describes a new, widely conserved, broad-spectrum mechanism involved in fungal drug resistance and virulence and offers a potential route for single or improved combination therapies.
  80. pmc Development and characterization of an in vivo central venous catheter Candida albicans biofilm model
    D Andes
    Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA
    Infect Immun 72:6023-31. 2004
    ..albicans biofilm biology and drug resistance. In addition, the model provides a means to study novel drug therapies and device technologies targeted to the control of biofilm-associated infections...
  81. pmc A gain-of-function mutation in the transcription factor Upc2p causes upregulation of ergosterol biosynthesis genes and increased fluconazole resistance in a clinical Candida albicans isolate
    Nico Dunkel
    Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, Universitat Wurzburg, Rontgenring 11, D 97070 Wurzburg, Germany
    Eukaryot Cell 7:1180-90. 2008
    ..Here we show for the first time that a gain-of-function mutation in UPC2 leads to the increased expression of ERG11 and imparts resistance to fluconazole in clinical isolates of C. albicans...
  82. pmc Candida albicans zinc cluster protein Upc2p confers resistance to antifungal drugs and is an activator of ergosterol biosynthetic genes
    Sarah MacPherson
    Department of Medicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University, 687 Pine Ave West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1A1
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1745-52. 2005
    ..These results provide an important link between changes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway and azole resistance in this opportunistic fungal species...
  83. ncbi Retrograde regulation of multidrug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    W S Moye-Rowley
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, 6 530 Bowen Science Building, 51 Newton Road, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Gene 354:15-21. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that the physiological role of the PDR genes might be to regulate membrane homeostasis and rho0-triggered changes in this parameter may be the signal controlling PDR gene expression...
  84. pmc Increases in SLT2 expression and chitin content are associated with incomplete killing of Candida glabrata by caspofungin
    Jason M Cota
    University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, UTHSCSA, PERC MSC 6220, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1144-6. 2008
    ..In contrast, fungicidal activity and no chitin increase were observed in an isogenic Delta slt2 strain, suggesting a role for SLT2 and chitin production in the response of C. glabrata to caspofungin...
  85. pmc Caspofungin-resistant Candida tropicalis strains causing breakthrough fungemia in patients at high risk for hematologic malignancies
    Guillermo Garcia-Effron
    Public Health Research Institute, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:4181-3. 2008
    ..Three genetically unrelated isolates with high echinocandin MICs were identified. Each strain carried a characteristic mutation conferring an amino acid substitution within Fks1p hot spot 1...
  86. pmc Nationwide survey of in vitro activities of itraconazole and voriconazole against clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates cultured between 1945 and 1998
    Paul E Verweij
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 40:2648-50. 2002
    ..Three isolates were highly resistant to itraconazole, and voriconazole MICs were low for all isolates...
  87. ncbi Emergence of Candida tropicalis resistant to caspofungin
    Tim Pasquale
    J Antimicrob Chemother 61:219. 2008
  88. pmc Population genomics of drug resistance in Candida albicans
    Leah E Cowen
    Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Mississauga, ON, Canada L5L 1C6
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:9284-9. 2002
    ..The three patterns of gene expression were also identified in fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates, providing further evidence that these patterns represent common programs of adaptation to fluconazole...
  89. ncbi Update on antifungal drug resistance mechanisms of Aspergillus fumigatus
    G Chamilos
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, Unit 402, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Drug Resist Updat 8:344-58. 2005
    ..This review examines challenges in the diagnosis, epidemiology, and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in A. fumigatus...
  90. pmc Posaconazole against Candida glabrata isolates with various susceptibilities to fluconazole
    Elisabetta Spreghini
    Istituto di Malattie Infettive e Medicina Pubblica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1929-33. 2008
    ..glabrata. Additionally, the new triazole may be a therapeutic option in those cases where an FLC-resistant isolate is found to retain a relatively low POS MIC...
  91. ncbi Mutations in the cyp51A gene and susceptibility to itraconazole in Aspergillus fumigatus serially isolated from a patient with lung aspergilloma
    Jian Chen
    Department of Dermatology, Peking University First Hospital, Research Center for Medical Mycology, Peking University, No 8 Xishiku St, West District, Beijing, 100034, People s Republic of China
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:31-7. 2005
    ..To monitor changes in itraconazole susceptibility of isolates from a patient undergoing treatment for pulmonary Aspergillus infection and relate these changes to genotypic/phenotypic alterations...
  92. ncbi A genome-wide overexpression screen in yeast for small-molecule target identification
    Hendrik Luesch
    Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Chem Biol 12:55-63. 2005
    ..Consistent with the suppression screen, inhibitor 1 bound to Pkc1 in yeast cell lysate and inhibited its activity in vitro. These results demonstrate the utility of this approach for the rapid deconvolution of small-molecule targets...
  93. ncbi Generic substitution of itraconazole resulting in sub-therapeutic levels and resistance
    Alessandro Comaru Pasqualotto
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 30:93-4. 2007
  94. pmc Characterization of three classes of membrane proteins involved in fungal azole resistance by functional hyperexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Erwin Lamping
    Department of Oral Sciences, University of Otago, PO Box 647, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
    Eukaryot Cell 6:1150-65. 2007
    ..The modified hyperexpression system has wide application for the study of eukaryotic membrane proteins and could also be used in the pharmaceutical industry for drug screening...
  95. pmc FsFKS1, the 1,3-beta-glucan synthase from the caspofungin-resistant fungus Fusarium solani
    Young sil Ha
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 5:1036-42. 2006
    ..Our results suggest that FsFKS1 is required for the proper construction of F. solani cell walls and that the resistance of F. solani to CFA is at best only partially due to resistance of the FsFKS1 enzyme to this antifungal agent...
  96. pmc Substitutions at methionine 220 in the 14alpha-sterol demethylase (Cyp51A) of Aspergillus fumigatus are responsible for resistance in vitro to azole antifungal drugs
    E Mellado
    Servicio de Micologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda Pozuelo Km2, 28220 Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:2747-50. 2004
    ..When the mutated cyp51A genes were introduced into an A. fumigatus wild-type strain, the transformants exhibited reduced susceptibility to all triazole agents, confirming that the mutations were responsible for the resistance phenotype...
  97. pmc Rapid, high-throughput, multiplex, real-time PCR for identification of mutations in the cyp51A gene of Aspergillus fumigatus that confer resistance to itraconazole
    Sergey V Balashov
    Public Health Research Institute, International Center for Public Health, 225 Warren St, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:214-22. 2005
    ..Multiplex real-time PCR with molecular beacons is a powerful technique for allele differentiation and analysis of resistance mutations that is dynamic and suitable for rapid high-throughput assessment of drug resistance...
  98. ncbi In vitro susceptibilities of bloodstream isolates of Candida species to six antifungal agents: results from a population-based active surveillance programme, Barcelona, Spain, 2002-2003
    Manuel Cuenca-Estrella
    Servicio de Micologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra Majadahonda Pozuelo km 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:194-9. 2005
    ....
  99. ncbi The genetic basis of fluconazole resistance development in Candida albicans
    Joachim Morschhäuser
    Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, Universitat Wurzburg, Rontgenring 11, Wurzburg, Germany
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1587:240-8. 2002
    ..Disruption of both alleles of the MDR1 gene in resistant C. albicans isolates abolishes their resistance to these drugs, providing genetic evidence that MDR1 mediates multidrug resistance in C. albicans...
  100. ncbi Acquired resistance to echinocandins in Candida albicans: case report and review
    Marie Thérèse Baixench
    Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Medecine, AP HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Unité de Parasitologie Mycologie, Paris, France
    J Antimicrob Chemother 59:1076-83. 2007
    ..Four C. albicans isolates were serially recovered before and after caspofungin treatment. A microbiological study was performed to characterize these four isolates...
  101. pmc Three-dimensional models of wild-type and mutated forms of cytochrome P450 14alpha-sterol demethylases from Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans provide insights into posaconazole binding
    Li Xiao
    Department of Structural Chemistry, Schering Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:568-74. 2004
    ..The model also predicts that mutations that were previously shown to specifically impact POS susceptibility in A. fumigatus and C. albicans act by interfering with the binding of the long side chain...

Research Grants63

  1. Genetic and Evolutionary Basis of Fungal Drug Resistance
    Zhenglong Gu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Virulence factors for fungal pathogens, such as pathogenic fungal drug resistance, often are quantitative traits...
  2. Identifying novel small molecules for improved antifungal drug treatment
    Martha L Bulyk; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  3. Identification of broad-spectrum antifungal efflux pump inhibitors
    Richard Cannon; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  4. Role of transcriptional regulation in Aspergillus fumigatus drug resistance
    W Scott Moye-Rowley; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This work will initiate analysis of the contribution of gene transcription to antifungal drug resistance in A. fumigatus. ..
  5. A Structural Approach for Treating Drug Resistant Fungal Pathogens
    Mitchell W Mutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The emergence of fungal drug resistance to widely used antifungals including triazoles and echinocandins further compromises the efficacy of the ..
  6. A Combination Therapy Approach to Treating Drug Resistant Fungal Infections
    Mitchell W Mutz; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The emergence of fungal drug resistance to widely used antifungals including triazoles and echinocandins further compromises the efficacy of the ..
  7. Genome Integrity in Candida albicans
    Judith G Berman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  8. Hsp90 inhibitors to combat antifungal drug resistance.
    ESTEBAN EDWARD MENA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  9. New Drugs for Opportunistic Infections
    Alice M Clark; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This information will expand the foundation of knowledge regarding the therapeutic control of opportunistic fungal infections and the understanding of the basic biology of the pathogens involved. ..
  10. ANTIFUNGAL RESPONSE--MDR INDUCTION
    Thomas Edlind; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Candida homologues of these factors will be identified by PCR or expression in S. cerevisiae. Their role in MDR induction will be examined by gene disruption. ..
  11. Reversing Antifungal Drug Resistance
    Susan Lindquist; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The objective of this project is to discover new chemical compounds capable of reversing fungal drug resistance, thereby illuminating the mechanisms responsible for drug resistance in disease-causing fungi and making ..
  12. Cell wall biogenesis in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Deborah Fox; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These studies will allow the identification of key components of cell wall biogenesis machinery in this pathogen and will provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance. ..
  13. DNA Repair Genes and Acquired Drug Resistance in Candida
    David Kirkpatrick; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  14. ASPERGILLOSIS--THE EVOLUTION BEHIND STRAIN TYPING
    John Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..versicolor, and apply this method to A. flavus and A. fumigatus and their closest sexual relatives. ..
  15. Antifungal Drug Resistance in Aspergillus
    Kieren Marr; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These two aims have been developed to take is closer to the overall goal of decreasing Aspergillus associated mortality by developing more effective, laboratory directed therapeutic strategies. ..
  16. The Transcriptome of Pathogenic Aspergillus Fumigatus
    William Nierman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. Rapid Evaluation of Drug Resistance in Pathogenic Fungi
    David Perlin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Although our emphasis is on fungal infections, this approach should serve as a paradigm for applications to other pathogens with established resistance mechanisms. ..
  18. Pharmacogenomics/natural products + antifungal activity
    John Cleary; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Probing this array with eukaryotic mRNA from cells exposed to novel antifungals would predict common mechanism of action and likelihood of toxicity, activity and resistance. ..
  19. Vacuole expansion during flamentation in Candida
    Joy Sturtevant; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The information obtained in this study on the role of the fungal vacuole in pathogenesis may also aid in the design of new anti-fungal treatment strategies. ..
  20. Oral Yeast Carriage and Salivary Antifungal Activity
    EVA HELMERHORST; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The experiments outlined here will provide the basis for a better understanding of antifungal mechanisms exerted by saliva in the oral cavity. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. Regulation of Drug Resistance Genes in C. Albicans
    Carol Kumamoto; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The long-term goal of these studies is to contribute to a more informed use of fluconazole with respect to prophylaxis, drug dosage regimens and the development of fluconazole resistant strains. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. SIGNALING COMPLEXES AND THE 14-3-3 PROTEIN IN CANDIDA
    Joy Sturtevant; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Consequently, identification of inhibitors of the processes identified in this proposal may prove to be a line of antifungal drug discovery. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. Intestinal colonization by C.albicans and enteric bacteria
    Carol Kumamoto; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  24. Molecular Epidemiology of Human P. carinii Pneumonia
    Laurence Huang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  25. Fungal transporters: from resistance to new antifungals
    Richard Cannon; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This project will increase our understanding of efflux pump structure and function and identify pump inhibitors that could lead to new therapies for patients with opportunistic fungal infections. ..
  26. Regulation of Fungal Invasive Growth
    Carol Kumamoto; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..cerevisiae. Experiments are proposed to identify interactors that bind to the gene products of interest and to elucidate the pathways in which these gene products participate. ..
  27. High Purity Amphotericin B: A Safer Antimycotic in AIDS
    John Cleary; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. ENERGY COUPLING BY THE YEAST PLASMA MEMBRANE H+_ATPASE
    David Perlin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. NHLBI Respiration Biology Research Training Grant
    Andrew Limper; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Candidate are committed to a minimum of two, but preferably three or more years of full time research. A wide range of didactic courses is available to complement the intensive laboratory experience. ..
  30. Azoles and Candida in AIDS - A Whole Cell Response
    THEODORE WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  31. Cholesterol and Sphingolipid Perturbation of Membrane Traffic in Human Disease
    Andrew H Limper; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The following studies will examine the role of these lipids in exacerbating the symptoms of Cystic fibrosis and will be used in developing new therapeutic approaches for this disease. ..
  32. Host Immunity and Virulence in Candida albicans Pathogenesis
    Jose Lopez Ribot; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Results are likely to lead to the development of new immune-based strategies for the prevention and treatment of systemic candidiasis that are urgently needed. ..
  33. AIDS Related Oral Candidiasis: Drugs, Sterols, and Fungal Cells
    Theodore C White; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding the interactions between azoles and fungal cells is a clinically significant issue, with the potential for improving diagnosis, treatment and prevention of fungal infections and resistance. ..
  34. GPCR signaling cascades in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  35. HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION IN MAMMALIAN CELLS
    ROBERT LISKAY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, we anticipate identifying additional proteins involved in MMR-related processes, which may have functions in preventing human disease such as cancer. ..
  36. BIODEFENSE THERAPEUTICS FROM UNCULTURED MICROORGANISMS
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Determination of chemical structure will be performed by a combination of MS and NMR methods. ..
  37. Antibody Protection in Histoplamosis
    JOSHUA NOSANCHUK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies are expected to lead to insights into H. capsulatum pathogenesis and initiate the development of new therapeutic and diagnostic reagents. ..
  38. Genetic Determinants of Genomic Plasticity and Chromosome Evolution
    Forrest A Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In humans, distinct chromosome nondisjunction signatures that reveal specific dysfunctional pathways could enhance diagnosis and treatment of disease. ..
  39. AIDS Related Candidiasis: Dynamic Expression of Drug Resistant Genes
    Theodore C White; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This has clinical significance, as fungi in a patient are never simply exposed to one defined set of drug/fungus conditions. ..
  40. Azoles and Candida in AIDS-Transcriptional Regulation
    THEODORE WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  41. C. albicans From HIV+ Individuals&its Role in Drug resis
    Kaaren Vargas; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In the long-term, I would like to make significant contributions to science in the area of antifungal drug resistance. It is an exciting area of research and I feel strongly that I have the motivation to accomplish this goal. ..
  42. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS--A MODEL FOR PATHOGENIC FUNGI
    John Perfect; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This program emphasizes a focus on a single pathogen with a basic but broad-spectrum and highly interactive genomic approach to scientific investigations which can be extrapolated to other fungi. ..
  43. In Vivo Expression of Candida Drug Resistance Genes
    THEODORE WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  44. NATURAL SUBSTRATES AND INHIBITORS OF MICROBIAL MDR PUMPS
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..MDR inhibitors will potentiate the action of conventional antibiotics, aiding eradication of multidrug resistant human pathogens. ..
  45. MELANOGENESIS IN CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS
    JOSHUA NOSANCHUK; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..To explore the structure of melanin using biochemistry, phage display peptide libraries and mAbs; and 4. To use peptides and mAbs to study C. neoformans melanogenesis in vivo and in vitro. ..
  46. Cryptococcus gatti mating 1oci; mapping and gene study
    Vishnu Chaturvedi; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  47. Detection and Significance of Antifungal Resistance in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis
    Thomas F Patterson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research is aimed at developing rapid molecular tests to detect yeasts which are resistant to antifungal agents in order to allow early use of more effective therapy. ..
  48. Genome Instability in Cells and Tissues of the Zebrafish
    Forrest Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  49. NINTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOPS ON OPPORTUNISTIC PEOTISTS (IWOP-9)
    EDNA KANESHIRO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..As in several IWOP meetings in the past, the 2006 Workshops will be held jointly with the annual meetings of the International Society of Protistologists ( formerly Society of Protozoologists). ..
  50. MOLECULAR BASIS OF VIRULENCE FACTORS OF ORAL FUNGAL SP.
    Mary Ann Jabra Rizk; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Long range plans include using the mutants generated to study Candida mannoprotein-specific host immunomodulation, such as stimulation of cytokines and chemokines. ..
  51. Control of the Pneumocystis carinii Life Cycle
    Andrew Limper; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. Molecular Diagnosis of pathogenic fungi
    Robert Akins; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We expect that the protocols and strategies developed here for fungi will extend to other, non-culturable organisms. ..
  53. The Nature of Bacterial Uncultivability
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Unculturable bacteria are an enormous untapped source of potentially useful pharmaceutical compounds. Unculturable bacteria also make up most of the human oral and intestinal microflora. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  54. Sterol Metabolism in Pneumocystis
    EDNA KANESHIRO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  55. Pheromone Signaling in Pneumocystis Carinii
    Charles Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Through these investigations we hope to gain insights into P. carinii biology which may provide new information for novel drug development to treat PCP. ..
  56. IMMUNODOMINANT TARGETS OF CMI TO CRYPTOSPORIDIUM
    Jan Mead; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This will be accomplished by immunizing mice with a DNA construct of these antigens, assessing their ability to elicit immune responses, and challenging mice with C. parvum to determine the degree of protection achieved. ..
  57. NRG1 Regulation of Candida albicans Virulence
    Jose Lopez Ribot; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..albicans virulence and ii) to identify downstream targets of Nrg1p under both planktonic and biofilm growing conditions. ..
  58. GENETIC & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF VIRULENCE IN C NEOFORMANS
    John Perfect; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..It is our hypothesis that beginning to understand the genetic regulation of C. neoformans during infection through this proposal will be a powerful tool to find targets to interrupt pathogenesis. ..
  59. NOVEL METHODS FOR DISCOVERY OF ANTI-MICROBIALS
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Determination of chemical structure will be performed by a combination of MS and NMR methods. ..
  60. Biochemical analysis of Pol II elongation complexes and mechanism
    CRAIG KAPLAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Insights into Pol II function will allow a better understanding of how Pol II may be misregulated in disease states in other species, such as humans. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..