diffusion

Summary

Summary: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space; a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Probabilistic diffusion tractography with multiple fibre orientations: What can we gain?
    T E J Behrens
    Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain FMRIB, Oxford, UK
    Neuroimage 34:144-55. 2007
  2. ncbi The basis of anisotropic water diffusion in the nervous system - a technical review
    Christian Beaulieu
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    NMR Biomed 15:435-55. 2002
  3. pmc A septin diffusion barrier at the base of the primary cilium maintains ciliary membrane protein distribution
    Qicong Hu
    Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 329:436-9. 2010
  4. pmc Probing transcription factor dynamics at the single-molecule level in a living cell
    Johan Elf
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 316:1191-4. 2007
  5. ncbi Diffusion tensor imaging: concepts and applications
    D Le Bihan
    Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA, 91406 Orsay, France
    J Magn Reson Imaging 13:534-46. 2001
  6. ncbi The scaling laws of human travel
    D Brockmann
    Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self Organisation, Bunsenstr 10, 37073 Gottingen, Germany
    Nature 439:462-5. 2006
  7. pmc How do site-specific DNA-binding proteins find their targets?
    Stephen E Halford
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:3040-52. 2004
  8. ncbi Detection and modeling of non-Gaussian apparent diffusion coefficient profiles in human brain data
    D C Alexander
    Department of Computer Science, University College London, UK
    Magn Reson Med 48:331-40. 2002
  9. ncbi Characterizing non-Gaussian diffusion by using generalized diffusion tensors
    Chunlei Liu
    Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5488, USA
    Magn Reson Med 51:924-37. 2004
  10. pmc Long-range activation of systemic immunity through peptidoglycan diffusion in Drosophila
    Mathilde Gendrin
    Global Health Institute, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000694. 2009

Research Grants

  1. HE3 MR Diffusion & Low Dose CT Quantitation of Emphysema
    David Gierada; Fiscal Year: 2005
  2. Novel TIRF microscopy analyzing trafficking & signaling at the cell cortex
    Derek Toomre; Fiscal Year: 2009
  3. Mapping for Specialized Domains for FCeRI Signaling &Internalization
    Bridget S Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Investigating Mechanism of Intracellular Rotational Transport with Optical T
    Jeffrey N Anker; Fiscal Year: 2012
  5. Tobacco Control Research Branch Scientific and Technical Services Support
    KOURTNEY MARSHALL; Fiscal Year: 2009
  6. Mary K Sheats; Fiscal Year: 2016
  7. Drug Interactions at the Human Blood-Brain Barrier
    Jashvant D Unadkat; Fiscal Year: 2010
  8. Interplay Between Tissue Architecture and Nuclear Organization in the DNA Damage
    Pierre Alexandre Vidi; Fiscal Year: 2013
  9. Bachir Taouli; Fiscal Year: 2014
  10. Jay R Winkler; Fiscal Year: 2016

Detail Information

Publications443 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Probabilistic diffusion tractography with multiple fibre orientations: What can we gain?
    T E J Behrens
    Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain FMRIB, Oxford, UK
    Neuroimage 34:144-55. 2007
    We present a direct extension of probabilistic diffusion tractography to the case of multiple fibre orientations...
  2. ncbi The basis of anisotropic water diffusion in the nervous system - a technical review
    Christian Beaulieu
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    NMR Biomed 15:435-55. 2002
    Anisotropic water diffusion in neural fibres such as nerve, white matter in spinal cord, or white matter in brain forms the basis for the utilization of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to track fibre pathways...
  3. pmc A septin diffusion barrier at the base of the primary cilium maintains ciliary membrane protein distribution
    Qicong Hu
    Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 329:436-9. 2010
    ..We found that ciliary membrane proteins were highly mobile, but their diffusion was impeded at the base of the cilium by a diffusion barrier...
  4. pmc Probing transcription factor dynamics at the single-molecule level in a living cell
    Johan Elf
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 316:1191-4. 2007
    ..Furthermore, we characterized the nonspecific binding to DNA, one-dimensional (1D) diffusion along DNA segments, and 3D translocation among segments through cytoplasm at the single-molecule level...
  5. ncbi Diffusion tensor imaging: concepts and applications
    D Le Bihan
    Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA, 91406 Orsay, France
    J Magn Reson Imaging 13:534-46. 2001
    The success of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is deeply rooted in the powerful concept that during their random, diffusion-driven displacements molecules probe tissue structure at a microscopic scale well beyond the usual ..
  6. ncbi The scaling laws of human travel
    D Brockmann
    Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self Organisation, Bunsenstr 10, 37073 Gottingen, Germany
    Nature 439:462-5. 2006
    ....
  7. pmc How do site-specific DNA-binding proteins find their targets?
    Stephen E Halford
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:3040-52. 2004
    ..In this article, we review current understanding of how this sequence searching is done. We review how simple diffusion through solution may be unable to account for the rapid rates of association observed in experiments on some ..
  8. ncbi Detection and modeling of non-Gaussian apparent diffusion coefficient profiles in human brain data
    D C Alexander
    Department of Computer Science, University College London, UK
    Magn Reson Med 48:331-40. 2002
    This work details the observation of non-Gaussian apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) profiles in multi-direction, diffusion-weighted MR data acquired with easily achievable imaging parameters (b approximately 1000 s/mm(2))...
  9. ncbi Characterizing non-Gaussian diffusion by using generalized diffusion tensors
    Chunlei Liu
    Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5488, USA
    Magn Reson Med 51:924-37. 2004
    b>Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is known to have a limited capability of resolving multiple fiber orientations within one voxel...
  10. pmc Long-range activation of systemic immunity through peptidoglycan diffusion in Drosophila
    Mathilde Gendrin
    Global Health Institute, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000694. 2009
    ..Genital infection is thus an intriguing new model for studying the systemic immune response to local epithelial infections and a potential route of entry for naturally occurring pathogens of Drosophila...
  11. doi Reaction-diffusion model as a framework for understanding biological pattern formation
    Shigeru Kondo
    Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 565 0871, Japan
    Science 329:1616-20. 2010
    The Turing, or reaction-diffusion (RD), model is one of the best-known theoretical models used to explain self-regulated pattern formation in the developing animal embryo...
  12. pmc Multiplexed echo planar imaging for sub-second whole brain FMRI and fast diffusion imaging
    David A Feinberg
    Advanced MRI Technologies, Sebastopol, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15710. 2010
    ..an MRI technique of particular value to neuroscience, with its use for virtually all functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion imaging of fiber connections in the human brain...
  13. doi Chemical biology of peroxynitrite: kinetics, diffusion, and radicals
    Gerardo Ferrer-Sueta
    Laboratorio de Fisicoquímica Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo 11800, Uruguay
    ACS Chem Biol 4:161-77. 2009
    ..the chemical biology of peroxynitrite is dictated by the chemical kinetics of its formation and decay and by the diffusion across membranes of the species involved, including peroxynitrite itself...
  14. ncbi Single-particle tracking: applications to membrane dynamics
    M J Saxton
    Institute of Theoretical Dynamics, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 26:373-99. 1997
    ..but many of the particles undergo non-Brownian motion, including directed motion, confined motion, and anomalous diffusion. The variety of motion leads to significant effects on the kinetics of reactions among membrane-bound species ..
  15. ncbi Diffusional kurtosis imaging: the quantification of non-gaussian water diffusion by means of magnetic resonance imaging
    Jens H Jensen
    Department of Radiology, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016 3240, USA
    Magn Reson Med 53:1432-40. 2005
    A magnetic resonance imaging method is presented for quantifying the degree to which water diffusion in biologic tissues is non-Gaussian...
  16. doi Spatial control of EGF receptor activation by reversible dimerization on living cells
    Inhee Chung
    Genentech, Inc, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Nature 464:783-7. 2010
    ..Interestingly, dimers were enriched in the cell periphery in an actin- and receptor-expression-dependent fashion, resulting in a peripheral enhancement of EGF-induced signalling that may enable polarized responses to growth factors...
  17. pmc MRI quantification of non-Gaussian water diffusion by kurtosis analysis
    Jens H Jensen
    Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016 3295, USA
    NMR Biomed 23:698-710. 2010
    Quantification of non-Gaussianity for water diffusion in brain by means of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is reviewed. Diffusional non-Gaussianity is a consequence of tissue structure that creates diffusion barriers and compartments...
  18. doi Studying connections in the living human brain with diffusion MRI
    Derek K Jones
    Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK
    Cortex 44:936-52. 2008
    The purpose of this article is to explain how the random walks of water molecules undergoing diffusion in living tissue may be exploited to garner information on the white matter of the human brain and its connections...
  19. ncbi Functional-anatomical validation and individual variation of diffusion tractography-based segmentation of the human thalamus
    Heidi Johansen-Berg
    Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Cereb Cortex 15:31-9. 2005
    Parcellation of the human thalamus based on cortical connectivity information inferred from non-invasive diffusion-weighted images identifies sub-regions that we have proposed correspond to nuclei...
  20. pmc Diffusion in brain extracellular space
    Eva Sykova
    Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
    Physiol Rev 88:1277-340. 2008
    b>Diffusion in the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain is constrained by the volume fraction and the tortuosity and a modified diffusion equation represents the transport behavior of many molecules in the brain...
  21. ncbi Macromolecular crowding: an important but neglected aspect of the intracellular environment
    R J Ellis
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
    Curr Opin Struct Biol 11:114-9. 2001
    ..It is proposed that the addition of crowding agents should become as routine as controlling pH and ionic strength if we are to meet the objective of studying biological molecules under more physiologically relevant conditions...
  22. ncbi Analysis of partial volume effects in diffusion-tensor MRI
    A L Alexander
    Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53705 2280, USA
    Magn Reson Med 45:770-80. 2001
    The diffusion tensor is currently the accepted model of diffusion in biological tissues. The measured diffusion behavior may be more complex when two or more distinct tissues with different diffusion tensors occupy the same voxel...
  23. pmc Rapid transport of large polymeric nanoparticles in fresh undiluted human mucus
    Samuel K Lai
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:1482-7. 2007
    ..500 and 200 nm in diameter, if coated with polyethylene glycol, diffused through mucus with an effective diffusion coefficient (D(eff)) only 4- and 6-fold lower than that for the same particles in water (at time scale tau = 1 s)..
  24. doi Crowding effects on diffusion in solutions and cells
    James A Dix
    Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York 13902, USA
    Annu Rev Biophys 37:247-63. 2008
    We review the effects of molecular crowding on solute diffusion in solution and in cellular aqueous compartments and membranes...
  25. doi Blood diffusion and Th1-suppressive effects of galectin-9-containing exosomes released by Epstein-Barr virus-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells
    Jihène Klibi
    Universite Paris Sud, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 8126, Paris, France
    Blood 113:1957-66. 2009
    ....
  26. pmc SSB protein diffusion on single-stranded DNA stimulates RecA filament formation
    Rahul Roy
    Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Illinois 61801, USA
    Nature 461:1092-7. 2009
    ..Diffusional migration of SSB helps in the local displacement of SSB by an elongating RecA filament. SSB diffusion also melts short DNA hairpins transiently and stimulates RecA filament elongation on DNA with secondary ..
  27. doi Transmembrane helices can induce domain formation in crowded model membranes
    Jan Domański
    Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, and Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijemborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1818:984-94. 2012
    ..The l(d) domain was highly crowded with TM helices (protein-to-lipid ratio ~1:5), slowing down lateral diffusion by a factor of 5-10 as compared to the dilute case, with anomalous (sub)-diffusion on the μs time scale...
  28. pmc Aldehyde fixative solutions alter the water relaxation and diffusion properties of nervous tissue
    Timothy M Shepherd
    Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0628, USA
    Magn Reson Med 62:26-34. 2009
    ..b>Diffusion MRI of cortical slices analyzed with a two-compartment analytical model of water diffusion demonstrated 88% and ..
  29. pmc Transient localized patterns in noise-driven reaction-diffusion systems
    Inbal Hecht
    Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0319, USA
    Phys Rev Lett 104:158301. 2010
    ..range such that there exist (in general unstable) localized solutions of the governing deterministic reaction-diffusion equations. Our work is motivated by a recent biological example showing transiently excited cell membrane regions...
  30. pmc Measuring fast dynamics in solutions and cells with a laser scanning microscope
    Michelle A Digman
    Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Illinois, USA
    Biophys J 89:1317-27. 2005
    Single-point fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) allows measurements of fast diffusion and dynamic processes in the microsecond-to-millisecond time range...
  31. ncbi Water diffusion changes in Wallerian degeneration and their dependence on white matter architecture
    C Pierpaoli
    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-5772, USA
    Neuroimage 13:1174-85. 2001
    This study investigates water diffusion changes in Wallerian degeneration...
  32. pmc Septin structure and function in yeast and beyond
    Younghoon Oh
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Trends Cell Biol 21:141-8. 2011
    ..Septins are usually associated with a discrete region of the plasma membrane and function as a cell scaffold or diffusion barrier to effect cytokinesis, cell polarity, and many other functions...
  33. pmc Anomalous subdiffusion is a measure for cytoplasmic crowding in living cells
    Matthias Weiss
    MEMPHYS Center for Biomembrane Physics, Physics Department, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, Odense M, Denmark
    Biophys J 87:3518-24. 2004
    ..a heterogeneous environment is at the molecular scale and how this manifests in basic physical phenomena like diffusion. Here, we show by means of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and computer simulations that crowding ..
  34. doi Advances in single-molecule fluorescence methods for molecular biology
    Chirlmin Joo
    Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 77:51-76. 2008
    ..In this exciting era of transitioning from in vitro to in vivo and in situ conditions, it is anticipated that SM fluorescence methodology will become a common tool of molecular biology...
  35. ncbi Monitoring early response of experimental brain tumors to therapy using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging
    T L Chenevert
    Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 3:1457-66. 1997
    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging was performed to evaluate water diffusion and relaxation times, T1 and T2, as potential therapeutic response indicators for brain tumors using the intracranial 9L brain tumor model...
  36. ncbi Spatial normalization and averaging of diffusion tensor MRI data sets
    Derek K Jones
    Section of Old Age Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom
    Neuroimage 17:592-617. 2002
    b>Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is unique in providing information about both the structural integrity and the orientation of white matter fibers in vivo and, through "tractography", revealing the ..
  37. pmc Nonspecifically bound proteins spin while diffusing along DNA
    Paul C Blainey
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 16:1224-9. 2009
    ..Do these proteins undergo simple one-dimensional (1D) translational diffusion, or do they rotate to maintain a specific orientation with respect to the DNA helix? We measured 1D diffusion ..
  38. pmc Active efflux and diffusion are involved in transport of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell-to-cell signals
    J P Pearson
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    J Bacteriol 181:1203-10. 1999
    ..Apparently the length and/or degree of substitution of the N-acyl side chain determines whether an AI is freely diffusible or is subject to active efflux by P. aeruginosa...
  39. pmc Phospholipids undergo hop diffusion in compartmentalized cell membrane
    Takahiro Fujiwara
    Kusumi Membrane Organizer Project, Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology Organization, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Nagoya 460 0012, Japan
    J Cell Biol 157:1071-81. 2002
    The diffusion rate of lipids in the cell membrane is reduced by a factor of 5-100 from that in artificial bilayers. This slowing mechanism has puzzled cell biologists for the last 25 yr...
  40. ncbi A framework for a streamline-based probabilistic index of connectivity (PICo) using a structural interpretation of MRI diffusion measurements
    Geoffrey J M Parker
    Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    J Magn Reson Imaging 18:242-54. 2003
    To establish a general methodology for quantifying streamline-based diffusion fiber tracking methods in terms of probability of connection between points and/or regions.
  41. pmc Mobility of cytoplasmic, membrane, and DNA-binding proteins in Escherichia coli
    Mohit Kumar
    Zentrum fur Molekulare Biologie der Universitat Heidelberg, DKFZ ZMBH Alliance, Heidelberg, Germany
    Biophys J 98:552-9. 2010
    ..Despite such importance, little systematic information is available about protein diffusion inside bacterial cells...
  42. pmc Cell-free study of F plasmid partition provides evidence for cargo transport by a diffusion-ratchet mechanism
    Anthony G Vecchiarelli
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:E1390-7. 2013
    ..The findings favor a diffusion-ratchet model for plasmid motion whereby partition complexes create an ATPase concentration gradient and then ..
  43. pmc Diffusion in biofilms
    Philip S Stewart
    Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University Bozeman, 59717 3980, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:1485-91. 2003
  44. doi Why and how bacteria localize proteins
    L Shapiro
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 326:1225-8. 2009
    ..The dynamic subcellular localization of protein complexes is an integral feature of regulatory processes of bacterial cells...
  45. doi Chromosome dynamics, molecular crowding, and diffusion in the interphase cell nucleus: a Monte Carlo lattice simulation study
    Christian C Fritsch
    Biophysics of Macromolecules, German Cancer Research Center Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany
    Chromosome Res 19:63-81. 2011
    ..The network thus created will obstruct the diffusion of macromolecules...
  46. doi Mechanisms underlying CO2 diffusion in leaves
    Ralf Kaldenhoff
    Applied Plant Science, Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstrasse 10, Darmstadt, Germany
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 15:276-81. 2012
    Plants provide an excellent system to study CO(2) diffusion because, under light saturated conditions, photosynthesis is limited by CO(2) availability...
  47. doi FDG PET/CT and diffusion-weighted imaging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: comparison of prognostic significance between primary tumor standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient
    Masatoyo Nakajo
    Department of Radiology, Field of Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan
    Clin Nucl Med 37:475-80. 2012
    To compare primary tumor (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained in the same patients with head and neck squamous cell ..
  48. pmc General protein diffusion barriers create compartments within bacterial cells
    Susan Schlimpert
    Max Planck Research Group Prokaryotic Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Karl von Frisch Strasse 10, 35043 Marburg, Germany
    Cell 151:1270-82. 2012
    ..or neuronal axons depends on the partitioning of proteins to distinct plasma membrane domains by specialized diffusion barriers...
  49. ncbi Oxide nanoparticle uptake in human lung fibroblasts: effects of particle size, agglomeration, and diffusion at low concentrations
    Ludwig K Limbach
    Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
    Environ Sci Technol 39:9370-6. 2005
    ..uptake of nanoparticles into biological systems should consider simultaneous agglomeration, sedimentation, and diffusion at physiologically relevant concentrations to assess the corresponding risks of nanomaterials to human health...
  50. ncbi Spatial regulation of Fus3 MAP kinase activity through a reaction-diffusion mechanism in yeast pheromone signalling
    Celine I Maeder
    Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, EMBL Heidelberg, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nat Cell Biol 9:1319-26. 2007
    ..Propagation of signalling from the shmoo is, therefore, spatially constrained by a gradient-generating reaction-diffusion mechanism.
  51. doi Dynamics of component exchange at PML nuclear bodies
    Stefanie Weidtkamp-Peters
    Leibniz Institute of Age Research, Fritz Lipman Institute, Beutenbergstr 11, 07745 Jena, Germany
    J Cell Sci 121:2731-43. 2008
    ..These findings provide a kinetics model for factor exchange at PML NBs and highlight potential mechanisms to regulate intranuclear trafficking of specific factors at these domains...
  52. pmc Microautophagy of the nucleus coincides with a vacuolar diffusion barrier at nuclear-vacuolar junctions
    Rosie Dawaliby
    Departement de Biochimie, Universite de Lausanne, Chemin des Boveresses 155, 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland
    Mol Biol Cell 21:4173-83. 2010
    ..We find that NV junctions form a diffusion barrier on the vacuolar membrane that excludes V-ATPase but is enriched in the VTC complex and accessible to ..
  53. doi Protection of the retina by rapid diffusion of hydrogen: administration of hydrogen-loaded eye drops in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Hideaki Oharazawa
    Department of Ophthalmology, Musashikosugi Hospital, Nippon Medical School, Kanagawa, Japan
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:487-92. 2010
    ..This study was conducted to explore the neuroprotective effect of H(2)-loaded eye drops on retinal I/R injury...
  54. pmc Gray and white matter water diffusion in the syndromic variants of frontotemporal dementia
    J L Whitwell
    Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN 55905, USA
    Neurology 74:1279-87. 2010
    To use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess gray matter and white matter tract diffusion in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SMD), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA).
  55. ncbi The bipolar mitotic kinesin Eg5 moves on both microtubules that it crosslinks
    Lukas C Kapitein
    Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laser Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nature 435:114-8. 2005
    ..Our results demonstrate how members of the kinesin-5 family are likely to function in mitosis, pushing apart interpolar microtubules as well as recruiting microtubules into bundles that are subsequently polarized by relative sliding...
  56. doi Resistances along the CO2 diffusion pathway inside leaves
    John R Evans
    The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
    J Exp Bot 60:2235-48. 2009
    ..Resistance to diffusion through intercellular airspace differs between leaves, but is usually of minor importance...
  57. pmc Single-molecule imaging reveals target-search mechanisms during DNA mismatch repair
    Jason Gorman
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E3074-83. 2012
    ..Here we use the postreplicative mismatch repair proteins MutSα and MutLα as model systems for understanding diffusion-based target searches...
  58. pmc Endocytosis optimizes the dynamic localization of membrane proteins that regulate cortical polarity
    Eugenio Marco
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Cell 129:411-22. 2007
    ..the ability to maintain dynamically polarized membrane-protein distributions through balancing transport and diffusion. However, design principles underlying dynamically maintained cortical polarity are not well understood...
  59. ncbi Anisotropy in high angular resolution diffusion-weighted MRI
    L R Frank
    Department of Radiology, San Diego VA Healthcare System and University of California-San Diego, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    Magn Reson Med 45:935-9. 2001
    The diffusion in voxels with multidirectional fibers can be quite complicated and not necessarily well characterized by the standard diffusion tensor model...
  60. ncbi Diffusion tensor imaging demonstrates fiber impairment in Susac syndrome
    I Kleffner
    Department of Neurology, University of Muenster, Albert Schweitzer Str 33, 48129 Muenster, Germany
    Neurology 70:1867-9. 2008
  61. doi Fgf8 morphogen gradient forms by a source-sink mechanism with freely diffusing molecules
    Shuizi Rachel Yu
    Developmental Genetics, Biotechnology Center, TUD, Tatzberg 47 49, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Nature 461:533-6. 2009
    ..gradients in living zebrafish embryos are established and maintained by two essential factors: fast, free diffusion of single molecules away from the source through extracellular space, and a sink function of the receiving cells,..
  62. doi Longitudinal study of the assessment by MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging of tumor response in patients with locally advanced breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy
    Uma Sharma
    Department of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
    NMR Biomed 22:104-13. 2009
    Measurements of tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume and diameter in assessing the response of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) (n = 56) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) at four time periods (..
  63. ncbi Interleukin-1beta -induced changes in blood-brain barrier permeability, apparent diffusion coefficient, and cerebral blood volume in the rat brain: a magnetic resonance study
    A M Blamire
    Medical Research Council Biochemical and Clinical Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 20:8153-9. 2000
    ..5 and 5 hr, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of brain water fell by 6 hr (5.42 +/- 0. 35 x 10(-4) mm(2)/sec treated, 7.35 +/- 0...
  64. pmc Single-particle tracking: the distribution of diffusion coefficients
    M J Saxton
    Institute of Theoretical Dynamics, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    Biophys J 72:1744-53. 1997
    In single-particle tracking experiments, the diffusion coefficient D may be measured from the trajectory of an individual particle in the cell membrane...
  65. ncbi WNT and DKK determine hair follicle spacing through a reaction-diffusion mechanism
    Stefanie Sick
    Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology, Stuebeweg 51, 79108 Freiburg, Germany
    Science 314:1447-50. 2006
    Mathematical reaction-diffusion models have been suggested to describe formation of animal pigmentation patterns and distribution of epidermal appendages. However, the crucial signals and in vivo mechanisms are still elusive...
  66. doi Knockdown of filaggrin impairs diffusion barrier function and increases UV sensitivity in a human skin model
    Michael Mildner
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Invest Dermatol 130:2286-94. 2010
    ..Despite grossly normal stratum corneum morphology, filaggrin-deficient skin models showed a disturbed diffusion barrier function in a dye penetration assay...
  67. pmc Diffusion-driven looping provides a consistent framework for chromatin organization
    Manfred Bohn
    Institute for Theoretical Physics, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e12218. 2010
    ..Thus, dynamic diffusion-based looping, i.e...
  68. doi Visualizing one-dimensional diffusion of proteins along DNA
    Jason Gorman
    Department of Biological Sciences, 650 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 15:768-74. 2008
    ..Here we present an overview of these new observations and discuss the advantages, limitations and future prospects for imaging the motion of proteins along DNA...
  69. ncbi Neuronal activity regulates diffusion across the neck of dendritic spines
    Brenda L Bloodgood
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 310:866-9. 2005
    In mammalian excitatory neurons, dendritic spines are separated from dendrites by thin necks. Diffusion across the neck limits the chemical and electrical isolation of each spine...
  70. ncbi Lateral diffusion drives constitutive exchange of AMPA receptors at dendritic spines and is regulated by spine morphology
    Michael C Ashby
    Medical Research Council Centre for Synaptic Plasticity, Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, Medical School, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 26:7046-55. 2006
    ..movements of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) on the surface of mature neurons to investigate the role of lateral diffusion in constitutive AMPAR trafficking and to assess the influence of membrane architecture on the surface ..
  71. ncbi Kinetics of morphogen gradient formation
    Anna Kicheva
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauer Strasse 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Science 315:521-5. 2007
    ..we measured the four key kinetic parameters governing morphogen spreading: the production rate, the effective diffusion coefficient, the degradation rate, and the immobile fraction...
  72. ncbi Cardiac diffusion MRI without motion effects
    Jiangang Dou
    MGH NMR Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Magn Reson Med 48:105-14. 2002
    We present a method for diffusion tensor MRI in the beating heart that is insensitive to cardiac motion and strain...
  73. ncbi Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy in living cells
    Kirsten Bacia
    Institute of Biophysics, Dresden University of Technology, Tatzberg 47 51, D 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Nat Methods 3:83-9. 2006
    ..fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) grants access to processes on a molecular scale, such as diffusion, binding, enzymatic reactions and codiffusion, and has become a valuable tool for studies in living cells...
  74. doi Diffusion tensor imaging of diffuse axonal injury in a rat brain trauma model
    Yohan Van de Looij
    Grenoble Institute of Neuroscience, Research Center, INSERM U836 UJF CEA CHU, Grenoble, France
    NMR Biomed 25:93-103. 2012
    b>Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to study traumatic brain injury. The impact-acceleration trauma model was used in rats...
  75. doi Sub-resolution lipid domains exist in the plasma membrane and regulate protein diffusion and distribution
    Dylan M Owen
    Centre for Vascular Research and Australian Centre for NanoMedicine, University of New South Wales, High Street, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia
    Nat Commun 3:1256. 2012
    ..for Activation of T cells (LAT) as an example, we demonstrate that association with ordered domains retarded LAT diffusion and decreased clustering in meso-scaled protein domains as analysed by super-resolution microscopy...
  76. pmc The promoter-search mechanism of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is dominated by three-dimensional diffusion
    Feng Wang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 20:174-81. 2013
    ..We demonstrate that, contrary to long-held assumptions, the promoter search is dominated by three-dimensional diffusion at both the microscopic and submicroscopic scales in vitro, which has direct implications for understanding how ..
  77. doi The mesophyll anatomy enhancing CO2 diffusion is a key trait for improving rice photosynthesis
    Shunsuke Adachi
    Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Japan
    J Exp Bot 64:1061-72. 2013
    ....
  78. pmc Fast spatiotemporal correlation spectroscopy to determine protein lateral diffusion laws in live cell membranes
    Carmine Di Rienzo
    Center for Nanotechnology Innovation at National Enterprise for nanoScience and nanoTechnology, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 56127 Pisa, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:12307-12. 2013
    ..to be modulated by lipid composition and by the underlying cytoskeleton, which forms transient barriers to diffusion. So far this idea was probed by single-particle tracking of membrane components in which gold particles or ..
  79. ncbi Imaging cortical association tracts in the human brain using diffusion-tensor-based axonal tracking
    Susumu Mori
    Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Magn Reson Med 47:215-23. 2002
    b>Diffusion-tensor fiber tracking was used to identify the cores of several long-association fibers, including the anterior (ATR) and posterior (PTR) thalamic radiations, and the uncinate (UNC), superior longitudinal (SLF), inferior ..
  80. ncbi Evaluation of liver diffusion isotropy and characterization of focal hepatic lesions with two single-shot echo-planar MR imaging sequences: prospective study in 66 patients
    Bachir Taouli
    Department of Radiology, Hôpital Beaujon and Laboratoire d Imagerie Médicale Paris Nord, Faculté de Médecine Paris VII, Clichy, France
    Radiology 226:71-8. 2003
    To (a) evaluate liver diffusion isotropy, (b) compare two diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences for the characterization of focal hepatic lesions by using two or four b values, and (c) determine an apparent ..
  81. pmc Diffusion of a soluble protein, photoactivatable GFP, through a sensory cilium
    Peter D Calvert
    Department of Ophthalmology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
    J Gen Physiol 135:173-96. 2010
    ..The estimated axial diffusion coefficients are D(CC) = 2.8 +/- 0.3, D(IS) = 5.2 +/- 0.6, and D(OS) = 0.079 +/- 0.009 microm(2) s(-1)...
  82. doi Production and diffusion of chloroplastic H2O2 and its implication to signalling
    Maria M Mubarakshina
    CEA Saclay, iBiTec S, CNRS URA 2096, Service de Bioénergétique Biologie Structurales et Mécanismes, F 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
    J Exp Bot 61:3577-87. 2010
    ..There are two important aspects to this function: H(2)O(2) production and its diffusion to its sites of action...
  83. pmc Single Qdot-labeled glycosylase molecules use a wedge amino acid to probe for lesions while scanning along DNA
    Andrew R Dunn
    The Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:7487-98. 2011
    ..to have a similar diffusive search mechanism described as a continuum of motion, in keeping with rotational diffusion along the DNA molecule ranging from slow, sub-diffusive to faster, unrestricted diffusion...
  84. ncbi Diffusion-tensor MRI: theory, experimental design and data analysis - a technical review
    Peter J Basser
    Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    NMR Biomed 15:456-67. 2002
    This article treats the theoretical underpinnings of diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), as well as experimental design and data analysis issues...
  85. pmc High-resolution diffusion tensor imaging in the substantia nigra of de novo Parkinson disease
    D E Vaillancourt
    Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1919 West Taylor, 650 AHSB, MC 994, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Neurology 72:1378-84. 2009
    ..PD, investigators have administered 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and found that measures derived using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were correlated with the number of dopamine neurons lost following intoxication.
  86. doi The temporal dynamics of poststroke neuroinflammation: a longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging-guided PET study with 11C-PK11195 in acute subcortical stroke
    Alexander Thiel
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Nucl Med 51:1404-12. 2010
    ..PET to image AMG in vivo after stroke in humans in a prospective longitudinal study to investigate the temporal dynamics of AMG and relate local and remote AMG activity to pyramidal tract (PT) damage using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
  87. pmc Mobility of BtuB and OmpF in the Escherichia coli outer membrane: implications for dynamic formation of a translocon complex
    Jeff Spector
    Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA
    Biophys J 99:3880-6. 2010
    b>Diffusion of two Escherichia coli outer membrane proteins-the cobalamin (vitamin B12) receptor (BtuB) and the OmpF porin, which are implicated in the cellular import pathways of colicins and phages-was measured in vivo...
  88. pmc Diffusion-weighted MRI and quantitative biophysical modeling of hippocampal neurite loss in chronic stress
    Peter Vestergaard-Poulsen
    Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
    PLoS ONE 6:e20653. 2011
    ..Here we show that high field diffusion-weighted MRI combined with quantitative biophysical modeling of the hippocampal dendritic loss in 21 day ..
  89. pmc Differential diffusivity of Nodal and Lefty underlies a reaction-diffusion patterning system
    Patrick Muller
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 336:721-4. 2012
    ..Reaction-diffusion models postulate that differences in signaling range are caused by differential diffusivity of inhibitor and ..
  90. ncbi Stochastic reaction-diffusion simulation with MesoRD
    Johan Hattne
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, BMC, Uppsala University, 75124 Uppsala, Sweden
    Bioinformatics 21:2923-4. 2005
    MesoRD is a tool for stochastic simulation of chemical reactions and diffusion. In particular, it is an implementation of the next subvolume method, which is an exact method to simulate the Markov process corresponding to the reaction-..
  91. doi Plant viruses spread by diffusion on ER-associated movement-protein-rafts through plasmodesmata gated by viral induced host beta-1,3-glucanases
    Bernard L Epel
    Department of Plant Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 20:1074-81. 2009
    ..order to gate open the Pd; independently, the MPs form ER-associated protein rafts which transport bound vRNA by diffusion along ER to adjacent cells via the ER component of the plasmodesmata...
  92. pmc Stochastic simulation of signal transduction: impact of the cellular architecture on diffusion
    Michael T Klann
    Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Center Systems Biology, Universitat Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany
    Biophys J 96:5122-9. 2009
    The transduction of signals depends on the translocation of signaling molecules to specific targets. Undirected diffusion processes play a key role in the bridging of spaces between different cellular compartments...
  93. pmc Kinetics of protein-DNA interaction: facilitated target location in sequence-dependent potential
    Michael Slutsky
    Department of Physics and Harvard MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Biophys J 87:4021-35. 2004
    ..Here we consider sliding as a one-dimensional diffusion in a sequence-dependent rough energy landscape...
  94. pmc Fluctuation correlation spectroscopy with a laser-scanning microscope: exploiting the hidden time structure
    Michelle A Digman
    Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    Biophys J 88:L33-6. 2005
    ..We describe the analysis used to process laser-scanning images of solutions and cells to obtain molecular diffusion constant in the microsecond to second timescale.
  95. ncbi Diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum in Autism
    Andrew L Alexander
    Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
    Neuroimage 34:61-73. 2007
    ..In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on subject groups with high-functioning autism and controls matched for age, ..
  96. pmc Sliding and jumping of single EcoRV restriction enzymes on non-cognate DNA
    Isabelle Bonnet
    Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, ENS, UPMC Paris 6, CNRS UMR 8552, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:4118-27. 2008
    ..endonuclease EcoRV can rapidly locate a short recognition site within long non-cognate DNA using 'facilitated diffusion'...
  97. pmc Quantitative microplate-based respirometry with correction for oxygen diffusion
    Akos A Gerencser
    Buck Institute for Age Research, Novato, CA, USA
    Anal Chem 81:6868-78. 2009
    ..Plate based respirometers are susceptible to a range of diffusion phenomena; as O(2) is consumed by the specimen, atmospheric O(2) leaks into the measurement volume...
  98. ncbi Estimation of oxygen distribution in RIF-1 tumors by diffusion model-based interpretation of pimonidazole hypoxia and eppendorf measurements
    B W Pogue
    Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755
    Radiat Res 155:15-25. 2001
    Numerical simulations of oxygen diffusion from the capillaries in tumor tissue were used to predict the capillary oxygen supply within and near hypoxic regions of the RIF-1 tumor...
  99. pmc Model of sarcomeric Ca2+ movements, including ATP Ca2+ binding and diffusion, during activation of frog skeletal muscle
    S M Baylor
    Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6085, USA
    J Gen Physiol 112:297-316. 1998
    ..During diffusion, Ca2+ was assumed to react with metal-binding sites on parvalbumin (a diffusible Ca2+- and Mg2+-binding protein) ..
  100. ncbi Topological insulators inhibit diffusion of transcription-induced positive supercoils in the chromosome of Escherichia coli
    Laurent Moulin
    Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, Bat 26, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France and Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire du CNRS, Avenue Ch Sadron, F 45071 Orléans, France
    Mol Microbiol 55:601-10. 2005
    ..Using topological reporters that detect local variations in DNA supercoiling, we have characterized the diffusion of transcription-induced (TI) positive supercoils in plasmids or in the chromosome of wild type Escherichia coli ..
  101. ncbi Do acute diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI lesions identify final infarct volume in ischemic stroke?
    C S Rivers
    Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK
    Stroke 37:98-104. 2006
    An acute mismatch on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) may represent the "tissue-at-risk...

Research Grants80

  1. HE3 MR Diffusion & Low Dose CT Quantitation of Emphysema
    David Gierada; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The goal of this proposal is to develop and evaluate hyperpolarized helium-3 diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (He-3 dMRI) and low dose quantitative computed tomography (LD-QCT) indexes of emphysema as noninvasive biomarkers for the ..
  2. Novel TIRF microscopy analyzing trafficking & signaling at the cell cortex
    Derek Toomre; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Consistent with the recovery act's goal, this funding will provide full-time summer employment for 4 undergraduate students and accelerate scientific achievement of the parent DP2 award...
  3. Mapping for Specialized Domains for FCeRI Signaling &Internalization
    Bridget S Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..regions in the outer and the inner leaflet of the membrane bilayers overlap and to study cholesterol diffusion relative to FceRI. Results in the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line will be confirmed in BMMCs...
  4. Investigating Mechanism of Intracellular Rotational Transport with Optical T
    Jeffrey N Anker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..However, Dr. Miller's technique measures only the average transport-mediated rotational diffusion rate from ensembles of millions of cells, and is unable to localize particles or observe motion of individual ..
  5. Tobacco Control Research Branch Scientific and Technical Services Support
    KOURTNEY MARSHALL; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and grantee institutions, and other private and public entities involved in research and the application, diffusion and dissemination of research findings to prevent and treat tobacco use addiction and the diseases/conditions ..
  6. Mary K Sheats; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..of the actin cytoskeleton including: polarization of T-cell microtubule-organizing center, b2 integrin diffusion and clustering in RAW 264...
  7. Drug Interactions at the Human Blood-Brain Barrier
    Jashvant D Unadkat; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the endothelial cell barrier in other organs, the BBB has tight junctions that prevent significant paracellular diffusion. Although lipophilic drugs are capable of readily diffusing from the blood to the brain across the BBB, several ..
  8. Interplay Between Tissue Architecture and Nuclear Organization in the DNA Damage
    Pierre Alexandre Vidi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the targeting and anchorage of repair factors and chromatin remodelers at DNA lesions and/or preventing free diffusion of broken DNA in the nucleus...
  9. Bachir Taouli; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..we would like to test and validate non invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods based on advanced diffusion (intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion MRI: IVIM DW-MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) for the ..
  10. Jay R Winkler; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..must be met to transport charges rapidly and efficiently along specific pathways and prevent the off- path diffusion of redox equivalents and the disruption of energy flow...
  11. Robot-Assisted MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy
    Dan Stoianovici; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..MRI with special contrast, spectroscopy, and diffusion weighted methods is perhaps the most promising candidate for imaging PC [5]...
  12. MENG MENG ROWLAND; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..This general search mechanism has been referred to as "facilitated diffusion", where proteins utilize the DNA chain as a track to accelerate location of their specific sites...
  13. Function and regulation of elemental Ca2+ signaling in urethral smooth muscle
    Ronghua Zhuge; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..uncover the mechanisms underlying activation of ANO1s by RyR2s with 3D imaging, channel biophysics and reaction-diffusion modeling (Aim 2)...
  14. Drug Transport at the Blood-Testis Barrier
    Nathan J Cherrington; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..first avoid barrier-function transporters before subsequently passing through Sertoli cells either by passive diffusion or carrier-mediated transport...
  15. Joanne Wang; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..g. MPP+, paraquat) are hydrophilic organic cations (OCs) that do not readily cross cell membranes by passive diffusion. Organic cation transporters play important roles in the disposition, efficacy and toxicity of these OC ..
  16. Thomas Tuschl; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..sample preparation methods and storage affect RNA integrity and its detection due to loss of fragmented RNA by diffusion from tissue sections during the process of ISH...
  17. PIERRE E GOOVAERTS; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..2. Explore the use of diffusion of innovation theory and simulated annealing-based spatial aggregation algorithms for the representation and ..
  18. STEVEN SIMON SCHERER; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..To that end, we will measure the diffusion of sulforhodamine-B (SR- B), examine the ultrastructure of O: O junctions, and examine the expression of glial ..
  19. Stem cells for novel gene delivery of nitric oxide in the gut
    Hiroshi Mashimo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, the therapeutic potential of NO has been hindered by its short biological half-life in seconds, rapid diffusion, and multiple targets of action...
  20. ALVARO G ESTEVEZ; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..We have shown that endogenous formation of peroxynitrite by the diffusion-limited reaction between superoxide and nitric oxide induces apoptosis in cultured embryonic rat motor neurons ..
  21. Guy L Weinberg; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Such passive targeting of lipid particles, essentially nano-medicine, will bypass the normal tissue barriers to diffusion of drug away from cells and diminish the response time to lipid signal effectors...
  22. Pankaj Gupta; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Because others and we have shown that HS regulates the diffusion, local concentration and activity of other heparin-binding BMP antagonists, we speculate that may modulate the ..
  23. Christopher D Kroenke; Fiscal Year: 2014
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Studies using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique termed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have found that fractional anisotropy (FA) is reduced in cerebral white matter (WM) of mature ..
  24. Brain Vascular Studies in Cardiac and Orthopedic Surgery
    David Stump; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The MRI analyses will include diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), spin echo T1, and fast spin echo T2.
  25. Brain Vascular Studies in Cardiac and Orthopedic Surgery
    William Brown; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The MRI analyses will include diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), spin echo T1, and fast spin echo T2.
  26. Jerry D Glickson; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..3) To evaluate potential 1H NMR markers for noninvasive early detection of response--lactate and total choline by MRS and apparent diffusion constant (ADC) and T2 measured by MRI.
  27. David C Paik; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..In aim 3, BNA transcorneal permeability using a Franz diffusion cell and ex vivo rabbit corneas will be determined...
  28. Endocannabinoid Intracellular Transporters
    Dale G Deutsch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of endocannabinoids, experiments will also be conducted to show that two alternative mechanisms (simple diffusion or endocytosis) are less likely...
  29. Christopher A Flask; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..The Diffusion and Magnetization Transfer MRI techniques developed in Aims 1 and 2 will be validated with histological measures ..
  30. Neuroanatomical and functional outcomes of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea
    Robert Joseph Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..grey matter volume reductions on voxel-based morphometry, and altered subcortical white matter integrity on diffusion tensor imaging...
  31. Development of a Human Hydrolase to Treat Cocaine Abuse and Overdose: Rat Models
    WILLIAM STEPHEN BRIMIJOIN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..rats will test the hypothesis that recovery from seizures reflects the creation of steep cocaine diffusion gradients between brain and plasma...
  32. Human Blood-Brain Barrier Model for CNS Drug Translation
    Eric V Shusta; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These cells serve as a diffusion barrier between upper and lower liquid filled compartments, the upper compartment representing the bloodstream ..
  33. MSM Mapping and Modeling ErbB Receptor Membrane Topogra
    Bridget S Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The stochastic platform simulates diffusion, clustering and internalization of receptors and signaling molecules using Monte Carlo and agent-based methods...
  34. FATTY ACID BINDING PROTEINS-LIGAND SPECIFICITY
    Friedhelm Schroeder; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will determine if LCFA transfers from L-FABP to PPARa by direct molecular interactions or by LCFA diffusion. These findings will contribute to our basic understanding of how different types of fatty acids may activate a ..
  35. GCL-M Regulation of Angiogenesis
    CHRISTOPHER BRUCE PATTILLO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For this purpose a group of the GCL-M KO mice will be implanted with a VEGF containing diffusion disk to determine vascular recruitment, and another group will have their femoral artery ligated and ..
  36. GENETIC STUDIES OF GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE IN BACTERIA
    SYDNEY GOVONS KUSTU; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One long-term goal of this project is to understand how the E. coli AmtB protein can improve on unmediated diffusion of NH3 across its cytoplasmic membrane...
  37. Imaging regional physiologic parameters of lung function
    Rahim R Rizi; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..ventilation-to-perfusion ratio in lungs with perfusion defects;3) an elevated value of regional apparent diffusion coefficient of helium-3 in emphysematous lungs that correlates well with histology;4) design and fabrication of ..
  38. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Macrophage Function
    Jill Suttles; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..FABPs act as intracellular receptors for a variety of hydrophobic compounds, enabling their diffusion within the cytoplasmic compartment...
  39. Assessment of lung function in neonates and infants
    IULIAN CONSTANTIN RUSET; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Ventilation abnormalities reveal the earliest signs of obstructive disease, such as cystic fibrosis and asthma. Diffusion weighted imaging quantifies the Brownian-motion length-scale of gas atoms...
  40. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL MRI FOR IMAGE-GUIDED RADIATION THERAPY FOR PANCREATIC CANCER
    Yanle Hu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our innovative approach will be able to 1) accommodate a variety of sequences, e.g. T2 weighting or diffusion weighting, to enhance tumor to tissue contrast, and 2) achieve excellent spatial and temporal resolution for ..
  41. Maternal flu infection and brain development in primates
    Christopher L Coe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..White matter integrity is evaluated with Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)...
  42. Monolithic Media and Technology for Bioprocessing
    ALEX G BONNER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The large particle size and small diffusion coefficients of large biomolecules within the particle pores reduces efficiency of the separation process...
  43. Genotype and Metabolic Phenotype in Glioblastoma
    Elizabeth A Maher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will be correlated with preoperative imaging by FDG-PET, ultra high resolution MR imaging on a 7T magnet, diffusion tensor imaging and 1H-spectroscopy to generate a comprehensive non-invasive view of the tumor with the goal of ..
  44. Stress, Neurodevelopment and the Emergence of Addictive Behaviors in Adolescence
    HILARY PATRICIA BLUMBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Dr. Blumberg's group will perform functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to examine regional brain response to emotional stimuli within cortico-limbic circuitry, the ..
  45. MetaOx, Optical Monitor of Metabolic Rate of Oxygen Consumption
    BENIAMINO BARBIERI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2) that combines a frequency-domain near-infrared tissue oximeter (FDNIRS) and a diffusion correlation spectroscopy (DCS) device...
  46. KARL D WITTRUP; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Theoretical analyses have provided predictions of the balances amongst antibody binding, diffusion, endocytic uptake, capillary extravasation, and systemic clearance that together determine how far antibodies ..
  47. Elizabeth C Engle; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..We will further determine and define the TUBB3 phenotypes, including through the use of diffusion spectrum imaging to visualize white matter tracts in living participants and in ex vivo mouse models...
  48. GENETIC DISSECTION OF PHOTOTRANSDUCTION
    Baruch Minke; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Moreover, we will examine the putative role of calphotin as a dynamic barrier controlling the free diffusion of Ca2+ between the rhabdomere and the cell body...
  49. Community-Academic Partnership: Building an Infrastructure to Improve Health for
    Beth A Marks; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Diffusion of Innovations Theory will guide the CAP: PADD across three levels (CBO capacity, direct support professionals&..
  50. Gender Differences in Neural Deficits Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    PAUL MICHAEL MACEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will assess whole-brain structure with diffusion tensor imaging indices (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity), T2 relaxation time, and regional gray ..
  51. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF DOSAGE COMPENSATION IN DROSOPHILA
    MITZI KURODA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..test a model for distribution of MSL complexes in which local spreading in cis from roX genes is balanced with diffusion to additional sites in trans...
  52. REGULATION OF NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX ASSEMBLY
    Susan R Wente; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) form the only sites for entry and exit from the nucleus. This includes the diffusion of small molecules and the selective, active transport of large proteins and RNA...
  53. EGF Receptor Signaling in Time and Space in Tumor Cells
    Alexander D Sorkin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..experimental data describing the spatial and temporal overlap of the components of the EGFR-MAPK pathway, their diffusion rate parameters, routes of trafficking and protein-protein interactions, a new computational model of spatial ..
  54. Daniel Mamah; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Imaging methods used in this proposal will be Large-Deformation High-Dimensional Brain Mapping and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Deanna Barch, Ph.D. (Dept...
  55. siRNA Therapy and Imaging Assessment in Ischemic Stroke
    Marytheresa Ifediba; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Treatment outcome will be assessed using a clinically-relevant technique for stroke detection, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, followed by ex vivo correlation of imaging findings using molecular ..
  56. WALTER JOHN AKERS; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..physical and physiologic basis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the experimental procedures for perfusion and diffusion weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, including methods and software for measuring and modeling ..
  57. Structural and Dynamical Response of Escherichia coli to Osmotic Stress
    James C Weisshaar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this project we study protein transport (diffusion) and the organization of proteins, DNA, and ribosomes within the cytoplasm of live cells using fluorescence ..
  58. Fumito Ichinose; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..of Na2S prevented CA/CPR-induced development of marked cerebral edema 24h after CA/CPR as demonstrated by diffusion-weighted MRI in live mice...
  59. Transdermal delivery of 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) for the treatment of arthr
    Audra L Stinchcomb; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In our preliminary diffusion studies with hairless guinea pig skin, 2-AG flux was found to be 137.7127...
  60. Biomarkers of Suicide Risk in Adolescents and Young Adults: Factors that Con
    Hilary P Blumberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..magnetic resonance imaging brain scanning including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
  61. UNDERSTANDING NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEFICITS IN PRETERM INFANTS THROUGH IMAGING
    David C Van Essen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..volumes for cortical GM, deep nuclear GM, myelinated WM, unmyelinated WM, and cerebrospinal fluid), 3) diffusion tensor imaging (apparent diffusion coefficient, relative anisotropy, axial and radial diffusivity), and 4) ..
  62. STEVEN WILLIAM HETTS; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..under MRI allows use of the wide array of MR anatomic and physiologic imaging techniques during an intervention: diffusion weighted imaging to evaluate for tissue infarction, perfusion imaging to assess for organ blood flow, high ..
  63. Brown Adipose Tissue Quantification Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    E Brian Welch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of fat signal fraction (FSF), water longitudinal magnetization relaxation rate (T1_H2O), water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC_H2O), water phenomenological transverse relaxation rate (T2*_H2O), and proton resonance ..
  64. Brain Structure and Function in Adolescents after the Fontan Operation
    MICHAEL JOHN RIVKIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Using diffusion tensor MRI imaging, the primary outcome will be regional white matter microstructure, as measured by fractional ..
  65. HIV RISK REDUCTION FOR INCARCERATED WOMEN
    TED BRASFIELD; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..on the same skills but is targeted on drug use with an equivalent sample of 150 incarcerated women; (3) assess diffusion into a sample of 150 women who do not receive either intervention but are housed in proximity to women who ..
  66. Brain Mechanisms in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivit
    Mani N Pavuluri; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..clinical population, and employing innovative neurocognitive studies and functional (fMRI) and high resolution diffusion tensor (DTI) imaging methods to take the scientific approaches to a new era of inquiry...
  67. Translation of pH-weighted MRI to Image Human Acute Stroke
    ALMA SORENSEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..MRI, particularly perfusion and diffusion MRI, may highlight potentially salvageable ischemic tissue for treatment, and is being used as operational ..
  68. Very-short-time diffusion MRI of hyperpolarized gases
    G Miller; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In particular, diffusion MRI of the inhaled hyperpolarized gas shows promise for detecting disease- related changes in lung ..
  69. Innovative Diffusion of Comparative Effectiveness Research
    Daniel C Malone; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Innovative Diffusion of Comparative Effectiveness Research Abstract (Malone: PI) Millions of Americans are treated in hospitals and managed care organizations that have implemented pharmacy and ..
  70. Diffusion of an Effective Skin Cancer Prevention Program
    Karen Glanz; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The aims of this study are to evaluate the effects of two strategies for diffusion of the Pool Cool skin cancer prevention program on: program implementation, maintenance, and sustainability; ..
  71. Tract-Specific Analysis of Brain White Matter
    James C Gee; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is a powerful but still relatively new in vivo imaging technique that allows an unprecedented level of insight into brain connectivity...
  72. Modeling the photon propagation for optical molecular imaging
    Wenxiang Cong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The most popular model for biomedical optics is the diffusion approximation that approximately describes the interaction of photons with the biological tissue but it only ..
  73. MR ASSESSMENT OF MAGNESIUM IN ACUTE STROKE
    Chelsea Kidwell; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..in acute ischemic stroke as evidenced by decrease in the growth of infarct volume over time as measured by diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI); 2) DWI is a valuable surrogate outcome measure in acute ischemic ..
  74. MMP1 & MMP9: Mechanism of Activation & Substrate Binding
    Gregory Goldberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our experiments firmly establish that MMPs utilize a remarkable surface diffusion mechanism for substrate interaction...
  75. Hyperpolarized Xenon functional MRI of human lungs
    Farhod Nozirov; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..MRI diffusion-weighted sequences with hyperpolarized gases measure diffusion distance versus time, probing the void spatial ..
  76. MICROVASCULAR DIMENSIONS AND GAS EXCHANGE
    GARY MALVIN; Fiscal Year: 1992
    Precise relationships between microvascular dimensions and the diffusion characteristics of gas exchange organs are not well understood...
  77. DIFFUSION OF FERTILITY CONTROL
    JOHN CASTERLINE; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..research is addressed to a central debate in research on the causes of fertility transition, namely the role of diffusion processes. Th research will examine this issue using Costa Rica and Taiwan as case studies...