ocular adaptation

Summary

Summary: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Adaptation in vertebrate photoreceptors
    G L Fain
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1527, USA
    Physiol Rev 81:117-151. 2001
  2. pmc Light adaptation in salamander L-cone photoreceptors
    Frederick S Soo
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 28:1331-42. 2008
  3. ncbi Cone-based vision of rats for ultraviolet and visible lights
    G H Jacobs
    Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara 93106, USA
    J Exp Biol 204:2439-46. 2001
  4. ncbi The circadian clock in the retina controls rod-cone coupling
    Christophe Ribelayga
    Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Neuron 59:790-801. 2008
  5. pmc Toward a unified model of vertebrate rod phototransduction
    R D Hamer
    Smith Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA
    Vis Neurosci 22:417-36. 2005
  6. pmc Two temporal phases of light adaptation in retinal rods
    Peter D Calvert
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Gen Physiol 119:129-45. 2002
  7. ncbi Light adaptation of cone photoresponses studied at the photoreceptor and ganglion cell levels in the frog retina
    K Donner
    Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Vision Res 38:19-36. 1998
  8. ncbi Transducin translocation in rods is triggered by saturation of the GTPase-activating complex
    Ekaterina S Lobanova
    Albert Eye Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 27:1151-60. 2007
  9. ncbi Phosducin facilitates light-driven transducin translocation in rod photoreceptors. Evidence from the phosducin knockout mouse
    Maxim Sokolov
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:19149-56. 2004
  10. pmc Long-term renormalization of chromatic mechanisms following cataract surgery
    Peter B Delahunt
    Department of Ophthalmology and Section of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, University of California Davis, 95817, USA
    Vis Neurosci 21:301-7. 2004

Research Grants

  1. VISUAL ADAPTATION LIMITS AND AGE-RELATED DISEASE
    Alvin Eisner; Fiscal Year: 2002
  2. WITHIN-SPECIES VARIATIONS IN VISUAL CAPACITY
    GERALD JACOBS; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. Visual Dysfunction in Retinal Degenerations
    Kenneth R Alexander; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. Female Hormones and Vision
    Alvin Eisner; Fiscal Year: 2006
  5. Information transfer through ganglion cells
    Barry Lee; Fiscal Year: 2010
  6. COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF CONE PHOTOTRANSDUCTION
    RUSSELL HAMER; Fiscal Year: 2005
  7. Fractionating visual face perception
    Richard Russell; Fiscal Year: 2008
  8. Retinal Inputs to the Mammalian Circadian Pacemaker
    KWOON WONG; Fiscal Year: 2006
  9. Gene Therapy of Autosomal Recessive RP
    Simon Petersen Jones; Fiscal Year: 2006
  10. High Throughput Assays for Ion Channel Activities of Influenza A & B Viruses
    LAWRENCE PINTO; Fiscal Year: 2006

Detail Information

Publications189 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Adaptation in vertebrate photoreceptors
    G L Fain
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1527, USA
    Physiol Rev 81:117-151. 2001
    ..The resulting decrease in intracellular Ca(2+) then modulates the transduction cascade, by a mechanism very similar to the one responsible for altering sensitivity during background adaptation...
  2. pmc Light adaptation in salamander L-cone photoreceptors
    Frederick S Soo
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 28:1331-42. 2008
    ....
  3. ncbi Cone-based vision of rats for ultraviolet and visible lights
    G H Jacobs
    Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara 93106, USA
    J Exp Biol 204:2439-46. 2001
    ..Evidence of dichromatic color vision in the rat was subsequently obtained from tests of wavelength discrimination...
  4. ncbi The circadian clock in the retina controls rod-cone coupling
    Christophe Ribelayga
    Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Neuron 59:790-801. 2008
    ..The increase in the strength and extent of rod-cone coupling at night may facilitate the detection of large dim objects...
  5. pmc Toward a unified model of vertebrate rod phototransduction
    R D Hamer
    Smith Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA
    Vis Neurosci 22:417-36. 2005
    ..Informative limitations of the model are also discussed...
  6. pmc Two temporal phases of light adaptation in retinal rods
    Peter D Calvert
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Gen Physiol 119:129-45. 2002
    ..Other possible mechanisms are discussed...
  7. ncbi Light adaptation of cone photoresponses studied at the photoreceptor and ganglion cell levels in the frog retina
    K Donner
    Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Vision Res 38:19-36. 1998
    ....
  8. ncbi Transducin translocation in rods is triggered by saturation of the GTPase-activating complex
    Ekaterina S Lobanova
    Albert Eye Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 27:1151-60. 2007
    ....
  9. ncbi Phosducin facilitates light-driven transducin translocation in rod photoreceptors. Evidence from the phosducin knockout mouse
    Maxim Sokolov
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:19149-56. 2004
    ..This increased solubility of transducin would make it more susceptible to translocation from the outer segments...
  10. pmc Long-term renormalization of chromatic mechanisms following cataract surgery
    Peter B Delahunt
    Department of Ophthalmology and Section of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, University of California Davis, 95817, USA
    Vis Neurosci 21:301-7. 2004
    ..The shifts in the achromatic point occur over a number of months and appear to occur independently of the fellow eye...
  11. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of vertebrate photoreceptor light adaptation
    E N Pugh
    FM Kirby Center for Molecular Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Stellar Chance Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania, 422 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6069, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 9:410-8. 1999
    ..Quantitative analysis of these mechanisms is providing new insights into the nature of rod photoreceptor light adaptation...
  12. pmc Delayed dark adaptation in 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase-deficient mice: a role of RDH11 in visual processes in vivo
    Tom S Kim
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 1024, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:8694-704. 2005
    ....
  13. pmc Human cone photoreceptor responses measured by the electroretinogram [correction of electoretinogram] a-wave during and after exposure to intense illumination
    A A Paupoo
    Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 529:469-82. 2000
    ..5 min after a near-total bleach. This time course is very similar to previous measurements of the regeneration of cone photopigment, and it seems highly probable that the reduction in dim-flash sensitivity results from pigment depletion...
  14. ncbi Visual pigment phosphorylation but not transducin translocation can contribute to light adaptation in zebrafish cones
    Matthew J Kennedy
    Department of Biochemistry, Box 357350, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Neuron 41:915-28. 2004
    ..Immunocytochemical analyses revealed that neither light nor cytoplasmic Ca2+ influences the localization of transducin in zebrafish cones...
  15. pmc High cGMP synthetic activity in carp cones
    Norihiko Takemoto
    Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:11788-93. 2009
    ..Our estimation of the in situ GC activity reasonably explained the rapid recovery and nonsaturating behavior of cone light responses...
  16. pmc The limit of photoreceptor sensitivity: molecular mechanisms of dark noise in retinal cones
    David Holcman
    Keck Center for Theoretical Neurobiology and Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, 94143, USA
    J Gen Physiol 125:641-60. 2005
    ..Both these features make cones less light sensitive than rods...
  17. ncbi Phototransduction in primate cones and blowfly photoreceptors: different mechanisms, different algorithms, similar response
    J H van Hateren
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 192:187-97. 2006
    ..A direct comparison of the responses to a natural time series of intensities, simulated in the cone and measured in the blowfly photoreceptor, shows that the responses are quite similar...
  18. pmc Modulation of phosphodiesterase6 turnoff during background illumination in mouse rod photoreceptors
    Michael L Woodruff
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 1606, USA
    J Neurosci 28:2064-74. 2008
    ..Our experiments provide evidence for modulation of GAP protein-dependent response turnoff, which may also play a role in controlling signal duration at hormone receptors and synapses in the CNS...
  19. ncbi Long-term light adaptation in photoreceptors of the housefly, Musca domestica
    B G Burton
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 188:527-38. 2002
    ..It is also found that the impedance amplitude of the photoreceptor increases during long-term adaptation, suggesting that the area of the photoreceptor's membrane is reduced...
  20. ncbi Two realms of dark adaptation
    M L Firsov
    Institute for Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 44 Thorez Prospect, 194223 St Petersburg, Russia
    Vision Res 45:147-51. 2005
    ..The transition between the two regimes of adaptation is rather abrupt, occurring within a few-fold range of stimulus intensity. This marks the border between reversal of light adaptation and dark adaptation, as it is commonly defined...
  21. ncbi Guidelines for basic multifocal electroretinography (mfERG)
    Michael F Marmor
    Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Doc Ophthalmol 106:105-15. 2003
  22. ncbi Fast and slow contrast adaptation in retinal circuitry
    Stephen A Baccus
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Neuron 36:909-19. 2002
    ..Slow adaptation did not affect kinetics, but produced a gradual hyperpolarization. This hyperpolarization can account for slow adaptation in the spiking output of ganglion cells...
  23. ncbi Vertebrate photoreceptors
    T Ebrey
    University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA
    Prog Retin Eye Res 20:49-94. 2001
    ....
  24. ncbi The roles of trp and calcium in regulating photoreceptor function in Drosophila
    B Minke
    Department of Physiology, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 6:459-66. 1996
    ..Furthermore, trp is an archetypal member of a multigene family whose products share a structure that is highly conserved throughout evolution, from worms to humans...
  25. ncbi Oxygen consumption in the rat outer and inner retina: light- and pharmacologically-induced inhibition
    C J Medrano
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Texas 77204 6052, USA
    Exp Eye Res 61:273-84. 1995
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words)..
  26. pmc Light adaptation and dark adaptation of human rod photoreceptors measured from the a-wave of the electroretinogram
    M M Thomas
    Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 518:479-96. 1999
    ..Similar behaviour has previously been seen in psychophysical dark adaptation experiments, for the dependence of the 'second component' of recovery on the level of bleaching...
  27. ncbi Prolonged photoresponses in transgenic mouse rods lacking arrestin
    J Xu
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125, USA
    Nature 389:505-9. 1997
    ..The intensity dependence of the photoresponse in rods lacking arrestin further suggests that, although arrestin is required for normal signal termination, it does not participate directly in light adaptation...
  28. ncbi Light adaptation and sensitivity controlling mechanisms in vertebrate photoreceptors
    I Perlman
    Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
    Prog Retin Eye Res 17:523-63. 1998
    ..Therefore, cones do not exhibit saturation even when the level of ambient illumination is raised by 6-7 log units...
  29. ncbi Compensation for light loss resulting from filtering by macular pigment: relation to the S-cone pathway
    James M Stringham
    Vision Science Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
    Optom Vis Sci 83:887-94. 2006
    ..This study characterizes compensation for different densities of MP...
  30. ncbi Massive light-driven translocation of transducin between the two major compartments of rod cells: a novel mechanism of light adaptation
    Maxim Sokolov
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Neuron 34:95-106. 2002
    ....
  31. ncbi Tetrachromacy, oil droplets and bird plumage colours
    M Vorobyev
    Schenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Science, St Petersburg, Russia
    J Comp Physiol A 183:621-33. 1998
    ....
  32. ncbi Unveiling the foveal blue scotoma through an afterimage
    Svein Magnussen
    Brain Research Unit, University of Freiburg, Hansastrasse 9, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Vision Res 44:377-83. 2004
    ..The results support the hypothesis of an active post-receptoral process for filling-in of chromatic scotomas...
  33. pmc Adaptation and perceptual norms in color vision
    Michael A Webster
    Department of Physchology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
    J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 25:2817-25. 2008
    ..These results suggest a close link between the norms for appearance and coding in color vision and illustrate a general paradigm for exploring this link in other perceptual domains...
  34. ncbi Color appearance changes resulting from iso-luminant chromatic adaptation
    S M Wuerger
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, USA
    Vision Res 36:3107-18. 1996
    ....
  35. ncbi Transducin activation state controls its light-dependent translocation in rod photoreceptors
    Vasily Kerov
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:41069-76. 2005
    ..Thus, the light-dependent translocations of transducin are controlled by the GTP-hydrolysis on Gtalpha, and apparently, do not require Gtalpha interaction with RGS9 and PDE6...
  36. ncbi Human cone light adaptation: from behavioral measurements to molecular mechanisms
    Andrew Stockman
    Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, UK
    J Vis 6:1194-213. 2006
    ..Together, these mechanisms act to maintain the cone visual system in an optimal operating range and to protect it from overload...
  37. ncbi Information theoretical evaluation of parametric models of gain control in blowfly photoreceptor cells
    J H van Hateren
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Vision Res 41:1851-65. 2001
    ..Any remaining peaks that would drive the photoreceptor out of its dynamic range are handled by the final compressive nonlinearity...
  38. pmc Onset of feedback reactions underlying vertebrate rod photoreceptor light adaptation
    P D Calvert
    Howe Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Gen Physiol 111:39-51. 1998
    ..Therefore, cGMP-dependent regulation of transducin GTPase is likely to occur only during prolonged bright illumination...
  39. ncbi Mutations in the gene encoding 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase cause delayed dark adaptation and fundus albipunctatus
    H Yamamoto
    Berman Gund Laboratory for the Study of Retinal Degenerations and the Ocular Molecular Genetics Institute, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, USA
    Nat Genet 22:188-91. 1999
    ..Our results suggest that mutant alleles in RDH5 are a cause of fundus albipunctatus, a rare form of stationary night blindness characterized by a delay in the regeneration of cone and rod photopigments...
  40. pmc Computational analysis of vertebrate phototransduction: combined quantitative and qualitative modeling of dark- and light-adapted responses in amphibian rods
    R D Hamer
    Smith Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA
    Vis Neurosci 17:679-99. 2000
    ..The present research illustrates the importance of a hybrid qualitative/quantitative approach to model development, and the limitations of modeling restricted sets of data...
  41. ncbi Recovery of the rod photoresponse in infant rats
    Anne B Fulton
    Department of Ophthalmology, Children s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Vision Res 43:3081-5. 2003
    ..The kinetics of rod cell recovery are likely the same in infants and adults...
  42. ncbi Luminosity--a perceptual "feature" of light-emitting objects?
    Alessia Correani
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Bristol University, Bristol BS8 1TN, UK
    Vision Res 46:3915-25. 2006
    ..This implies that luminance gradients (not object luminosity) are encoded as features, questioning the existence of specific sensory mechanisms to detect light-emitting objects...
  43. ncbi Induction effects for heterochromatic brightness matching, heterochromatic flicker photometry, and minimally distinct border: implications for the neural mechanisms underlying induction
    Karen L Gunther
    Department of Neuroscience, Oberlin College, Ohio 44074, USA
    J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 22:2182-96. 2005
    ..These results are discussed in terms of which underlying color pathways (L+ M versus L-M) may contribute to induction effects for the different tasks...
  44. ncbi A comparison of ERG abnormalities in XLRS and XLCSNB
    Keith Bradshaw
    Ophthalmology Department, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    Doc Ophthalmol 108:135-45. 2004
    ..The ERG results suggest that the RS1 and CACNA1F gene products have comparable functional consequences and that all three genes may affect multiple retinal sites...
  45. ncbi Cone opponency in the near peripheral retina
    I J Murray
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
    Vis Neurosci 23:503-7. 2006
    ..The data suggest that the S-L+M channel is more robust to increasing eccentricity than the L-M channel. Observations are interpreted in terms of the known underlying morphological and physiological differences in these channels...
  46. ncbi Influence of photic environment on the form of the fish electroretinographic off-response
    Zoran Gacic
    Center for Multidisciplinary Studies, University of Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1048:437-40. 2005
    ..On the other hand, dark-adapted electroretinograms of two perch-like species, perch (Perca fluviatilis) and painted comber (Serranus scriba), exhibited a positive off-wave, exceeding the b-wave amplitude under bright photopic conditions...
  47. ncbi An in vivo microdialysis study of light/dark-modulation of vitreal dopamine release in zebrafish
    Dinesh Puppala
    Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    J Neurocytol 33:193-201. 2004
    ..When using steady light, none of these effects were seen. Our study also demonstrates that in vivo microdialysis can successfully be applied to the investigation of retinal DA release in zebrafish...
  48. ncbi A neuromorphic model for achromatic and chromatic surface representation of natural images
    Simon Hong
    Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems, Center for Adaptive Systems, Boston University, 677 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neural Netw 17:787-808. 2004
    ..The model is also able to process natural color images under variable lighting conditions, and is compared with the popular RETINEX model...
  49. ncbi Colour matching of isoluminant samples and backgrounds: a dimming effect
    Ian J Murray
    Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Optometry and Neuroscience, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK
    Perception 34:927-32. 2005
    ..Details of analysis in cone-opponent space (L - M, L + M - S, L + M) are presented in the companion paper (Stanikunas et al, 2005 Perception 34 this issue)...
  50. pmc Do common mechanisms of adaptation mediate color discrimination and appearance? Uniform backgrounds
    James M Hillis
    University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychology, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 22:2090-106. 2005
    ..This result suggests that effects of the contexts we studied on color appearance and discriminability are controlled by the same underlying mechanism...
  51. ncbi Integration of differing chromaticities in early and midlevel spatial vision
    J Anthony Wilson
    Department of Psychology, University of California at Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 22:2169-81. 2005
    ..The results are compared with those obtained for contrast variation in luminance-defined Glass Patterns and are discussed in terms of current multistage models of color processing by the visual system...
  52. ncbi Colour-luminance interactions in binocular summation
    Jose M Medina
    McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1A1
    Vision Res 47:1120-8. 2007
    ..Our results suggest the existence of binocular colour-luminance interactions restricted to high temporal frequencies...
  53. ncbi Photopic vision in eels: evidences of color discrimination
    Ilija Damjanović
    Institute for Problems of Information Transmission, Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1048:69-84. 2005
    ..The existence of green-sensitive and blue-sensitive cone units was thus revealed by both electrophysiological and microspectrophotometric techniques...
  54. ncbi Chromatic and contrast selectivity in color contrast adaptation
    Yoko Mizokami
    Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno 89557, USA
    Vis Neurosci 21:359-63. 2004
    ..Such variations in contrast sensitivity are also consistent with physiological recordings of cortical neurons...
  55. ncbi Neural adjustments to chromatic blur
    Michael A Webster
    Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
    Spat Vis 19:111-32. 2006
    ....
  56. ncbi Recovery of rod-mediated a-wave during light-adaptation in mGluR6-deficient mice
    Yoshiki Ueda
    Department of Ophthalmology, Nagahama City Hospital, Oh Inuicho, Nagahama, Shiga, Japan
    Vision Res 46:1655-64. 2006
    ..The light-adapted b-wave of WT mice showed no corresponding recovery. We conclude that rod contribution must be considered in the analyses of the light-adapted a-waves of KO mice...
  57. pmc Identification of contrast-defined letters benefits from perceptual learning in adults with amblyopia
    Susana T L Chung
    College of Optometry and Center for Neuro Engineering and Cognitive Science, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA
    Vision Res 46:3853-61. 2006
    ....
  58. ncbi Microsaccade directions do not predict directionality of illusory brightness changes of overlapping transparent surfaces
    P U Tse
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Moore Hall, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    Vision Res 46:3823-30. 2006
    ..We conclude that microsaccade directionality does not determine, predict, or cause which figure will subsequently be perceived to undergo an illusory brightness change...
  59. ncbi Natural images and contrast encoding in bipolar cells in the retina of the land- and aquatic-phase tiger salamander
    Dwight A Burkhardt
    Departments of Psychology and Graduate Program of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Vis Neurosci 23:35-47. 2006
    ..As a result, the dynamic range of the bipolar cell population brackets the distribution of contrasts found in natural images...
  60. ncbi Variations in normal color vision. IV. Binary hues and hue scaling
    Gokhan Malkoc
    Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
    J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 22:2154-68. 2005
    ..green and yellow vs. green categories. This suggests a weak tie between the cone-opponent axes and the structure of color appearance...
  61. ncbi Seeing unique hues
    Israel Abramov
    Department of Psychology, Applied Vision Institute, Brooklyn College City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 1121, USA
    J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 22:2143-53. 2005
    ....
  62. ncbi Characterising mesopic spectral sensitivity from reaction times
    H C Walkey
    Applied Vision Research Centre, The Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Vision Sciences, City University, London, EC1V 0HB, UK
    Vision Res 46:4232-43. 2006
    ..The second model produced a significantly better fit to the data. The chromatic mechanisms appear to contribute to reaction time when there is an appreciable chromatic signal but luminance contrast is low...
  63. ncbi Sinusoid = light bar + dark bar?
    W McIlhagga
    Optometry Department, Bradford University, UK
    Vision Res 46:1934-45. 2006
    ..The model accounts for the data very well, and also accounts for contrast discrimination of light and dark edges...
  64. ncbi Development of a technique for recording the focal rod ERG
    Alison Binns
    School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Wales, UK
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 26:71-9. 2006
    ..However, the Background Adaptation technique was found to more reliably elicit a focal response with a measurable a-wave, and was also considerably less time consuming than the Subtraction technique...
  65. ncbi Dynamic grouping and interpolation induced by flickering stimuli
    Hiroyuki Sasaki
    Department of Child Education, Niigata Chuoh Junior College, Japan
    Perception 36:471-4. 2007
    ..From these results, it is concluded that flicker-induced grouping reflects multiple stages of visual processing...
  66. ncbi Two distinct cone-opponent processes in the L+M luminance pathway
    Sei ichi Tsujimura
    Department of Bioengineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan
    Vision Res 47:1839-54. 2007
    ..These facts suggest that suppression by the cone-opponent process for background color substitution is different from the one for a steady colored background...
  67. ncbi Contrast-reversing global-motion stimuli reveal local interactions between first- and second-order motion signals
    Mark Edwards
    School of Psychology, Australian National University, Room 125B, Building 39, Canberra ACT0200, Australia
    Vision Res 44:1941-50. 2004
    ..These manipulations resulted in an increase in the perception of (first-order mediated) reverse-phi motion. We conclude that interaction between first- and second-order motion signals occur at the local-motion-pooling level...
  68. ncbi Electroretinographic abnormalities in parents of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis who have heterozygous GUCY2D mutations
    Robert K Koenekoop
    McGill Ocular Genetics Laboratory, Montreal Children s Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Arch Ophthalmol 120:1325-30. 2002
    ..In the future, LCA may become treatable by gene and/or pharmacological intervention, and these therapies will likely be gene specific, giving major significance to rapid gene identification and gene-phenotype studies...
  69. pmc The scotopic threshold response of the dark-adapted electroretinogram of the mouse
    Shannon M Saszik
    College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 2020, USA
    J Physiol 543:899-916. 2002
    ..These results support the use of the mouse ERG in studies of proximal retinal function...
  70. ncbi Modelling divergence in luminance and chromatic detection performance across measured divergence in surfperch (Embiotocidae) habitats
    Molly E Cummings
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Vision Res 44:1127-45. 2004
    ..Estimated performances for luminance detection were consistently high, while chromatic detection varied by habitat and demonstrated substantial improvements with increasing optical density differences between cone classes...
  71. ncbi Refractive compensation to optical defocus depends on the temporal profile of luminance modulation of the environment
    D P Crewther
    School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
    Neuroreport 13:1029-32. 2002
    ..Thus the refractive compensation mechanism depends on the nature of the temporal contrast of the environment, suggesting a relationship between the sign of defocus and the state of adaptation of the retinal ON and OFF subsystems...
  72. pmc Colour and luminance interactions in the visual perception of motion
    Alexandra Willis
    School of Psychology and Sociology, Napier University, Craighouse Road, Edinburgh EH10 5LG, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 269:1011-6. 2002
    ..We argue that such mechanisms most probably lie within a parvocellular-dominated cortical visual pathway, sensitive to both chromatic and luminance modulation, but only weakly selective for the direction of stimulus motion...
  73. ncbi Background adaptation in a rat model of retinopathy of prematurity
    John Chunguang Jiang
    Department of Ophthalmology, Children s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Doc Ophthalmol 104:97-105. 2002
    ..The effect of the background light is consistent with receptoral disease causing low dark adapted b-wave sensitivity in ROP rats...
  74. ncbi Colour constancy and conscious perception of changes of illuminant
    John L Barbur
    Applied Vision Research Centre, The Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Vision Sciences, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, UK
    Neuropsychologia 46:853-63. 2008
    ..The results show that the processing of ICC signals generates strong activation in V1 and the fusiform colour area (V4, V4A). Significant activation was also observed in areas V2 and V3...
  75. ncbi Adaptation to temporal contrast in primate and salamander retina
    D Chander
    Systems Neurobiology, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California 92037-1099, USA
    J Neurosci 21:9904-16. 2001
    ..Functionally defined subclasses of ON and OFF cells also exhibited asymmetric adaptation. These findings indicate that contrast adaptation differs in parallel retinal circuits that convey distinct visual signals to the brain...
  76. ncbi Multiple phosphorylation of rhodopsin and the in vivo chemistry underlying rod photoreceptor dark adaptation
    M J Kennedy
    Department of Biochemistry, Box 357350, University of Washington, 98195, Seattle, WA, USA
    Neuron 31:87-101. 2001
    ..Initially during dark adaptation, transduction activity wanes as multiple phosphates accumulate. Thereafter, full recovery of photosensitivity coincides with regeneration and dephosphorylation of rhodopsin...
  77. ncbi GABAa and GABAc receptor mediated influences on the intensity-response functions of the b- and d-wave in the frog ERG
    P Kupenova
    Department of Physiology, Medical University, 1 G, Sofiiski Str, 1431 Sofia, Bulgaria
    Vision Res 48:882-92. 2008
    ..The effects of GABAc receptor blockade were more pronounced in dark adaptation conditions. They didn't vary much with stimulus intensity and showed little ON/OFF-response asymmetry...
  78. ncbi Primate photopic sine-wave flicker ERG: vector modeling analysis of component origins using glutamate analogs
    M Kondo
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:305-12. 2001
    ..These results can be summarized by a vector model that may be useful for interpreting changes resulting from retinal disease...
  79. ncbi Time course of rod influences on hue perception
    Steven L Buck
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 1525, USA
    Vis Neurosci 25:517-20. 2008
    ..These opposing rod influences may reflect competing effects of rod signals on ML-cone and S-cone pathways...
  80. pmc Surface gloss and color perception of 3D objects
    Bei Xiao
    Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Vis Neurosci 25:371-85. 2008
    ..In addition, the effect of glossy highlights on the color appearance of the test patch was consistent with the results from Experiment 1...
  81. ncbi Contrast adaptation may enhance contrast discrimination
    Giulia Abbonizio
    Department of Psychology, University College London, London, UK
    Spat Vis 16:45-58. 2002
    ..The former study used binocular, while the latter study used monocular viewing with an occluding eyepatch...
  82. ncbi A parametric account of contrast adaptation on contrast perception
    Keith Langley
    Department of Psychology, University College London, London, UK
    Spat Vis 16:77-93. 2002
    ..This saturation appears to be inconsistent with the commonly held view that the orientation specific effect represents a functional strategy used by the visual system to combat the problem of neural saturation in response firing rates...
  83. ncbi Foveal and extra-foveal orientation discrimination
    Sharon L Sally
    Department of Cognitive Science, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA
    Exp Brain Res 183:351-60. 2007
    ..size) at the fovea than in the periphery. This explains why less spatial scaling is required to equate foveal and peripheral acuity functions at low contrasts than at high contrasts...
  84. ncbi Defining the detection mechanisms for symmetric and rectified flicker stimuli
    Andrew J Zele
    Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Vision Res 47:2700-13. 2007
    ..The dynamics of the thresholds for symmetric and rectified flicker stimuli suggest the detection mechanisms occur early in the visual pathways, involving the magnocellular pathway...
  85. ncbi Grouping effects in flash-induced perceptual fading
    Mark L T Vergeer
    Nijmegen Institute for Cognition and Information NICI, Radboud University Nijmegen, PO Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Perception 36:1036-42. 2007
    ..This indicates that, besides low-level adaptation, more global processes play a part in perceptual fading as well and should thus be taken into account in giving a full explanation of perceptual fading in general...
  86. pmc Interocular amplitude differences of the full field electroretinogram in normal subjects
    Y Rotenstreich
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1855 W Taylor, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Br J Ophthalmol 87:1268-71. 2003
    ..To determine the interocular amplitude response difference of the electroretinogram (ERG) in normal subjects...
  87. ncbi Prolonged photoresponses and defective adaptation in rods of Gbeta5-/- mice
    Claudia M Krispel
    Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Neurosci 23:6965-71. 2003
    ..In addition, our light adaptation studies support the notion than an additional weak GTPase-accelerating factor in rods is regulated by intracellular calcium and/or cGMP...
  88. ncbi Visible light induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat eye
    Andrea M Papp
    Laboratory of Proteomics, Institute of Biology, Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary
    J Neurochem 103:2224-33. 2007
    ..This is the first demonstration of MMP-9 induction by a sensory stimulus...
  89. ncbi A method for investigating the temporal dynamics of local neuroretinal responses
    Beatrix Feigl
    Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and the School of Optometry, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, Brisbane, 4059 QLD, Australia
    J Neurosci Methods 167:207-12. 2008
    ..The time-slice mfERG waveform is a technique for assessing the temporal dynamics of cone-generated neural responses over time. The data are interpreted in terms of the vascular supplies and lower-level visual adaptation mechanisms...
  90. ncbi Visual adaptations in a diurnal rodent, Octodon degus
    G H Jacobs
    Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 189:347-61. 2003
    ..In behavioral tests degus were shown to be able to make color discriminations between ultraviolet and visible lights...
  91. ncbi Noninvasive recording and response characteristics of the rat dc-electroretinogram
    Neal S Peachey
    Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    Vis Neurosci 19:693-701. 2002
    ....
  92. ncbi The photopic ERG luminance-response function (photopic hill): method of analysis and clinical application
    Marianne Rufiange
    Department of Ophthalmology D 164, McGill University, Montreal Children s Hospital Research Institute, 2300 Tupper Street, Que, H3H 1P3, Montreal, Canada
    Vision Res 43:1405-12. 2003
    ..The clinical usefulness of these parameters is illustrated with selected cases of retinal disorders...
  93. ncbi Do weak adapting backgrounds uncover multiple components in the electroretinogram of the horseshoe crab?
    J C Lucas
    Department of Applied Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Rose Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, IN 47803, USA
    Biomed Sci Instrum 39:105-10. 2003
    ..This is in contrast with analogous results from mammals, including mouse, cat and monkey, which show multiple stages of adaptation within their more complex retinas...
  94. ncbi Anterior chamber depth and primary angle-closure glaucoma: an evolutionary perspective
    Robert J Casson
    South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology, Adelaide University, South Australia, Australia
    Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 36:70-7. 2008
    ..evidence for migration patterns of early humans are discussed and the notions of natural selection and ocular adaptation to cold climates are considered...
  95. ncbi Learning in the oculomotor system: from molecules to behavior
    J L Raymond
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Sherman Fairchild Building, Room 251, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 8:770-6. 1998
    ..Studies of vestibulo-ocular adaptation are beginning to examine the molecular pathways contributing to this form of cerebellum-dependent learning.
  96. ncbi Eye rotation does not contribute to shifts in subjective straight ahead: implications for prism adaptation and neglect
    Roger Newport
    School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, UK
    Neuropsychologia 47:2008-12. 2009
    ..Rotating the eye alone did not contribute to SSA realignment whereas shifting the hand did...
  97. pmc Localizations of visual cycle components in retinal pigment epithelium
    Jing Huang
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA
    Mol Vis 15:223-34. 2009
    ..The localizations of these enzymes were compared to known localizations of retinoid-binding proteins and associated proteins...
  98. pmc How fast can we adapt?
    Narcis Ghisovan
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Montreal, C P 6128, succursaleCentre ville Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
    J Physiol 586:1213-4. 2008
  99. ncbi Adaptation responses in early age-related maculopathy
    Beatrix Feigl
    Centre for Health Research, School of Optometry, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:4722-7. 2005
    ..To investigate the global-flash multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) in early age-related maculopathy (ARM)...
  100. ncbi Neuroadaptation of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses
    Susan M Pepin
    Dartmouth Medical School, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 19:10-2. 2008
    ..Technology is only improving these options for presbyopic-correcting intraocular lenses. Surgeons must consider the possible neuroadaptation abilities in patients that may help in the success of using these lenses...
  101. ncbi [Changes in the spatial-contrast sensitivity during work with liquid-crystal monitors and with spectral correction of vision]
    A A Feĭgin
    Fiziol Cheloveka 31:123-5. 2005

Research Grants48

  1. VISUAL ADAPTATION LIMITS AND AGE-RELATED DISEASE
    Alvin Eisner; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  2. WITHIN-SPECIES VARIATIONS IN VISUAL CAPACITY
    GERALD JACOBS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  3. Visual Dysfunction in Retinal Degenerations
    Kenneth R Alexander; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  4. Female Hormones and Vision
    Alvin Eisner; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. Information transfer through ganglion cells
    Barry Lee; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF CONE PHOTOTRANSDUCTION
    RUSSELL HAMER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Similarly, such models allow one to conceptualize and test, noninvasively, putative mechanisms underlying retinal diseases affecting photoreceptor function, and also to identify receptoral immaturities in developing visual systems. ..
  7. Fractionating visual face perception
    Richard Russell; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These hypotheses will be tested using rigorous psychophysics with a group of developmental prosopagnosic individuals. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  8. Retinal Inputs to the Mammalian Circadian Pacemaker
    KWOON WONG; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These experiments may enable a better understanding of how the mammalian circadian pacemaker is regulated, which in turn may lead to better therapies and workplace policies combating/preventing jet lag problems. ..
  9. Gene Therapy of Autosomal Recessive RP
    Simon Petersen Jones; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  10. High Throughput Assays for Ion Channel Activities of Influenza A & B Viruses
    LAWRENCE PINTO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These assays will make it possible to perform efficient searches for antiviral drugs against the M2 ion channels. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. Short-term Training Students-Health Professional Schools
    KENNETH CIUFFREDA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Trainees will consist of optometry students who have just completed either their first or second professional years, and have done well academically (3.5 gpa or better). All will have an undergraduate degree, generally in the sciences. ..
  12. Visual Coding and the Statistics of Natural Scenes
    Daniel Graham; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..By determining the mechanisms at work in coding early vision, our study may suggest new therapeutic strategies in the retina and new technologies in synthetic vision. ..
  13. RESPIRATORY VIRUS ION CHANNELS
    LAWRENCE PINTO; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..5. In a separate set of experiments we will use a sensitive method to test the NB protein of influenza B virus for ion channel activity. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  14. LIFE AND DEATH OF RETINAL GANGLION CELLS
    Vittorio Porciatti; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such outcomes are significant, since exploiting an animal model for testing neuroprotective strategies that preserve visual function is an important component of future research on treatments for glaucoma. ..
  15. PSYCHOPHYSICAL STUDIES OF COLOR DEFECTIVE VISION
    Joel Pokorny; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  16. Visually Modulated Endogenous Activity
    Erich Sutter; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We will investigate its dependence on stimulus geometry and color and we will compare the VMEA responses to random patterns with those to meaningful images with similar brightness contrast distributions. ..
  17. COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION IN AFTEREFFECTS AND ATTENTION
    Shinsuke Shimojo; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results will bridge the gap between animal physiology and human psychophysics, providing insights into coordinate transformation. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. CRCNS: Complete functional characterization of a population of retinal ganglion c
    EDUARDO J CHICHILNISKY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In summary, knowing how the entire retinal network encodes the visual scene in spike trains is a key element in understanding the healthy visual system and designing prosthetic treatments for retinas damaged by disease. ..
  19. Low-Level Prenatal Lead Exposure and Retinal Toxicity
    Donald Fox; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  20. High Throughput Mapping of Neuronal and Glial Networks
    Gabriel A Silva; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. Synchronized Firing in the Retina
    EDUARDO CHICHILNISKY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  22. BINOCULAR RIVALRY IN HUMAN VISION
    Robert Blake; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Finally, results from these experiments will guide neurophysiologists and cognitive neuroscientists seeking to discover the actual neural concomitants of multi-stable perception. ..
  23. Studies on Influenza B Virus BM2 Protein Ion Channel
    LAWRENCE PINTO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  24. Manganese-enhanced MRI Studies of Retinal Neovascularization
    BRUCE BERKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The novel methods in this application will also contribute to the advancement of functional MRI for the study of retinal diseases. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. Glutamate Signaling in Human Islets of Langerhans
    ALEJANDRO CAICEDO VIERKANT; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  26. Zebrafish Mutant Mapping Facility
    Ronald Gregg; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. GLUTAMATE NEUROTRANSMISSION IN RAT TASTE BUDS
    Alejandro Caicedo; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Evidence for glutamatergic synapses and for efferent modulation in taste buds will modify current models of how sensory information is encoded in the peripheral gustatory system. ..
  28. DEVELOPMENT OF AUDITORY-VISUAL LOCALIZATION
    Shinsuke Shimojo; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  29. CEREBELLAR NUCLEI IN EYE MOVEMENT CONTROL AND ADAPTATION
    Farrel Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This unified view of two apparently different CFN functions would provide the first explicit model for understanding the role of other cerebellar output in controlling and adapting other voluntary movements. ..
  30. PHOTORECEPTOR MUTATIONS
    SUSAN BROCKERHOFF; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..As a first step towards this end, we will generate a database of retina-specific genes and map these genes. ..
  31. ERG FIELD TOPOGRAPHY AND SOURCE IDENTIFICATION
    Erich Sutter; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..3. To test the hypothesis that the range and dynamics of the components investigated under 1. are sensitive indicators of retinal ischemia in diabetes. To develop a method to map functional changes in diabetes. ..
  32. IRON STATUS IN WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE
    Usha Ramakrishnan; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The investigators state that in summary, the project is expected to provide information that can be used to examine policy options and develop guidelines to ensure adequate but safe iron status for women of reproductive age. ..
  33. VESTIBULAR AFFERENT ACTIVITY AFTER CANAL PLUGGING
    Sergei Yakushin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This work should lead to a clearer understanding of how lesions, such as plugging and nerve section, affect the sensory processing of head movements and how the central vestibular system adapts to these types of lesions. ..
  34. DOPAMINE AND RETINAL ADAPTATION
    Paul Witkovsky; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  35. CELLULAR SIGNAL PROCESSING IN FLY MOTION VISION
    Alexander Borst; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The experimental data undergo an information theoretic analysis and compared to the performance of biophysically realistic computer models of the cells. ..
  36. MR STUDIES OF EXPERIMENTAL RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY
    BRUCE BERKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This work may have broad impact beyond ROP since abnormal blood vessel growth is a common pathobiologic event for other blinding disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy. ..
  37. VISION AND INTRARETINAL POTENTIALS
    DWIGHT BURKHARDT; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..feedback pathways in mediating the surround of the bipolar cell receptive field and d) Studies of the mechanisms mediating large-field noise, surround antagonism, and spatial resolution in bipolar cells. ..
  38. Retinal Oxygenation in Diabetic Retinopathy
    BRUCE BERKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The results of these studies could lead to the development of a non-invasive real time method for the early evaluation of diabetic retinopathy and its treatment. ..
  39. Improved Acoustic Detection of Coronary Blockages
    John Semmlow; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Specifically, a successful outcome of Phase I will be the ability to detect blockages of 30% to 85% with a sensitivity greater than > 90 % and a specificity greater than 80% in a retrospective data analysis. ..
  40. Cue Combination in Bistable, 3d Structure-From-Motion
    Lee Gilroy; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  41. EFFECTIVE CONNECTIVITY IN BRAIN IMAGING OF VISION
    Robert Blake; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The present proposal has this potential. ..
  42. PHOTIC SENSITIVITY OF THE CIRCADIAN ENTRAINMENT PATHWAY
    DWIGHT NELSON; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  43. Learning and Adaptation in Primary Visual Cortex
    ANDREW TEICH; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The goal of Specific Aim 2 is to experimentally test the prediction that adaptation in alert, non-anesthetized subjects causes physiological changes that are a transient version of the changes seen in learning. ..
  44. Role of Oculomotor Vermis Parallel Fibers in Saccades
    Farrel Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Saccades will not decelerate enough so they will overshoot their targets. The work proposed here will conclusively test this hypothesis by measuring saccades after we cut the p-fibers in the eye movement part of the cerebellum. ..
  45. Cortical Mechanisms of Spatial Pattern Vision
    LYNN OLZAK; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We propose to begin to characterize these properties quantitatively. ..
  46. ENSEMBLE CODING OF VISUAL INFORMATION IN THE RETINA
    EDUARDO CHICHILNISKY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Aim 3. Does retinal signaling limit accuracy of behavioral and cortical motion sensing? This part will include psychophysical studies as well as correlation with recordings in MT obtained from other investigators. ..
  47. FEMTOSECOND TWO PHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPE
    Peter Detwiler; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The instrument will be heavily used by each of the three investigators since the microscope would be engaged on a daily basis in experiments that will run for several hours. ..
  48. MECHANISMS OF PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION IN HUMAN VISION
    Robert Blake; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In addition, the work on spatial structure from temporal synchrony may have implications for understanding clinical disorders involving disruptions in temporal processing, including dyslexia. ..