Summary: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Hyperlocomotion and indifference to cocaine and amphetamine in mice lacking the dopamine transporter
    B Giros
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Laboratories, Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 379:606-12. 1996
  2. ncbi Real versus imagined locomotion: a [18F]-FDG PET-fMRI comparison
    Christian la Fougere
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Germany
    Neuroimage 50:1589-98. 2010
  3. ncbi Restoring voluntary control of locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury
    Rubia van den Brand
    Neurology Department, University of Zurich, Ch 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
    Science 336:1182-5. 2012
  4. pmc Merging of healthy motor modules predicts reduced locomotor performance and muscle coordination complexity post-stroke
    David J Clark
    Brain Rehabilitation Research Ctr, Malcom Randall VA Medical Center, Gainesville, FL 32608 1135, USA
    J Neurophysiol 103:844-57. 2010
  5. pmc Patterned control of human locomotion
    Francesco Lacquaniti
    Department of Systems Medicine, Neuroscience Section, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
    J Physiol 590:2189-99. 2012
  6. ncbi Sociability and preference for social novelty in five inbred strains: an approach to assess autistic-like behavior in mice
    S S Moy
    North Carolina STAART Center for Autism Research, Neurodevelopmental Disorders Research Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 3:287-302. 2004
  7. pmc Circuits controlling vertebrate locomotion: moving in a new direction
    Martyn Goulding
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:507-18. 2009
  8. pmc Transformation of nonfunctional spinal circuits into functional states after the loss of brain input
    Gregoire Courtine
    Neurology Department, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Neurosci 12:1333-42. 2009
  9. ncbi Locomotor circuits in the mammalian spinal cord
    Ole Kiehn
    Mammalian Locomotor Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm S17177, Sweden
    Annu Rev Neurosci 29:279-306. 2006
  10. ncbi Recovery of locomotion after spinal cord injury: some facts and mechanisms
    Serge Rossignol
    Groupe de Recherche sur le Système Nerveux Central, Department of Physiology, and Multidisciplinary Team in Locomotor Rehabilitation of the Canadian Institutes for Health Research, Universite de Montreal, Montreal H3C 3J7, Canada
    Annu Rev Neurosci 34:413-40. 2011

Detail Information

Publications318 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Hyperlocomotion and indifference to cocaine and amphetamine in mice lacking the dopamine transporter
    B Giros
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Laboratories, Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 379:606-12. 1996
    ..The dopamine transporter is an obligatory target of cocaine and amphetamine, as these psychostimulants have no effect on locomotor activity or dopamine release and uptake in mice lacking the transporter...
  2. ncbi Real versus imagined locomotion: a [18F]-FDG PET-fMRI comparison
    Christian la Fougere
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Germany
    Neuroimage 50:1589-98. 2010
    ..In this study the whole brain activation and deactivation pattern during real locomotion was investigated by [(18)F]-FDG-PET and compared to BOLD-signal changes during imagined locomotion in the same ..
  3. ncbi Restoring voluntary control of locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury
    Rubia van den Brand
    Neurology Department, University of Zurich, Ch 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
    Science 336:1182-5. 2012
    ..cortex regained the capacity to transform contextual information into task-specific commands to execute refined locomotion. This recovery relied on the extensive remodeling of cortical projections, including the formation of brainstem ..
  4. pmc Merging of healthy motor modules predicts reduced locomotor performance and muscle coordination complexity post-stroke
    David J Clark
    Brain Rehabilitation Research Ctr, Malcom Randall VA Medical Center, Gainesville, FL 32608 1135, USA
    J Neurophysiol 103:844-57. 2010
    ..Identification of motor modules may lead to new insight into impaired locomotor coordination and the underlying neural systems...
  5. pmc Patterned control of human locomotion
    Francesco Lacquaniti
    Department of Systems Medicine, Neuroscience Section, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
    J Physiol 590:2189-99. 2012
    ..Here we review recent studies on human locomotion showing that muscle activity is accounted for by a combination of few basic patterns, each one timed at a ..
  6. ncbi Sociability and preference for social novelty in five inbred strains: an approach to assess autistic-like behavior in mice
    S S Moy
    North Carolina STAART Center for Autism Research, Neurodevelopmental Disorders Research Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 3:287-302. 2004
    ..This new standardized procedure to quantitate sociability and preference for social novelty in mice provides a method to assess tendencies for social avoidance in mouse models of autism...
  7. pmc Circuits controlling vertebrate locomotion: moving in a new direction
    Martyn Goulding
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:507-18. 2009
    ..The motor circuits in the spinal cord that control locomotion, commonly referred to as central pattern generator networks, provide an experimentally tractable model system ..
  8. pmc Transformation of nonfunctional spinal circuits into functional states after the loss of brain input
    Gregoire Courtine
    Neurology Department, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Neurosci 12:1333-42. 2009
    ..The emergence of these new functional states enabled full weight-bearing treadmill locomotion in paralyzed rats that was almost indistinguishable from voluntary stepping...
  9. ncbi Locomotor circuits in the mammalian spinal cord
    Ole Kiehn
    Mammalian Locomotor Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm S17177, Sweden
    Annu Rev Neurosci 29:279-306. 2006
    ..known as central pattern generators (CPGs), control the timing and pattern of the muscle activity underlying locomotion in mammals...
  10. ncbi Recovery of locomotion after spinal cord injury: some facts and mechanisms
    Serge Rossignol
    Groupe de Recherche sur le Système Nerveux Central, Department of Physiology, and Multidisciplinary Team in Locomotor Rehabilitation of the Canadian Institutes for Health Research, Universite de Montreal, Montreal H3C 3J7, Canada
    Annu Rev Neurosci 34:413-40. 2011
    ..functions can recover, ranging from simple spinal reflexes to more elaborate motor patterns, such as locomotion. Locomotor recovery after complete spinalization (complete SCI) must depend on the presence of spinal circuitry ..
  11. ncbi An imbalancing act: gap junctions reduce the backward motor circuit activity to bias C. elegans for forward locomotion
    Taizo Kawano
    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON M5G1X5, Canada
    Neuron 72:572-86. 2011
    ..By monitoring the decision making for directional locomotion through motor circuit calcium imaging in behaving Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), we reveal that C...
  12. pmc The Parallel Worm Tracker: a platform for measuring average speed and drug-induced paralysis in nematodes
    Daniel Ramot
    Program in Neuroscience, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e2208. 2008
    Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion is a simple behavior that has been widely used to dissect genetic components of behavior, synaptic transmission, and muscle function. Many of the paradigms that have been created to study C...
  13. pmc parkin-induced defects in neurophysiology and locomotion are generated by metabolic dysfunction and not oxidative stress
    Amanda Vincent
    Department of Biology, University of York, P O Box 373, York YO10 5YW, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 21:1760-9. 2012
    ..We therefore propose that mitochondrial dysfunction in parkin mutants induces Parkinsonian bradykinesia via a neuronal energy deficit and resulting synaptic failure, rather than as a consequence of downstream oxidative stress...
  14. pmc Organization of mammalian locomotor rhythm and pattern generation
    David A McCrea
    Spinal Cord Research Centre and Department of Physiology, University of Manitoba, 730 William Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3J7, Canada
    Brain Res Rev 57:134-46. 2008
    ..CPGs) located in the spinal cord produce the coordinated activation of flexor and extensor motoneurons during locomotion. Previously proposed architectures for the spinal locomotor CPG have included the classical half-center ..
  15. ncbi Spatial learning and memory impairment and increased locomotion in a transgenic amyloid precursor protein mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    J M Walker
    Department of Psychological Sciences, 210 McAlester Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Behav Brain Res 222:169-75. 2011
    This study provides an examination of spatial learning and a behavioral assessment of irritability and locomotion in TgCRND8 mice, an amyloid precursor protein transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease...
  16. ncbi Dynamic sensorimotor interactions in locomotion
    Serge Rossignol
    Department of Physiology, Centre for Research in Neurological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, PO Box 6128, Station Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7
    Physiol Rev 86:89-154. 2006
    b>Locomotion results from intricate dynamic interactions between a central program and feedback mechanisms...
  17. ncbi Environmental context explains Lévy and Brownian movement patterns of marine predators
    Nicolas E Humphries
    Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK
    Nature 465:1066-9. 2010
    ..These results are consistent with the Lévy-flight foraging hypothesis, supporting the contention that organism search strategies naturally evolved in such a way that they exploit optimal Lévy patterns...
  18. ncbi Age-related modifications of muscle synergies and spinal cord activity during locomotion
    Vito Monaco
    Advanced Robotics Technology and System Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant Anna, Pisa, Italy
    J Neurophysiol 104:2092-102. 2010
    Recent findings have shown that neural circuits located in the spinal cord drive muscular activations during locomotion while intermediating between descending signals and peripheral sensory information...
  19. pmc The ALS-associated proteins FUS and TDP-43 function together to affect Drosophila locomotion and life span
    Ji Wu Wang
    Center for Motor Neuron Biology and Disease, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:4118-26. 2011
    ..Our results establish that FUS and TDP-43 function together in vivo and suggest that molecular pathways requiring the combined activities of both of these proteins may be disrupted in ALS and FTD...
  20. pmc Spinal cholinergic interneurons regulate the excitability of motoneurons during locomotion
    Gareth B Miles
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 1X5
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:2448-53. 2007
    ..Analyses of isolated spinal cord preparations in which fictive locomotion was elicited demonstrated that endogenous cholinergic inputs increase motoneuron excitability during locomotion...
  21. ncbi Plasticity of the spinal neural circuitry after injury
    V Reggie Edgerton
    Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 27:145-67. 2004
    ..Rehabilitative efforts combining locomotor training pharmacological means and/or spinal cord electrical stimulation paradigms will most likely result in more effective methods of recovery than using only one intervention...
  22. ncbi Central pattern generators for locomotion control in animals and robots: a review
    Auke Jan Ijspeert
    School of Computer and Communication Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 14, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Neural Netw 21:642-53. 2008
    The problem of controlling locomotion is an area in which neuroscience and robotics can fruitfully interact. In this article, I will review research carried out on locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs), i.e...
  23. pmc Modelling spinal circuitry involved in locomotor pattern generation: insights from deletions during fictive locomotion
    Ilya A Rybak
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
    J Physiol 577:617-39. 2006
    ..The model reproduces the range of locomotor periods and phase durations observed during real locomotion in adult cats and permits independent control of the level of motoneurone activity and of step cycle timing...
  24. pmc Temporal dynamics of neuronal activation by Channelrhodopsin-2 and TRPA1 determine behavioral output in Drosophila larvae
    Stefan R Pulver
    Department of Biology, Brandeis University, National Center of Behavioral Genomics and Volen Center for Complex Systems, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454 9110, USA
    J Neurophysiol 101:3075-88. 2009
    ..Overall, this work suggests that understanding the cellular effects of these genetic tools and their temporal dynamics is important for the design and interpretation of behavioral experiments...
  25. ncbi Sensorimotor mismatch signals in primary visual cortex of the behaving mouse
    Georg B Keller
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, 82152 Munich Martinsried, Germany
    Neuron 74:809-15. 2012
    ..Using visual-flow feedback manipulations during locomotion in a virtual reality environment, we found that responses in layer 2/3 of mouse primary visual cortex are ..
  26. ncbi Coordination of locomotion with voluntary movements in humans
    Yuri P Ivanenko
    Department of Neuromotor Physiology, Scientific Institute Foundation Santa Lucia, 00179 Rome, Italy
    J Neurosci 25:7238-53. 2005
    Muscle activity occurring during human locomotion can be accounted for by five basic temporal activation patterns in a variety of locomotion conditions...
  27. ncbi Biomechanical consequences of scaling
    Andrew A Biewener
    Concord Field Station, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Old Causeway Road, Bedford, MA 01730, USA
    J Exp Biol 208:1665-76. 2005
    ..relevant measure of a structure's safety factor, particularly under impact loading conditions characteristic of locomotion. Yet, it is also the most difficult to obtain...
  28. ncbi Biological pattern generation: the cellular and computational logic of networks in motion
    Sten Grillner
    Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuron 52:751-66. 2006
    ..In addition, I will outline the utility of computational models in analysis of the dynamic actions of these motor networks...
  29. pmc Assessing the stability of human locomotion: a review of current measures
    S M Bruijn
    Motor Control Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Kinesiology, Research Centre for Movement Control and Neuroplasticity, K U Leuven, Belgium
    J R Soc Interface 10:20120999. 2013
    ..In closing, directions for future research on dynamic gait stability are discussed...
  30. pmc Proprioceptive coupling within motor neurons drives C. elegans forward locomotion
    Quan Wen
    Department of Physics and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Neuron 76:750-61. 2012
    b>Locomotion requires coordinated motor activity throughout an animal's body. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, chains of coupled central pattern generators (CPGs) are commonly evoked to explain local rhythmic behaviors. In C...
  31. ncbi Dopamine and glutamate control area-restricted search behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Thomas Hills
    Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 0840, USA
    J Neurosci 24:1217-25. 2004
    ..Both GLR-1 and GLR-2 are expressed in the locomotory control circuit that modulates the direction of locomotion in response to sensory stimuli and the duration of forward movement during foraging...
  32. pmc The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion
    Fred Spoor
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:10808-12. 2007
    ..semicircular canal system of vertebrates helps coordinate body movements, including stabilization of gaze during locomotion. Quantitative phylogenetically informed analysis of the radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals in ..
  33. ncbi Evidence for a spinal central pattern generator in humans
    M R Dimitrijevic
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 860:360-76. 1998
  34. ncbi Acute effects of alcohol on larval zebrafish: a genetic system for large-scale screening
    Brent Lockwood
    Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Programs in Human Genetics and Biological Sciences, Wheeler Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0446, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 77:647-54. 2004
    ..Therefore, the larval zebrafish represent a tractable vertebrate model system for a large-scale genetic analysis of the biological effects of alcohol...
  35. ncbi Do human bipeds use quadrupedal coordination?
    Volker Dietz
    ParaCare, Institute for Rehabilitation and Research, University Hospital Balgrist, Forchstrasse 340, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
    Trends Neurosci 25:462-7. 2002
    Tackling the question of whether control of human gait is based on that of a quadrupedal locomotion system is of basic and practical relevance...
  36. ncbi Locomotion in larval zebrafish: Influence of time of day, lighting and ethanol
    R C MacPhail
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Neurotoxicology 30:52-8. 2009
    ..We studied the locomotion of individual zebrafish larva (6 days post-fertilization) in 96-well microtiter plates...
  37. ncbi Interlimb coordination during locomotion: what can be adapted and stored?
    Darcy S Reisman
    Department of Physical Therapy, University of Delaware, Newark, USA
    J Neurophysiol 94:2403-15. 2005
    Interlimb coordination is critically important during bipedal locomotion and often must be adapted to account for varying environmental circumstances...
  38. ncbi Sequential activation of muscle synergies during locomotion in the intact cat as revealed by cluster analysis and direct decomposition
    Nedialko Krouchev
    Departement de Physiologie, Universite de Montreal, Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 Canada
    J Neurophysiol 96:1991-2010. 2006
    During goal-directed locomotion, descending signals from supraspinal structures act through spinal interneuron pathways to effect modifications of muscle activity that are appropriate to the task requirements...
  39. ncbi Significance of load receptor input during locomotion: a review
    V Dietz
    Swiss Paraplegic Centre, University Hospital Balgrist, Forchstr 340, CH 8008, Zurich, Switzerland
    Gait Posture 11:102-10. 2000
    A basic aspect of the neuronal control of quadrupedal locomotion of cat and of bipedal stance and gait of humans concerns the antigravity function of leg extensors...
  40. ncbi Enhanced locomotion caused by loss of the Drosophila DEG/ENaC protein Pickpocket1
    Joshua A Ainsley
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Iowa, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Curr Biol 13:1557-63. 2003
    Coordination of rhythmic locomotion depends upon a precisely balanced interplay between central and peripheral control mechanisms...
  41. ncbi Automated imaging of neuronal activity in freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans
    Juliette Ben Arous
    Laboratoire de Physique Statistique de l Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, UPMC, 24, rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris, France
    J Neurosci Methods 187:229-34. 2010
    ..Caenorhabditis elegans on standard agar plates, we show that spontaneous reversals from forward to backward locomotion reflect precisely the activity of the AVA command interneurons...
  42. pmc Dimensionality and dynamics in the behavior of C. elegans
    Greg J Stephens
    Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 4:e1000028. 2008
    ..We confirm this prediction, effectively "steering" the worm in real time...
  43. ncbi How animals move: an integrative view
    M H Dickinson
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Science 288:100-6. 2000
    Recent advances in integrative studies of locomotion have revealed several general principles. Energy storage and exchange mechanisms discovered in walking and running bipeds apply to multilegged locomotion and even to flying and swimming...
  44. pmc Molecular control of TiO₂-NPs toxicity formation at predicted environmental relevant concentrations by Mn-SODs proteins
    Yinxia Li
    Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease in Ministry of Education, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e44688. 2012
    ..toxicities than large sizes (60 nm and 90 nm) of TiO₂-NPs on animals using lethality, growth, reproduction, locomotion behavior, intestinal autofluorescence, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as endpoints...
  45. ncbi Measuring anxiety- and locomotion-related behaviours in mice: a new way of using old tests
    Leanne M Fraser
    Psychology Department and Neuroscience Institute, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, B3H 4J1
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 211:99-112. 2010
    ..However, because of the potentially confounding effects of repeated testing and natural intra-individual variations in behaviour over time, subjecting mice to a succession of tests is not ideal...
  46. pmc A Drosophila model of spinal muscular atrophy uncouples snRNP biogenesis functions of survival motor neuron from locomotion and viability defects
    Kavita Praveen
    Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Cell Rep 1:624-31. 2012
    ..Smn null mutants display larval lethality and show significant locomotion defects as well as reductions in minor-class spliceosomal snRNAs...
  47. ncbi Swarming motility in undomesticated Bacillus subtilis
    Daniel B Kearns
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Mol Microbiol 49:581-90. 2003
    ..We conclude that robust swarming is a feature of undomesticated B. subtilis and that this behaviour has been lost or attenuated in laboratory strains through the accumulation of multiple genetic defects...
  48. pmc Phosphate starvation promotes swarming motility and cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Manjeet Bains
    Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:6762-8. 2012
    ..This dysregulation also led to increased virulence-associated phenotypes, including swarming motility and cytotoxicity...
  49. ncbi Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs
    A M Wilson
    Structure and Motion Laboratory, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield AL9 7TA, UK
    Nature 498:185-9. 2013
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat...
  50. pmc Neuronal activity in the isolated mouse spinal cord during spontaneous deletions in fictive locomotion: insights into locomotor central pattern generator organization
    Guisheng Zhong
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, W 159 Seeley G Mudd Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Physiol 590:4735-59. 2012
    We explored the organization of the spinal central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion by analysing the activity of spinal interneurons and motoneurons during spontaneous deletions occurring during fictive locomotion in the isolated ..
  51. ncbi Functional mapping of neurons that control locomotory behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Ephraim L Tsalik
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Neurobiol 56:178-97. 2003
    ..AIY, AIZ, and RIB are the first interneurons directly implicated in chemosensory signaling. Our neuronal mapping studies provide the framework for further genetic and functional dissections of neuronal circuits in C. elegans...
  52. ncbi Regulation of arm and leg movement during human locomotion
    E Paul Zehr
    Rehabilitation Neuroscience Laboratory, University of Victoria, BC, Canada
    Neuroscientist 10:347-61. 2004
    ..Although the strength of coupling between the legs is stronger than that between the arms, arm and leg movements are similarly regulated by CPG activity and sensory feedback (e.g., reflex control) during locomotion.
  53. ncbi Contributions of the motor cortex to the control of the hindlimbs during locomotion in the cat
    Trevor Drew
    Department of Physiology, University of Montreal, PO Box 6128, Station Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 40:178-91. 2002
    ..not essential for the production of the basic locomotor rhythm in cats, it does contribute to the regulation of locomotion, particularly in situations in which there is a requirement for precise control over paw placement or limb ..
  54. pmc Missense mutation in the ATPase, aminophospholipid transporter protein ATP8A2 is associated with cerebellar atrophy and quadrupedal locomotion
    Onur Emre Onat
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey
    Eur J Hum Genet 21:281-5. 2013
    ..These findings suggest that ATP8A2 is involved in the development of the cerebro-cerebellar structures required for posture and gait in humans...
  55. ncbi Spinal 5-HT7 receptors are critical for alternating activity during locomotion: in vitro neonatal and in vivo adult studies using 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice
    Jun Liu
    Department of Physiology, The University of Manitoba Winnipeg, 730 William Avenue, BMSB 425, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3J7 Canada
    J Neurophysiol 102:337-48. 2009
    5-HT7 receptors have been implicated in the control of locomotion. Here we use 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice to rigorously test whether 5-HT acts at the 5-HT7 receptor to control locomotor-like activity in the neonatal mouse spinal cord in ..
  56. pmc Motoneuronal and muscle synergies involved in cat hindlimb control during fictive and real locomotion: a comparison study
    Sergey N Markin
    Dept of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel Univ College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
    J Neurophysiol 107:2057-71. 2012
    We compared the activity profiles and synergies of spinal motoneurons recorded during fictive locomotion evoked in immobilized decerebrate cat preparations by midbrain stimulation to the activity profiles and synergies of the ..
  57. pmc Bending amplitude - a new quantitative assay of C. elegans locomotion: identification of phenotypes for mutants in genes encoding muscle focal adhesion components
    John F Nahabedian
    School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, United States
    Methods 56:95-102. 2012
    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans uses striated muscle in its body wall for locomotion. The myofilament lattice is organized such that all the thin filament attachment structures (dense bodies, analogous to Z-disks) and thick filament ..
  58. ncbi Modular control of limb movements during human locomotion
    Yuri P Ivanenko
    Department of Neuromotor Physiology, Santa Lucia Foundation, 00179 Rome, Italy
    J Neurosci 27:11149-61. 2007
    ..We explored this idea for human locomotion by examining limb kinematics...
  59. ncbi CatWalk-assisted gait analysis in the assessment of spinal cord injury
    Frank P T Hamers
    Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Oto Rhino Laryngology, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Neurotrauma 23:537-48. 2006
    ..Therefore, a major part of this review is devoted to the history and meaning of these coordination measures...
  60. pmc A dictionary of behavioral motifs reveals clusters of genes affecting Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion
    Andre E X Brown
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:791-6. 2013
    Visible phenotypes based on locomotion and posture have played a critical role in understanding the molecular basis of behavior and development in Caenorhabditis elegans and other model organisms...
  61. ncbi Locomotion through apertures when wider space for locomotion is necessary: adaptation to artificially altered bodily states
    Takahiro Higuchi
    Gait and Posture Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, N2L 3G1, Waterloo, ON, Canada
    Exp Brain Res 175:50-9. 2006
    ..In one of four locomotion forms (normal walking, walking while holding a 63-cm horizontal bar with or without rotating the shoulders to ..
  62. ncbi Rehabilitation of locomotion after spinal cord injury
    Hubertus J A van Hedel
    SCI Research, Spinal Cord Injury Center, University of Zurich, Balgrist University Hospital, Forchstrasse 340, Ch 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
    Restor Neurol Neurosci 28:123-34. 2010
    Advances in our understanding of the control of locomotion enable us to optimize the rehabilitation of patients with a spinal cord injury (SCI)...
  63. ncbi Development of human locomotion
    Francesco Lacquaniti
    Department of Systems Medicine, Neuroscience Section, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 22:822-8. 2012
    Neural control of locomotion in human adults involves the generation of a small set of basic patterned commands directed to the leg muscles...
  64. ncbi Role of dopamine in the behavioural actions of nicotine related to addiction
    G Di Chiara
    Department of Toxicology and CNR Center of Neuropharmacology, University of Cagliari, Viale Diaz 182, 09100 Cagliari, Italy
    Eur J Pharmacol 393:295-314. 2000
    ..Unavailability of tobacco disrupts the automatic, implicit modality of abnormal habit responding switching responding into the explicit, conscious modality of incentive drug-seeking and craving...
  65. pmc The role of the TRP channel NompC in Drosophila larval and adult locomotion
    Li E Cheng
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Neuron 67:373-80. 2010
    ..found that the proper function of NompC, a putative mechanosensitive TRP channel, is not only required for fly locomotion, but also crucial for larval crawling...
  66. pmc Orexinergic projections to the cat midbrain mediate alternation of emotional behavioural states from locomotion to cataplexy
    Kaoru Takakusaki
    Department of Physiology, Asahikawa Medical College, Midorigaoka Higashi 2 1, Asahikawa 078 8510, Japan
    J Physiol 568:1003-20. 2005
    ..0 mm, 0.20-0.25 microl) into the MLR reduced the intensity of the electrical stimulation required to induce locomotion on a treadmill (4 cats) or even elicit locomotor movements without electrical stimulation (2 cats)...
  67. ncbi Neural coupling between the arms and legs during rhythmic locomotor-like cycling movement
    Jaclyn E Balter
    Rehabilitation Neuroscience Laboratory, PO Box 3010, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada, V8W 3P1
    J Neurophysiol 97:1809-18. 2007
    Neuronal coupling between the arms and legs allowing coordinated rhythmic movement during locomotion is poorly understood...
  68. pmc Circadian organization of behavior and physiology in Drosophila
    Ravi Allada
    Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 72:605-24. 2010
    ..These studies reveal a remarkable complexity to circadian pathways in this "simple" model organism...
  69. pmc UNC-1 regulates gap junctions important to locomotion in C. elegans
    Bojun Chen
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, Connecticut 06030
    Curr Biol 17:1334-9. 2007
    ..elegans, loss-of-function (lf) mutations of the stomatin-like protein (SLP) UNC-1 and the innexin UNC-9 inhibit locomotion [1, 2] and modulate sensitivity to volatile anesthetics [3, 4]...
  70. ncbi Epidural spinal cord stimulation plus quipazine administration enable stepping in complete spinal adult rats
    Yury P Gerasimenko
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Neurophysiol 98:2525-36. 2007
    ..and extensor related intraspinal neural networks in qualitatively unique, but complementary, ways to facilitate locomotion in spinal cord-injured rats...
  71. ncbi Enhanced gait-related improvements after therapist- versus robotic-assisted locomotor training in subjects with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled study
    T George Hornby
    Department of Physical Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1919 W Taylor St, M C 898, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Stroke 39:1786-92. 2008
    ..Robotic devices that provide consistent symmetrical assistance have been developed to facilitate LT, although their effectiveness in improving locomotor ability has not been well established...
  72. ncbi Locomotor-like movements evoked by leg muscle vibration in humans
    V S Gurfinkel
    Laboratory of Neurobiology of Motor Control, Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    Eur J Neurosci 10:1608-12. 1998
    ..between evoked hip and knee movements could be positive or negative, corresponding to 'backward' or 'forward' locomotion. Such an essential feature of natural human locomotion as alternating movements of two legs, was also present in ..
  73. ncbi Patterns of locomotor drive to motoneurons and last-order interneurons: clues to the structure of the CPG
    R E Burke
    Laboratory of Neural Control, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4455, USA
    J Neurophysiol 86:447-62. 2001
    ..in several hindlimb motor pools and the modulation of oligosynaptic cutaneous reflex pathways during fictive locomotion in decerebrate unanesthetized cats to assess the notion that such linkages can shed light on the structure of ..
  74. ncbi Goal directed locomotion and balance control in autistic children
    S Vernazza-Martin
    Laboratoire Sport et Culture EA2931, Universite Paris X Nanterre, 200 av de la République, 92001, Nanterre, France
    J Autism Dev Disord 35:91-102. 2005
    This article focuses on postural anticipation and multi-joint coordination during locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Three questions were addressed...
  75. ncbi The ant odometer: stepping on stilts and stumps
    Matthias Wittlinger
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Ulm, D 89069 Ulm, Germany
    Science 312:1965-7. 2006
    ..Travel distance is overestimated by experimental animals walking on stilts and underestimated by animals walking on stumps...
  76. ncbi Visual estimation of spatial requirements for locomotion in novice wheelchair users
    Takahiro Higuchi
    Yokohama National University, Japan
    J Exp Psychol Appl 10:55-66. 2004
    b>Locomotion using a wheelchair requires a wider space than does walking. Two experiments were conducted to test the ability of nonhandicapped adults to estimate the spatial requirements for wheelchair use...
  77. pmc Training locomotor networks
    V Reggie Edgerton
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Brain Res Rev 57:241-54. 2008
  78. ncbi Strategies for delineating spinal locomotor rhythm-generating networks and the possible role of Hb9 interneurones in rhythmogenesis
    Robert M Brownstone
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Canada
    Brain Res Rev 57:64-76. 2008
    ..been barriers to the application of the principles learned to the definition of networks underlying mammalian locomotion. Major difficulties have arisen in identifying spinal interneurones in preparations which allow study of ..
  79. ncbi Neural bases of goal-directed locomotion in vertebrates--an overview
    Sten Grillner
    The Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    Brain Res Rev 57:2-12. 2008
    The different neural control systems involved in goal-directed vertebrate locomotion are reviewed...
  80. ncbi Perception of spatial requirements for wheelchair locomotion in experienced users with tetraplegia
    Takahiro Higuchi
    Department of Health Promotion Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan
    J Physiol Anthropol 28:15-21. 2009
    This study focused on whether wheelchair users showed enhanced ability to estimate the space required for locomotion with familiar and unfamiliar wheelchairs...
  81. ncbi On the origin of planar covariation of elevation angles during human locomotion
    Y P Ivanenko
    Department of Neuromotor Physiology, Scientific Institute Foundation Santa Lucia, 306 via Ardeatina, 00179 Rome, Italy
    J Neurophysiol 99:1890-8. 2008
    ..Recently the role of central versus biomechanical constraints on the kinematics control of human locomotion has been questioned...
  82. pmc Locomotion after spinal cord injury depends on constitutive activity in serotonin receptors
    K Fouad
    Centre for Neuroscience, Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1, Canada
    J Neurophysiol 104:2975-84. 2010
    ..we investigated the contribution of constitutive 5-HT(2) receptor activity (activity in the absence of 5-HT) to locomotion after SCI...
  83. pmc Some sauropods raised their necks--evidence for high browsing in Euhelopus zdanskyi
    Andreas Christian
    Universität Flensburg, Institut für Biologie und ihre Didaktik, Germany
    Biol Lett 6:823-5. 2010
    ..It is demonstrated for Euhelopus as well as for the much larger Brachiosaurus that despite an increase in the metabolic rate, high browsing was worthwhile for a sauropod if resources were far apart...
  84. ncbi Thomas Graham Brown (1882--1965), Anders Lundberg (1920-), and the neural control of stepping
    Douglas G Stuart
    Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, AHSC, Tucson, AZ 85724 5051, USA
    Brain Res Rev 59:74-95. 2008
    ..Subsequently, models of the spinal pattern generators for mammalian locomotion have become progressively more complex but they mostly still include a half-center component.
  85. ncbi Analysis of a spatial orientation memory in Drosophila
    Kirsa Neuser
    Lehrstuhl für Genetik und Neurobiologie, Biozentrum, Universitat Wurzburg, Am Hubland, D 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
    Nature 453:1244-7. 2008
    ..Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster possesses a similar spatial memory during locomotion. Using a new detour setup, we show that flies can remember the position of an object for several seconds after ..
  86. ncbi Neonatal exposure to MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, enhances methamphetamine-induced locomotion and disrupts sensorimotor gating in pre- and postpubertal rats
    Takashi Uehara
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Toyama Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sugitani, Toyama, Japan
    Brain Res 1352:223-30. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that transient exposure to MK-801 in the neonatal stage causes exaggerated dopamine transmission and cognitive deficits, particularly in the post-puberty stage...
  87. ncbi Influences of state anxiety on gaze behavior and stepping accuracy in older adults during adaptive locomotion
    William R Young
    School of Psychology, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, UK
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 67:43-51. 2012
    ..e., looking away from a target box prior to completing the step on it in order to fixate future constraints in the walkway) and (b) reduced stepping accuracy on the target in older adults...
  88. pmc A computational analysis of limb and body dimensions in Tyrannosaurus rex with implications for locomotion, ontogeny, and growth
    John R Hutchinson
    Structure and Motion Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e26037. 2011
    ..of limb muscle sizes as well as the body's centre of mass that could have influenced ontogenetic changes of locomotion in T. rex...
  89. pmc A dynamical systems analysis of afferent control in a neuromechanical model of locomotion: I. Rhythm generation
    Lucy E Spardy
    Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    J Neural Eng 8:065003. 2011
    b>Locomotion in mammals is controlled by a spinal central pattern generator (CPG) coupled to a biomechanical limb system, with afferent feedback to the spinal circuits and CPG closing the control loop...
  90. pmc Rate-dependent control strategies stabilize limb forces during human locomotion
    Jasper T Yen
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J R Soc Interface 7:801-10. 2010
    ..for hopping and running animals and is pervasive throughout experimental and theoretical studies of legged locomotion. Given the neuromechanical complexity of the leg, it remains unclear how joint dynamics are selected to achieve ..
  91. pmc High-resolution positional tracking for long-term analysis of Drosophila sleep and locomotion using the "tracker" program
    Nathan C Donelson
    Department of Biology, National Center for Behavioral Genomics and Volen Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e37250. 2012
    ..The interaction of sleep with other behaviors can also be assessed directly in many cases with this method...
  92. ncbi Animal navigation: the difficulty of moving in a straight line
    Allen Cheung
    Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia
    Biol Cybern 97:47-61. 2007
    ..Some specific examples are discussed. An important corollary arising from the analysis of compassless navigation is that the maximum expected displacement represents a robust measure of the straightness of a path...
  93. ncbi Organizing network action for locomotion: insights from studying insect walking
    Ansgar Buschges
    Department Animal Physiol, Zool Inst, University of Cologne, Weyertal 119, 50923 Cologne, Germany
    Brain Res Rev 57:162-71. 2008
    ..We will place the current knowledge and new results into the broad context gained from other locomotor behaviors and organisms...
  94. ncbi Intrinsic function of a neuronal network - a vertebrate central pattern generator
    S Grillner
    Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 26:184-97. 1998
    ..This is one of the few vertebrate networks that is understood at a cellular level...
  95. pmc Mild calorie restriction induces fat accumulation in female C57BL/6J mice
    Xingsheng Li
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:456-62. 2010
    ..The increase in fat mass and decrease in lean mass may be a stress response to the uncertainty of food availability...
  96. pmc Temporal delays among place cells determine the frequency of population theta oscillations in the hippocampus
    Caroline Geisler
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7957-62. 2010
  97. ncbi The tail of Tyrannosaurus: reassessing the size and locomotive importance of the M. caudofemoralis in non-avian theropods
    W Scott Persons
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Anat Rec (Hoboken) 294:119-31. 2011
  98. pmc Effects of attention on the control of locomotion in individuals with chronic low back pain
    Claudine J C Lamoth
    Research Institute MOVE, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 9, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neuroeng Rehabil 5:13. 2008
    ..Conversely, because chronic pain has a strong attentional component, diverting attention away from the pain might facilitate a more efficient walking pattern...
  99. ncbi Neurosurgery: functional regeneration after laser axotomy
    Mehmet Fatih Yanik
    Department of Applied Physics, Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 432:822. 2004
    ..Application of this precise surgical technique should enable nerve regeneration to be studied in vivo in its most evolutionarily simple form...
  100. ncbi Early emergence of temporal co-ordination of lower limb segments elevation angles in human locomotion
    G Cheron
    Laboratory of Movement Biomechanics, ISEPK, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue P Héger, CP168, Brussels B 1050, Belgium
    Neurosci Lett 308:123-7. 2001
    ..Adult-like CCF parameters were reached earlier for alpha(s)-alpha(f) than alpha(t)-alpha(s), indicating disto-proximal maturation of the temporal co-ordination of the lower limb segments in human locomotion.
  101. ncbi Visual and vestibular influences on head-direction cells in the anterior thalamus of the rat
    H T Blair
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8205, USA
    Behav Neurosci 110:643-60. 1996
    ..The authors conclude that vestibular and visual movement cues work interactively, along with visual landmarks and motor signals, to determine the directional frame of reference...

Research Grants74

  1. Agrin/alpha 3 Na,K-ATPase signaling at the neuromuscular junction
    Martin A Smith; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): All coordinated movements such as locomotion, breathing, and swallowing, depend on the rapid transfer of information between motor neurons and the skeletal muscle fibers they innervate that takes ..
  2. Computer/Electrical Engineering
    Theodore Raphan; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This will also be used in human locomotion experiments. 6...
  3. Pharmacological strategies to improve breathing after cervical spinal cord injury
    FRANCIS GOLDER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Such an approach may be extrapolated to other motor deficits (i.e., locomotion, bladder control, and sexual function) that occur secondary to impaired motoneuron function in a variety of ..
  4. Oxidative stress and neurogenetic networks in Drosophila
    Robert R H Anholt; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is to delineate the impact of chemically induced oxidative stress on genetic networks that are associated with locomotion phenotypes...
  5. Characterizing Ankle Function During Sloped Locomotion For Prosthesis Development
    Alena Grabowski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in velocity and slope to allow Veterans with a leg amputation to achieve full functional equivalence during locomotion. The proposed Career Development Award aims to characterize biological ankle joint function during walking and ..
  6. Analysis of the tumor suppressor gene Tsc1 in motor neuron patterning
    Onanong Chivatakarn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Motor neurons (MNs) enable control over locomotion, respiration and autonomic responses, and are profoundly affected by diseases such as spinal muscle atrophy (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (..
    Cynthia M Kuhn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Rats show some similarities to this pattern: cocaine elicits greater increases in cocaine-stimulated locomotion, females work harder for cocaine reinforcement and extracellular DA rises more than in male rats...
  8. Structure and function of stress fibers and cell adhesion sites
    Mary C Beckerle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Normal physiological functions associated with respiration, circulation, locomotion, and digestion expose cells to mechanical stress that can deform or damage cytoskeletal elements...
  9. Rescuing Niemann-Pick C Disease: Pathways of Liver and Brain Degeneration
    Matthew P Scott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NPC patients suffer from hepatomegaly and progressive cognitive and locomotion losses, with massive Purkinje neuron (PN) death in the cerebellum. There is no effective treatment for NPC...
  10. Mechanisms and Therapeutics for Rett Syndrome
    Mriganka Sur; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the organismal physiology of the animals along metrics of maturation in central control systems, including locomotion, heart rate, respiration, and survival rates...
  11. How do Amine Neurons Work?
    Edward A Kravitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to be intimately involved in many essential aspects of behavior in fruit flies, including motivation and reward, locomotion and feeding, learning and memory, and courtship and aggression...
  12. Alterations in Adipocyte Lipid Metabolism by Trans-10, Cis-12 CLA Supplementation
    LAURA JANE DEN HARTIGH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Whole body weight, composition, energy expenditure, locomotion, thermogenic capacity, and insulin sensitivity will be assessed, and adipose tissue depots (epididymal, inguinal,..
  13. Neurotransplantation and Training to Promote Recovery of Chronic SCI Cats
    Michel A Lemay; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The biomechanics of locomotion are better defined in cats and cats have a hindlimb gait that is close to human than is the rat...
  14. Dorsal Column Stimulation as a New Therapy for Motor Disorders
    Miguel A L Nicolelis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..column stimulation - DCS) at the upper thoracic level can lead to a dramatic and instantaneous improvement of locomotion in acute and chronic rodent models of PD...
  15. Systems microscopy analysis of tumor cell motility in microenvironment context
    Bojana Gligorijevic; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In regions with stiff extracellular matrix, simple locomotion is not possible...
  16. Roles of RNA helicase and ribosomal biogenesis in normal and diseased muscle
    Vandana Gupta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These conditions, characterized by muscle weakness and impaired locomotion, form a group of heredity diseases affecting both children and adults...
    R Dyche Mullins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition to powering locomotion, such networks also underlie other fundamental cellular processes, including: phagocytosis, endocytosis, ..
  18. Design and Implementation of Genetically Encoded Myosin Based Force Sensors
    DANIEL PETER KIEHART; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cytoskeleton in vivo to produce forces that drive cell shape changes for morphogenesis, cytokinesis and cell locomotion is unclear...
  19. Cytoskeletal Regulation During Growth Cone Migration and Axon Guidance
    Frank B Gertler; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Both initial formation of growth cone-tipped neurites, and subsequent guided locomotion of axonal growth cones, require F-actin and microtubule (MT) dynamics...
  20. GABA channels and dopamine in striatum
    Stefano Vicini; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..locomotor activity in dopamine receptor D2 knockout mice, a model of Parkinson's disease while reducing locomotion in wild type mice...
  21. Mechanical Control of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Lineage Allocation
    JANET E RUBIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..between bone and fat together to allow individuals to move to food sources (skeleton necessary for locomotion), and store energy (as fat)...
  22. Quantitative Comparisons between genotypes and model species
    Lauren M McIntyre; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..melanogaster and D.simulans (courtship and locomotion) assayed under standard conditions and during ethanol exposure (a model for environmental perturbations or ..
  23. Broadly Neuroprotective Drug for TBI
    Fernando Gomez Pinilla; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..synaptic plasticity and energy metabolism in conjunction with counteracting dysfunction in cognition, mood, and locomotion, in the brain and spinal cord...
  24. Conformational Changes Underlying Intracellular Gating of the Leucine Transporter
    Kelli Kazmier; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..NSSs participate in the regulation of mood, reward, and locomotion and have been implicated in diseases of the central nervous system such as depression, anxiety, autism, epilepsy,..
  25. Ethanol modulation of nicotinic receptors
    John McDaid; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..17 nAChR inhibitors suppress locomotion and cognitive functions and our preliminary data indicates that 17 nAChRs in the LDTg mediate some of the motor ..
  26. Genetics and Molecular Biology of Striated Muscle Myosin
    Sanford I Bernstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..structure and kinetic function through its effects upon muscle ultrastructure, fiber mechanical properties and locomotion. For Aim 1, we will build the first models of human distal arthrogryposis syndromes, which cause skeletal muscle ..
  27. Endocannabinoid modulation of pain-depressed behavior
    LAURA J SIMSELLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In animals clinical approximation of pain is through decreases in locomotion or grooming and interest in feeding or social interaction...
  28. The Role Leptin on Arousal
    PAIGE B BECK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..projects to the thalamus to trigger thalamocortical rhythms, and to the brainstem to modulate muscle tone and locomotion. Leptin is an adipokine that regulates appetite, body weight, and reproduction by way of receptors in the ..
  29. Roles of voltage sensor, S100A1 and calmodulin in skeletal muscle Ca2+ signaling
    Martin F Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, this project has high impact for multiple disciplines, and for problems of both locomotion and breathing common to a variety of advanced diseased states and aging.
  30. Study of Dopamine Transporter, a Direct Downstream Effector of Goalpha Signaling
    Anjali Rao; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..clearance, DAT is vital for numerous physiological functions involving DA neurotransmission such as cognition, locomotion, motivation and reward-related behaviors...
    Xiang Yang Chen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..for H-reflex change;that cerebellar output to SMC is essential;and that H-reflex conditioning affects locomotion and can improve it after spinal cord injury...
  32. Is thyroxine more than a prohormone?
    Valerie Anne Galton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in both 5'- deiodinases and the MCT8 (the D1/D2/MCT8KO) also fails to manifest the severe defects in locomotion, learning and memory seen in the hypothyroid mouse, despite a brain T3 content significantly less than that ..
  33. Genetic Control of Motor Axon Targeting
    Onanong Chivatakarn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Motor neurons mediate the control over locomotion, respiration and autonomic responses, and are profoundly affected by developmental diseases such as spinal ..
  34. A Molecular Method to Selectively Record Activation of Dopamine Receptor Subtypes
    Gilad Barnea; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that regulates a diverse array of biological processes including cognition and emotion, motivation and reward, locomotion, and the release of certain hormones...
  35. Galanin-opiate interactions
    Marina R Picciotto; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have found that galanin knockout mice show increased morphine-induced locomotion and conditioned place preference (CPP), and that these behavioral phenotypes are correlated with increased ..
  36. Convergent Versus Parallel Striatal Afferents
    Daniel S Zahm; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..extended amygdala, sublenticular substantia innominata, or the diagonal band nuclei, stimulates ambulatory locomotion up to 10-fold over baseline...
  37. Changing a reflex to improve locomotion
    Aiko Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The goal of this project is to investigate the impact of changing a spinal reflex on impaired locomotion after chronic incomplete SCI in people...
    Robert D Gregg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project aims to address this gap by 1) identifying a biomechanical phase variable used in human locomotion, and 2) designing a unifying control model for lower-limb prostheses and orthoses...
  39. Retraining Spinal Circuits With Robot-Assisted Functional Electrical Stimulation
    Deborah Won; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..electrical stimulation) will be innovatively modified to train the injured spinal cord to resume control over locomotion and rely less on artificial externally provided control...
  40. Survival Mechanisms of Invasive Carcinoma Cells
    Richard L Klemke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pathway, which modulates cytoskeletal and integrin functions to drive cell locomotion, invasion, and metastasis...
  41. Effects of dietary obesity on midbrain dopamine systems
    EMMANUEL POTHOS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Correlate changes in dopamine release with changes in behavior (locomotion, diet consumption, response to injections of the opiate antagonist naloxone)...
  42. Effect of ethanol on Bergmann glia Ca2+ dynamics during motor behavior
    Martin Paukert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..BGs can respond to locomotion with widespread, coordinated Ca2+ transients ("flares") possibly influencing the excitability of neurons...
  43. Uncertainty and stimulant self-administration
    PAUL R VEZINA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..exposure to drugs, such as amphetamine, initiates neuroadaptations in the VTA that lead to sensitized locomotion and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) dopamine (DA) overflow in response to a drug challenge as well as enhanced ..
  44. Pontine motor circuits
    Jun Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..circuit regulating postural tone by extensor muscles in the limbs and (2) a flexor circuit, necessary for locomotion and to perform specific tasks...
  45. Identifying transcription factors expressed by ventral spinal cord interneurons
    KATHARINE EMMA LEWIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..specifically focuses on five distinct types of neurons that are located in the ventral spinal cord and regulate locomotion. Despite the importance of these neurons, very little is known about how they develop their functional ..
  46. Forward Genetics and the Presynaptic Dopamine Transporter
    Randy D Blakely; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In vertebrates, DA modulates multiple behavioral processes involved with locomotion, cognition, and reward...
    Thomas D Pollard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..elements in cells and actin filament assembly produces forces for some types of cellular movements such as locomotion and endocytosis...
  48. Serotonin 5HT2C Agonist Drugs with 5HT2A/2B Antagonist Activity
    Raymond G Booth; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..peripheral (IP) administration to inhibit food consumption, produce weight loss, and inhibit amphetamine-induced locomotion, neurobehavioral effects consistent with 5HT2C agonism and 5HT2A antagonism...
  49. Developing a brain-machine interface for an ankle robot
    Larry Forrester; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These results will demonstrate feasibility for our long-range aim of developing a thought-controlled exoskeleton for bipedal locomotion.
  50. Neuronal Role of Lipid Flippases
    KONRAD ERNST ZINSMAIER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Deletion of dATP8B impairs viability, locomotion and SV exo- and endocytosis, suggesting a critical for synaptic function...
  51. The LIFE Study
    Marco Pahor; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Efficient and reliable locomotion, or the ability to move without assistance, is a fundamental feature of human functioning...
  52. Identification of Persistent Impairments in Postural Control Following Concussion
    GEORGE W SHAVER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The primary outcome measures;center of pressure displacements and velocity, spatiotemporal parameters of locomotion, and ground reaction forces will be compared both within and between subjects utilizing survival analysis...
  53. 2009 Motile and Contractile Systems Gordon Research Conference
    Kerry S Bloom; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will focus on dynamics of cytoskeletal elements in living cells, and the functions of these complexes in cell locomotion, intracellular transport of membrane-bounded vesicles and mRNAs, chromosome segregation and cell division, and ..
  54. Quantitative evaluation of 3D mouse behaviors in the open field using markerless
    D Michele Basso; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These animals display extremely challenging motor dysfunction that ranges from complete paralysis to normal locomotion. Assessment methods which are effective for murine SCI would likely generalize to larger rodents like rats and ..
  55. Proteolysis of Myelin as a Source of Neuropathic Pain
    Tony L Yaksh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The molecular domains of myelinated fibers responsible for MBP action in T cell homing and locomotion, and also, the receptors for MBP residues in nerve will be determined (Aim 2)...
  56. Functions and connections of inhibitory reticulospinal locomotor systems
    VERONIQUE VAN DER HORST; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Locomotion is a complex function, requiring control of initiation of movement, speed, and rhythm...
  57. Assessment and evaluation of Hill-type muscle models for predicting in vivo force
    Andrew A Biewener; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..that: (a) differential patterns of motor recruitment (between the fast and slow units) occur during goat locomotion, and (b) the faster motor units are preferentially activated, relative to slow units, for tasks that require ..
  58. G Protein Signaling in the C. elegans Nervous System
    Michael R Koelle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the third aim, we will study the mechanism by which serotonin signals to slow down C. elegans locomotion behavior. We have used a genetic screen to identify genes required for this serotonin signaling event...
  59. Determining the genetic and developmental basis of epidermal appendage evolution
    ERIC DOMYAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..important fitness functions such as thermoregulation, protection from physical damage, and in the case of birds, locomotion and visual communication...
  60. Soluble Motogens and Chemoattractants from Damaged Muscle
    DAWN D CORNELISON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skeletal muscle provides the contractile force necessary for not only locomotion but also maintenance of posture and respiration...
  61. Functional organization of neural circuits underlying movement control
    Jun Ding; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The integrity of this circuitry is critical for a variety of functions, including locomotion, motor learning and action selection...
  62. Role of FMRP in Cocaine-Dependent Behavioral Plasticity
    ..of synapse number in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and NAc expression of active MEF2 enhances both sensitized locomotion and place preference to cocaine...
    Herbert Meltzer; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..PCP (0-15mg/kg, i.pp)-induced locomotion approximated an inverted U-shaped function for 30 min after administration but between 60-90 min locomotion was ..
  64. Non-intrusive Locomotion and Gait Stability Analysis Monitoring System for the El
    Sunil Saxena; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..is for SBIR Phase I research to determine the design and feasibility of an innovative, new device for advanced locomotion analysis including: ambulation assessment and fall prevention, postural perturbation assessment and activity ..
    CLAIRE FARLEY; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..leg spring" represents the spring-like characteristics of the overall integrated musculoskeletal system during locomotion, and the mass is equivalent to the mass of the animal...
  66. Novel Ex Vivo Gene Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury
    Alpa Trivedi; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..progression with locomotor recovery, as defined by a battery of neurologic tests that evaluate coordinated locomotion, hind limb paw position during locomotion, and performance on an inclined grid...
  67. Signals Regulating Vestibular Endolymph Homeostasis
    Mark Henkemeyer; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Preliminary studies show that adult mice mutant for the EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase display a circling locomotion consistent with a defect in vestibular function...
    CRAIG MC DONALD; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..this study focuses on strength and body fat as determinants of energy cost of ambulation and wheelchair locomotion in children with variable degrees of mobility impairment due to myelomeningocele (MM), spinal cord injury (SCI), ..
    Arthur Bankhurst; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..In this proposal we will examine how mevalonate (MVA) and its metabolites regulate human NK cytotoxicity and locomotion. MVA is the product of 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, the major regulatory enzyme of ..
    Thomas Howard; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..This emigration requires both locomotion and shape change by neutrophils...
  71. Motor adaptation during human locomotion
    DANIEL FERRIS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Some animal and clinical studies indicate that muscle activation patterns during locomotion are hardwired into the nervous system and incapable of substantial modification...
  72. Unintended muscle activity influences on post-stroke locomotion
    CITLALI LOPEZ ORTIZ; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our lab has shown that there is inappropriate coordination of muscle activity in post-stroke locomotion and that the reaction force against the supporting surface is compromised, in both magnitude and direction...
    Eva Turley; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Cell locomotion is a property, inherent to eukaryotic cells, that is critical to the development, homeostasis, repair and disease processes of multicellular organisms...
  74. Psychostimulants and Alpha-1 Adrenoceptor Subtypes
    Paul Wellman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Psychostimulant-induced changes in locomotion involve activation of the 1B subtype of the a 1 -adrenoceptor (a 1B-AR)...