biotransformation

Summary

Summary: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Fungus-mediated biotransformation of amorphous silica in rice husk to nanocrystalline silica
    Vipul Bansal
    Nanoscience Group, Materials Chemistry Division, and Biochemical Sciences Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008, India
    J Am Chem Soc 128:14059-66. 2006
  2. ncbi Insights into the metabolism and microbial biotransformation of dietary flavan-3-ols and the bioactivity of their metabolites
    Maria Monagas
    Institute of Industrial Fermentations CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain
    Food Funct 1:233-53. 2010
  3. ncbi The destruxins: synthesis, biosynthesis, biotransformation, and biological activity
    M Soledade C Pedras
    Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon SK, Canada S7N 5C9
    Phytochemistry 59:579-96. 2002
  4. pmc Structure of an As(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase: insights into the mechanism of arsenic biotransformation
    A Abdul Ajees
    Department of Cellular Biology and Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, 33199, United States
    Biochemistry 51:5476-85. 2012
  5. ncbi Comprehensive evaluation of tamoxifen sequential biotransformation by the human cytochrome P450 system in vitro: prominent roles for CYP3A and CYP2D6
    Zeruesenay Desta
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine Division of Clinical Pharmacology, 1001 West 10th Street, WD Myers Bldg, W7123, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:1062-75. 2004
  6. ncbi Biotransformation of insulin glargine after subcutaneous injection in healthy subjects
    G U Kuerzel
    Aventis Pharma Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany
    Curr Med Res Opin 19:34-40. 2003
  7. ncbi Tissue bioaccumulation patterns, xenobiotic biotransformation and steroid hormone levels in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed a diet containing perfluoroactane sulfonic or perfluorooctane carboxylic acids
    Anne S Mortensen
    Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
    Chemosphere 83:1035-44. 2011
  8. ncbi Increased NADPH availability in Escherichia coli: improvement of the product per glucose ratio in reductive whole-cell biotransformation
    Solvej Siedler
    Institut für Bio und Geowissenschaften, IBG 1 Biotechnologie, Forschungszentrum Julich, 52425, Julich, Germany
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 92:929-37. 2011
  9. ncbi Association between polymorphisms of biotransformation and DNA-repair genes and risk of colorectal cancer in Taiwan
    Chih Ching Yeh
    Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, 404, Taiwan, ROC
    J Biomed Sci 14:183-93. 2007
  10. ncbi Pharmacokinetics, biotransformation, and mass balance of edoxaban, a selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor, in humans
    Mohinder S Bathala
    Daiichi Sankyo Pharma Development, Edison, New Jersey, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 40:2250-5. 2012

Detail Information

Publications330 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Fungus-mediated biotransformation of amorphous silica in rice husk to nanocrystalline silica
    Vipul Bansal
    Nanoscience Group, Materials Chemistry Division, and Biochemical Sciences Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008, India
    J Am Chem Soc 128:14059-66. 2006
    ..attempts at harnessing the enormous amount of amorphous silica present in rice husk and its room-temperature biotransformation into crystalline silica nanoparticles...
  2. ncbi Insights into the metabolism and microbial biotransformation of dietary flavan-3-ols and the bioactivity of their metabolites
    Maria Monagas
    Institute of Industrial Fermentations CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain
    Food Funct 1:233-53. 2010
    ..The present review will give an insight into the metabolism and microbial biotransformation of flavan-3-ols, including tentative catabolic pathways and aspects related to the identification of ..
  3. ncbi The destruxins: synthesis, biosynthesis, biotransformation, and biological activity
    M Soledade C Pedras
    Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon SK, Canada S7N 5C9
    Phytochemistry 59:579-96. 2002
    ..Reports on isolation, chemical structure determination, total synthesis, transformation by diverse organisms, and biological activity of destruxins and related metabolites are reviewed for the first time...
  4. pmc Structure of an As(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase: insights into the mechanism of arsenic biotransformation
    A Abdul Ajees
    Department of Cellular Biology and Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, 33199, United States
    Biochemistry 51:5476-85. 2012
    ..A homology model of human As(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase with the location of known polymorphisms was constructed. The structure provides insights into the mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis...
  5. ncbi Comprehensive evaluation of tamoxifen sequential biotransformation by the human cytochrome P450 system in vitro: prominent roles for CYP3A and CYP2D6
    Zeruesenay Desta
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine Division of Clinical Pharmacology, 1001 West 10th Street, WD Myers Bldg, W7123, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:1062-75. 2004
    ..Except for the biotransformation of N-desmethyl-TAM to endoxifen, which was exclusively catalyzed by CYP2D6, all other routes of N-desmethyl- ..
  6. ncbi Biotransformation of insulin glargine after subcutaneous injection in healthy subjects
    G U Kuerzel
    Aventis Pharma Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany
    Curr Med Res Opin 19:34-40. 2003
    ..It is important to establish pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic differences between novel insulin analogues and human insulin. This study examined the primary metabolic degradation products of insulin glargine (LANTUS) in humans...
  7. ncbi Tissue bioaccumulation patterns, xenobiotic biotransformation and steroid hormone levels in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed a diet containing perfluoroactane sulfonic or perfluorooctane carboxylic acids
    Anne S Mortensen
    Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
    Chemosphere 83:1035-44. 2011
    ..patterns of PFOS and PFOA, in addition to tissue and compound differences in modulation pattern of biotransformation enzyme genes...
  8. ncbi Increased NADPH availability in Escherichia coli: improvement of the product per glucose ratio in reductive whole-cell biotransformation
    Solvej Siedler
    Institut für Bio und Geowissenschaften, IBG 1 Biotechnologie, Forschungszentrum Julich, 52425, Julich, Germany
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 92:929-37. 2011
    ..79 mol MHB/mol glucose) or phosphofructokinase I and II (5.46 mol MHB/mol glucose). These results persuasively demonstrate the potential of NADPH generation by the PPP in whole-cell biotransformations...
  9. ncbi Association between polymorphisms of biotransformation and DNA-repair genes and risk of colorectal cancer in Taiwan
    Chih Ching Yeh
    Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, 404, Taiwan, ROC
    J Biomed Sci 14:183-93. 2007
    ..Taken together, this study suggests that polymorphisms of genes involved in biotransformation and DNA repair could modulate colorectal-cancer risk in Taiwan.
  10. ncbi Pharmacokinetics, biotransformation, and mass balance of edoxaban, a selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor, in humans
    Mohinder S Bathala
    Daiichi Sankyo Pharma Development, Edison, New Jersey, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 40:2250-5. 2012
    ..Edoxaban is eliminated through multiple pathways, but each accounts for only a small amount of overall elimination...
  11. ncbi Biocatalysis for pharmaceutical intermediates: the future is now
    David J Pollard
    Process Research, Merck Research Laboratories, Merck and Co, PO Box 2000, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Trends Biotechnol 25:66-73. 2007
    ..Further development of biocatalysis for green chemistry and high productivity processes can also be expected...
  12. ncbi Biotransformation of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol into 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole by a marine Bacillus sp. strain MW-1
    Pankaj Kumar Arora
    Environmental Biotechnology, Institute of Microbial Technology CSIR, Sector 39A, Chandigarh, 160036, India
    Biodegradation 23:325-31. 2012
    Decolourization, detoxification and biotransformation of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) by Bacillus sp. strain MW-1 were studied. This strain decolorized 4C2NP only in the presence of an additional carbon source...
  13. ncbi Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation
    Ulrich M Zanger
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Auerbachstr 112, 70376, Stuttgart, Germany
    Anal Bioanal Chem 392:1093-108. 2008
    ..In this review, we provide an up-to-date summary of the functional polymorphisms and aspects of the functional genomics of the major human drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450s, as well as their clinical significance...
  14. pmc Biotransformation and volatilization of arsenic by three photosynthetic cyanobacteria
    Xi Xiang Yin
    Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China
    Plant Physiol 156:1631-8. 2011
    ..In this study, we investigated As biotransformation in three cyanobacterial species (Microcystis sp. PCC7806, Nostoc sp. PCC7120, and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803)...
  15. ncbi In vitro bioaccessibility and gut biotransformation of polyphenols present in the water-insoluble cocoa fraction
    Vincenzo Fogliano
    Department of Food Science, University of Naples, Via Universita 100, Portici, Naples, Italy
    Mol Nutr Food Res 55:S44-55. 2011
    ..in vitro digestion of the WICF with gastrointestinal enzymes as well as its bacterial fermentation in a human colonic model system were carried out to investigate bioaccessibility and biotransformation of WICF polyphenols, respectively.
  16. pmc Complete genome sequence of the naphthalene-degrading Pseudomonas putida strain ND6
    Shanshan Li
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Biomarkers for Occupational and Environmental Hazard, Logistics University of Chinese People s Armed Police Forces, Tianjin, China
    J Bacteriol 194:5154-5. 2012
    ....
  17. ncbi Promotion of oxidative stress in the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum during biotransformation of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR
    Stephan Pflugmacher
    Leibniz Institut for Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, RG Biogeochemical Regulation, Muggelseedamm 301, 12561 Berlin, Germany
    Aquat Toxicol 70:169-78. 2004
    ..In many organisms, biotransformation of the toxins will take place via several glutathione-related conjugate...
  18. ncbi Identification of nicotine biotransformation intermediates by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain S33 suggests a novel nicotine degradation pathway
    Shuning Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, People s Republic of China
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 95:1567-78. 2012
    ..Such biotransformation could be a useful approach to utilize tobacco and its wastes...
  19. ncbi A comparison of the in vitro biotransformation of (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 by human faecal microbiota
    Stavroula Stoupi
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK
    Mol Nutr Food Res 54:747-59. 2010
    ..It was confirmed that catabolism favoured removal of the 4'-hydroxyl rather than the 3'-hydroxyl group and that both beta-oxidation and alpha-oxidation occurred...
  20. ncbi Xenobiotic metabolism gene expression in the EpiDermin vitro 3D human epidermis model compared to human skin
    T Hu
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Innovation Center, PO Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253, USA
    Toxicol In Vitro 24:1450-63. 2010
    ..Models such as EpiDerm provide a valuable in vitro approach for evaluation of metabolism and toxicity of cutaneous exposures to xenobiotics...
  21. ncbi Cytochrome P450 2D6: overview and update on pharmacology, genetics, biochemistry
    Ulrich M Zanger
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Auerbachstrasse 112, 70376, Stuttgart, Germany
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 369:23-37. 2004
    ..Whether and how brain functions may be influenced by polymorphic expression are interesting questions for the future...
  22. ncbi Stability and biotransformation of various dietary anthocyanins in vitro
    Jens Fleschhut
    Institute for Nutritional Physiology, Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Karlsruhe, Germany
    Eur J Nutr 45:7-18. 2006
    ..However, little is known about the biotransformation and the metabolism of anthocyanins so far.
  23. ncbi Mechanisms of arsenic biotransformation
    Marie Vahter
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 777 Stockholm, Sweden
    Toxicology 181:211-7. 2002
    ..There are indications that subjects with low MMA in urine have faster elimination of ingested arsenic, compared to those with more MMA in urine...
  24. ncbi Whole organism biocatalysis
    Takeru Ishige
    Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
    Curr Opin Chem Biol 9:174-80. 2005
    ..Several microbes with unique catalytic abilities have been found through intensive screening and put to practical use. Besides, advanced molecular biological techniques are powerful tools for developing more satisfactory biocatalysts...
  25. ncbi The chemistry and biotransformation of tea constituents
    Shengmin Sang
    Center for Excellence in Post Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, North Carolina Research Campus, 500 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
    Pharmacol Res 64:87-99. 2011
    ..Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, and ring-fission metabolism represent the major metabolic pathways for tea catechins. The present review summarizes the data concerning the chemistry and biotransformation of tea constituents.
  26. ncbi Biotransformation and bioconcentration of pyrene in Daphnia magna
    Jarkko Akkanen
    Department of Biology, Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, University of Joensuu, P O Box 111, FIN 80101, Joensuu, Finland
    Aquat Toxicol 64:53-61. 2003
    ..Due to extensive biotransformation the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of parent pyrene was only 16 and 23% of the BCF calculated on the basis of ..
  27. ncbi Pregnancy and use of oral contraceptives reduces the biotransformation of proguanil to cycloguanil
    R McGready
    Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, PO Box 46, 63110, Mae Sot, Thailand
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 59:553-7. 2003
    To determine the effects of late pregnancy and also oestrogen supplementation on the CYP2C19-mediated biotransformation of proguanil (PG) to its active antifol triazine metabolite cycloguanil (CG).
  28. ncbi Advances in biocatalytic synthesis of pharmaceutical intermediates
    Sven Panke
    Institute for Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, ML K 23, CH 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Chem Biol 9:188-94. 2005
    ..The vast majority of biotransformation reactions for the manufacturing of optically active pharmaceutical intermediates are still based on ..
  29. ncbi Characterization of the in vitro biotransformation of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine by human hepatic cytochromes P-450
    D A Erickson
    Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Ridgefield, Connecticut 06877, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 27:1488-95. 1999
    ..These inhibitors were less effective or ineffective against the biotransformation of NVP to 3-hydroxyNVP. Quinidine very weakly inhibited only 8-hydroxyNVP formation...
  30. ncbi Stability, cellular uptake, biotransformation, and efflux of tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells
    Jungil Hong
    Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 8020, USA
    Cancer Res 62:7241-6. 2002
    ..In the present study, the stability, uptake, biotransformation, and efflux of [(3)H]EGCG in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells were investigated...
  31. ncbi Cytochrome P450 systems--biological variations of electron transport chains
    Frank Hannemann
    FR 8 3 Biochemistry, Saarland University, D 66041 Saarbrucken, Germany
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1770:330-44. 2007
    ..The reactions carried out by P450s are extremely diverse and contribute to the biotransformation of drugs, the bioconversion of xenobiotics, the bioactivation of chemical carcinogens, the biosynthesis of ..
  32. ncbi Bioeffects of selenite on the growth of Spirulina platensis and its biotransformation
    Zhi Yong Li
    College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China
    Bioresour Technol 89:171-6. 2003
    ..platensis was batch cultured in Zarrouk medium containing increasing concentrations of sodium selenite. The biotransformation characteristic of selenium was analysed by the determination of the detailed selenium distribution forms...
  33. ncbi Measurement of Michaelis constants for cytochrome P450-mediated biotransformation reactions using a substrate depletion approach
    R Scott Obach
    Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Drug Metabolism, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 30:831-7. 2002
    The Michaelis constant (KM) for cytochrome P450-mediated drug biotransformation reactions can be an important parameter in understanding the potential for a drug to exhibit saturable metabolism in vivo and nonlinear dose-exposure ..
  34. ncbi Biotransformation of wheat straw to bacterial cellulose and its mechanism
    Lin Chen
    Group of Microbiological Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, PR China
    Bioresour Technol 135:464-8. 2013
    ..This may be due to the presence of other complex components in the hydrolysate that would enhance the formation of bacterial cellulose...
  35. pmc Isolation of bacterial strains capable of sulfamethoxazole mineralization from an acclimated membrane bioreactor
    Helene Bouju
    Institute for Ecopreneurship, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Muttenz, Switzerland
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:277-9. 2012
    ..Of these strains, two belonged to the phylum Actinobacteria, while three were members of the Proteobacteria...
  36. pmc Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by endophytic fungi
    Jonathan R Russell
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:6076-84. 2011
    ....
  37. ncbi Azaspiracid accumulation, detoxification and biotransformation in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) experimentally fed Azadinium spinosum
    Thierry Jauffrais
    IFREMER, Laboratoire EMP PHYC, Rue de l Ile d Yeu, 44311 Nantes, France
    Toxicon 60:582-95. 2012
    ..for pilot-scale production of this organism, to evaluate and understand AZA1 and -2 accumulation and biotransformation in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) fed with A. spinosum. Adult mussels were continuously exposed to A...
  38. ncbi Cytochrome P450 regulation and drug biotransformation during inflammation and infection
    Kenneth W Renton
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Curr Drug Metab 5:235-43. 2004
    The expression of cytochrome P450 and related biotransformation is altered during the operation of host defense mechanisms...
  39. pmc Glutathione S-transferases in rat olfactory epithelium: purification, molecular properties and odorant biotransformation
    N Ben-Arie
    Department of Membrane Research and Biophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    Biochem J 292:379-84. 1993
    ..Recently, two novel, highly abundant, olfactory-specific biotransformation enzymes have been identified: cytochrome P-450olf1 and olfactory UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT(olf))...
  40. ncbi Biotransformation of ginsenosides by hydrolyzing the sugar moieties of ginsenosides using microbial glycosidases
    Chang Su Park
    Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143 701, Republic of Korea
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:9-19. 2010
    ..Moreover, the conversions of ginsenosides using cell extracts from food microorganisms and recombinant thermostable beta-D-glycosidases are proposed as feasible methods for use in industrial processes...
  41. ncbi Aerobic and anaerobic de-epoxydation of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol by bacteria originating from agricultural soil
    Rafiqul Islam
    Guelph Food Research Center, Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, 93 Stone Road West, Guelph, ON, N1G 5C9, Canada
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:7-13. 2012
    ..A mixed microbial culture from one composite soil sample showed 100% DON to dE-DON biotransformation in mineral salts broth (MSB) after 144 h of incubation...
  42. pmc Fetal liver bisphenol A concentrations and biotransformation gene expression reveal variable exposure and altered capacity for metabolism in humans
    Muna S Nahar
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol 27:116-23. 2013
    ..current study, we measured the internal dose of free BPA and conjugated BPA and evaluated gene expression of biotransformation enzymes specific for BPA metabolism in 50 first- and second-trimester human fetal liver samples...
  43. ncbi Perspectives on synthetic promoters for biocatalysis and biotransformation
    Claudia Ruth
    Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 14, 8010 Graz, Austria
    Chembiochem 11:761-5. 2010
    ..promoters and libraries in regard to current and future applications in the field of biocatalysis or biotransformation. We also focus on synthetic promoter design principles and distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ..
  44. pmc Metabolically competent human skin models: activation and genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene
    Joep Brinkmann
    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR, Department of Product Safety, 10589 Berlin, Germany
    Toxicol Sci 131:351-9. 2013
    ....
  45. ncbi Reductive dehalogenation mediated initiation of aerobic degradation of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C4NP) by Burkholderia sp. strain SJ98
    Janmejay Pandey
    Institute of Microbial Technology CSIR, Sector 39 A, Chandigarh, 160036, India
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 92:597-607. 2011
    ....
  46. ncbi Glargine blood biotransformation: in vitro appraisal with human insulin immunoassay
    A Agin
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7004, Institut de Physique Biologique, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Louis Pasteur, 67091 Strasbourg, France
    Diabetes Metab 33:205-12. 2007
    ..Glargine metabolism and its implications for diabetes therapy remain poorly understood. The aim of our study was to assess in vitro the glargine blood biotransformation and its inter-individual variability.
  47. ncbi Disposition and biotransformation of the antiretroviral drug nevirapine in humans
    P Riska
    Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Ridgefield, Connecticut 06877, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 27:895-901. 1999
    The pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of the antiretroviral agent nevirapine (NVP) after autoinduction were characterized in eight healthy male volunteers...
  48. ncbi Preferential expression of biotransformation enzymes in the olfactory organs of Drosophila melanogaster, the antennae
    Q Wang
    Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:10309-15. 1999
    b>Biotransformation enzymes have been found in the olfactory epithelium of vertebrates...
  49. ncbi Uptake from water, biotransformation, and biliary excretion of pharmaceuticals by rainbow trout
    Marja Lahti
    Division of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland
    Environ Toxicol Chem 30:1403-11. 2011
    ..9 for diclofenac, the values being approximately similar at low and high ambient concentrations. The biotransformation of diclofenac, naproxen, and ibuprofen was considered efficient, because several metabolites could be ..
  50. ncbi Site-directed mutagenesis of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 suggests three distinct pathways of nitroglycerin biotransformation
    M Verena Wenzl
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Karl Franzens Universitat Graz, Universitatsplatz 2, A 8010, Austria
    Mol Pharmacol 80:258-66. 2011
    ..Although the latter reaction accounts for less than 10% of total turnover of GTN metabolism catalyzed by wild-type ALDH2, it is most likely essential for vascular GTN bioactivation...
  51. ncbi Applications of biotransformations and biocatalysis to complexity generation in organic synthesis
    Tomas Hudlicky
    Department of Chemistry, Brock University, 500 Glenridge Ave, St Catharines, ON, Canada L2S 3A1
    Chem Soc Rev 38:3117-32. 2009
    ..The authors hope that the review will serve to convince those synthetic chemists reluctant to use biological methods to include enzymatic procedures in their design...
  52. pmc Metabolism of the masked mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in rats
    Veronika Nagl
    Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism and Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department for Agrobiotechnology IFA Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna BOKU, Konrad Lorenz Str 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
    Toxicol Lett 213:367-73. 2012
    ..Our data indicate that D3G is of considerably lower toxicological relevance than DON, at least in rats...
  53. ncbi Biotransformation of the antiviral drugs acyclovir and penciclovir in activated sludge treatment
    Carsten Prasse
    Federal Institute of Hydrology BfG, Koblenz, Germany
    Environ Sci Technol 45:2761-9. 2011
    The biotransformation of the two antiviral drugs, acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV), was investigated in contact with activated sludge...
  54. ncbi New oxandrolone derivatives by biotransformation using Rhizopus stolonifer
    M Iqbal Choudhary
    H E J Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
    Steroids 74:1040-4. 2009
    ..Compounds 1 and 3 showed a significant beta-glucuronidase inhibitory activity...
  55. ncbi Transplacental transfer and biotransformation of genistein in human placenta
    B Balakrishnan
    The Liggins Institute, The University of Auckland, Grafton, Auckland, New Zealand
    Placenta 31:506-11. 2010
    To study transplacental transfer and biotransformation of genistein in the human placenta...
  56. ncbi Assessing a shift of glucose biotransformation by LC-MS/MS-based metabolome analysis in carbon monoxide-exposed cells
    Naoharu Takano
    Department of Biochemistry and Integrative Medical Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
    Adv Exp Med Biol 662:101-7. 2010
    ..conversion of the mass-labeled glucose to its downstream metabolites, while significantly stimulating its conversion to those for pentose phosphate pathway, suggesting roles of stress-inducible CO in a shift of glucose biotransformation.
  57. pmc Evidence of the differential biotransformation and genotoxicity of ZnO and CeO2 nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max) plants
    Martha L Lopez-Moreno
    Chemistry Department, The University of Texas, El Paso, Texas 79968, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 44:7315-20. 2010
    ..Nevertheless, to the authors' knowledge there are no reports on the biotransformation of NPs by edible terrestrial plants...
  58. ncbi Expression of biotransformation genes in woodrat (Neotoma) herbivores on novel and ancestral diets: identification of candidate genes responsible for dietary shifts
    E Magnanou
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, FRE 3247, MBCE, Observatoire Oceanologique, F 66651, Banyuls mer, France
    Mol Ecol 18:2401-14. 2009
    The ability of herbivores to switch diets is thought to be governed by biotransformation enzymes...
  59. ncbi Hepatic and extra-hepatic metabolic pathways involved in flubendazole biotransformation in sheep
    Laura Maté
    Laboratorio de Farmacologia, Departamento de Fisiopatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, 7000 Tandil, Argentina
    Biochem Pharmacol 76:773-83. 2008
    ..work described here was to identify the main enzymatic pathways involved in the hepatic and extra-hepatic biotransformation of FLBZ in sheep...
  60. ncbi Dietary glucosinolate intake, polymorphisms in selected biotransformation enzymes, and risk of prostate cancer
    Astrid Steinbrecher
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:135-43. 2010
    A protective role of glucosinolates in prostate cancer development might be mediated by the induction of biotransformation enzymes. These enzymes, enhancing the elimination of carcinogens from the body, are known to be polymorphic...
  61. ncbi Biotransformation of methyl cholate by Aspergillus niger
    Amal Al-Aboudi
    Chemistry Department, University of Jordan, 1194 Amman, Jordan
    Steroids 74:483-6. 2009
    b>Biotransformation of methyl cholate using Aspergillus niger was investigated...
  62. ncbi Interspecies difference in liver-specific functions and biotransformation of testosterone of primary rat, porcine and human hepatocyte in an organotypical sandwich culture
    Angelika Langsch
    Hanover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Toxicol Lett 188:173-9. 2009
    ..All three species show a similar decreasing trend of ECOD during the period of study. Regarding the biotransformation of testosterone, human and porcine liver cells form three major metabolites whereas rat cells form a mixture ..
  63. ncbi Metabolism of pyrene by aquatic crustacean, Daphnia magna
    Yoshinori Ikenaka
    Division of Science for Inland Water Environment, Institute of Mountain Science, Shinshu University, 5 2 4 Kogandori Suwa, Nagano 392 0027, Japan
    Aquat Toxicol 80:158-65. 2006
    ..These observations indicated that oxidation by CYP participated in the biotransformation of pyrene by D. magna. We also identified the pyrene metabolites formed by D...
  64. ncbi Biotransformation of adrenosterone by filamentous fungus, Cunninghamella elegans
    Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary
    HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
    Steroids 72:923-9. 2007
    ..Structures of new metabolites 2, 5, and 6 were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis...
  65. ncbi Benznidazole biotransformation in rat heart microsomal fraction without observable ultrastructural alterations: comparison to Nifurtimox-induced cardiac effects
    María Montalto de Mecca
    Centro de Investigaciones Toxicológicas CEITOX CITEFA CONICET, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 103:549-53. 2008
    ..In conclusion, when these drugs are used in chagasic patients, Bz may pose a lesser risk to heart function than Nfx when any cardiopathy is present...
  66. ncbi Biotransformation pathway maps in WikiPathways enable direct visualization of drug metabolism related expression changes
    Danyel G J Jennen
    Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
    Drug Discov Today 15:851-8. 2010
    ..Despite the availability of large amounts of biological information on xenobiotic biotransformation, the number of available biotransformation pathway maps that can easily be used for visualization of ..
  67. ncbi The biotransformation of prasugrel, a new thienopyridine prodrug, by the human carboxylesterases 1 and 2
    Eric T Williams
    Department of Drug Disposition, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 36:1227-32. 2008
    ..The biotransformation of prasugrel to its active metabolite, 2-[1-[2-cyclopropyl-1-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-oxoethyl]-4-mercapto-3-..
  68. ncbi Toxicokinetic model describing bioconcentration and biotransformation of diazinon in Daphnia magna
    Andreas Kretschmann
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
    Environ Sci Technol 45:4995-5002. 2011
    ..Such a TK model containing detailed biotransformation processes is an important tool for estimation of the toxic potential of chemicals, particularly, when active ..
  69. pmc Comparative effects of the endogenous agonist glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-(7-36) amide and the small-molecule ago-allosteric agent "compound 2" at the GLP-1 receptor
    Karen Coopman
    Department of Cell Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 334:795-808. 2010
    ..Full assessment of the properties of compound 2 was potentially hampered by damaging effects that were particularly manifest in either longer term assays with intact cells or in acute assays with membranes...
  70. ncbi Biotransformation of (20S)-20-hydroxymethylpregna-1,4-dien-3-one by four filamentous fungi
    M Iqbal Choudhary
    H E J Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
    Steroids 76:1288-96. 2011
    ..Compound 1, and its metabolites were evaluated for the first time for their cytotoxicity against the HeLa cancer cell lines, and some interesting results were obtained...
  71. ncbi In vitro characterization of the human biotransformation and CYP reaction phenotype of ET-743 (Yondelis, Trabectidin), a novel marine anti-cancer drug
    Esther F A Brandon
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Invest New Drugs 24:3-14. 2006
    ..g. in combination with other anti-cancer agents. To assess the biotransformation and CYP reaction phenotype and their potential implications for human pharmacology and toxicology, the in ..
  72. pmc Cadmium alters the biotransformation of carcinogenic aromatic amines by arylamine N-acetyltransferase xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes: molecular, cellular, and in vivo studies
    Nilusha Ragunathan
    Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, unité de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France
    Environ Health Perspect 118:1685-91. 2010
    ..Human arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that play a key role in the biotransformation of AA carcinogens...
  73. ncbi Safety assessment of allylalkoxybenzene derivatives used as flavouring substances - methyl eugenol and estragole
    R L Smith
    Division of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Molecular Toxicology, Imperial College School of Medicine, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 40:851-70. 2002
    ..Nevertheless, further studies are needed to define both the nature and implications of the dose-response curve in rats at low levels of exposure to methyl eugenol and estragole...
  74. ncbi Biotransformation of (-)-ambrox by cell suspension cultures of Actinidia deliciosa
    Asma Nasib
    H E J Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
    J Nat Prod 69:957-9. 2006
    b>Biotransformation of (-)-ambrox (1) with cell suspension cultures of Actinidia deliciosa (Kiwifruit) yielded the regio- and stereospecific oxygenated products 3-oxoambrox (2), 3beta-hydroxyambrox (3), 1alpha-hydroxyambrox (4), 3beta,..
  75. ncbi Bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in humans: a multimedia perspective and the importance of biotransformation
    Michael S McLachlan
    Department of Applied Environmental Science ITM, Stockholm University, SE 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Environ Sci Technol 45:197-202. 2011
    ..In contrast, varying biotransformation rate constants over 6 orders of magnitude resulted in substantial differences in mmBAFs (greater than a ..
  76. ncbi MSE with mass defect filtering for in vitro and in vivo metabolite identification
    Kevin P Bateman
    Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, 16711 Trans Canada Hwy Kirkland, Quebec, H9H 3L1, Canada
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 21:1485-96. 2007
    Metabolite identification studies involve the detection and structural characterization of the biotransformation products of drug candidates. These experiments are necessary throughout the drug discovery and development process...
  77. ncbi Further arguments in favour of direct covalent binding of Ochratoxin A (OTA) after metabolic biotransformation
    A Pfohl-Leszkowicz
    INP ENSAT, UMR CNRS INPT UPS 5503, Department Bioprocess and Microbial Engineering, 1 Avenue Agrobiopole, Auzeville Tolosane, France
    Food Addit Contam 22:75-87. 2005
    ..Controversial results concerning genotoxicity and biotransformation of OTA have been generated...
  78. ncbi Estimating metabolic biotransformation rates in fish from laboratory data
    Jon A Arnot
    The Canadian Environmental Modeling Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, Canada
    Environ Toxicol Chem 27:341-51. 2008
    A method is proposed for estimating metabolic biotransformation rate constants for nonionic organic chemicals from measured laboratory bioconcentration and dietary bioaccumulation data in fish...
  79. pmc Use of historic metabolic biotransformation data as a means of anticipating metabolic sites using MetaPrint2D and Bioclipse
    Lars Carlsson
    Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca Research and Development, 43183 Molndal, Sweden
    BMC Bioinformatics 11:362. 2010
    ..Predicting metabolic sites is important in the drug discovery process to aid in rapid compound optimisation. No interactive tool exists and most of the useful tools are quite expensive...
  80. ncbi Biotransformation of the 8:2 fluorotelomer acrylate in rainbow trout. 1. In vivo dietary exposure
    Craig M Butt
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6, Canada
    Environ Toxicol Chem 29:2726-35. 2010
    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of the 8:2 fluorotelomer acrylate (C(8) F(17) CH(2) CH(2) OC(O)CH = CH(2) , 8:2 FTAc) was investigated in rainbow trout via dietary exposure...
  81. pmc Exploring indirect sources of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs): evaluating uptake, elimination, and biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in the rat
    Jessica C D'eon
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Environ Health Perspect 119:344-50. 2011
    Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are ubiquitous in human sera worldwide. Biotransformation of the polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) is a possible source of PFCA exposure, because PAPs are used in food-contact paper packaging ..
  82. ncbi An update on in vitro test methods in human hepatic drug biotransformation research: pros and cons
    Esther F A Brandon
    Division of Drug Toxicology, Department of Biomedical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 189:233-46. 2003
    The liver is the predominant organ in which biotransformation of foreign compounds takes place, although other organs may also be involved in drug biotransformation...
  83. ncbi Detection and characterization of metabolites in biological matrices using mass defect filtering of liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry data
    Mingshe Zhu
    Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Princeton, NJ, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 34:1722-33. 2006
    ....
  84. pmc Detection of genes involved in biodegradation and biotransformation in microbial communities by using 50-mer oligonucleotide microarrays
    Sung Keun Rhee
    Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P O Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 6038, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:4303-17. 2004
    ....
  85. ncbi The ttgGHI solvent efflux pump operon of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E is located on a large self-transmissible plasmid
    José J Rodríguez-Herva
    Department of Environmental Protection, Estacion Experimental del Zaidin, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, E 18008 Granada, Spain
    Environ Microbiol 9:1550-61. 2007
    ..putida DOT-T1E. We discuss the importance and potential benefits of this plasmid for the development of bacteria with enhanced solvent tolerance, and its potential impact for bioremediation and whole-cell biotransformations...
  86. ncbi Biotransformation of R-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid by D-lactate dehydrogenase and Candida boidinii cells containing formate dehydrogenase coimmobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor
    Yunling Bai
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 43210, USA
    Biotechnol Bioeng 92:137-46. 2005
    ..h and product yield of 0.95 mol/mol OPBA when the concentrations of OPBA and R-HPBA were less than 10 g/L...
  87. ncbi New enzymes for biotransformations: microbial alkyl sulfatases displaying stereo- and enantioselectivity
    Petra Gadler
    Department of Chemistry, Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry, University of Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A 8010 Graz, Austria
    Trends Biotechnol 25:83-8. 2007
    ..This is a major improvement over traditional kinetic resolution processes, which yield both enantiomers, each at 50%...
  88. ncbi Biotransformation of terpenes
    Carla C C R de Carvalho
    Centro de Engenharia Biologica e Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av Rovisco Pais, 1049 001 Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
    Biotechnol Adv 24:134-42. 2006
    ..In addition, whole cell catalysis has also been used. A variety of media and reactors have been assessed for these biotransformations and have produced encouraging results, as discussed in this review...
  89. ncbi Toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic modeling explains carry-over toxicity from exposure to diazinon by slow organism recovery
    Roman Ashauer
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland
    Environ Sci Technol 44:3963-71. 2010
    ..Uptake, biotransformation and depuration kinetics were determined...
  90. ncbi Cytochromes P450 and metabolism of xenobiotics
    P Anzenbacher
    Institute of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
    Cell Mol Life Sci 58:737-47. 2001
    ..it is the most abundant P450 in the human liver and is known to metabolize the majority of drugs whose biotransformation is known...
  91. pmc The University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database: improving public access
    Junfeng Gao
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:D488-91. 2010
    ..Currently, the UM-PPS contains 260 biotransformation rules derived from reactions found in the UM-BBD and scientific literature...
  92. pmc Transcriptomics reveals extensive inducible biotransformation in the soil-dwelling invertebrate Folsomia candida exposed to phenanthrene
    Benjamin Nota
    VU University Amsterdam, Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Animal Ecology, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    BMC Genomics 10:236. 2009
    ..Here we report a toxicogenomic study that translates the ecological effects of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene in soil to the early transcriptomic responses in Folsomia candida...
  93. ncbi A simplified analytical method for a phenotyping cocktail of major CYP450 biotransformation routes
    Mallorie Clement Jerdi
    Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Geneva University Hospitals, 24, Rue Micheli du Crest, CH 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 35:1203-12. 2004
    ..The HPLC method was formally validated and showed good performances in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Finally, the method was found suitable for the screening of these compounds in plasma samples...
  94. ncbi Alteration of drug biotransformation and elimination during infection and inflammation
    K W Renton
    Department of Pharmacology, Sir Charles Tupper Medical Building, Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4H7
    Pharmacol Ther 92:147-63. 2001
    During infection or inflammation, the expression of cytochrome P450 and its dependent biotransformation pathways are modified...
  95. ncbi Time-dependent toxicity of fluoranthene to freshwater invertebrates and the role of biotransformation on lethal body residues
    Lance J Schuler
    Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 6511, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 38:6247-55. 2004
    ..however, there are no significant differences between the amphipod species. The greater sensitivity of C. tentans to fluoranthene as compared to the amphipods may be due, in part, to a potential toxic metabolite...
  96. ncbi The gastrointestinal microbiota as a site for the biotransformation of drugs
    Tiago Sousa
    Department of Pharmaceutics, The School of Pharmacy, University of London, London, UK
    Int J Pharm 363:1-25. 2008
    ..Thus, the objective of this review is the provision of a comprehensive overview of this area; the gastrointestinal microbiota, their drug substrates and metabolic mechanisms, and approaches to studying this further are discussed...
  97. ncbi The power of size. 1. Rate constants and equilibrium ratios for accumulation of organic substances related to octanol-water partition ratio and species weight
    A J Hendriks
    Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment, P O Box 17, 8200 AA Lelystad, The Netherlands
    Environ Toxicol Chem 20:1399-420. 2001
    ..elimination only, and those that are labile, that is, with an excess elimination probably largely due to biotransformation. The rate constant for minimum elimination decreased with the hydrophobicity of the substance and the weight ..
  98. ncbi Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1, crocin, amygdalin, geniposide, puerarin, ginsenoside Re, hesperidin, poncirin, glycyrrhizin, and baicalin by human fecal microflora and its relation to cytotoxicity against tumor cells
    Young Suk Kim
    College of Oriental Medicine Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130 701, Korea
    J Microbiol Biotechnol 18:1109-14. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that intestinal microflora may activate the pharmacological effect of herbal food and medicines and must be the biocatalytic converter for the transformation of herbal components to bioactive compounds...
  99. ncbi Toxicokinetics of organic contaminants in Hyalella azteca
    Susanna Nuutinen
    Department of Biological Sciences, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount, Wichita, Kansas 67260 0026, USA
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 44:467-75. 2003
    Uptake, biotransformation, and elimination rates were determined for pentachlorophenol (PCP), methyl parathion (MP), fluoranthene (FU), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) using juvenile Hyalella azteca under water-only ..
  100. pmc Engineering of solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 for bioproduction of phenol from glucose
    Nick J P Wierckx
    TNO Quality of Life, P O Box 342, 7300 AH Apeldoorn, The Netherlands
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:8221-7. 2005
    ..This approach resulted in accumulation of 58 mM phenol in the octanol phase, and there was a twofold increase in the overall production compared to a single-phase fed batch...
  101. ncbi Sulfotransferases in the bioactivation of xenobiotics
    H Glatt
    Department of Toxicology, Deutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung DIfE, Arthur Scheunert Allee 114 116, D 14558, Potsdam Rehbrucke, Germany
    Chem Biol Interact 129:141-70. 2000
    ..SULT-mediated reactivation may even occur if another initial reactive species, e.g. an epoxide, has reacted with water...

Research Grants69

  1. Randomized trial of PEITC as a modifier of NNK metabolism in smokers
    Jian Min Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The major strengths include the need for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of PEITC, the qualification of the investigators, and the feasibility of the proposed studies. ..
  2. Activating liver carcinogens in yeast by expressing CYP450 polymorphisms
    MICHAEL THOMAS FASULLO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Ultimately, the information will aid public health practitioners and clinicians to identify which individuals are at highest risk for liver cancer, and guide prevention and early detection efforts. ..
  3. Genetic Determinants of the Response to Thienopyridine Therapy
    Jessica L Mega; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One potential source of this variability is the metabolism of clopidogrel, which is a pro-drug requiring biotransformation to become an active antiplatelet compound...
  4. Effect of Prone Position on Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury
    Guido Musch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this research, we will test whether promoting uniform lung inflation and tidal expansion by prone positioning reduces neutrophil metabolic activation, an early and important event in the pathogenesis of VILI. ..
  5. Protein Kinase C in the Repair of Cellular Functions
    Grazyna Nowak; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to their dependence on mitochondrial function and oxygen for energy (ATP) generation and large capacity for biotransformation of xenobiotics. Protein kinase signaling is emerging as a major mechanism regulating mitochondrial function...
  6. Genomic profiling of yeast resistance to AFB1, a P450-activated carcinogen
    MICHAEL THOMAS FASULLO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The project will be a valuable training tool in systems and computational biology. ..
  7. Nrf2 as a Master Regulator in Liver Disease Prevention and Therapy
    Curtis D Klaassen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..central hypothesis is that Nrf2 is a master regulator of liver protection through its multifaceted roles in biotransformation/disposition, antioxidation, tissue- repair, and anti-inflammation in multiple cell types in liver...
  8. Development of New Molecular Probes for Diagnostic Imaging of Atherosclerosis
    KAREN CATHERIN BRILEY SAEBO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, it was shown that there is a high degree of Gd biotransformation and retention that may limit the clinical translatability of this technology...
  9. Methylmercury exposure, mercury metabolism genotypes, and risk of adult glioma
    Kathleen M Egan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..polymorphisms in 1200 cases and 1200 controls for genes involved in the transport (SLC7A8, SLC7A5, SLC11A2), biotransformation (GCLC, GCLM), distribution (MT1A, MT1M, MT2A, MT4, MTF1), and elimination (MRP1, MRP2) of MeHg;and 3) ..
  10. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR RECEPTOR VARIANTS
    Curtis J Omiecinski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CAR plays a key role in regulating all three phases of biotransformation, pathways that determine the fates of metabolism and toxicity associated with exposures to drugs, other ..
  11. A 3D biomimetic liver sinusoid construct for predicting physiology and toxicity
    Martin L Yarmush; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The liver plays a centra role in the human body, contributing to homeostasis and important functions such as biotransformation and metabolism of drugs. The liver is also the most common target for drug-induced toxicity...
  12. GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASES IN HUMANS: DIETARY INFLUENCES
    Johanna Lampe; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the chemical structure, an ITC may be more or less readily metabolized by GST and vary in capacity to induce biotransformation enzymes...
  13. Quinone Oxidoreductases and Mammary Toxicity/Carcinogenenicity
    ANIL KUMAR JAISWAL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies are significant since human individuals carry deleterious mutations in NQO1 and NQO2 and are deficient in these proteins. ..
  14. Role of Bile Acids and Gut Bacteria in GI Diseases
    Phillip B Hylemon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The major biotransformation is 7[unreadable]-dehydroxylation (7[unreadable]- DeOH) of CA and CDCA yielding the secondary bile acids ..
  15. DNA cross-linking by diepoxybutane
    Natalia Y Tretyakova; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PERFORMANCE SITE(S) (organization, city, state) The Cancer Center, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota ..
  16. Retinoic Acid, Its Receptors, and the Liver
    Yu Jui Yvonne Wan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that in the liver retinoids and their receptors have a broad spectrum of actions ranging from xenobiotic biotransformation to cholesterol, fatty acid, bile acid, carbohydrate, and amino acid homeostasis...
  17. Hepatic drug metabolism in inflammation
    Romi Ghose; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..novel targets for future experimental manipulations to prevent inflammation-mediated alterations in drug biotransformation. Finally, these studies will provide a basis for screening of individualswith polymorphisms in TLR genes ..
  18. Brown Adipose Tissue Quantification Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    E Brian Welch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  19. Mutagenesis of p53 by reactive PAH and ROS
    JEFFREY M FIELD; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PAH exposure is a major risk factor in human lung carcinogenesis. This proposal will study the mutagenesis of the p53 oncogene by PAH and their metabolites. ..
  20. Molecular Mechanisms &Importance of Oxidative Stress in Estrogen-Induced Carcino
    Hari K Bhat; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Given the federal register's recent inclusion of estrogens as human carcinogens, the proposed studies have a great potential in the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of estrogen-induced neoplasia. ..
  21. Arsenic Exposure, Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in Native Americans
    Ana Navas-Acien; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..arsenic exposure, as determined by the sum of inorganic and methylated arsenic species in urine, and arsenic biotransformation with the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in 4,549 Native Americans who participated in the ..
  22. Mechanisms for Benzo(a)pyrene-Induced Colon Cancer Exacerbation by Dietary Fat
    Aramandla Ramesh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Assess the impact of the type of dietary fat on B(a)P-induced expression of biotransformation enzymes, their activities and disposition of B(a)P metabolites in the ApcMin mouse;3...
  23. Identification of new mechanistic biomarkers of adverse responses to acetaminophe
    Laura P James; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The initial stages of APAP toxicity have been well-characterized and involve the biotransformation of the parent drug to a chemically reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), which binds ..
  24. Modulation of PAH ovarian toxicity by biotransformation enzyme polymorphisms
    Ulrike Luderer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the feasibility of a larger study to test the hypothesis that genetic variations in Phase 1 and Phase 2 biotransformation enzymes involved in metabolizing PAHs modulate the ovarian toxicity of PAHs in women...
  25. Altered Hepatic Disposition of Statins by Diabetes Mellitus
    Fatemeh Akhlaghi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..donors, we have shown significant downregulation of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) that is responsible for the biotransformation of approximately 55% of all marketed medications...
  26. Genes, environmental exposures, and hypospadias
    Suzan L Carmichael; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the following mechanistic pathways important to urethral development: fetal and placental biosynthesis and biotransformation of sex steroid hormones, regulation of sex steroid hormone biosynthesis and action, and regulation of ..
  27. Tamoxifen biotransformation pathway pharmacogenomics
    MATTHEW PHILIP GOETZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NARRATIVE Our proposal will determine whether inherited variability in the enzymes involved in tamoxifen biotransformation are associated with a preferential response to tamoxifen alone or a sequencing regimen of tamoxifen followed ..
  28. Mechanisms of CD8+ T cell Immune surveillance in human genital skin and mucosa af
    Jia Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  29. Bupropion for smoking cessation during pregnancy
    Tatiana Nanovskaya; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..effect of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding CYP2B6 on its activity in the biotransformation of bupropion and on 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates in pregnancy;(4) Determine the effects of ..
  30. Pediatric Adverse Drug Reactions in NASH
    Nathan J Cherrington; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for efficient hepatic elimination, including entry into hepatocytes by uptake transporters, Phase I and II biotransformation, and efflux from the liver by drug transporters either into bile or back into the blood...
  31. ARYL AND ALCOHOL SULFOTRANSFERASES IN DRUG METABOLISM
    Michael W Duffel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Moreover, specific aim #1 has additional particular relevance to understanding and more accurately predicting the metabolism of Tamoxifen, a widely used antitumor agent and chemopreventive agent for estrogen-dependent breast cancer. ..
  32. Vitamin D3 Metabolism and Colorectal Cancer: Correlating Phenotype to Genotype
    Josephia R Muindi; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Therefore, we hypothesize that functionally relevant polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in Vitamin D3 biotransformation may play a role in an individual's vitamin D3 status and that these SNPs may explain variable response ..
  33. Carcinogen-DNA Adducts: Topology, Conformation and Repair (Renewal)
    Suse Broyde; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  34. Control of developmental switch of Cyp3a gene expression in mouse liver
    Xiao bo Zhong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and gene positioning have not received much attention with respect to the ontogeny of genes involved in drug biotransformation. Establishment of this fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding difference of drug responses ..
  35. SYNTHESIS AND BIOTRANSFORMATION OF ANTI-HIV PRODRUGS
    Chung K Chu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..If any prodrugs are found to be promising during these studies, we plan to advance them as clinical candidates. ..
  36. DNA Repair Capacity and Risk of Pre-malignant Lesion in Lung Epithelium
    Hua Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Such individuals may then be targeted for specific intervention programs such as chemoprevention and dietary modification. ..
  37. Lipocalin 2 in Inflammation and Metabolic Control
    Xiaoli Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This study will identify and establish Lcn2 as a novel circulating RA binding protein that controls RA delivery and uptake, thereby action of RA on BAT and WAT thermogenic activation and energy expenditure. ..
  38. Obstetric Pharmacology Research Units Network Center at UTMB-Galveston
    Gary D Hankins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the ex vivo placental transfer of the 2 antibiotics, (2) Identify the enzymes responsible for their biotransformation and the metabolites formed, (3) Determine the role and activity of placental uptake and efflux transporters ..
  39. Benzo[a]pyrene metabolism: phenotyping and genotyping
    Stephen S Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The results of this proposal will vastly expand our understanding of lung carcinogen metabolism in smokers, thus providing new insights for tobacco control and lung cancer prevention. ..
  40. Identification of Flavonoid Metabolites
    Jennifer S Brodbelt; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal is aimed directly at addressing these problems via: (i) enzymatic synthesis of flavonoid biotransformation products...
  41. Human CYP2A and respiratory tract xenobiotic toxicity
    Xinxin Ding; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We believe that our proposed studies are novel, and the anticipated outcome will be highly relevant to mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and other chemical toxicities in human lung. ..
  42. Metabolism of Carcinogenic Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines
    Stephen S Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The results of these studies should provide important new data which will be critical for developing new approaches to the prevention of tobacco-induced cancer. ..
  43. Hepatic zonation in a microfluidic liver model: application to drug metabolism
    WILLIAM JOSEPH MCCARTY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..consider zonation in hepatocyte metabolism, which is critical for accurate modeling of in vivo function as biotransformation occurs to different extents in different zones, affecting hepatotoxicity...
  44. Ginger Extract: Bioavailability Study and Lung Cancer Preventive Effect
    Shengmin Sang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The specific aims are: 1. To develop a GEHS preparation, study the bioavailability and biotransformation of [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol after administration of GEHS to mice, and find the optimal doses of GEHS for ..
  45. Drug brain biotransformation in human refractory epilepsy
    Nicola Marchi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Incomplete understanding of the pattern of brain AED biotransformation in the diseased brain represents a major hindrance to the development of new drugs...
  46. PHARMACOGENETICS OF PHASE II DRUG METABOLIZING ENZYMES
    Richard M Weinshilboum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..SSRI) therapy of depression - research that grew out of the contribution of phase II enzymes to the biotransformation of the estrogens that play such an important role in breast cancer and biotransformation ofthe ..
  47. Enantioselective Metabolism Influences PCB Developmental Neurotoxicity
    Isaac N Pessah; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose three specific aims to test the hypothesis that chiral PCB congeners undergo enantioselective biotransformation catalyzed by P450 enzymes and that these differences in biotransformation influence neurodevelopmental ..
  48. Mechanisms of Ethnic/Racial Differences in Lung Cancer Due to Cigarette Smoking
    Stephen S Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The unique combination of expertise in this program project forms a powerful team arguably unmatched in its ability to address mechanisms of lung cancer development in smokers from different ethnic/racial groups. ..
  49. Interindividual Variability in Human Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase
    Curtis J Omiecinski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This research program will characterize the critical features that account for these differences and investigate their roles as risk modifiers of human diseases. ..
  50. The Effect of Dietary Fat on Benzo(a)pyrene Induced Colon Cancer in Apc Min Mice
    DEACQUNITA LAQUADE DIGGS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..underlying this initiative is that formation and progression of colon tumors depends on altered BaP biotransformation by the type of diet ingested...
  51. Mechanisms and Functions of Human Sulfotransferases
    Guangping Chen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The information will have important implications for the prediction of biotransformation pathways. 2. To Investigate the Effect of Sulfated Drugs on Human SULT Catalytic Activities...
  52. Function and Regulation of Human Cytochrome P4502S1
    Oliver Hankinson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  53. Chemoprevention of benzo(a)pyrene-induced colon carcinogenesis
    ASHLEY CORRIN HUDERSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..treatment alters its own bioavailability, bioavailability of BaP, the expression and activities of BaP biotransformation enzymes, metabolite profiles of RVT, and BaP in ApcMn mice;and 2...
  54. A genetic engineering strategy for the improved production of the anti-helminthic
    JEFFREY DAVID KITTENDORF; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..developing biocatalytic methods capable of converting paraherquamide to 2-desoxoparaherquamide as well as biotransformation tools that can be employed to generate synthetically challenging structural analogs...
  55. Reactive Metabolites in Drug Toxicity
    Robert P Hanzlik; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..simple organic molecules including solvents, agrichemicals, drugs and drug candidates become cytotoxic upon biotransformation to reactive electrophilic metabolites...
  56. Effect of Puberty on the Phamacokinetics of Efavirenz in HIV-infected Children
    NATELLA YURIEVNA RAKHMANINA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We propose to evaluate the effect of physical and hormonal changes during puberty on biotransformation and clearance of EFV...
  57. SPECIES DIFFERENCE IN THE BIOTRANSFORMATION OF AFLATOXIN
    David Eaton; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..components of the diet may confer resistance to chemical carcinogens via induction and/or inhibition of biotransformation enzymes...
  58. Tumor Hypoxia: Molecular Studies and Clinical Exploitation
    Amato J Giaccia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The overall hypothesis to be tested in this PPG is whether manipulating hypoxia response pathways will result in increased tumor control and normal tissue protection. ..
  59. New and integrated perspectives on modification of tamoxifen effectiveness
    Timothy L Lash; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim #3: Assay 17[unreadable]HSD1 and 17[unreadable]HSD2 expression, estimate the association between 17[unreadable]HSD1/2 ratio >1-, versus d1-and recurrence, and evaluate the interaction between metabolic inhibition and this ratio. ..
  60. TRAINING PROGRAM IN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
    Daniel C Liebler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..include oxidative damage, DMA damage and genetic instability, maintenance of genomic integrity, enzymatic biotransformation and reactions of electrophiles, and neurotoxicology...
  61. Resveratrol Aspirinate Derivatives as Novel Chemopreventive Agents for Colon Canc
    Shengmin Sang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2. Study the bioavailability and biotransformation of resveratrol aspirinate (RAS) after administration of it to mice...
  62. Children's Center for Clinical Pharmacology Studies
    GREGORY LEE KEARNS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Use of molecular approaches to define the "link" between childhood development, disease expression, drug biotransformation and drug action;4) Use of bioinformatics, pharmacogenomics, metabolomics to explore and define the basis of ..
  63. Semi-volatile PCBs: Sources, Exposures, Toxicities
    Larry W Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These data and dietary studies in the last Aim will provide a scientific basis for risk assessment and advice for stakeholders with the ultimate goal to protect highly-exposed individuals and populations. ..
  64. Biotransformation of Estrogens to Carcinogenic Quinoids
    JUDY BOLTON; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These data will determine the role of quinoids in the carcinogenic effects of estrogens and provide a basis for the development of estrogen replacement drugs devoid of carcinogenic activity. ..
  65. MODIFIERS OF CARCINOGENESIS--ENVIRONMENTAL PAH MIXTURES
    William Baird; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This will aid in the development of methods for predicting the relative carcinogenic potency based upon the PAH composition of complex environmental mixtures. ..
  66. MECHANISMS OF TUMOR INITIATION BY BP AND DERIVATIVES
    Ercole Cavalieri; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The results from this project will provide further evidence on the central role of one-electron oxidation in the metabolism, binding and carcinogenesis of PAH...
  67. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF ESTROGEN TO CARCINOGENIC QUINOIDS
    JUDY BOLTON; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..the estrogen replacement drug, Premarin, will be investigated to probe electronic and steric effects on the biotransformation of estrogens to quinoids. 3...
  68. BIOMARKERS OF NNK AND NNN METABOLISM IN HUMANS
    Peter Foiles; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..This information will allow us to develop quantitative measures of risk which are more accurate than that possible using simple measures of exposure...
  69. GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASES IN HUMANS: DIETARY INFLUENCES
    Johanna Lampe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..bioactive components of plant foods confer resistance to chemical carcinogens via induction or inhibition of biotransformation enzymes...