biological transport

Summary

Summary: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Regulation of polar auxin transport by AtPIN1 in Arabidopsis vascular tissue
    L Gälweiler
    Max Delbruck Laboratorium in der Max Planck Gesellschaft, Carl von Linne Weg 10, D 50829 Köln, Germany
    Science 282:2226-30. 1998
  2. pmc Auxin: regulation, action, and interaction
    Andrew W Woodward
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA
    Ann Bot 95:707-35. 2005
  3. pmc Size-dependent internalization of particles via the pathways of clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis
    Joanna Rejman
    Department of Membrane Cell Biology, University of Groningen, A Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
    Biochem J 377:159-69. 2004
  4. ncbi Nanotubular highways for intercellular organelle transport
    Amin Rustom
    Interdisciplinary Center of Neuroscience IZN, Institute of Neurobiology, University of Heidelberg, INF 364, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
    Science 303:1007-10. 2004
  5. ncbi A core complex of BBS proteins cooperates with the GTPase Rab8 to promote ciliary membrane biogenesis
    Maxence V Nachury
    Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Cell 129:1201-13. 2007
  6. ncbi Auxin inhibits endocytosis and promotes its own efflux from cells
    Tomasz Paciorek
    Zentrum für Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen, Universitat Tubingen, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Nature 435:1251-6. 2005
  7. ncbi ARF proteins: roles in membrane traffic and beyond
    CRISLYN D'SOUZA-SCHOREY
    Department of Biological Sciences and the Walther Cancer Institute, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:347-58. 2006
  8. ncbi Identification of a nuclear receptor for bile acids
    M Makishima
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75235 9050, USA
    Science 284:1362-5. 1999
  9. ncbi Rab GTPases as coordinators of vesicle traffic
    Harald Stenmark
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, Montebello, N 0310 Oslo, Norway
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 10:513-25. 2009
  10. ncbi Efflux-mediated heavy metal resistance in prokaryotes
    Dietrich H Nies
    Institute of Microbiology, Molecular Microbiology, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, Kurt Mothes Strasse 3, 06099 Halle Saale, Germany
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 27:313-39. 2003

Detail Information

Publications328 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Regulation of polar auxin transport by AtPIN1 in Arabidopsis vascular tissue
    L Gälweiler
    Max Delbruck Laboratorium in der Max Planck Gesellschaft, Carl von Linne Weg 10, D 50829 Köln, Germany
    Science 282:2226-30. 1998
    ..AtPIN1 may act as a transmembrane component of the auxin efflux carrier...
  2. pmc Auxin: regulation, action, and interaction
    Andrew W Woodward
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA
    Ann Bot 95:707-35. 2005
    ..The phytohormone auxin is critical for plant growth and orchestrates many developmental processes...
  3. pmc Size-dependent internalization of particles via the pathways of clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis
    Joanna Rejman
    Department of Membrane Cell Biology, University of Groningen, A Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
    Biochem J 377:159-69. 2004
    ..200 nm, and kinetic parameters may determine the almost exclusive internalization of such particles along this pathway rather than via caveolae...
  4. ncbi Nanotubular highways for intercellular organelle transport
    Amin Rustom
    Interdisciplinary Center of Neuroscience IZN, Institute of Neurobiology, University of Heidelberg, INF 364, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
    Science 303:1007-10. 2004
    ..Accordingly, we propose a novel biological principle of cell-to-cell interaction based on membrane continuity and intercellular transfer of organelles...
  5. ncbi A core complex of BBS proteins cooperates with the GTPase Rab8 to promote ciliary membrane biogenesis
    Maxence V Nachury
    Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Cell 129:1201-13. 2007
    ..Conversely, preventing Rab8(GTP) production blocks ciliation in cells and yields characteristic BBS phenotypes in zebrafish. Our data reveal that BBS may be caused by defects in vesicular transport to the cilium...
  6. ncbi Auxin inhibits endocytosis and promotes its own efflux from cells
    Tomasz Paciorek
    Zentrum für Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen, Universitat Tubingen, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Nature 435:1251-6. 2005
    ....
  7. ncbi ARF proteins: roles in membrane traffic and beyond
    CRISLYN D'SOUZA-SCHOREY
    Department of Biological Sciences and the Walther Cancer Institute, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:347-58. 2006
    ....
  8. ncbi Identification of a nuclear receptor for bile acids
    M Makishima
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75235 9050, USA
    Science 284:1362-5. 1999
    ..These results demonstrate a mechanism by which bile acids transcriptionally regulate their biosynthesis and enterohepatic transport...
  9. ncbi Rab GTPases as coordinators of vesicle traffic
    Harald Stenmark
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, Montebello, N 0310 Oslo, Norway
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 10:513-25. 2009
    ..Functional impairments of Rab pathways are associated with diseases, such as immunodeficiencies, cancer and neurological disorders...
  10. ncbi Efflux-mediated heavy metal resistance in prokaryotes
    Dietrich H Nies
    Institute of Microbiology, Molecular Microbiology, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, Kurt Mothes Strasse 3, 06099 Halle Saale, Germany
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 27:313-39. 2003
    ..Possession of the latter systems makes a bacterium heavy metal resistant...
  11. pmc Auxin transporters--why so many?
    Eva Zazimalova
    Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, Rozvojova 263, CZ 165 02 Prague 6, Czech Republic
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a001552. 2010
    ....
  12. ncbi PIN proteins perform a rate-limiting function in cellular auxin efflux
    Jan Petrasek
    Institute of Experimental Botany, The Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 165 02 Prague 6, Czech Republic
    Science 312:914-8. 2006
    ..This suggests a direct involvement of PINs in catalyzing cellular auxin efflux...
  13. ncbi Structure of a bacterial multidrug ABC transporter
    Roger J P Dawson
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 443:180-5. 2006
    ....
  14. pmc Phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems of bacteria
    P W Postma
    E C Slater Institute, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Microbiol Rev 57:543-94. 1993
    ..In gram-positive bacteria, it has been demonstrated that HPr can be phosphorylated by ATP on a serine residue and this modification may perform a regulatory function...
  15. pmc Structure, function, and evolution of bacterial ATP-binding cassette systems
    Amy L Davidson
    Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 72:317-64, table of contents. 2008
    ..These advances are also important for elucidating the mechanism of action of eukaryotic ABC proteins, because functional defects in many of them are responsible for severe human inherited diseases...
  16. pmc Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins
    Christian R H Raetz
    Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 71:635-700. 2002
    ..The expanding knowledge of TLR4 specificity and its downstream signaling pathways should provide new opportunities for blocking inflammation associated with infection...
  17. ncbi The third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain translocates through biological membranes
    D Derossi
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité de Recherche Associée 1414, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France
    J Biol Chem 269:10444-50. 1994
    ..Finally, substitution of two tryptophans by two phenylalanines strongly diminishes translocation, raising the possibility that the internalization of the third helix is not solely based on its general hydrophobicity...
  18. pmc IRT1, an Arabidopsis transporter essential for iron uptake from the soil and for plant growth
    Grégory Vert
    Biochimie et Physiologie Moleculaire des Plantes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 5004, Universite Montpellier II, 2 place Viala, F 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1, France
    Plant Cell 14:1223-33. 2002
    ..These results clearly demonstrate that IRT1 is the major transporter responsible for high-affinity metal uptake under iron deficiency...
  19. pmc ABC transporters: the power to change
    Douglas C Rees
    Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering 114 96, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 10:218-27. 2009
    ..An important goal is to develop quantitative models that detail the kinetic and molecular mechanisms by which ABC transporters couple the binding and hydrolysis of ATP to substrate translocation...
  20. pmc The putative plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter SOS1 controls long-distance Na(+) transport in plants
    Huazhong Shi
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Plant Cell 14:465-77. 2002
    ..We present a model in which SOS1 functions in retrieving Na(+) from the xylem stream under severe salt stress, whereas under mild salt stress it may function in loading Na(+) into the xylem...
  21. pmc Control of leaf vascular patterning by polar auxin transport
    Enrico Scarpella
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada
    Genes Dev 20:1015-27. 2006
    ..We derive a model for self-regulated, reiterative patterning of all vein orders and postulate at its onset a common epidermal auxin-focusing mechanism for major-vein positioning and phyllotactic patterning...
  22. pmc The march of the PINs: developmental plasticity by dynamic polar targeting in plant cells
    Wim Grunewald
    Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, Technologiepark, Gent, Belgium
    EMBO J 29:2700-14. 2010
    ..Also, the entry points for different signals and regulations including by auxin itself will be discussed within the context of morphological and developmental consequences of polar targeting and subcellular trafficking...
  23. pmc Consequences of motor copy number on the intracellular transport of kinesin-1-driven lipid droplets
    George T Shubeita
    Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Cell 135:1098-107. 2008
    ..Apparently, higher-order regulatory mechanisms rather than motor number per se dominate cargo transport in vivo...
  24. ncbi A small ubiquitin-related polypeptide involved in targeting RanGAP1 to nuclear pore complex protein RanBP2
    R Mahajan
    Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Cell 88:97-107. 1997
    ..Inhibition of nuclear protein import resulting from antibodies directed at NPC-associated RanGAP1 cannot be overcome by soluble cytosolic RanGAP1, indicating that GTP hydrolysis by Ran at RanBP2 is required for nuclear protein import...
  25. ncbi Adipose-selective targeting of the GLUT4 gene impairs insulin action in muscle and liver
    E D Abel
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 409:729-33. 2001
    ..G4A-/- mice develop glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia. Thus, downregulation of GLUT4 and glucose transport selectively in adipose tissue can cause insulin resistance and thereby increase the risk of developing diabetes...
  26. ncbi A PINOID-dependent binary switch in apical-basal PIN polar targeting directs auxin efflux
    Jiri Friml
    Developmental Genetics, Center for Molecular Biology of Plants, University Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 3, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Science 306:862-5. 2004
    ..Our results show that a PINOID-dependent binary switch controls PIN polarity and mediates changes in auxin flow to create local gradients for patterning processes...
  27. pmc Intercellular communication by exchange of cytoplasmic material via tunneling nano-tube like structures in primary human renal epithelial cells
    Sophie Domhan
    Department of Medicine, Center of Cancer Systems Biology, St Elizabeth s Medical Center, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e21283. 2011
    ..Our data indicates an unexpected dynamic of intercellular communication between RPTEC by exchange of cytosolic material, which may play an important role in renal physiology...
  28. ncbi Coats, tethers, Rabs, and SNAREs work together to mediate the intracellular destination of a transport vesicle
    Huaqing Cai
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    Dev Cell 12:671-82. 2007
    ..However, recent findings have revealed a role for the coat in directing a vesicle to its correct intracellular destination. In this review we will discuss the literature that links coat proteins to vesicle targeting events...
  29. ncbi CRM1 is an export receptor for leucine-rich nuclear export signals
    M Fornerod
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell 90:1051-60. 1997
    ..We conclude that CRM1 is an export receptor for leucine-rich nuclear export signals and discuss a model for the role of RanGTP in CRM1 function and in nuclear export in general...
  30. pmc Differential auxin-transporting activities of PIN-FORMED proteins in Arabidopsis root hair cells
    Anindya Ganguly
    Department of Biological Sciences and Genomics and Breeding Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742, Korea
    Plant Physiol 153:1046-61. 2010
    ..These results suggest that different PINs behave differentially in catalyzing auxin transport depending upon their molecular activity and subcellular localization in the root hair cell...
  31. ncbi A mutation in Orai1 causes immune deficiency by abrogating CRAC channel function
    Stefan Feske
    The CBR Institute for Biomedical Research, and the Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 441:179-85. 2006
    ..We propose that Orai1 is an essential component or regulator of the CRAC channel complex...
  32. ncbi The molecular motor toolbox for intracellular transport
    Ronald D Vale
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Cell 112:467-80. 2003
    ..Remarkably, fungi, parasites, plants, and animals have distinct subsets of Toolbox motors in their genomes, suggesting an underlying diversity of strategies for intracellular transport...
  33. ncbi Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) is the intestinal phytosterol and cholesterol transporter and a key modulator of whole-body cholesterol homeostasis
    Harry R Davis
    Department of Cardiovascular Metabolic Disease and Department of Discovery Technologies, Schering Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:33586-92. 2004
    ..NPC1L1 is required for intestinal uptake of both cholesterol and phytosterols and plays a major role in cholesterol homeostasis. Thus, NPC1L1 may be a useful drug target for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and sitosterolemia...
  34. ncbi Endocytic recycling
    Frederick R Maxfield
    Department of Biochemistry, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 5:121-32. 2004
    ..The molecular basis for many of these sorting processes is only partly understood...
  35. ncbi Exosome lipidomics unravels lipid sorting at the level of multivesicular bodies
    Caroline Subra
    INSERM U563, Département Lipoprotéines et Médiateurs Lipidiques, CPTP, CHU Purpan, Place Baylac, BP 3028, 31024 Toulouse Cedex3, France
    Biochimie 89:205-12. 2007
    ..However, this pathway seems also to be used by pathogens such as HIV. This review will consider several aspects of lipidomics studies which might help to understand the fate and role of these fascinating vesicles...
  36. ncbi Barriers in the brain: a renaissance?
    Norman R Saunders
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
    Trends Neurosci 31:279-86. 2008
    ....
  37. pmc A novel ubiquitin-like modification modulates the partitioning of the Ran-GTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 between the cytosol and the nuclear pore complex
    M J Matunis
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Cell Biol 135:1457-70. 1996
    ..Moreover, the variety and function of ubiquitin-like protein modifications in the cell may be more diverse than previously realized...
  38. ncbi The mitochondrial transporter family (SLC25): physiological and pathological implications
    Ferdinando Palmieri
    Department of Pharmaco Biology, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy
    Pflugers Arch 447:689-709. 2004
    ..It is likely that further extension and functional characterization of the SLC25 gene family will elucidate other diseases caused by MC deficiency...
  39. ncbi Regulated portals of entry into the cell
    Sean D Conner
    Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 422:37-44. 2003
    ....
  40. ncbi Bacterial heavy metal resistance: new surprises
    S Silver
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois, College of Medicine, Chicago 60612, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 50:753-89. 1996
    ..Finally, the first bacterial metallothionein (which by definition is a small protein that binds metal cations by means of numerous cysteine thiolates) has been characterized in cyanobacteria...
  41. ncbi Exosomes: immune properties and potential clinical implementations
    Nathalie Chaput
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1015, Villejuif, 94805, France
    Semin Immunopathol 33:419-40. 2011
    ....
  42. ncbi Nitrate and phosphate availability and distribution have different effects on root system architecture of Arabidopsis
    Birgit I Linkohr
    Department of Biology, University of York, UK
    Plant J 29:751-60. 2002
    ..The auxin-resistant mutants axrl, axr4 and aux1 all showed the wild-type lateral root elongation responses to a nitrate-rich patch, suggesting that auxin is not required for this response...
  43. ncbi Flavonoids and auxin transport: modulators or regulators?
    Wendy Ann Peer
    Department of Horticulture, 625 Agriculture Mall Drive, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 12:556-63. 2007
    ..Phylogenetic analysis suggests that auxin transport mechanisms evolved in the presence of flavonoid compounds produced for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and defense from herbivores and pathogens...
  44. pmc TonB-dependent transporters: regulation, structure, and function
    Nicholas Noinaj
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 64:43-60. 2010
    ..However, the transport mechanism is still unclear. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding regulation, structure, and function in TBDTs and questions remaining to be answered...
  45. ncbi Mitochondrial transport in neurons: impact on synaptic homeostasis and neurodegeneration
    Zu Hang Sheng
    Synaptic Function Section, The Porter Neuroscience Research Center, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Room 2B 215, 35 Convent Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3706, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 13:77-93. 2012
    ..Defects in mitochondrial transport are implicated in the pathogenesis of several major neurological disorders. Research into the mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial transport is thus an important emerging frontier...
  46. ncbi The human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 as a human blood-brain barrier model for drug transport studies
    Birk Poller
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    J Neurochem 107:1358-68. 2008
    ..The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of the hCMEC/D3 cell line as an in vitro model to study drug transport at the level of the human blood-brain barrier...
  47. ncbi Exportin 1 (Crm1p) is an essential nuclear export factor
    K Stade
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California at San Francisco, 94143 0414, USA
    Cell 90:1041-50. 1997
    ..cerevisiae. The presented data are consistent with the conclusion that Crm1p is a carrier for the NES-mediated protein export pathway. We propose CRM1 be renamed exportin 1 (XPO1)...
  48. ncbi Seven things we think we know about auxin transport
    Wendy Ann Peer
    Department of Horticulture, 625 Agriculture Mall Drive, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Mol Plant 4:487-504. 2011
    ..This discussion is not meant to be exhaustive, but highlights areas in which generally held assumptions require more substantive validation...
  49. pmc Family-wide characterization of the DENN domain Rab GDP-GTP exchange factors
    Shin ichiro Yoshimura
    Cancer Research Centre and 2 Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L3 9TA, England, UK
    J Cell Biol 191:367-81. 2010
    ..DENND1C, DENND3, DENND5A/5B, MTMR5/13, and MADD activate Rab13, Rab12, Rab39, Rab28, and Rab27A/27B, respectively. Together, these findings provide a basis for future studies on Rab regulation and function...
  50. pmc A competitive inhibitor traps LeuT in an open-to-out conformation
    Satinder K Singh
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Science 322:1655-61. 2008
    ....
  51. ncbi Cytosolic pH regulates root water transport during anoxic stress through gating of aquaporins
    Colette Tournaire-Roux
    Biochimie et Physiologie Moleculaire des Plantes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 5004, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Université Montpellier 2 et Ecole Nationale d Agronomie, Montpellier, France
    Nature 425:393-7. 2003
    ..More generally, our work opens new routes to explore pH-dependent cell signalling processes leading to regulation of water transport in plant tissues or in animal epithelia...
  52. ncbi Recent advances in the use of cell-penetrating peptides for medical and biological applications
    Sonali B Fonseca
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Adv Drug Deliv Rev 61:953-64. 2009
    ..This review will illustrate the diverse applications for which CPPs have been harnessed and also demonstrate the remarkable advancements these peptides have facilitated in cell biology...
  53. pmc Molecular basis of alternating access membrane transport by the sodium-hydantoin transporter Mhp1
    Tatsuro Shimamura
    Division of Molecular Biosciences, Membrane Protein Crystallography Group, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Science 328:470-3. 2010
    ..This forms the basis of an alternating access mechanism applicable to many transporters of this emerging superfamily...
  54. ncbi Computational method to predict mitochondrially imported proteins and their targeting sequences
    M G Claros
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS URA 1302, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France or
    Eur J Biochem 241:779-86. 1996
    ..As a practical application, the number of unknown yeast open reading frames that might be mitochondrial proteins has been predicted, which revealed that many of them are clustered...
  55. ncbi Phosphate transport in Arabidopsis: Pht1;1 and Pht1;4 play a major role in phosphate acquisition from both low- and high-phosphate environments
    Heungsop Shin
    The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, OK 73401, USA
    Plant J 39:629-42. 2004
    ..Thus, Pht1;1 and Pht1;4 play significant roles in Pi acquisition from both low- and high-Pi environments...
  56. ncbi Intraflagellar transport
    Joel L Rosenbaum
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:813-25. 2002
    ..Recent results indicate that defects in IFT might be a primary cause of some human diseases...
  57. ncbi The cellular fate of glucose and its relevance in type 2 diabetes
    Clara Bouche
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Endocr Rev 25:807-30. 2004
    ..This review is focused on the cellular fate of glucose and relevance to human type 2 diabetes...
  58. pmc Identification of a protein complex that assembles lipopolysaccharide in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli
    Tao Wu
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:11754-9. 2006
    ..We show that RlpB is also essential for cell viability and that the Imp/RlpB complex is responsible for LPS reaching the outer surface of the outer membrane...
  59. pmc The low-affinity monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 is adapted to the export of lactate in highly glycolytic cells
    K S Dimmer
    Physiologisches Institut der Universitat, Gmelinstr 5, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Biochem J 350:219-27. 2000
    ..Similar to MCT1, monocarboxylate transport via MCT4 was sensitive to inhibition by the thiol reagent p-chloromercuribenzoesulphonic acid...
  60. ncbi Tunneling nanotubes: a new route for the exchange of components between animal cells
    Hans Hermann Gerdes
    Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Jonas Lies vei 91, Bergen 5009, Norway
    FEBS Lett 581:2194-201. 2007
    ....
  61. pmc Apg7p/Cvt2p is required for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting, macroautophagy, and peroxisome degradation pathways
    J Kim
    Section of Microbiology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 10:1337-51. 1999
    ....
  62. ncbi The mechanisms and regulation of placental amino acid transport to the human foetus
    J K Cleal
    The Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 20:419-26. 2008
    ..Understanding the mechanisms and regulation of amino acid transport is necessary to understand the causes of intrauterine growth restriction in human pregnancy...
  63. ncbi Iron trafficking inside the brain
    Torben Moos
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
    J Neurochem 103:1730-40. 2007
    ..Oligodendrocytes also lack transferrin receptors. They probably take up non-transferrin bound iron that gets incorporated in newly synthesized transferrin, which may play an important role for intracellular iron transport...
  64. ncbi Arabidopsis AUX1 gene: a permease-like regulator of root gravitropism
    M J Bennett
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
    Science 273:948-50. 1996
    ..The cloned AUX1 gene can restore the auxin-responsiveness of transgenic aux1 roots. Spatially, AUX1 is expressed in root apical tissues that regulate root gravitropic curvature...
  65. ncbi Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2) and intracellular cholesterol trafficking
    Judith Storch
    Department of Nutritional Sciences and Rutgers Center for Lipid Research, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1791:671-8. 2009
    ..This review discusses the role of the NPC2 protein in cholesterol transport, and the potential for concerted action of NPC1 and NPC2 in regulating normal intracellular cholesterol homeostasis...
  66. ncbi Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of Na+/Cl--dependent neurotransmitter transporters
    Atsuko Yamashita
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics and
    Nature 437:215-23. 2005
    ..The structure reveals the architecture of this important class of transporter, illuminates the determinants of substrate binding and ion selectivity, and defines the external and internal gates...
  67. ncbi The 'ins' and 'outs' of flavonoid transport
    Jian Zhao
    Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, OK 73401, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 15:72-80. 2010
    ..An improved understanding of transport mechanisms will facilitate the successful metabolic engineering of flavonoids for plant protection and human health...
  68. ncbi Cellular internalization of exosomes occurs through phagocytosis
    Du Feng
    School of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China
    Traffic 11:675-87. 2010
    ..Our observation that the cellular uptake of exosomes occurs through phagocytosis has important implications for exosome-cell interactions and the exosome intracellular trafficking pathway...
  69. ncbi Root pressure and a solute reflection coefficient close to unity exclude a purely apoplastic pathway of radial water transport in barley (Hordeum vulgare)
    Thorsten Knipfer
    School of Biology and Environmental Science, Science Centre West, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    New Phytol 187:159-70. 2010
    ..Barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots behave as perfect osmometers. Root reflection coefficients significantly smaller than unity may be experimental artefacts...
  70. pmc The complete genome sequence of Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34, a master survivalist in harsh and anthropogenic environments
    Paul J Janssen
    Molecular and Cellular Biology, Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK CEN, Mol, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 5:e10433. 2010
    ..The genome data show that C. metallidurans CH34 is particularly well equipped to live in extreme conditions and anthropogenic environments that are rich in metals...
  71. ncbi Visualizing of the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of exosomes by live-cell microscopy
    Tian Tian
    State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
    J Cell Biochem 111:488-96. 2010
    ..This study provides new sight into the mechanisms of exosome uptake and intracellular fate...
  72. ncbi Genetic dissection of the role of ethylene in regulating auxin-dependent lateral and adventitious root formation in tomato
    Sangeeta Negi
    Department of Biology, Wake Forest University, Room 226 Winston Hall, Box 7325, Winston Salem, NC 27109, USA
    Plant J 61:3-15. 2010
    ..These results indicate a negative role for ethylene in lateral root formation and a positive role in adventitious root formation with modulation of auxin transport as a central point of ethylene-auxin crosstalk...
  73. pmc Yeast ARV1 is required for efficient delivery of an early GPI intermediate to the first mannosyltransferase during GPI assembly and controls lipid flow from the endoplasmic reticulum
    Kentaro Kajiwara
    Department of Bioresource Science and Technology, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima 739 8528, Japan
    Mol Biol Cell 19:2069-82. 2008
    ....
  74. ncbi Mammalian iron transport
    Gregory Jon Anderson
    Iron Metabolism Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, PO Royal Brisbane Hospital, QLD, Australia
    Cell Mol Life Sci 66:3241-61. 2009
    ..At the systemic level, iron transport is regulated by the liver-derived peptide hepcidin which acts on ferroportin to control iron release to the plasma...
  75. ncbi Structurally distinct membrane nanotubes between human macrophages support long-distance vesicular traffic or surfing of bacteria
    Björn Önfelt
    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, UK
    J Immunol 177:8476-83. 2006
    ..Thus, membrane nanotubes between macrophages are more complex than unvarying ubiquitous membrane tethers and facilitate several means for distal interactions between immune cells...
  76. pmc Approaching cellular and molecular resolution of auxin biosynthesis and metabolism
    Jennifer Normanly
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a001594. 2010
    ..An important advance within the past 5 years is our ability to monitor IAA biosynthesis and metabolism at increasingly higher resolution...
  77. ncbi A new ferrous iron-uptake transporter, EfeU (YcdN), from Escherichia coli
    Cornelia Grosse
    Institute for Microbiology, Martin Luther University, Halle, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 62:120-31. 2006
    ..In vitro the EfeU variant protein with an altered first REGLE motif was impaired in iron permeation, whereas activity of the EfeU variant with a mutation in the second motif was similar to the wild-type protein...
  78. pmc Salt stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: an integrated genomics approach
    Aindrila Mukhopadhyay
    Virtual Institute of Microbial Stress and Survival, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Bacteriol 188:4068-78. 2006
    ..vulgaris responded similarly to the two stresses. Integration of data from multiple methods allowed us to develop a conceptual model for the salt stress response in D. vulgaris that can be compared to those in other microorganisms...
  79. ncbi Control of mitochondrial transport and localization in neurons
    Andrew F Macaskill
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Trends Cell Biol 20:102-12. 2010
    ....
  80. ncbi Endosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes
    Jeremy N Timmis
    School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
    Nat Rev Genet 5:123-35. 2004
  81. ncbi Expression of organic cation transporters OCT1 (SLC22A1) and OCT3 (SLC22A3) is affected by genetic factors and cholestasis in human liver
    Anne T Nies
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany
    Hepatology 50:1227-40. 2009
    ..0001), and four variants in OCT3 (rs2292334, rs2048327, rs1810126, rs3088442) were associated with reduced OCT3 mRNA levels (P = 0.03)...
  82. pmc Regulated expression of Arabidopsis phosphate transporters
    Athikkattuvalasu S Karthikeyan
    Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 1165, USA
    Plant Physiol 130:221-33. 2002
    ..The results suggest that members of the Pi transporter family may have similar but nonredundant functions in plants...
  83. pmc Signal sequences specify the targeting route to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane
    D T Ng
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, School of Medicine, San Francisco 94143 0448, USA
    J Cell Biol 134:269-78. 1996
    ..Our studies show a previously unrecognized diversity in ER-directed signal sequences, that carry structural information that serves to identify the route taken...
  84. pmc Characterization of CAX4, an Arabidopsis H(+)/cation antiporter
    Ning Hui Cheng
    Baylor College of Medicine, Plant Physiology Group, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Children s Nutrition Research Center, 1100 Bates Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Plant Physiol 128:1245-54. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that CAX transporters may modulate their ion transport properties through alterations at the N terminus...
  85. pmc Mrs2p is an essential component of the major electrophoretic Mg2+ influx system in mitochondria
    Martin Kolisek
    Vienna Biocenter, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, University of Vienna, Dr Bohrgasse, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    EMBO J 22:1235-44. 2003
    ..Taken together, these findings characterize Mrs2p as the first molecularly identified metal ion channel protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane...
  86. pmc Microtubule-mediated transport of incoming herpes simplex virus 1 capsids to the nucleus
    B Sodeik
    Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Cell Biology, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8002, USA
    J Cell Biol 136:1007-21. 1997
    ..We propose that the incoming capsids bind to microtubules and use dynein to propel them from the cell periphery to the nucleus...
  87. pmc Interactions among PIN-FORMED and P-glycoprotein auxin transporters in Arabidopsis
    Joshua J Blakeslee
    Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 2010, USA
    Plant Cell 19:131-47. 2007
    ..These results suggest that PINs and PGPs characterize coordinated, independent auxin transport mechanisms but also function interactively in a tissue-specific manner...
  88. ncbi Involvement of organic cation transporter 1 in hepatic and intestinal distribution of metformin
    De Sheng Wang
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkuo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 302:510-5. 2002
    ....
  89. pmc Caveolin-1 and -2 in the exocytic pathway of MDCK cells
    P Scheiffele
    Cell Biology Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D 69012 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Cell Biol 140:795-806. 1998
    ..Thus, we suggest that caveolin-1 homooligomers play a role in apical transport...
  90. pmc Intact microtubules support adenovirus and herpes simplex virus infections
    Hélène Mabit
    Zoologisches Institut, Universitat Zurich, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Virol 76:9962-71. 2002
    ..We conclude that fluorophore-tagged Ad2 and HSV-1 particles are infectious and that microtubules play a prominent role in efficient nuclear targeting during entry and gene expression of species C Ads and HSV-1...
  91. ncbi Two rice phosphate transporters, OsPht1;2 and OsPht1;6, have different functions and kinetic properties in uptake and translocation
    Penghui Ai
    State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China
    Plant J 57:798-809. 2009
    ..Taken together, these data suggest OsPT6 plays a broad role in Pi uptake and translocation throughout the plant, whereas OsPT2 is a low-affinity Pi transporter, and functions in translocation of the stored Pi in the plant...
  92. ncbi Fast calculation of molecular polar surface area as a sum of fragment-based contributions and its application to the prediction of drug transport properties
    P Ertl
    Cheminformatics, Novartis Pharma AG, WKL 490 4 35, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    J Med Chem 43:3714-7. 2000
    ..This article describes the new methodology and shows the results of validation studies based on sets of published absorption data, including intestinal absorption, Caco-2 monolayer penetration, and blood-brain barrier penetration...
  93. pmc LIS1 and NDEL1 coordinate the plus-end-directed transport of cytoplasmic dynein
    Masami Yamada
    Department of Genetic Disease Research, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
    EMBO J 27:2471-83. 2008
    ....
  94. ncbi Lipid raft-associated protein sorting in exosomes
    Aude de Gassart
    UMR 5539, Univ Montpellier II cc107, Montpellier 34095, France
    Blood 102:4336-44. 2003
    ..All together, the data highlight the presence of lipid microdomains in exosomal membranes and suggest their participation in vesicle formation and structure, as well as the direct implication of exosomes in regulatory mechanisms...
  95. pmc Identification and characterization of the Arabidopsis PHO1 gene involved in phosphate loading to the xylem
    Dirk Hamburger
    Institut d Ecologie Biologie et Physiologie Végétales, Batiment de Biologie, Universite de Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Plant Cell 14:889-902. 2002
    ..The Arabidopsis genome contains 10 additional genes showing homology with PHO1. Thus, PHO1 defines a novel class of proteins involved in ion transport in plants...
  96. ncbi A receptor-mediated pathway for cholesterol homeostasis
    M S Brown
    Science 232:34-47. 1986
  97. ncbi Vesicular transport across the fungal cell wall
    Arturo Casadevall
    Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Trends Microbiol 17:158-62. 2009
    ..The discovery of vesicular transport in fungi opens many new avenues for investigation in basic cell biology and pathogenesis...
  98. pmc A bacterial-type ABC transporter is involved in aluminum tolerance in rice
    Chao Feng Huang
    Research Institute for Bioresources, Okayama University, Kurashiki 710 0046, Japan
    Plant Cell 21:655-67. 2009
    ..These results indicate that STAR1 and STAR2 form a complex that functions as an ABC transporter, which is required for detoxification of Al in rice. The ABC transporter transports UDP-glucose, which may be used to modify the cell wall...
  99. pmc Control of Arabidopsis meristem development by thioredoxin-dependent regulation of intercellular transport
    Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3615-20. 2009
    ..We propose a role for the GAT1 thioredoxin in the redox regulation of callose deposition and symplastic permeability that is essential for meristem maintenance in Arabidopsis...
  100. ncbi The ABCG2 transporter is an efficient Hoechst 33342 efflux pump and is preferentially expressed by immature human hematopoietic progenitors
    Christian W Scharenberg
    Division of Clinical Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Blood 99:507-12. 2002
    ..Furthermore, the sharp down-regulation of ABCG2 at the stage of lineage commitment suggests that this gene may play an important role in the unique physiology of the pluripotent stem cell...
  101. ncbi Drug delivery to the central nervous system: a review
    Ambikanandan Misra
    Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M S University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara 390001 Gujarat
    J Pharm Pharm Sci 6:252-73. 2003
    ..To illustrate the complexity of the problems that have to be overcome for successful brain targeting, a brief intercellular characterization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is also included...

Research Grants27

  1. Opiate Addiction and HIV-1 Induced Release of Cytokines
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  2. ENTEROBACTIN DERIVATIVES: BUILDING A BETTER FERRIC TRAP
    Carlos Gutierrez; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..a ligand; and because they could serve as probes for the elucidation of some of the details of the biological transport of enterobactin into the bacterial cell...
  3. ARTIFICIAL POLYMERIC LIPOPROTEINS AS DRUG CARRIERS
    GLEN KWON; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Adapted from Applicant's Abstract): Nanoscopic biomaterials that are able to mimic structural aspects of biological transport systems such as lipoproteins and viruses are promising targetable transport systems for low molecular ..
  4. MODERN ESR TECHNIQUES FOR BIOLOGICAL STUDIES
    Jack Freed; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..of macroscopic lateral diffusion in biological systems and for investigating microscopic dynamics in biological transport phenomena...
  5. Center for Design:Biomimetic Nanoconductors (RMI)
    Eric Jakobsson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..3) We will aim to combine our knowledge of the physics of biological transport with engineering principles to do computer-aided design of nanoscale ion transporters...
  6. METAL ION TRANSFER AND CATALYSIS IN PEPTIDE COMPLEXES
    DALE MARGERUM; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The nature, stability, oxidation states and kinetics of metal peptide complexes will be explored to help understand the biological transport, catalysis and toxicity of metal ions.
  7. Pathogen survival in transport-limited environments
    Aaron I Packman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The PI's interest in this field developed from preliminary work on biological transport processes in environmental systems, which led to the realization that there has been little study of the ..
  8. Prion Transport Across the Blood-Brain Barrier
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..To cause disease, prions must cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the brain. We will determine how prions cross the BBB. Knowing how prions enter the brain should lead to strategies on how to prevent prion diseases. ..
  9. Intraflagellar Transport Motors in C. elegans neurons
    Jonathan M Scholey; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  10. ALTERED KCa CHANNEL EXPRESSION IN DEVELOPING CEREBELLUM
    ANDREA YOOL; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The rat provides a useful model for studying postnatal cerebellar development and neuropathological damage, and may provide insights into methods to manipulate developmental abnormalities in the cerebellum. ..
  11. Proximal Tubule Transport Defect in Hyp Mice
    Michel Baum; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will not only examine the pathogenesis of this disorder, but will directly examine if indomethacin potentially represents a novel therapy for this disease. ..
  12. Mechanisms of HIV Transport Across the BBB
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  13. PTS1 Regulation of Brain Met Enk Levels in Alcoholism
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. ACYLCOA FORMATION--COVALENT BINDING, PHARMACOKINETICS
    Leslie Benet; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  15. Comparison of Human Ehrlichiosis Agent Genomes
    Yasuko Rikihisa; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..chaffeensis virulence determinants and their pathogenic mechanisms. The results may point to potential chemotherapy, chemopreventive and/or vaccine candidates for treatment and prevention of human ehrlichiosis. ..
  16. MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF RENAL NA+ DEPENDENT COTRANSPORT
    Ana M Pajor; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding how NaDC1 and SdcS work will help us to develop treatments for NaDC1-mediated diseases. ..
  17. Analysis of Large-Scale Biochemical Systems
    DANIEL BEARD; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In addition, the computational tools that are developed by this research program will be disseminated through a partnership with a software company. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. Mathematical Model of Vascular and Tubular Transport in the Rat Outer Medulla
    AURELIE EDWARDS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We will simulate the effects of renal perfusion pressure-induced elevations in medullary CO concentrations on mTAL sodium reabsorption, so as to gain some insight into the mechanisms underlying pressure natriuresis. ..
  19. PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY TRAINING
    Michel Baum; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Fellows also attend seminars in basic science departments. The research mentor, as well as the program director, closely supervise trainees to ensure that the goals of the training program are achieved. ..
  20. Probabilistic Modeling of Information from Images and Text in Online Journals
    Robert Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. Agmatine Mediated Arrest of Proliferation
    Joseph Satriano; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..UCSD has established itself as a leading academic institution and thus provides an excellent environment for the exchange of ideas and techniques essential for the growth of the PI's career. ..
  22. TRANSPORT MECHANISMS IN CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM
    Jorge Fischbarg; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The understanding to be gained may provide insights on how to modulate fluid transport so as to offset endothelial dysfunction leading to the loss of normal vision. ..
  23. Host proteins in Vaccinia viral membrane biogenesis
    Victor Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. Localized modulation of RPE P-gp/MRP activity for back-of-the-eye drug delivery
    Soumyajit Majumdar; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. Dynamic Interactions of the Cytoskeleton
    ERIKA HOLZBAUR; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. Renal NO synthase & blood pressure
    Jeffrey Garvin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. Neurodegeneration in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease
    Xiaoning Bi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Finally, because microglia activation has also been implicated in the mechanisms underlying several neurodegenerative diseases, our proposal could lead to significant advances in the treatment of these diseases as well. ..