Summary: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
Publications196 found, 100 shown here
- Neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus serotypes among children in southwest NigeriaM O Adewumi
Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
J Trop Pediatr 52:92-5. 2006..The populations had 59.6 per cent herd immunity for the three poliovirus serotypes...
- Why has polio eradication program failed in IndiaYash Paul
Maharaja Agrasen Hospital, Vidhyadhar Nagar, Jaipur, India
Indian Pediatr 45:381-8. 2008
- Economic evaluation of childhood 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in KoreaHyun Soon Sohn
Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 8020, USA
J Manag Care Pharm 16:32-45. 2010..Although PCV-7 was introduced in Korea in 2003, it is not yet included in the universal immunization program...
- Herd immunity conferred by killed oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh: a reanalysisMohammad Ali
International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea
Lancet 366:44-9. 2005..We reanalysed data from a field trial in Bangladesh to ascertain whether there is evidence of indirect protection from killed oral cholera vaccines...
- Meningococcal vaccines and herd immunity: lessons learned from serogroup C conjugate vaccination programsCaroline L Trotter
Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, Bristol, UK
Expert Rev Vaccines 8:851-61. 2009..Such herd immunity effects have been demonstrated following the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) ..
- Updated postlicensure surveillance of the meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in England and Wales: effectiveness, validation of serological correlates of protection, and modeling predictions of the duration of herd immunityHelen Campbell
Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:840-7. 2010..02 case per 100,000 population) in the 2008-2009 epidemiological year, mainly due to the indirect herd immunity effect of the vaccine in reducing carriage...
- Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian children who participated in a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial and in their younger siblingsYin Bun Cheung
Biostatistics Department, Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore
Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:990-5. 2009..We studied the effects of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on the carriage of individual serotypes and on antimicrobial resistance in vaccinated children and their younger siblings...
- Role of herd immunity in determining the effect of vaccines against sexually transmitted diseaseGeoffrey P Garnett
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, London, UK
J Infect Dis 191:S97-106. 2005Vaccination programs provide both direct protection to those immunized and herd immunity, which is indirect protection of those who remain susceptible, owing to a reduced prevalence of infections.
- Dynamic models of meningococcal carriage, disease, and the impact of serogroup C conjugate vaccinationCaroline L Trotter
Modelling and Economics Unit, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
Am J Epidemiol 162:89-100. 2005..in England and Wales to develop and apply a mathematical model to investigate the direct and indirect (herd immunity) effects of a conjugate vaccine program...
- Herd immunity acquired indirectly from interactions between the ecology of infectious diseases, demography and economicsMatthew H Bonds
Francois Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J R Soc Interface 7:541-7. 2010..For example, because of indirect income effects, herd immunity may be acquired with lower vaccine coverage than previously thought...
- Transmission-dynamic model to capture the indirect effects of infant vaccination with Prevnar (7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7)) in older populationsSonya J Snedecor
Pharmerit North America, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
Vaccine 27:4694-703. 2009..The model predicts the observed incidence of IPD with good agreement and may be used to predict the impact of various vaccination strategies in the US or other populations yet to introduce PCV7...
- Effectiveness of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine 4 years after introductionCaroline L Trotter
Statistics, Economics, and Modelling Department, Health Protection Agency Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
Lancet 364:365-7. 2004..the incidence of serogroup C disease, as a result of high short-term vaccine effectiveness and substantial herd immunity. However, the long-term effectiveness of the vaccine remains unknown...
- Relationship between neighbourhood-level killed oral cholera vaccine coverage and protective efficacy: evidence for herd immunityMichael Emch
Department of Geography, Saunders Hall, Campus Box 3220, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, 27599 3220, USA
Int J Epidemiol 35:1044-50. 2006..of the results of that trial showed that the proportion of people in household clusters who received the vaccine was inversely related to placebo incidence during the first year of surveillance, which was attributed to herd immunity.
- Epidemiological, serological and herd immunity of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in KosovoIsme Humolli
National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo, Pristina, Kosovo
Med Arh 64:91-3. 2010..Goal of the research was to establish a pattern of the disease, its natural flow and herd immunity. For this purpose we used epidemiological methods, laboratory confirmation (ELISA, PCR) and t-test and chi2-..
- The impact of antigenic drift of influenza A virus on human herd immunity: Sero-epidemiological study of H1N1 in healthy Thai population in 2009Yuta Kanai
Section of Viral Infections, Thailand Japan Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Re emerging Infections RCC ERI, Nonthaburi, Thailand
Vaccine 28:5437-44. 2010To examine the effect of the antigenic drift of H1N1 influenza viruses on herd immunity, neutralization antibodies from 744 sera from Thai healthy volunteers in 2008-2009, who had not been vaccinated for at least the last 5 years, were ..
- Quantitative single serum-dilution liquid phase competitive blocking ELISA for the assessment of herd immunity and expected protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattleBlanca Robiolo
Centro de Virologia Animal, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Dr Cesar Milstein, CONICET, Saladillo 2468, C1440FFX, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
J Virol Methods 166:21-7. 2010A single serum-dilution liquid phase ELISA (slpELISA) was standardized to be used for serological evaluation of herd immunity against foot-and-mouth disease...
- Invasive pneumococcal disease among infants before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccineKatherine A Poehling
Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 2504, USA
JAMA 295:1668-74. 2006..Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious infection in young infants. A heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed in 2000 and recommended for all children aged 2 to 23 months...
- Herd immunity in adults against influenza-related illnesses with use of the trivalent-live attenuated influenza vaccine (CAIV-T) in childrenPedro A Piedra
Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Rm 248E, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Vaccine 23:1540-8. 2005..Vaccination of approximately 20-25% of children, 1.5-18 years of age in the intervention communities resulted in an indirect protection of 8-18% against MAARI in adults > or =35 years of age...
- Impact of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines on carriage and herd immunityMartin C J Maiden
Dept of Zoology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
J Infect Dis 197:737-43. 2008..The impact of this intervention on asymptomatic carriage of meningococci was investigated to establish whether serogroup replacement or protection by herd immunity occurred.
- Herd immunity from meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination in England: database analysisMary E Ramsay
Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, NW9 5EQ
BMJ 326:365-6. 2003
- Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccinationMichiel van Boven
Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Lelystad, AB, The Netherlands
Avian Pathol 37:1-5. 2008..As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log(2) ..
- Herd immunity after pneumococcal conjugate vaccinationWerner C Albrich
Lancet 370:218-9; author reply 219-20. 2007
- Pneumococcal vaccines and flu preparednessKeith P Klugman
Science 316:49-50. 2007
- The economics of routine childhood hepatitis A immunization in the United States: the impact of herd immunityGregory L Armstrong
Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Pediatrics 119:e22-9. 2007..This analysis estimates the impact of herd immunity on the cost-effectiveness of routine hepatitis A immunization among US children.
- Network frailty and the geometry of herd immunityMatthew J Ferrari
IGDP in Ecology, 501 ASI Building, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Proc Biol Sci 273:2743-8. 2006..The result is that immunization due to prior epidemics can provide greater community protection than random vaccination on networks with heterogeneous contact patterns, while the reverse is true for highly structured populations...
- Pneumococcal pneumonia in the UK--how herd immunity affects the cost-effectiveness of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)E D G McIntosh
Wyeth, Huntercombe Lane South, Taplow, Maidenhead, Berkshire SL6 0PH, UK
Vaccine 23:1739-45. 2005..b>Herd immunity effects on adult pneumococcal hospital-treated pneumonia, meningitis and septicaemia, but not on community-..
- Cost effectiveness analysis of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Germany considering herd immunity effectsChrista Claes
Centre for Health Economics and Health System Research, Leibniz University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany
Eur J Health Econ 10:25-38. 2009..have reported a reduction of pneumococcal diseases in both vaccinated and unvaccinated populations, suggesting herd immunity effects...
- 'Clustering of exemptions' as a collective action threat to herd immunityThomas May
Medical College of Wisconsin, Watertown Plank Road, PO Box 26509, Milwaukee, WI 53226 0509, USA
Vaccine 21:1048-51. 2003..Given the growing number of exemptions and the increasing visibility of the anti-vaccine movement, policy makers must be vigilant for dangerous clustering in order to avoid loss of herd immunity.
- Cost-effectiveness of heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (Prevenar) in Germany: considering a high-risk population and herd immunity effectsAdam Lloyd
Fourth Hurdle Consulting Ltd, London, WC1V 6PL, UK
Eur J Health Econ 9:7-15. 2008..to all children may lead to a decline in pneumococcal disease in unvaccinated adults, a phenomenon known as herd immunity. This analysis evaluated the cost and economic consequences in Germany of vaccinating (1) children at high ..
- Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in England and WalesA Melegaro
Modelling and Economics Unit, Health Protection Agency, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
Vaccine 22:4203-14. 2004..To establish whether universal vaccination of infants with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is likely to be cost-effective from the perspective of the health care provider (NHS)...
- Herd immunity and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a quantitative modelMichael Haber
Department of Biostatistics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Vaccine 25:5390-8. 2007..In contrast, the herd immunity effects on vaccine-related serotype 6A incidence were inconsistent...
- Measles outbreak in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2003Terri B Hyde
Viral Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch, National Immunization Program, NIP, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Int J Epidemiol 35:299-306. 2006..Reported 1-dose measles vaccine coverage among children aged 12-23 months varied widely (52-94%) between 1990 and 2000...
- Containing bioterrorist smallpoxM Elizabeth Halloran
Department of Biostatistics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Science 298:1428-32. 2002..was more effective than targeted vaccination in preventing and containing epidemics if there was no prior herd immunity (that is, no prior immunologic protection within the population)...
- The earliest notes on the reproduction number in relation to herd immunity: Theophil Lotz and smallpox vaccinationHiroshi Nishiura
J Theor Biol 241:964-7. 2006
- Cost effectiveness of adding 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV-7) vaccine to the Norwegian childhood vaccination programTorbjørn Wisløff
Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Department of Pediatrics, Rikshospitalet Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, University of Oslo, Norway
Vaccine 24:5690-9. 2006..The aim of this study was to estimate costs and health consequences of adding this pneumococcal vaccine to the Norwegian childhood vaccination programme, taking the possibility of herd immunity into account.
- Enhanced decision support for policy makers using a web interface to health-economic models--illustrated with a cost-effectiveness analysis of nation-wide infant vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the NetherlandsG A A Hubben
Social Pharmacy, Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy, University of Groningen, and Base Case, Healthcare Decision Support, Groningen, The Netherlands
Vaccine 25:3669-78. 2007....
- Smallpox eradication in West and Central Africa: surveillance-containment or herd immunity?Edward H Kaplan
Yale School of Management, and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
Epidemiology 14:90-2. 2003
- Predicting the herd immunity threshold during an outbreak: a recursive approachNathan T Georgette
Science Department, Allen D Nease High School, Ponte Vedra, Florida, United States of America
PLoS ONE 4:e4168. 2009....
- Herd immunity and herd protectionYash Paul
Vaccine 22:301-2. 2004
- Invasive pneumococcal disease in Indigenous people in north Queensland: an update, 2005-2007Jeffrey N Hanna
Tropical Population Health Network, Queensland Health, Cairns, QLD, Australia
Med J Aust 189:43-6. 2008..To examine trends in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Indigenous people in north Queensland following the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV)...
- Efficacy calculation in randomized trials: global or local measures?Michael Emch
Department of Geography, Saunders Hall, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3220 USA
Health Place 13:238-48. 2007..Local efficacy measures can help public health practitioners make better decisions about when and where to vaccinate populations. The concepts offered in this study are pertinent for any health intervention trial, not just vaccines...
- Update on childhood immunizationsCarol J Weber
Regis University, Department of Nursing, Denver, CO, USA
Urol Nurs 25:214-5. 2005
- [Serologic assessment of measles herd immunity in the north-western region of Romania]Irina Brumboiu
Universitatea de Medicina Si Farmacie Iuliu Hatieganu Cluj Napoca, Facultatea de Medicina, 1 Catedra Epidemiologie şi APSS 4 Studenti
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 109:616-22. 2005The most objective analysis of measles herd immunity could be made by sero-epidemiological study...
- Indirect effects associated with widespread vaccination of infants with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar)Daniel J Isaacman
Global Medical Affairs, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA
Vaccine 25:2420-7. 2007..Continued surveillance will be important, to follow future changes associated with non-vaccine type IPD, particularly among individuals with medical co-morbidities that may put them at higher risk of disease...
- Indirect effects of childhood pneumococcal vaccination on pneumococcal carriage among adults and older children in Australian Aboriginal communitiesGrant Mackenzie
Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Australia
Vaccine 25:2428-33. 2007..Between 12 and 30 months following introduction of conjugate pneumococcal vaccination, indirect effects on carriage were unchanged...
- Nasopharyngeal colonization: a target for pneumococcal vaccinationHelena Kayhty
National Public Health Institute, Department of Vaccines, Helsinki, Finland
Expert Rev Vaccines 5:651-67. 2006..the protection afforded by the vaccine extends to the whole population, including those not vaccinated (herd immunity)...
- [Pneumococcal vaccination: conjugated vaccine induces herd immunity and reduces antibiotic resistance]V Traut
Dtsch Med Wochenschr 133:1207-8; author reply 1208. 2008
- Pneumococcal vaccine--direct and indirect ("herd") effectsDaniel M Musher
N Engl J Med 354:1522-4. 2006
- Elimination of hepatitis a infection outbreaks in day care and school settings in southern Israel after introduction of the national universal toddler hepatitis a immunization programIlana Belmaker
Ministry of Health, Southern Regional Office, Beer Sheva, Israel
Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:36-40. 2007..The effect of the Israeli program on outbreaks of Hepatitis A in day care and school settings was studied...
- Hepatitis A in the era of vaccinationAnnemarie Wasley
Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Epidemiol Rev 28:101-11. 2006..These marked declines occurred with relatively modest vaccination coverage, suggesting that strong herd immunity accompanies the initiation of routine vaccination programs...
- Vaccines for the unvaccinated: protecting the herdDavid S Stephens
J Infect Dis 197:643-5. 2008
- Modeling future changes to the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine program in England and WalesCaroline L Trotter
Immunisation Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
Hum Vaccin 2:68-73. 2006..program has successfully controlled serogroup C disease, due to high vaccine effectiveness and substantial herd immunity. However, children immunised at 2, 3 and 4 months of age receive only short-term direct protection and may be ..
- Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: evidence from the first 5 years of use in the United States incorporating herd effectsG Thomas Ray
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program Northern California Region, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:494-501. 2006..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has been in routine use in the United States for 5 years. Prior U.S. cost-effectiveness analyses have not taken into account the effect of the vaccine on nonvaccinated persons...
- [Vaccination--value for money?]Torbjørn Wisløff
Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter for helsetjenesten Postboks, 7004 St Olavs plass 0130, Oslo, Norway
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 126:2670-3. 2006..main challenge lies in obtaining valid estimates of health effects and side effects and the consequences of herd immunity and serotype shift...
- Universal influenza vaccination and live attenuated influenza vaccination of childrenW Paul Glezen
Department of MVM, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:S104-9. 2008..Systematic delivery of influenza vaccine in school-based and workplace-based clinics would greatly enhance the control of epidemic influenza and help prepare for the next pandemic...
- [Herd immunity and effectiveness of vaccination]Andrzej Zielinski
Zakład Epidemiologii Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Przegl Epidemiol 58:10-6. 2004..The definitions and ways of estimation of indicators of herd immunity as applied to the analysis of the effectiveness of vaccinations are presented.
- Ethics and vaccinationIngela Krantz
Department of Medical Ethics, Lund University, Sweden
Scand J Public Health 32:172-8. 2004..and society has a significant role to play in providing vaccination against measles and safeguarding herd immunity to optimize its individuals' capabilities...
- Immunity to measles in the Croatian populationBerislav Borcić
Department of Epidemiology, Croatian National Institute of Public Health, Zagreb, Croatia
Eur J Epidemiol 18:1079-83. 2003..According to these results, only the first two age groups meet WHO criteria, indicating that vaccination coverage higher than the reported 90-94% should be attained if one is to expect measles elimination...
- Invasive meningococcal disease epidemiology and control measures: a framework for evaluationJ Jaime Caro
Caro Research Institute, Concord, MA, USA
BMC Public Health 7:130. 2007..In the absence of long-term real world data, modeling the effects of different vaccination strategies is required. Discrete event simulation provides a flexible platform with which to conduct such evaluations...
- Measles outbreak after a post-honeymoon period in Mongolia, 2001Tuul Rentsen
Virology Laboratory, National Center for Communicable Diseases, Mongolia
Jpn J Infect Dis 60:198-9. 2007..Immunization strategies such as the age range that is targeted for vaccination and the interval between supplemental immunizations should be based on reasonable epidemiological observations...
- Economic evaluation of vaccination programs: the impact of herd-immunityM Brisson
Immunisation Division, PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London NW9 5EQ, UK
Med Decis Making 23:76-82. 2003..Finally, they use the results to clarify a number of misconceptions that are common in the literature concerning herd-immunity and dynamical effects produced by models...
- Invasive pneumococcal disease in an underimmunized, high HIV prevalence populationAzadeh Tasslimi
UMDNJ School of Public Health, 65 Bergen Street, Newark, NJ 07107, USA
J Infect 56:99-102. 2008..To describe the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in a predominantly minority population with low childhood immunization rates and high HIV prevalence, during the early childhood pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) era...
- Economics of an adolescent meningococcal conjugate vaccination catch-up campaign in the United StatesIsmael R Ortega-Sanchez
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Clin Infect Dis 46:1-13. 2008..11-17 years, followed by routine annual immunization of each child aged 11 years, could generate immediate herd immunity benefits...
- Simple criteria for finding (nearly) optimal vaccination strategiesStephen Tennenbaum
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
J Theor Biol 250:673-83. 2008..vaccination resources away from the high-risk group to the high-activity group will result in improved herd immunity in both the high-risk group and the population as whole...
- Fall in Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease following implementation of a booster campaignS Ladhani
Immunisation Department, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, UK
Arch Dis Child 93:665-9. 2008....
- Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal colonization among immunized and unimmunized children in a community-randomized trialKatherine L O'Brien
Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
J Infect Dis 196:1211-20. 2007..The impact of PCV on nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization is essential to understanding disease effects...
- [Adult vaccination update]José Luis Arribas
Servicio de Medicina Preventiva, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 22:342-54. 2004..Active immunization in adults is established evaluating factors as age and gender, but specific circumstances associated with medical conditions, treatments or occupation could extend vaccine administration in adults...
- Vanishing vaccinations: why are so many Americans opting out of vaccinating their children?Steve P Calandrillo
University of Washington School of Law, USA
Univ Mich J Law Reform 37:353-440. 2004..quot;Herd immunity" is threatened as more and more parents free ride off of the community's dwindling immunity, and ..
- Strain characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage and invasive disease isolates during a cluster-randomized clinical trial of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccineMarc Lipsitch
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Infect Dis 196:1221-7. 2007..PCV7) has led to significant reductions in disease while changing pneumococcal population dynamics via herd immunity and serotype replacement...
- [Pneumococcal vaccination: conjugated vaccine induces herd immunity and reduces antibiotic resistance]M W Pletz
Klinik fur Pneumologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Germany
Dtsch Med Wochenschr 133:358-62. 2008..Pronounced herd immunity resulted in a decrease in invasive pneumococcal diseases in vaccinees and non-vaccinees as well as in a ..
- Pertussis vaccination beyond childhoodGaston De Serres
Quebec National Institute of Public Health, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada G1E 7G9
Lancet 365:1015-6. 2005
- A measles epidemic threshold in a highly vaccinated populationJacco Wallinga
Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
PLoS Med 2:e316. 2005..A possible explanation for this sequence of outbreaks is that the vaccinated population is protected by solid herd immunity. If so, we would expect to see the fraction of susceptible individuals remaining below an epidemic threshold...
- Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and the severity of winter influenza-like illnesses on invasive pneumococcal infections in children and adultsShideh Shafinoori
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Schneider Children s Hospital of the North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY, USA
Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:10-6. 2005..We studied the impact of PCV7 and the possible contribution of the severity of influenza-like respiratory infection season on the rate of IPD on children and adults...
- Measles and the importance of maintaining vaccination levelsHelen Bedford
Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London
Nurs Times 100:52-5. 2004..The disease has an incubation period of between six and 19 days. People with measles are usually infectious for one to two days before the rash appears but the total period during which an individual is infectious is not known...
- Persistent West Nile virus transmission and the apparent displacement St. Louis encephalitis virus in southeastern California, 2003-2006William K Reisen
Arbovirus Research Unit, Center for Vectorborne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Old Davis Rd, Davis, CA 95616, USA
J Med Entomol 45:494-508. 2008..Cross-protective "avian herd immunity" due to WNV infection possibly may have prevented SLEV reintroduction and/or amplification to detectable ..
- Oral vaccination of wildlife against rabies: opportunities and challenges in prevention and controlC E Rupprecht
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Dev Biol (Basel) 119:173-84. 2004..Taken from this basic concept of applied herd immunity, the idea of wildlife vaccination was conceived during the 1960s, and modified-live rabies viruses were used ..
- Epidemiology of pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in Canada with exclusive use of a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b pediatric combination vaccine and an adolescent-adult tetanusDavid P Greenberg
Sanofi Pasteur Inc Swiftwater, PA, USA
Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:521-8. 2009....
- Mechanisms of GII.4 norovirus persistence in human populationsLisa C Lindesmith
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
PLoS Med 5:e31. 2008..4 strains is common in human populations. In this article, we analyze molecular mechanisms governing GII.4 epidemiology, susceptibility, and persistence in human populations...
- Epizootiology of an epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak in West VirginiaJoseph K Gaydos
Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
J Wildl Dis 40:383-93. 2004..Using available historical data on regional herd immunity, data opportunistically collected during the epizootic, and postepizootic sampling of hunter-harvested deer, ..
- Analysis of Bordetella pertussis pertactin and pertussis toxin types from Queensland, Australia, 1999-2003Shane Byrne
Public Health Microbiology, Queensland Health Scientific Services, Brisbane, Australia
BMC Infect Dis 6:53. 2006..One vaccine also contains pertussis fimbriae 2 and 3. Various researchers have postulated that herd immunity due to high levels of pertussis vaccination might be influencing the makeup of endemic B...
- Levels of diphtheria and tetanus specific IgG of Portuguese adult women, before and after vaccination with adult type Td. Duration of immunity following vaccinationGuilherme Gonçalves
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras, Portugal
BMC Public Health 7:109. 2007..We also intended to assess the serological efficacy of Td booster...
- Clinical characteristics of an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease in SingaporeV A Shah
Department of Neonatology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608
Ann Acad Med Singapore 32:381-7. 2003..There were 652 patients clinically suspected to have HFMD, who were seen at the Children's Emergency department of KK Women's and Children's Hospital of Singapore...
- Bacterial meningitis: the impact of vaccinationNick Makwana
Department of Child Health, Royal Liverpool Childrens Hospital, Liverpool, England
CNS Drugs 21:355-66. 2007..part due to the ability of these vaccines to reduce nasopharyngeal carriage of the organism and thereby induce herd immunity. Different Hib vaccines use a variety of protein carriers and differ in their immunogenicity and efficacy...
- Weighing the risks and benefits of vaccinationL T Glickman
Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA
Adv Vet Med 41:701-13. 1999..that a high percentage of animal owners are responsible and do vaccinate their animals, thus providing "herd immunity" protection to the unvaccinated animals whom they contact...
- Advances in pneumococcal vaccines: what are the advantages for the elderly?Angel Vila-Corcoles
Department of Public Health, Primary Care Service of Tarragona Valls, Institut Catala de la Salut, Tarragona, Spain
Drugs Aging 24:791-800. 2007..CPV as a routine vaccine for children has provided considerable indirect benefits for older adults via herd immunity, but this vaccine has limited serotype coverage in elderly individuals...
- Babesiosis (Babesia bovis) stability in unstable environmentsR D Smith
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61802, USA
Ann N Y Acad Sci 916:510-20. 2000Enzootic stability (herd immunity) in bovine babesiosis occurs when the rate of transmission (inoculation rate) of Babesia spp by the tick vector is sufficient to immunize a majority of susceptible calves before the loss of calfhood ..
- Epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Landhi Dairy Colony, Pakistan, the world largest Buffalo colonyJoern Klein
National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Lindholm, DK 4771 Kalvehave, Denmark
Virol J 5:53. 2008..Serum samples have been analysed by applying serotype-specific antibody ELISA and non-structural proteins (NSP) antibody ELISA...
- Serological evidence of continuing high Usutu virus (Flaviviridae) activity and establishment of herd immunity in wild birds in AustriaTanja Meister
Institute of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria
Vet Microbiol 127:237-48. 2008..To test the hypothesis that establishment of herd immunity might be responsible, serological examinations of susceptible wild birds were performed...
- Improvement of the immune response to foot and mouth disease virus vaccine in calves by using Avridine as adjuvantA M Sadir
Instituto de Virologia, CICV, INTA Castelar, Pcia, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Vet Immunol Immunopathol 69:11-22. 1999..Compaired, D., Maradei, E., Bianchi, T., O'Donnell, V., Schudel, A.A., 1998. Assessment using ELISA of the herd immunity levels induced in cattle by foot and mouth disease oil vaccines. Prev. Vet...
- One dose of varicella vaccine does not prevent school outbreaks: is it time for a second dose?Adriana S Lopez
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Pediatrics 117:e1070-7. 2006....
- Repeated West Nile virus epidemic transmission in Kern County, California, 2004-2007William K Reisen
Center for Vectorborne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Old Davis Rd, Davis, CA 95616, USA
J Med Entomol 46:139-57. 2009..mosquito abundance but increased early season infection in urban Culex quinquefasciatus Say, moderate avian "herd immunity," and declines in the catch of competent (western scrub-jay and house finch) and noncompetent (California ..
- Chikungunya epidemic: an Indian perspectiveS P Kalantri
Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha 442102, Maharashtra, India
Natl Med J India 19:315-22. 2006..albopictus. Researchers speculate that mutation of the virus, absence of herd immunity, lack of vector control, and globalization of trade and travel might have contributed to the resurgence of the ..
- Meningococcal conjugate vaccines: efficacy and new combinationsMarco Aurelio Palazzi Sáfadi
Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
J Pediatr (Rio J) 82:S35-44. 2006....
- Genomic content of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates circulating in areas of intensive children vaccinationValérie Bouchez
Institut Pasteur, Unité Prévention et Thérapie Moléculaires des Maladies Humaines, URA CNRS 3012, Paris, France
PLoS ONE 3:e2437. 2008The objective of the study was to analyse the evolution of Bordetella pertussis population and the influence of herd immunity in different areas of the world where newborns and infants are highly vaccinated.
- Management of the febrile child without a focus of infection in the era of universal pneumococcal immunizationJerome O Klein
Boston Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, MA 02118, USA
Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:584-8; discussion 613-4. 2002..In addition questions about change in serotype of pneumococci causing invasive disease (serotype switching), herd immunity and durability of protection after immunization need to be answered...
- Tdap5 vaccine (Covaxis): a review of its use as a single-booster immunization for the prevention of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis in children (aged 4 years), adolescents, and adultsLesley J Scott
Adis, a Wolters Kluwer Business, Auckland, New Zealand
BioDrugs 24:387-406. 2010..the ability to control pertussis infections in these at-risk infants and ultimately provide the desired herd immunity against pertussis...
- Spotlight on pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in EuropeGreg L Plosker
Adis, a Wolters Kluwer Business, Auckland, New Zealand
BioDrugs 24:411-4. 2010..There is also evidence that the widespread use of RotaTeq may provide herd immunity, as it appears to have indirect benefits in older, unvaccinated children...
- A 24-year review on the epidemiology and control of measles in Singapore, 1981-2004Gary Ong
Epidemiology and Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health, Singapore
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37:96-101. 2006..The herd immunity of the population against measles was accessed through three seroepidemiological surveys that we conducted in ..
- Vaccinology of classical swine fever: from lab to fieldJ T van Oirschot
Virus Discovery Unit, ID Lelystad, PO Box 65, 8200 AB, Lelystad, The Netherlands
Vet Microbiol 96:367-84. 2003..The Chinese strain vaccine may establish a strong herd immunity 1-2 weeks earlier than the E2 vaccine...
- Health economic research on vaccinations and immunisation practices--an introductory primerThomas D Szucs
Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
Vaccine 23:2095-103. 2005..Such externalities may be positive or negative. Positive externalities are present in the case where herd immunity prevents the spread of the disease in the community...
- Determination of serum antibodies against swine-origin influenza A virus H1N1/09 by immunofluorescence, haemagglutination inhibition, and by neutralization tests: how is the prevalence rate of protecting antibodies in humans?Regina Allwinn
Institute of Medical Virology, University Hospital, Frankfurt M, Germany
Med Microbiol Immunol 199:117-21. 2010..Obviously there was no herd immunity against this new virus variant...
- Susceptibility and Protective Immunity to NorovirusesRalph S Baric; Fiscal Year: 2013..HBGA carbohydrate binding targets, and escape from highly penetrent host susceptibility alleles and protective herd immunity. While defining the relationships between mutation, antigenic variation, immunogenicity, deceptive imprinting, ..
- Mechanisms of pneumococcal persistence during carriage.JEFFREY NEAL WEISER; Fiscal Year: 2013..Experience with conjugate vaccines has demonstrated that interrupting colonization results in herd immunity that amplifies prevention of disease in the population...
- Development of a live, genetically-attenuated cholera vaccine prototype that coulJORGE ANTONIO BENITEZ; Fiscal Year: 2013..as a hyperinfective biofilm to mimic cholera transmission in outbreaks, enhance immunogenicity, and promote herd immunity. We will first modify strain 638 by deleting the cholera phage attachment site to increase its safety without ..
- VARIABLE GENE DEFECTS AND PNEUMOCOCCAL SUSCEPTIBILITYLiise Anne Pirofski; Fiscal Year: 2010..vaccine has led to a dramatic decline in invasive pneumococcal disease in children and in adults due to herd immunity. Nonetheless, there has been an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (ST), including ST3, which is the focus of ..
- Clinical & Cost Effectiveness of HPV Vaccination in the USSue Goldie; Fiscal Year: 2009..vaccination taking into account biological and host factors, vaccine properties, behavioral issues, and herd immunity. We will assess the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys in addition to girls under different scenarios;..
- Glycan receptors specific for canine influenza infectionXiu Feng Wan; Fiscal Year: 2013..are antigenically different from contemporary seasonal influenza viruses, indicating a lack of current human herd immunity to these canine influenza viruses, canine influenza viruses present a potentially significant threat to public ..
- Innate and acquired immune responses to novel pneumococcal T cell antigensKRISTIN LEIGH MOFFITT; Fiscal Year: 2013..of pneumococcal disease and contribute to a reduction in transmission rates thereby enhancing the herd immunity conferred by immunization...
- Nanocarriers for Vaccine DeliveryJohn D Clements; Fiscal Year: 2013..useful in eradicating polio from most of the world, due to its simplicity of administration, development of herd immunity resulting from excretion, ease of production, and low cost...
- Persistence of West Nile virus in CaliforniaWilliam K Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2012..and the initiation of enzootic transmission;and 3) evaluate the impact of vernal avian seroprevalence ['herd immunity'] on WNV amplification and SLEV introduction...
- Flavivirus Infections: Pathogenesis and PreventionAlan L Rothman; Fiscal Year: 2013..Project 2 will involve prospective field epidemiologic studies to define relationships between individual and herd immunity and dengue virus (DENV) circulation and their implications for vaccine introduction...
- OVERCOMING THE DEGRADING EFFECTS OF NICOTINE ON VACCINE USING TLR AGONISTSMahyar Nouri-Shirazi; Fiscal Year: 2013..that those who are hyporesponsive to vaccines will transmit disease to vulnerable individuals and disrupt herd immunity is greatly increased...
- Immune responses to Norovirus after natural infection in Vietnamese children andXi Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2013..to NVs following natural infection of children in clinical and community settings;and study the role of host herd immunity in NV evolution by genetic and antigenic characterization of GII.4 variants in the Vietnamese children...
- Know Your Network: A concurrency reduction interventionWANDA MARTINA MORRIS; Fiscal Year: 2010..If successful, this intervention has great promise because it leverages the principle of "herd immunity" to obtain maximal reductions in transmission with minimal reductions in behavior...
- Assessment of Smallpox Specific Immune ResponsesThomas Denny; Fiscal Year: 2003..b>Herd immunity or natural boosting is absent from this model, it represents a unique opportunity to extensively study ..
- Mechanisms of intraspecies Competition in Streptococcus pneumoniae.SUZANNE R DAWID; Fiscal Year: 2010..among pneumococci occurs in the nasopharynx, and the loss of competitive strains through PCV7 induced herd immunity has resulted in the emergence of previously out competed strains...
- Appropriate Pneumococcal Vaccination in Infants in FijiFiona Russell; Fiscal Year: 2007..both the direct effectiveness of immunization (on vaccine recipients), and the indirect effectiveness or herd immunity effect (on older children and adults), a study of the etiology and epidemiology of pneumonia in all age groups ..
- Geographical Analysis in Vaccine Efficacy TrialsMichael Emch; Fiscal Year: 2003..e., is herd immunity important?)...
- ARBOVIRUS PERSISTENCE IN SEASONAL WETLANDSWilliam Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2002..Virus ecology at wetlands in the Coachella Valley of southeastern California with consistent enzootic activity will be compared with wetlands in the southern San Joaquin Valley where virus activity currently is intermittent. ..
- MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BACTERIAL PATHOGENESISDavid Briles; Fiscal Year: 2008..The MCBP advisory committee will advise the trainees in their research and training programs and in their search for a job or postdoctoral position at the completion of their MCBP training. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- SARS Reverse GeneticsRalph Baric; Fiscal Year: 2008..The goal of this application is to establish genetic control over the SARS genome and provide uniform reagents that will be used by other groups throughout the country. ..
- HOST COMPETENCE FACTORS AFFECT ARBOVIRUS TRANSMISSIONWilliam Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2003..Studies will assess how alternating sequential infections between vertebrate and vector species that are part of the natural transmission cycle may alter virus genetics and fitness. ..
- MULTIPLE BLOOD FEEDING BY MOSQUITOESThomas Scott; Fiscal Year: 2003..Insecticide treatments at the end of each experiment will kill any surviving released mosquitoes before they could become infective and transmit virus. ..
- Meningioma: Risk Factors and Quality of LifeJOSEPH LEO WIEMELS; Fiscal Year: 2010..This study represents the first concentrated effort to examine environmental and genetic risk factors for meningioma. ..
- Molecular bssis of mef-mediated antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniaeDavid S Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2010..pneumoniae. ..
- Measuring Entomological Risk for DengueTHOMAS WALLACE SCOTT; Fiscal Year: 2010..correlated with the number of bites received from Aedes aegypti at high risk locations, serotype specific herd immunity, and ambient temperature. We intend to test our hypothesis in the context of 2 specific aims...
- Immune Responses During Measles Virus InfectionDiane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2007..3. To determine the roles of different CD4 and CD8 T cell populations in production of cytokines at various times during measles and the effect of concurrent HIV infection on these roles. ..
- ACUTE ALPHAVIRAL ENCEPHALITISDiane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- Infectious Diseases of the Nervous System: Pathogenesis and Worldwide ImpactDiane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- ENTOMOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS OF DENGUE CONTROLThomas Scott; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- A Longitudinal Study of Influenza Vaccine DecisionsGretchen Chapman; Fiscal Year: 2004..The results of this study will extend the understanding of predictors of influenza vaccine acceptance and will prove valuable in the development of intervention strategies to boost vaccine acceptance rates. ..
- CLINICAL RESEARCH CURRICULUM AWARDDavid Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- COMBINATION CHEMOTHERAPY FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZARobert Webster; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Regulation of Capsule Biosynthesis in N. meningitidisDavid Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006....
- BACKTRACKING TRANSLOCATIONS IN CHILDHOOD LEUKEMIAJoseph Wiemels; Fiscal Year: 2006..We are ultimately working to elucidate the origin and causes of a cancer that might be preventable. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- MENINGOCOCCAL LIPOOLIGOSACCHARIDE & MUCOSAL PATHOGENESISDavid Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2007..The studies will also continue to define differences between enteric endotoxin and the unique structure and biology of meningococcal endotoxin. ..
- Strategies for Group A Streptococcal PreventionGrace Lee; Fiscal Year: 2008..During her K Award, she hopes to establish herself as a multidisciplinary researcher in the fields of decision sciences, infectious disease modeling, and health policy. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- BioSense Initiative to Improve Early Outbreak DetectionHoward Burkom; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- 2007 Viruses & Cells Gordon ConferenceDiane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Center for Clinical and Translational Science Advancement at EmoryDavid Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- MEASLES VACCINES--IMMUNE RESPONSES AND ATYPICAL MEASLESDiane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2001....
- VACCINE EFFICACY IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASEThomas Adamkiewicz; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- Epidemiologic Methods: Resistant Nosocomial InfectionsMarc Lipsitch; Fiscal Year: 2004..This will in turn lead to better practices to reduce the incidence of ARNI. ..
- New Methods for Evaluating Interobserver AgreementMichael Haber; Fiscal Year: 2006..Existing and new agreement indices will be compared and linked. All the proposed methods will be applied to real data sets from the behavioral and biomedical sciences. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- DETERMINING/UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS TO ADULT IMMUNIZATIONRichard Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2001..This project will furnish relevant, up-to-date to enhance policy planning, practice management and medical education. ..
- CONTROL OF EPIDEMIC INFLUENZAPEDRO PIEDRA; Fiscal Year: 2007..of pre-school and school-aged children with influenza vaccine to control epidemic influenza through herd immunity. To address this aim, we performed an open-labeled, nonrandomized, community-based trial in children 18 months ..