herd immunity

Summary

Summary: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus serotypes among children in southwest Nigeria
    M O Adewumi
    Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
    J Trop Pediatr 52:92-5. 2006
  2. ncbi Why has polio eradication program failed in India
    Yash Paul
    Maharaja Agrasen Hospital, Vidhyadhar Nagar, Jaipur, India
    Indian Pediatr 45:381-8. 2008
  3. ncbi Economic evaluation of childhood 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Korea
    Hyun Soon Sohn
    Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 8020, USA
    J Manag Care Pharm 16:32-45. 2010
  4. ncbi Herd immunity conferred by killed oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh: a reanalysis
    Mohammad Ali
    International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea
    Lancet 366:44-9. 2005
  5. pmc Meningococcal vaccines and herd immunity: lessons learned from serogroup C conjugate vaccination programs
    Caroline L Trotter
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, Bristol, UK
    Expert Rev Vaccines 8:851-61. 2009
  6. pmc Updated postlicensure surveillance of the meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in England and Wales: effectiveness, validation of serological correlates of protection, and modeling predictions of the duration of herd immunity
    Helen Campbell
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:840-7. 2010
  7. ncbi Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian children who participated in a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial and in their younger siblings
    Yin Bun Cheung
    Biostatistics Department, Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:990-5. 2009
  8. ncbi Role of herd immunity in determining the effect of vaccines against sexually transmitted disease
    Geoffrey P Garnett
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, London, UK
    J Infect Dis 191:S97-106. 2005
  9. ncbi Dynamic models of meningococcal carriage, disease, and the impact of serogroup C conjugate vaccination
    Caroline L Trotter
    Modelling and Economics Unit, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Epidemiol 162:89-100. 2005
  10. pmc Herd immunity acquired indirectly from interactions between the ecology of infectious diseases, demography and economics
    Matthew H Bonds
    Francois Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J R Soc Interface 7:541-7. 2010

Detail Information

Publications196 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus serotypes among children in southwest Nigeria
    M O Adewumi
    Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
    J Trop Pediatr 52:92-5. 2006
    ..The populations had 59.6 per cent herd immunity for the three poliovirus serotypes...
  2. ncbi Why has polio eradication program failed in India
    Yash Paul
    Maharaja Agrasen Hospital, Vidhyadhar Nagar, Jaipur, India
    Indian Pediatr 45:381-8. 2008
  3. ncbi Economic evaluation of childhood 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Korea
    Hyun Soon Sohn
    Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 8020, USA
    J Manag Care Pharm 16:32-45. 2010
    ..Although PCV-7 was introduced in Korea in 2003, it is not yet included in the universal immunization program...
  4. ncbi Herd immunity conferred by killed oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh: a reanalysis
    Mohammad Ali
    International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea
    Lancet 366:44-9. 2005
    ..We reanalysed data from a field trial in Bangladesh to ascertain whether there is evidence of indirect protection from killed oral cholera vaccines...
  5. pmc Meningococcal vaccines and herd immunity: lessons learned from serogroup C conjugate vaccination programs
    Caroline L Trotter
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, Bristol, UK
    Expert Rev Vaccines 8:851-61. 2009
    ..Such herd immunity effects have been demonstrated following the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) ..
  6. pmc Updated postlicensure surveillance of the meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in England and Wales: effectiveness, validation of serological correlates of protection, and modeling predictions of the duration of herd immunity
    Helen Campbell
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:840-7. 2010
    ..02 case per 100,000 population) in the 2008-2009 epidemiological year, mainly due to the indirect herd immunity effect of the vaccine in reducing carriage...
  7. ncbi Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian children who participated in a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial and in their younger siblings
    Yin Bun Cheung
    Biostatistics Department, Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:990-5. 2009
    ..We studied the effects of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on the carriage of individual serotypes and on antimicrobial resistance in vaccinated children and their younger siblings...
  8. ncbi Role of herd immunity in determining the effect of vaccines against sexually transmitted disease
    Geoffrey P Garnett
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, London, UK
    J Infect Dis 191:S97-106. 2005
    Vaccination programs provide both direct protection to those immunized and herd immunity, which is indirect protection of those who remain susceptible, owing to a reduced prevalence of infections.
  9. ncbi Dynamic models of meningococcal carriage, disease, and the impact of serogroup C conjugate vaccination
    Caroline L Trotter
    Modelling and Economics Unit, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Epidemiol 162:89-100. 2005
    ..in England and Wales to develop and apply a mathematical model to investigate the direct and indirect (herd immunity) effects of a conjugate vaccine program...
  10. pmc Herd immunity acquired indirectly from interactions between the ecology of infectious diseases, demography and economics
    Matthew H Bonds
    Francois Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J R Soc Interface 7:541-7. 2010
    ..For example, because of indirect income effects, herd immunity may be acquired with lower vaccine coverage than previously thought...
  11. ncbi Transmission-dynamic model to capture the indirect effects of infant vaccination with Prevnar (7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7)) in older populations
    Sonya J Snedecor
    Pharmerit North America, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Vaccine 27:4694-703. 2009
    ..The model predicts the observed incidence of IPD with good agreement and may be used to predict the impact of various vaccination strategies in the US or other populations yet to introduce PCV7...
  12. ncbi Effectiveness of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine 4 years after introduction
    Caroline L Trotter
    Statistics, Economics, and Modelling Department, Health Protection Agency Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Lancet 364:365-7. 2004
    ..the incidence of serogroup C disease, as a result of high short-term vaccine effectiveness and substantial herd immunity. However, the long-term effectiveness of the vaccine remains unknown...
  13. ncbi Relationship between neighbourhood-level killed oral cholera vaccine coverage and protective efficacy: evidence for herd immunity
    Michael Emch
    Department of Geography, Saunders Hall, Campus Box 3220, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, 27599 3220, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 35:1044-50. 2006
    ..of the results of that trial showed that the proportion of people in household clusters who received the vaccine was inversely related to placebo incidence during the first year of surveillance, which was attributed to herd immunity.
  14. ncbi Epidemiological, serological and herd immunity of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Kosovo
    Isme Humolli
    National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo, Pristina, Kosovo
    Med Arh 64:91-3. 2010
    ..Goal of the research was to establish a pattern of the disease, its natural flow and herd immunity. For this purpose we used epidemiological methods, laboratory confirmation (ELISA, PCR) and t-test and chi2-..
  15. ncbi The impact of antigenic drift of influenza A virus on human herd immunity: Sero-epidemiological study of H1N1 in healthy Thai population in 2009
    Yuta Kanai
    Section of Viral Infections, Thailand Japan Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Re emerging Infections RCC ERI, Nonthaburi, Thailand
    Vaccine 28:5437-44. 2010
    To examine the effect of the antigenic drift of H1N1 influenza viruses on herd immunity, neutralization antibodies from 744 sera from Thai healthy volunteers in 2008-2009, who had not been vaccinated for at least the last 5 years, were ..
  16. ncbi Quantitative single serum-dilution liquid phase competitive blocking ELISA for the assessment of herd immunity and expected protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle
    Blanca Robiolo
    Centro de Virologia Animal, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Dr Cesar Milstein, CONICET, Saladillo 2468, C1440FFX, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Virol Methods 166:21-7. 2010
    A single serum-dilution liquid phase ELISA (slpELISA) was standardized to be used for serological evaluation of herd immunity against foot-and-mouth disease...
  17. ncbi Invasive pneumococcal disease among infants before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Katherine A Poehling
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 2504, USA
    JAMA 295:1668-74. 2006
    ..Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious infection in young infants. A heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed in 2000 and recommended for all children aged 2 to 23 months...
  18. ncbi Herd immunity in adults against influenza-related illnesses with use of the trivalent-live attenuated influenza vaccine (CAIV-T) in children
    Pedro A Piedra
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Rm 248E, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Vaccine 23:1540-8. 2005
    ..Vaccination of approximately 20-25% of children, 1.5-18 years of age in the intervention communities resulted in an indirect protection of 8-18% against MAARI in adults > or =35 years of age...
  19. ncbi Impact of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines on carriage and herd immunity
    Martin C J Maiden
    Dept of Zoology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 197:737-43. 2008
    ..The impact of this intervention on asymptomatic carriage of meningococci was investigated to establish whether serogroup replacement or protection by herd immunity occurred.
  20. pmc Herd immunity from meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination in England: database analysis
    Mary E Ramsay
    Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, NW9 5EQ
    BMJ 326:365-6. 2003
  21. pmc Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination
    Michiel van Boven
    Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Lelystad, AB, The Netherlands
    Avian Pathol 37:1-5. 2008
    ..As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log(2) ..
  22. ncbi Herd immunity after pneumococcal conjugate vaccination
    Werner C Albrich
    Lancet 370:218-9; author reply 219-20. 2007
  23. ncbi Pneumococcal vaccines and flu preparedness
    Keith P Klugman
    Science 316:49-50. 2007
  24. ncbi The economics of routine childhood hepatitis A immunization in the United States: the impact of herd immunity
    Gregory L Armstrong
    Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Pediatrics 119:e22-9. 2007
    ..This analysis estimates the impact of herd immunity on the cost-effectiveness of routine hepatitis A immunization among US children.
  25. pmc Network frailty and the geometry of herd immunity
    Matthew J Ferrari
    IGDP in Ecology, 501 ASI Building, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 273:2743-8. 2006
    ..The result is that immunization due to prior epidemics can provide greater community protection than random vaccination on networks with heterogeneous contact patterns, while the reverse is true for highly structured populations...
  26. ncbi Pneumococcal pneumonia in the UK--how herd immunity affects the cost-effectiveness of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)
    E D G McIntosh
    Wyeth, Huntercombe Lane South, Taplow, Maidenhead, Berkshire SL6 0PH, UK
    Vaccine 23:1739-45. 2005
    ..b>Herd immunity effects on adult pneumococcal hospital-treated pneumonia, meningitis and septicaemia, but not on community-..
  27. ncbi Cost effectiveness analysis of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Germany considering herd immunity effects
    Christa Claes
    Centre for Health Economics and Health System Research, Leibniz University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany
    Eur J Health Econ 10:25-38. 2009
    ..have reported a reduction of pneumococcal diseases in both vaccinated and unvaccinated populations, suggesting herd immunity effects...
  28. ncbi 'Clustering of exemptions' as a collective action threat to herd immunity
    Thomas May
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Watertown Plank Road, PO Box 26509, Milwaukee, WI 53226 0509, USA
    Vaccine 21:1048-51. 2003
    ..Given the growing number of exemptions and the increasing visibility of the anti-vaccine movement, policy makers must be vigilant for dangerous clustering in order to avoid loss of herd immunity.
  29. ncbi Cost-effectiveness of heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (Prevenar) in Germany: considering a high-risk population and herd immunity effects
    Adam Lloyd
    Fourth Hurdle Consulting Ltd, London, WC1V 6PL, UK
    Eur J Health Econ 9:7-15. 2008
    ..to all children may lead to a decline in pneumococcal disease in unvaccinated adults, a phenomenon known as herd immunity. This analysis evaluated the cost and economic consequences in Germany of vaccinating (1) children at high ..
  30. ncbi Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in England and Wales
    A Melegaro
    Modelling and Economics Unit, Health Protection Agency, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Vaccine 22:4203-14. 2004
    ..To establish whether universal vaccination of infants with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is likely to be cost-effective from the perspective of the health care provider (NHS)...
  31. ncbi Herd immunity and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a quantitative model
    Michael Haber
    Department of Biostatistics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Vaccine 25:5390-8. 2007
    ..In contrast, the herd immunity effects on vaccine-related serotype 6A incidence were inconsistent...
  32. ncbi Measles outbreak in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2003
    Terri B Hyde
    Viral Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch, National Immunization Program, NIP, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 35:299-306. 2006
    ..Reported 1-dose measles vaccine coverage among children aged 12-23 months varied widely (52-94%) between 1990 and 2000...
  33. ncbi Containing bioterrorist smallpox
    M Elizabeth Halloran
    Department of Biostatistics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Science 298:1428-32. 2002
    ..was more effective than targeted vaccination in preventing and containing epidemics if there was no prior herd immunity (that is, no prior immunologic protection within the population)...
  34. ncbi The earliest notes on the reproduction number in relation to herd immunity: Theophil Lotz and smallpox vaccination
    Hiroshi Nishiura
    J Theor Biol 241:964-7. 2006
  35. ncbi Cost effectiveness of adding 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV-7) vaccine to the Norwegian childhood vaccination program
    Torbjørn Wisløff
    Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Department of Pediatrics, Rikshospitalet Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, University of Oslo, Norway
    Vaccine 24:5690-9. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to estimate costs and health consequences of adding this pneumococcal vaccine to the Norwegian childhood vaccination programme, taking the possibility of herd immunity into account.
  36. ncbi Enhanced decision support for policy makers using a web interface to health-economic models--illustrated with a cost-effectiveness analysis of nation-wide infant vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Netherlands
    G A A Hubben
    Social Pharmacy, Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy, University of Groningen, and Base Case, Healthcare Decision Support, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 25:3669-78. 2007
    ....
  37. ncbi Smallpox eradication in West and Central Africa: surveillance-containment or herd immunity?
    Edward H Kaplan
    Yale School of Management, and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Epidemiology 14:90-2. 2003
  38. pmc Predicting the herd immunity threshold during an outbreak: a recursive approach
    Nathan T Georgette
    Science Department, Allen D Nease High School, Ponte Vedra, Florida, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e4168. 2009
    ....
  39. ncbi Herd immunity and herd protection
    Yash Paul
    Vaccine 22:301-2. 2004
  40. ncbi Invasive pneumococcal disease in Indigenous people in north Queensland: an update, 2005-2007
    Jeffrey N Hanna
    Tropical Population Health Network, Queensland Health, Cairns, QLD, Australia
    Med J Aust 189:43-6. 2008
    ..To examine trends in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Indigenous people in north Queensland following the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV)...
  41. ncbi Efficacy calculation in randomized trials: global or local measures?
    Michael Emch
    Department of Geography, Saunders Hall, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3220 USA
    Health Place 13:238-48. 2007
    ..Local efficacy measures can help public health practitioners make better decisions about when and where to vaccinate populations. The concepts offered in this study are pertinent for any health intervention trial, not just vaccines...
  42. ncbi Update on childhood immunizations
    Carol J Weber
    Regis University, Department of Nursing, Denver, CO, USA
    Urol Nurs 25:214-5. 2005
  43. ncbi [Serologic assessment of measles herd immunity in the north-western region of Romania]
    Irina Brumboiu
    Universitatea de Medicina Si Farmacie Iuliu Hatieganu Cluj Napoca, Facultatea de Medicina, 1 Catedra Epidemiologie şi APSS 4 Studenti
    Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 109:616-22. 2005
    The most objective analysis of measles herd immunity could be made by sero-epidemiological study...
  44. ncbi Indirect effects associated with widespread vaccination of infants with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar)
    Daniel J Isaacman
    Global Medical Affairs, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA
    Vaccine 25:2420-7. 2007
    ..Continued surveillance will be important, to follow future changes associated with non-vaccine type IPD, particularly among individuals with medical co-morbidities that may put them at higher risk of disease...
  45. ncbi Indirect effects of childhood pneumococcal vaccination on pneumococcal carriage among adults and older children in Australian Aboriginal communities
    Grant Mackenzie
    Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Australia
    Vaccine 25:2428-33. 2007
    ..Between 12 and 30 months following introduction of conjugate pneumococcal vaccination, indirect effects on carriage were unchanged...
  46. ncbi Nasopharyngeal colonization: a target for pneumococcal vaccination
    Helena Kayhty
    National Public Health Institute, Department of Vaccines, Helsinki, Finland
    Expert Rev Vaccines 5:651-67. 2006
    ..the protection afforded by the vaccine extends to the whole population, including those not vaccinated (herd immunity)...
  47. doi [Pneumococcal vaccination: conjugated vaccine induces herd immunity and reduces antibiotic resistance]
    V Traut
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr 133:1207-8; author reply 1208. 2008
  48. ncbi Pneumococcal vaccine--direct and indirect ("herd") effects
    Daniel M Musher
    N Engl J Med 354:1522-4. 2006
  49. ncbi Elimination of hepatitis a infection outbreaks in day care and school settings in southern Israel after introduction of the national universal toddler hepatitis a immunization program
    Ilana Belmaker
    Ministry of Health, Southern Regional Office, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:36-40. 2007
    ..The effect of the Israeli program on outbreaks of Hepatitis A in day care and school settings was studied...
  50. ncbi Hepatitis A in the era of vaccination
    Annemarie Wasley
    Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Epidemiol Rev 28:101-11. 2006
    ..These marked declines occurred with relatively modest vaccination coverage, suggesting that strong herd immunity accompanies the initiation of routine vaccination programs...
  51. doi Vaccines for the unvaccinated: protecting the herd
    David S Stephens
    J Infect Dis 197:643-5. 2008
  52. ncbi Modeling future changes to the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine program in England and Wales
    Caroline L Trotter
    Immunisation Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
    Hum Vaccin 2:68-73. 2006
    ..program has successfully controlled serogroup C disease, due to high vaccine effectiveness and substantial herd immunity. However, children immunised at 2, 3 and 4 months of age receive only short-term direct protection and may be ..
  53. ncbi Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: evidence from the first 5 years of use in the United States incorporating herd effects
    G Thomas Ray
    Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program Northern California Region, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:494-501. 2006
    ..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has been in routine use in the United States for 5 years. Prior U.S. cost-effectiveness analyses have not taken into account the effect of the vaccine on nonvaccinated persons...
  54. ncbi [Vaccination--value for money?]
    Torbjørn Wisløff
    Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter for helsetjenesten Postboks, 7004 St Olavs plass 0130, Oslo, Norway
    Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 126:2670-3. 2006
    ..main challenge lies in obtaining valid estimates of health effects and side effects and the consequences of herd immunity and serotype shift...
  55. ncbi Universal influenza vaccination and live attenuated influenza vaccination of children
    W Paul Glezen
    Department of MVM, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:S104-9. 2008
    ..Systematic delivery of influenza vaccine in school-based and workplace-based clinics would greatly enhance the control of epidemic influenza and help prepare for the next pandemic...
  56. ncbi [Herd immunity and effectiveness of vaccination]
    Andrzej Zielinski
    Zakład Epidemiologii Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
    Przegl Epidemiol 58:10-6. 2004
    ..The definitions and ways of estimation of indicators of herd immunity as applied to the analysis of the effectiveness of vaccinations are presented.
  57. ncbi Ethics and vaccination
    Ingela Krantz
    Department of Medical Ethics, Lund University, Sweden
    Scand J Public Health 32:172-8. 2004
    ..and society has a significant role to play in providing vaccination against measles and safeguarding herd immunity to optimize its individuals' capabilities...
  58. ncbi Immunity to measles in the Croatian population
    Berislav Borcić
    Department of Epidemiology, Croatian National Institute of Public Health, Zagreb, Croatia
    Eur J Epidemiol 18:1079-83. 2003
    ..According to these results, only the first two age groups meet WHO criteria, indicating that vaccination coverage higher than the reported 90-94% should be attained if one is to expect measles elimination...
  59. pmc Invasive meningococcal disease epidemiology and control measures: a framework for evaluation
    J Jaime Caro
    Caro Research Institute, Concord, MA, USA
    BMC Public Health 7:130. 2007
    ..In the absence of long-term real world data, modeling the effects of different vaccination strategies is required. Discrete event simulation provides a flexible platform with which to conduct such evaluations...
  60. ncbi Measles outbreak after a post-honeymoon period in Mongolia, 2001
    Tuul Rentsen
    Virology Laboratory, National Center for Communicable Diseases, Mongolia
    Jpn J Infect Dis 60:198-9. 2007
    ..Immunization strategies such as the age range that is targeted for vaccination and the interval between supplemental immunizations should be based on reasonable epidemiological observations...
  61. ncbi Economic evaluation of vaccination programs: the impact of herd-immunity
    M Brisson
    Immunisation Division, PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Med Decis Making 23:76-82. 2003
    ..Finally, they use the results to clarify a number of misconceptions that are common in the literature concerning herd-immunity and dynamical effects produced by models...
  62. ncbi Invasive pneumococcal disease in an underimmunized, high HIV prevalence population
    Azadeh Tasslimi
    UMDNJ School of Public Health, 65 Bergen Street, Newark, NJ 07107, USA
    J Infect 56:99-102. 2008
    ..To describe the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in a predominantly minority population with low childhood immunization rates and high HIV prevalence, during the early childhood pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) era...
  63. ncbi Economics of an adolescent meningococcal conjugate vaccination catch-up campaign in the United States
    Ismael R Ortega-Sanchez
    National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:1-13. 2008
    ..11-17 years, followed by routine annual immunization of each child aged 11 years, could generate immediate herd immunity benefits...
  64. ncbi Simple criteria for finding (nearly) optimal vaccination strategies
    Stephen Tennenbaum
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    J Theor Biol 250:673-83. 2008
    ..vaccination resources away from the high-risk group to the high-activity group will result in improved herd immunity in both the high-risk group and the population as whole...
  65. ncbi Fall in Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease following implementation of a booster campaign
    S Ladhani
    Immunisation Department, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, UK
    Arch Dis Child 93:665-9. 2008
    ....
  66. ncbi Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal colonization among immunized and unimmunized children in a community-randomized trial
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1211-20. 2007
    ..The impact of PCV on nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization is essential to understanding disease effects...
  67. ncbi [Adult vaccination update]
    José Luis Arribas
    Servicio de Medicina Preventiva, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 22:342-54. 2004
    ..Active immunization in adults is established evaluating factors as age and gender, but specific circumstances associated with medical conditions, treatments or occupation could extend vaccine administration in adults...
  68. ncbi Vanishing vaccinations: why are so many Americans opting out of vaccinating their children?
    Steve P Calandrillo
    University of Washington School of Law, USA
    Univ Mich J Law Reform 37:353-440. 2004
    ..quot;Herd immunity" is threatened as more and more parents free ride off of the community's dwindling immunity, and ..
  69. pmc Strain characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage and invasive disease isolates during a cluster-randomized clinical trial of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1221-7. 2007
    ..PCV7) has led to significant reductions in disease while changing pneumococcal population dynamics via herd immunity and serotype replacement...
  70. ncbi [Pneumococcal vaccination: conjugated vaccine induces herd immunity and reduces antibiotic resistance]
    M W Pletz
    Klinik fur Pneumologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Germany
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr 133:358-62. 2008
    ..Pronounced herd immunity resulted in a decrease in invasive pneumococcal diseases in vaccinees and non-vaccinees as well as in a ..
  71. ncbi Pertussis vaccination beyond childhood
    Gaston De Serres
    Quebec National Institute of Public Health, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada G1E 7G9
    Lancet 365:1015-6. 2005
  72. pmc A measles epidemic threshold in a highly vaccinated population
    Jacco Wallinga
    Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    PLoS Med 2:e316. 2005
    ..A possible explanation for this sequence of outbreaks is that the vaccinated population is protected by solid herd immunity. If so, we would expect to see the fraction of susceptible individuals remaining below an epidemic threshold...
  73. ncbi Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and the severity of winter influenza-like illnesses on invasive pneumococcal infections in children and adults
    Shideh Shafinoori
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Schneider Children s Hospital of the North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:10-6. 2005
    ..We studied the impact of PCV7 and the possible contribution of the severity of influenza-like respiratory infection season on the rate of IPD on children and adults...
  74. ncbi Measles and the importance of maintaining vaccination levels
    Helen Bedford
    Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London
    Nurs Times 100:52-5. 2004
    ..The disease has an incubation period of between six and 19 days. People with measles are usually infectious for one to two days before the rash appears but the total period during which an individual is infectious is not known...
  75. pmc Persistent West Nile virus transmission and the apparent displacement St. Louis encephalitis virus in southeastern California, 2003-2006
    William K Reisen
    Arbovirus Research Unit, Center for Vectorborne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Old Davis Rd, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:494-508. 2008
    ..Cross-protective "avian herd immunity" due to WNV infection possibly may have prevented SLEV reintroduction and/or amplification to detectable ..
  76. ncbi Oral vaccination of wildlife against rabies: opportunities and challenges in prevention and control
    C E Rupprecht
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Dev Biol (Basel) 119:173-84. 2004
    ..Taken from this basic concept of applied herd immunity, the idea of wildlife vaccination was conceived during the 1960s, and modified-live rabies viruses were used ..
  77. ncbi Epidemiology of pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in Canada with exclusive use of a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b pediatric combination vaccine and an adolescent-adult tetanus
    David P Greenberg
    Sanofi Pasteur Inc Swiftwater, PA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:521-8. 2009
    ....
  78. pmc Mechanisms of GII.4 norovirus persistence in human populations
    Lisa C Lindesmith
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS Med 5:e31. 2008
    ..4 strains is common in human populations. In this article, we analyze molecular mechanisms governing GII.4 epidemiology, susceptibility, and persistence in human populations...
  79. ncbi Epizootiology of an epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak in West Virginia
    Joseph K Gaydos
    Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    J Wildl Dis 40:383-93. 2004
    ..Using available historical data on regional herd immunity, data opportunistically collected during the epizootic, and postepizootic sampling of hunter-harvested deer, ..
  80. pmc Analysis of Bordetella pertussis pertactin and pertussis toxin types from Queensland, Australia, 1999-2003
    Shane Byrne
    Public Health Microbiology, Queensland Health Scientific Services, Brisbane, Australia
    BMC Infect Dis 6:53. 2006
    ..One vaccine also contains pertussis fimbriae 2 and 3. Various researchers have postulated that herd immunity due to high levels of pertussis vaccination might be influencing the makeup of endemic B...
  81. pmc Levels of diphtheria and tetanus specific IgG of Portuguese adult women, before and after vaccination with adult type Td. Duration of immunity following vaccination
    Guilherme Gonçalves
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras, Portugal
    BMC Public Health 7:109. 2007
    ..We also intended to assess the serological efficacy of Td booster...
  82. ncbi Clinical characteristics of an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease in Singapore
    V A Shah
    Department of Neonatology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608
    Ann Acad Med Singapore 32:381-7. 2003
    ..There were 652 patients clinically suspected to have HFMD, who were seen at the Children's Emergency department of KK Women's and Children's Hospital of Singapore...
  83. ncbi Bacterial meningitis: the impact of vaccination
    Nick Makwana
    Department of Child Health, Royal Liverpool Childrens Hospital, Liverpool, England
    CNS Drugs 21:355-66. 2007
    ..part due to the ability of these vaccines to reduce nasopharyngeal carriage of the organism and thereby induce herd immunity. Different Hib vaccines use a variety of protein carriers and differ in their immunogenicity and efficacy...
  84. ncbi Weighing the risks and benefits of vaccination
    L T Glickman
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA
    Adv Vet Med 41:701-13. 1999
    ..that a high percentage of animal owners are responsible and do vaccinate their animals, thus providing "herd immunity" protection to the unvaccinated animals whom they contact...
  85. ncbi Advances in pneumococcal vaccines: what are the advantages for the elderly?
    Angel Vila-Corcoles
    Department of Public Health, Primary Care Service of Tarragona Valls, Institut Catala de la Salut, Tarragona, Spain
    Drugs Aging 24:791-800. 2007
    ..CPV as a routine vaccine for children has provided considerable indirect benefits for older adults via herd immunity, but this vaccine has limited serotype coverage in elderly individuals...
  86. ncbi Babesiosis (Babesia bovis) stability in unstable environments
    R D Smith
    College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61802, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 916:510-20. 2000
    Enzootic stability (herd immunity) in bovine babesiosis occurs when the rate of transmission (inoculation rate) of Babesia spp by the tick vector is sufficient to immunize a majority of susceptible calves before the loss of calfhood ..
  87. pmc Epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Landhi Dairy Colony, Pakistan, the world largest Buffalo colony
    Joern Klein
    National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Lindholm, DK 4771 Kalvehave, Denmark
    Virol J 5:53. 2008
    ..Serum samples have been analysed by applying serotype-specific antibody ELISA and non-structural proteins (NSP) antibody ELISA...
  88. ncbi Serological evidence of continuing high Usutu virus (Flaviviridae) activity and establishment of herd immunity in wild birds in Austria
    Tanja Meister
    Institute of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria
    Vet Microbiol 127:237-48. 2008
    ..To test the hypothesis that establishment of herd immunity might be responsible, serological examinations of susceptible wild birds were performed...
  89. ncbi Improvement of the immune response to foot and mouth disease virus vaccine in calves by using Avridine as adjuvant
    A M Sadir
    Instituto de Virologia, CICV, INTA Castelar, Pcia, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 69:11-22. 1999
    ..Compaired, D., Maradei, E., Bianchi, T., O'Donnell, V., Schudel, A.A., 1998. Assessment using ELISA of the herd immunity levels induced in cattle by foot and mouth disease oil vaccines. Prev. Vet...
  90. ncbi One dose of varicella vaccine does not prevent school outbreaks: is it time for a second dose?
    Adriana S Lopez
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Pediatrics 117:e1070-7. 2006
    ....
  91. pmc Repeated West Nile virus epidemic transmission in Kern County, California, 2004-2007
    William K Reisen
    Center for Vectorborne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Old Davis Rd, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Med Entomol 46:139-57. 2009
    ..mosquito abundance but increased early season infection in urban Culex quinquefasciatus Say, moderate avian "herd immunity," and declines in the catch of competent (western scrub-jay and house finch) and noncompetent (California ..
  92. ncbi Chikungunya epidemic: an Indian perspective
    S P Kalantri
    Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha 442102, Maharashtra, India
    Natl Med J India 19:315-22. 2006
    ..albopictus. Researchers speculate that mutation of the virus, absence of herd immunity, lack of vector control, and globalization of trade and travel might have contributed to the resurgence of the ..
  93. ncbi Meningococcal conjugate vaccines: efficacy and new combinations
    Marco Aurelio Palazzi Sáfadi
    Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    J Pediatr (Rio J) 82:S35-44. 2006
    ....
  94. pmc Genomic content of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates circulating in areas of intensive children vaccination
    Valérie Bouchez
    Institut Pasteur, Unité Prévention et Thérapie Moléculaires des Maladies Humaines, URA CNRS 3012, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 3:e2437. 2008
    The objective of the study was to analyse the evolution of Bordetella pertussis population and the influence of herd immunity in different areas of the world where newborns and infants are highly vaccinated.
  95. ncbi Management of the febrile child without a focus of infection in the era of universal pneumococcal immunization
    Jerome O Klein
    Boston Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, MA 02118, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:584-8; discussion 613-4. 2002
    ..In addition questions about change in serotype of pneumococci causing invasive disease (serotype switching), herd immunity and durability of protection after immunization need to be answered...
  96. ncbi Tdap5 vaccine (Covaxis): a review of its use as a single-booster immunization for the prevention of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis in children (aged 4 years), adolescents, and adults
    Lesley J Scott
    Adis, a Wolters Kluwer Business, Auckland, New Zealand
    BioDrugs 24:387-406. 2010
    ..the ability to control pertussis infections in these at-risk infants and ultimately provide the desired herd immunity against pertussis...
  97. ncbi Spotlight on pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Europe
    Greg L Plosker
    Adis, a Wolters Kluwer Business, Auckland, New Zealand
    BioDrugs 24:411-4. 2010
    ..There is also evidence that the widespread use of RotaTeq may provide herd immunity, as it appears to have indirect benefits in older, unvaccinated children...
  98. ncbi A 24-year review on the epidemiology and control of measles in Singapore, 1981-2004
    Gary Ong
    Epidemiology and Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health, Singapore
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37:96-101. 2006
    ..The herd immunity of the population against measles was accessed through three seroepidemiological surveys that we conducted in ..
  99. ncbi Vaccinology of classical swine fever: from lab to field
    J T van Oirschot
    Virus Discovery Unit, ID Lelystad, PO Box 65, 8200 AB, Lelystad, The Netherlands
    Vet Microbiol 96:367-84. 2003
    ..The Chinese strain vaccine may establish a strong herd immunity 1-2 weeks earlier than the E2 vaccine...
  100. ncbi Health economic research on vaccinations and immunisation practices--an introductory primer
    Thomas D Szucs
    Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Vaccine 23:2095-103. 2005
    ..Such externalities may be positive or negative. Positive externalities are present in the case where herd immunity prevents the spread of the disease in the community...
  101. ncbi Determination of serum antibodies against swine-origin influenza A virus H1N1/09 by immunofluorescence, haemagglutination inhibition, and by neutralization tests: how is the prevalence rate of protecting antibodies in humans?
    Regina Allwinn
    Institute of Medical Virology, University Hospital, Frankfurt M, Germany
    Med Microbiol Immunol 199:117-21. 2010
    ..Obviously there was no herd immunity against this new virus variant...

Research Grants45

  1. Susceptibility and Protective Immunity to Noroviruses
    Ralph S Baric; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..HBGA carbohydrate binding targets, and escape from highly penetrent host susceptibility alleles and protective herd immunity. While defining the relationships between mutation, antigenic variation, immunogenicity, deceptive imprinting, ..
  2. Mechanisms of pneumococcal persistence during carriage.
    JEFFREY NEAL WEISER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Experience with conjugate vaccines has demonstrated that interrupting colonization results in herd immunity that amplifies prevention of disease in the population...
  3. Development of a live, genetically-attenuated cholera vaccine prototype that coul
    JORGE ANTONIO BENITEZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..as a hyperinfective biofilm to mimic cholera transmission in outbreaks, enhance immunogenicity, and promote herd immunity. We will first modify strain 638 by deleting the cholera phage attachment site to increase its safety without ..
  4. VARIABLE GENE DEFECTS AND PNEUMOCOCCAL SUSCEPTIBILITY
    Liise Anne Pirofski; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..vaccine has led to a dramatic decline in invasive pneumococcal disease in children and in adults due to herd immunity. Nonetheless, there has been an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (ST), including ST3, which is the focus of ..
  5. Clinical & Cost Effectiveness of HPV Vaccination in the US
    Sue Goldie; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..vaccination taking into account biological and host factors, vaccine properties, behavioral issues, and herd immunity. We will assess the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys in addition to girls under different scenarios;..
  6. Glycan receptors specific for canine influenza infection
    Xiu Feng Wan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are antigenically different from contemporary seasonal influenza viruses, indicating a lack of current human herd immunity to these canine influenza viruses, canine influenza viruses present a potentially significant threat to public ..
  7. Innate and acquired immune responses to novel pneumococcal T cell antigens
    KRISTIN LEIGH MOFFITT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of pneumococcal disease and contribute to a reduction in transmission rates thereby enhancing the herd immunity conferred by immunization...
  8. Nanocarriers for Vaccine Delivery
    John D Clements; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..useful in eradicating polio from most of the world, due to its simplicity of administration, development of herd immunity resulting from excretion, ease of production, and low cost...
  9. Persistence of West Nile virus in California
    William K Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and the initiation of enzootic transmission;and 3) evaluate the impact of vernal avian seroprevalence ['herd immunity'] on WNV amplification and SLEV introduction...
  10. Flavivirus Infections: Pathogenesis and Prevention
    Alan L Rothman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Project 2 will involve prospective field epidemiologic studies to define relationships between individual and herd immunity and dengue virus (DENV) circulation and their implications for vaccine introduction...
  11. OVERCOMING THE DEGRADING EFFECTS OF NICOTINE ON VACCINE USING TLR AGONISTS
    Mahyar Nouri-Shirazi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that those who are hyporesponsive to vaccines will transmit disease to vulnerable individuals and disrupt herd immunity is greatly increased...
  12. Immune responses to Norovirus after natural infection in Vietnamese children and
    Xi Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to NVs following natural infection of children in clinical and community settings;and study the role of host herd immunity in NV evolution by genetic and antigenic characterization of GII.4 variants in the Vietnamese children...
  13. Know Your Network: A concurrency reduction intervention
    WANDA MARTINA MORRIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..If successful, this intervention has great promise because it leverages the principle of "herd immunity" to obtain maximal reductions in transmission with minimal reductions in behavior...
  14. Assessment of Smallpox Specific Immune Responses
    Thomas Denny; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..b>Herd immunity or natural boosting is absent from this model, it represents a unique opportunity to extensively study ..
  15. Mechanisms of intraspecies Competition in Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    SUZANNE R DAWID; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..among pneumococci occurs in the nasopharynx, and the loss of competitive strains through PCV7 induced herd immunity has resulted in the emergence of previously out competed strains...
  16. Appropriate Pneumococcal Vaccination in Infants in Fiji
    Fiona Russell; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..both the direct effectiveness of immunization (on vaccine recipients), and the indirect effectiveness or herd immunity effect (on older children and adults), a study of the etiology and epidemiology of pneumonia in all age groups ..
  17. Geographical Analysis in Vaccine Efficacy Trials
    Michael Emch; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..e., is herd immunity important?)...
  18. ARBOVIRUS PERSISTENCE IN SEASONAL WETLANDS
    William Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Virus ecology at wetlands in the Coachella Valley of southeastern California with consistent enzootic activity will be compared with wetlands in the southern San Joaquin Valley where virus activity currently is intermittent. ..
  19. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BACTERIAL PATHOGENESIS
    David Briles; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The MCBP advisory committee will advise the trainees in their research and training programs and in their search for a job or postdoctoral position at the completion of their MCBP training. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  20. SARS Reverse Genetics
    Ralph Baric; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The goal of this application is to establish genetic control over the SARS genome and provide uniform reagents that will be used by other groups throughout the country. ..
  21. HOST COMPETENCE FACTORS AFFECT ARBOVIRUS TRANSMISSION
    William Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Studies will assess how alternating sequential infections between vertebrate and vector species that are part of the natural transmission cycle may alter virus genetics and fitness. ..
  22. MULTIPLE BLOOD FEEDING BY MOSQUITOES
    Thomas Scott; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Insecticide treatments at the end of each experiment will kill any surviving released mosquitoes before they could become infective and transmit virus. ..
  23. Meningioma: Risk Factors and Quality of Life
    JOSEPH LEO WIEMELS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This study represents the first concentrated effort to examine environmental and genetic risk factors for meningioma. ..
  24. Molecular bssis of mef-mediated antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    David S Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pneumoniae. ..
  25. Measuring Entomological Risk for Dengue
    THOMAS WALLACE SCOTT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..correlated with the number of bites received from Aedes aegypti at high risk locations, serotype specific herd immunity, and ambient temperature. We intend to test our hypothesis in the context of 2 specific aims...
  26. Immune Responses During Measles Virus Infection
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..3. To determine the roles of different CD4 and CD8 T cell populations in production of cytokines at various times during measles and the effect of concurrent HIV infection on these roles. ..
  27. ACUTE ALPHAVIRAL ENCEPHALITIS
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. Infectious Diseases of the Nervous System: Pathogenesis and Worldwide Impact
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. ENTOMOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS OF DENGUE CONTROL
    Thomas Scott; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  30. A Longitudinal Study of Influenza Vaccine Decisions
    Gretchen Chapman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The results of this study will extend the understanding of predictors of influenza vaccine acceptance and will prove valuable in the development of intervention strategies to boost vaccine acceptance rates. ..
  31. CLINICAL RESEARCH CURRICULUM AWARD
    David Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. COMBINATION CHEMOTHERAPY FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZA
    Robert Webster; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  33. Regulation of Capsule Biosynthesis in N. meningitidis
    David Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  34. BACKTRACKING TRANSLOCATIONS IN CHILDHOOD LEUKEMIA
    Joseph Wiemels; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We are ultimately working to elucidate the origin and causes of a cancer that might be preventable. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  35. MENINGOCOCCAL LIPOOLIGOSACCHARIDE & MUCOSAL PATHOGENESIS
    David Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The studies will also continue to define differences between enteric endotoxin and the unique structure and biology of meningococcal endotoxin. ..
  36. Strategies for Group A Streptococcal Prevention
    Grace Lee; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..During her K Award, she hopes to establish herself as a multidisciplinary researcher in the fields of decision sciences, infectious disease modeling, and health policy. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. BioSense Initiative to Improve Early Outbreak Detection
    Howard Burkom; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  38. 2007 Viruses & Cells Gordon Conference
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. Center for Clinical and Translational Science Advancement at Emory
    David Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  40. MEASLES VACCINES--IMMUNE RESPONSES AND ATYPICAL MEASLES
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  41. VACCINE EFFICACY IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE
    Thomas Adamkiewicz; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  42. Epidemiologic Methods: Resistant Nosocomial Infections
    Marc Lipsitch; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This will in turn lead to better practices to reduce the incidence of ARNI. ..
  43. New Methods for Evaluating Interobserver Agreement
    Michael Haber; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Existing and new agreement indices will be compared and linked. All the proposed methods will be applied to real data sets from the behavioral and biomedical sciences. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  44. DETERMINING/UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS TO ADULT IMMUNIZATION
    Richard Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This project will furnish relevant, up-to-date to enhance policy planning, practice management and medical education. ..
  45. CONTROL OF EPIDEMIC INFLUENZA
    PEDRO PIEDRA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..of pre-school and school-aged children with influenza vaccine to control epidemic influenza through herd immunity. To address this aim, we performed an open-labeled, nonrandomized, community-based trial in children 18 months ..