defecation

Summary

Summary: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Stool form scale as a useful guide to intestinal transit time
    S J Lewis
    University Dept of Medicine, Bristol Royal Infirmary, UK
    Scand J Gastroenterol 32:920-4. 1997
  2. pmc Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire
    Thomas Schmidlin
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 8:e65722. 2013
  3. ncbi A placebo-controlled trial of prucalopride for severe chronic constipation
    Michael Camilleri
    College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:2344-54. 2008
  4. ncbi Prucalopride (Resolor) in the treatment of severe chronic constipation in patients dissatisfied with laxatives
    J Tack
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Gut 58:357-65. 2009
  5. ncbi Chronic constipation
    Anthony Lembo
    Gastroenterology Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    N Engl J Med 349:1360-8. 2003
  6. ncbi Childhood constipation: is there new light in the tunnel?
    M A Benninga
    Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Emma Children s Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39:448-64. 2004
  7. ncbi Effects of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on defecation frequency, intestinal microbiota, and the intestinal environment of healthy individuals with soft stools
    Kazumasa Matsumoto
    Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, 1796 Yaho, Kunitachi, Tokyo, 186 8650, Japan
    J Biosci Bioeng 110:547-52. 2010
  8. ncbi A new concept of the anatomy of the anal sphincter mechanism and the physiology of defecation: mass contraction of the pelvic floor muscles
    A Shafik
    Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 9:28-32. 1998
  9. ncbi Prophylaxis of pouchitis onset with probiotic therapy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Paolo Gionchetti
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, Italy
    Gastroenterology 124:1202-9. 2003
  10. ncbi Constipation: evaluation and treatment
    Satish S C Rao
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Gastroenterol Clin North Am 32:659-83. 2003

Detail Information

Publications278 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Stool form scale as a useful guide to intestinal transit time
    S J Lewis
    University Dept of Medicine, Bristol Royal Infirmary, UK
    Scand J Gastroenterol 32:920-4. 1997
    ..We set out to assess the responsiveness of the Bristol stool form scale to change in transit time...
  2. pmc Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire
    Thomas Schmidlin
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 8:e65722. 2013
    ..The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate...
  3. ncbi A placebo-controlled trial of prucalopride for severe chronic constipation
    Michael Camilleri
    College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:2344-54. 2008
    ..In this 12-week trial, we aimed to determine the efficacy of prucalopride, a selective, high-affinity 5-hydroxytryptamine4 receptor agonist, in patients with severe chronic constipation...
  4. ncbi Prucalopride (Resolor) in the treatment of severe chronic constipation in patients dissatisfied with laxatives
    J Tack
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Gut 58:357-65. 2009
    ..To determine the efficacy, impact on quality of life (QOL) and safety of prucalopride, a selective, high-affinity 5-HT(4) receptor agonist, in patients with chronic constipation...
  5. ncbi Chronic constipation
    Anthony Lembo
    Gastroenterology Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    N Engl J Med 349:1360-8. 2003
  6. ncbi Childhood constipation: is there new light in the tunnel?
    M A Benninga
    Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Emma Children s Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39:448-64. 2004
  7. ncbi Effects of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on defecation frequency, intestinal microbiota, and the intestinal environment of healthy individuals with soft stools
    Kazumasa Matsumoto
    Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, 1796 Yaho, Kunitachi, Tokyo, 186 8650, Japan
    J Biosci Bioeng 110:547-52. 2010
    ..casei strain Shirota (LcS) at 40 billion bacterial cells/bottle for 4 weeks (probiotics, 1 bottle/day) on defecation frequency, intestinal microbiota and the intestinal environment of healthy individuals with soft stools were ..
  8. ncbi A new concept of the anatomy of the anal sphincter mechanism and the physiology of defecation: mass contraction of the pelvic floor muscles
    A Shafik
    Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 9:28-32. 1998
    ..However, besides this mass contraction, a voluntary 'selective' individual muscle activity exists by which each individual muscle acts independently of the others...
  9. ncbi Prophylaxis of pouchitis onset with probiotic therapy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Paolo Gionchetti
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, Italy
    Gastroenterology 124:1202-9. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to compare probiotic therapy with VSL#3 versus placebo in the ability to prevent the onset of acute pouchitis during the first year after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis...
  10. ncbi Constipation: evaluation and treatment
    Satish S C Rao
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Gastroenterol Clin North Am 32:659-83. 2003
    ..excessive straining, hard stools, feeling of incomplete evacuation, use of digital maneuvers, or infrequent defecation. Although many conditions, such as metabolic problems, fiber deficiency, anorectal problems, and drugs, can ..
  11. ncbi Factors associated with defecation patterns in 0-24-month-old children
    Vildan Taylan Tunc
    Department of Family Practice, Ankara Numune Research and Education Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
    Eur J Pediatr 167:1357-62. 2008
    To identify the normal defecation patterns and the factors affecting these patterns in the first two years of life, a questionnaire was given to the parents of 1,021 children who were followed in a well-child clinic...
  12. ncbi Clinical trial: the efficacy, impact on quality of life, and safety and tolerability of prucalopride in severe chronic constipation--a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
    E M M Quigley
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 29:315-28. 2009
    ..Chronic constipation may result in disabling symptoms, is often unsatisfactorily treated by laxatives and negatively impacts quality of life (QoL)...
  13. pmc Genetic analysis of defecation in Caenorhabditis elegans
    J H Thomas
    Department of Genetics, University of Washington, Seattle 98195
    Genetics 124:855-72. 1990
    b>Defecation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is achieved by a cyclical stereotyped motor program...
  14. ncbi Prucalopride, a systemic enterokinetic, for the treatment of constipation
    A V Emmanuel
    St Mark s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex, UK
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16:1347-56. 2002
    ..Laxatives are frequently ineffective in treating constipation. An alternative therapeutic approach is to target serotonin-4 receptors, which are involved in initiating peristalsis...
  15. ncbi What keeps C. elegans regular: the genetics of defecation
    Robyn Branicky
    Department of Biology, McGill University, 1205 Docteur Penfield Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1B1, Canada
    Trends Genet 22:571-9. 2006
    ..b>Defecation is one of the simpler behaviors, involving a small number of muscles, a couple of neurons and only one ..
  16. ncbi Clinical trial: the efficacy of open-label prucalopride treatment in patients with chronic constipation - follow-up of patients from the pivotal studies
    M Camilleri
    Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 32:1113-23. 2010
    ..Prucalopride is approved in Europe for symptomatic treatment of chronic constipation in women with inadequate relief from laxatives...
  17. ncbi A novel water-soluble selective CRF1 receptor antagonist, NBI 35965, blunts stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia and colonic motor function in rats
    Mulugeta Million
    CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Center for Neurovisceral Sciences and Women s Health CNS, West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
    Brain Res 985:32-42. 2003
    ..NBI 35965 (20 mg/kg s.c.) significantly reduced the defecation in response to water avoidance stress but not that induced by s.c. carbachol...
  18. ncbi Neonatal maternal separation alters stress-induced responses to viscerosomatic nociceptive stimuli in rat
    S V Coutinho
    UCLA CURE Neuroenteric Disease Program and Brain Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, 11301 Wilshire Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 282:G307-16. 2002
    ....
  19. ncbi Probiotic beverage containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota improves gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with chronic constipation
    Corinna Koebnick
    Department of Interventional Studies, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Bergholz Rehbrücke, Germany
    Can J Gastroenterol 17:655-9. 2003
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a probiotic beverage on gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with chronic constipation...
  20. ncbi A probiotic mixture alleviates symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a controlled 6-month intervention
    K Kajander
    Valio Ltd, Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 22:387-94. 2005
    ..Irritable bowel syndrome is a gastrointestinal disorder of unknown aetiology. The effect of probiotics in this syndrome remains unclear...
  21. pmc Supplementation of a bovine milk formula with an oligosaccharide mixture increases counts of faecal bifidobacteria in preterm infants
    G Boehm
    Numico Research Germany, Friedrichsdorf, Germany
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 86:F178-81. 2002
    ..The establishment of a balanced intestinal microflora which may protect against infection is desirable for the preterm infant...
  22. pmc Advances in diagnostic assessment of fecal incontinence and dyssynergic defecation
    Satish S C Rao
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 8:910-9. 2010
    ..This article provides an up-to-date review on the role of diagnostic tests in the evaluation of fecal incontinence and constipation with dyssynergic defecation.
  23. ncbi Water handling, sanitation and defecation practices in rural southern India: a knowledge, attitudes and practices study
    Kalyan Banda
    Christian Medical College, Vellore, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:1124-30. 2007
    ..on water safety, we documented knowledge, attitudes and practices of water handling and usage, sanitation and defecation in rural Tamilnadu, India, using questionnaires and focus group discussions, in a village divided into an upper ..
  24. ncbi Contributions of altered permeability of intestinal barrier and defecation behavior to toxicity formation from graphene oxide in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
    Qiuli Wu
    Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering in Ministry of Education, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
    Nanoscale 5:9934-43. 2013
    ..Prolonged exposure to GO resulted in a hyper-permeable state of the intestinal barrier, an increase in mean defecation cycle length, and alteration of genes required for intestinal development and defecation behavior...
  25. ncbi Intestinal Ca2+ wave dynamics in freely moving C. elegans coordinate execution of a rhythmic motor program
    K Nehrke
    Dept of Medicine, Nephrology Division, Medical Center Box 675, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester NY 14642, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 294:C333-44. 2008
    b>Defecation in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans is a highly rhythmic behavior that is regulated by a Ca(2+) wave generated in the 20 epithelial cells of the intestine, in part through activation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate ..
  26. pmc Neuropeptide secreted from a pacemaker activates neurons to control a rhythmic behavior
    Han Wang
    Graduate Program in Genetic, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Curr Biol 23:746-54. 2013
    ..During the defecation motor program in C...
  27. ncbi The inositol trisphosphate receptor regulates a 50-second behavioral rhythm in C. elegans
    P Dal Santo
    Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84112 0840, USA
    Cell 98:757-67. 1999
    The C. elegans defecation cycle is characterized by the contraction of three distinct sets of muscles every 50 s...
  28. ncbi Relationship between lifestyle factors and defecation in a Japanese population
    Shigeyuki Nakaji
    Department of Hygiene, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Japan
    Eur J Nutr 41:244-8. 2002
    There is a paucity of accurate data regarding any association in the general population between defecation and lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, physique, and childbirth.
  29. ncbi A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of prucalopride in elderly patients with chronic constipation
    S Muller-Lissner
    Park Klinik Weissensee, Berlin, Germany
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 22:991-8, e255. 2010
    ..Constipation affects up to 50% of the elderly; this study evaluates the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the selective 5-HT(4) agonist prucalopride in chronically constipated elderly patients...
  30. ncbi A population-based study on bowel habits in a Korean community: prevalence of functional constipation and self-reported constipation
    Dae Won Jun
    Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology Division, Hanyang University Hospital, 17 Haeng dang dong Sung dong gu, Seoul 133 792, Republic of Korea
    Dig Dis Sci 51:1471-7. 2006
    ..Of all subjects 95.6% had a defecation frequency of between three per week and three per day. The prevalence was 16...
  31. ncbi Peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor and stress-stimulated colonic motor activity involve type 1 receptor in rats
    C Maillot
    CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, California 90073, USA
    Gastroenterology 119:1569-79. 2000
    ..CRF has preferential affinity for CRF-R1, whereas urocortin displays high affinity for both. We investigated changes in colonic motor function after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of CRF-related peptides...
  32. ncbi Electro-acupuncture attenuates stress-induced defecation in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity via serotonergic pathway
    Xiao Yu Tian
    School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR
    Brain Res 1088:101-8. 2006
    ..Thus, it can be concluded that EA attenuates behavioral hyperalgesia and stress-induced colonic motor dysfunction in CVH rats via serotonergic pathway...
  33. ncbi Does mode of hysterectomy influence micturition and defecation?
    J P Roovers
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 80:945-51. 2001
    Hysterectomy may affect bladder and bowel function. A retrospective study was performed to compare the prevalence of micturition and defecation symptoms between different modes of hysterectomy.
  34. ncbi Increased stool frequency occurs when finely processed pea hull fiber is added to usual foods consumed by elderly residents in long-term care
    Wendy J Dahl
    College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
    J Am Diet Assoc 103:1199-202. 2003
    ..001). With treatment, prune-based laxative administration decreased (P<.001). Thus, addition of a moderate amount of finely processed fiber to foods results in increased bowel frequency in institutionalized elderly individuals...
  35. ncbi Altered bile acid metabolism in childhood functional constipation: inactivation of secretory bile acids by sulfation in a subset of patients
    Alan F Hofmann
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0063, USA
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 47:598-606. 2008
    ..To test this possibility, fecal bile acid composition was determined in children with functional constipation and in nonconstipated control children...
  36. ncbi Tolerance and safety of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei in combination with Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis in a prebiotic-containing infant formula: a randomised controlled trial
    Arine M Vlieger
    Department of Paediatrics, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands
    Br J Nutr 102:869-75. 2009
    ..The use of a prebiotic-containing starter formula supplemented with L. paracasei ssp. paracasei and B. animalis ssp. lactis in early infancy is safe, well tolerated and has no adverse effects on growth and infant behaviour...
  37. pmc Pathophysiology of constipation in the older adult
    G Lindsay McCrea
    Department of Physiological Nursing, University of California, San Francisco 94143, United States
    World J Gastroenterol 14:2631-8. 2008
    This review provides information on the definition of constipation, normal continence and defecation and a description of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of constipation...
  38. ncbi [Observation on therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture at Tianshu (ST 25) with deep needling technique on functional constipation]
    Cheng Wei Wang
    Department of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
    Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 30:705-8. 2010
    ..To probe into a better therapeutic method for functional constipation...
  39. ncbi TRPM channel function in Caenorhabditis elegans
    H A Baylis
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    Biochem Soc Trans 35:129-32. 2007
    ..elegans. In addition, perturbing the function of gon-2 and gtl-1 disrupts the ultradian defecation rhythm in C...
  40. ncbi Influence of severity of illness, medication and selective decontamination on defecation
    Johan I van der Spoel
    Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Intensive Care, Oosterpark 9, 1091 AC Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Intensive Care Med 32:875-80. 2006
    To describe the pattern of defecation in critically ill ventilated patients and the influence of selective decontamination (SDD) and other medication.
  41. ncbi Oral administration of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714 and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711, enhances the intestinal function of healthy adults
    Monica Olivares
    Immunology and Animal Science Department, Puleva Biotech SA, Camino de Purchil 66, 18004 Granada, Spain
    Int J Food Microbiol 107:104-11. 2006
    ..As a result, the volunteers assigned to the probiotic group perceived a clear improvement in their intestinal habits. The study revealed that probiotics may exert a positive effect on healthy adults...
  42. ncbi [Defecation index and reproductive success of Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under laboratory conditions]
    E Aldana
    Laboratorio de Entomologia Herman Lent, Dpto Biologia, Fac Ciencias, La Hechicera, Merida, Venezuela fax 58
    Rev Biol Trop 52:927-30. 2004
    ..These results support evidences explaining the lesser vectorial capacity and low density of T. maculata in human domiciles, including reduced reproduction and defecation when the animal feeds on human blood.
  43. ncbi Comparison of straining during defecation in three positions: results and implications for human health
    Dov Sikirov
    Dig Dis Sci 48:1201-5. 2003
    The aim of the study was to compare the straining forces applied when sitting or squatting during defecation. Twenty-eight apparently healthy volunteers (ages 17-66 years) with normal bowel function were asked to use a digital timer to ..
  44. ncbi Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces
    Rebeca B Rosengaus
    Department of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Northeastern University, 134 Mugar Life Sciences Building, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115 5000, USA
    Naturwissenschaften 100:1051-9. 2013
    ..We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development...
  45. ncbi Effects of regular physical activity on defecation pattern in middle-aged patients complaining of chronic constipation
    Anneke M De Schryver
    Gastrointestinal Research Unit, Department of Gastroenterology, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Scand J Gastroenterol 40:422-9. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to test the influence of regular PA on colonic transit time and defecation in middle-aged inactive patients suffering from chronic idiopathic constipation.
  46. ncbi Exfoliation of the epidermal cells and defecation by amphibian larvae in response to coelomic fluid and lysenin from the earthworm Eisenia foetida
    Hideshi Kobayashi
    Research Laboratory, Zenyaku Kogyo Co, Ltd, Ohizumimachi, Tokyo, Japan
    Biomed Res 27:169-81. 2006
    ..The induction of exfoliation by CF and lysenin was also observed in other amphibian species. In Bufo larvae, defecation was induced both by CF and by lysenin but this effect was independent of exfoliation.
  47. ncbi Locomotor activity and defecation of rats observed alone and in pairs in repeated open-field sessions
    H G Weijers
    Universitäts Nervenklinik, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Germany
    Percept Mot Skills 86:1179-84. 1998
    Several experiments with independent groups have shown social effects on open-field defecation and locomotor activity in male rats...
  48. ncbi Effects of brewer's yeast cell wall on constipation and defecation in experimentally constipated rats
    T Nakamura
    Applied Bioresearch Center, Corporate Research and Development Department, Kirin Brewery Co, Ltd, Takasaki, Gunma, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65:774-80. 2001
    ..The dose-response of BYC and the effect on defecation by constipated experimental rats were also compared with the characteristics of cellulose diet (CE) group which ..
  49. pmc Antidiarrhoeal properties of a novel sigma ligand (JO 2871) on toxigenic diarrhoea in mice: mechanisms of action
    V Theodorou
    Ecole Superieure d Agriculture de Purpan, 75 voie du Toec, 31076 Toulouse, France
    Gut 51:522-8. 2002
    ..In this study, we evaluated: (i) the antidiarrhoeal effect of JO 2871, a high affinity sigma ligand, in three models of toxigenic diarrhoea in mice; and (ii) the site and mechanism of action of this compound...
  50. ncbi Role of CRF receptor 1 in central CRF-induced stimulation of colonic propulsion in rats
    V Martinez
    CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center, Veterans Administration Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Department of Medicine, Digestive Disease Division and Brain Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
    Brain Res 893:29-35. 2001
    ..CRF (0.6 microg/rat) injected intracerebroventicularly (i.c.v.) or 1 h water avoidance stress stimulated defecation (pellet/60 min: 4.1+/-1.0 and 8.7+/-0.7 respectively vs. 0.3+/-0.3 in i.c.v. vehicle/no stress)...
  51. ncbi Rectal hyposensitivity is uncommon and unlikely to be the central cause of obstructed defecation in patients with high-grade internal rectal prolapse
    N A Wijffels
    Oxford Pelvic Floor Centre, Surgery and Diagnostics, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 23:151-4, e30. 2011
    There are several causes of obstructed defecation one of which is thought to be internal rectal prolapse...
  52. ncbi [Effect of electroacupuncture of Tianshu (ST 25) on the rational symptoms of functional constipation patients and evaluation on its efficacy satisfaction: a single-center, prospective, practical and randomized control trial]
    Cheng Wei Wang
    Department of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan Universty, Chengdu 610041, China
    Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 35:375-9. 2010
    ..To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) of Tianshu (ST 25) and medication on the subjective symptoms and the satisfactory degree of functional constipation (FO) patients, and to evaluate the efficacy of different depth-needling...
  53. pmc Mice overexpressing wild-type human alpha-synuclein display alterations in colonic myenteric ganglia and defecation
    L Wang
    CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Center for Neurobiology of Stress, Department of Medicine, Division of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles and Veteran Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, USA
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 24:e425-36. 2012
    ..We investigated functional gut alterations at earlier ages and histological correlates...
  54. pmc An N-myristoylated globin with a redox-sensing function that regulates the defecation cycle in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Lesley Tilleman
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 7:e48768. 2012
    ..Phenotypical studies show that GLB-26 takes part in regulating the length of the defecation cycle in C. elegans under oxidative stress conditions.
  55. ncbi [Met-analysis on randomized controlled clinical trials of acupuncture and moxibustion on constipation]
    Wen Fei Du
    College of Acupuncture and Tuina Massage, Changchun University of CM, Changchun 130117, Jilin Province, China
    Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 32:92-6. 2012
    ..To assess the efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion on constipation...
  56. pmc Symptoms of anal incontinence and difficult defecation among women with prolapse and a matched control cohort
    Daniel M Morgan
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0276, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 197:509.e1-6. 2007
    The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk for anal incontinence and difficult defecation among women with prolapse by comparing them with women without prolapse of similar age, body mass index, race, and hysterectomy status, and ..
  57. ncbi Outcome of biofeedback therapy in dyssynergic defecation patients with and without irritable bowel syndrome
    Tanisa Patcharatrakul
    GI Motility Research Unit, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Clin Gastroenterol 45:593-8. 2011
    The Rome II and III diagnostic criteria for dyssynergic defecation require the exclusion of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
  58. ncbi Behavioural treatment of the dyssynergic defecation in chronically constipated elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial
    Miguel A Simon
    Department of Psychology, Research Group in Clinical and Health Psychology, University of A Coruna, A Coruna, Spain
    Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 34:273-7. 2009
    ..effectiveness of EMG-biofeedback in the treatment of chronically constipated elderly patients with dyssynergic defecation as compared to a control condition characterized by information about the bowel functioning and counseling ..
  59. ncbi Vaginal foreign body presenting as bleeding with defecation in a child
    Hasan M Abdessamad
    University Hospitals Case Medical Center MacDonald Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 22:e5-7. 2009
    ..This case is unique in that the patient presented with bleeding with defecation, without vaginal bleeding. Vaginal foreign bodies can present with diverse symptomatology...
  60. ncbi Quality of life in children and adults with constipation
    Arnold Wald
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Centennial Building, 4th Floor, 1685 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705, United States
    Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 25:19-27. 2011
    ..The emerging concept in the treatment of chronic constipation is to measure both objective measures such as frequency and ease of defecation and subjective parameters such as QOL.
  61. ncbi Rectal sensory perception in females with obstructed defecation
    M J Gosselink
    Colorectal Research Group, Department of Surgery, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Dis Colon Rectum 44:1337-44. 2001
    ..age, 48 (range, 20-70) years) and 100 female patients (median age, 50 (range, 18-75) years) with obstructed defecation entered the study...
  62. ncbi Efficacy and safety of bisacodyl in the acute treatment of constipation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study
    S Kienzle-Horn
    Scratch Pharmaberatung, Butzbach, Germany
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 23:1479-88. 2006
    ..Although laxatives are a first-line treatment for constipation, there are few randomized placebo-controlled trials assessing their efficacy...
  63. pmc The mood stabilizer valproate inhibits both inositol- and diacylglycerol-signaling pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Suzumi M Tokuoka
    MRC Cell Biology Unit, MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology, and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Cell 19:2241-50. 2008
    ..VPA disrupts two behaviors regulated by the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)): defecation and ovulation. VPA also inhibits two activities regulated by DAG signaling: acetylcholine release and egg laying...
  64. ncbi Mechanisms controlling normal defecation and the potential effects of spinal cord injury
    A F Brading
    Oxford Continence Group, University Department of Pharmacology, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3QT, UK
    Prog Brain Res 152:345-58. 2006
    ..an overview of the function and morphology of the normal distal gut in the human, and of gut behaviour in normal defecation. In humans, this can be monitored and is described, but knowledge of the mechanisms controlling it is limited...
  65. ncbi Chronic stress-induced alterations in mouse colonic 5-HT and defecation responses are strain dependent
    Marcela Julio-Pieper
    Laboratory of Neurogastroenterology, Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Stress 15:218-26. 2012
    ..Adult male BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were restrained for 2 h daily for 10 days. Defecation was monitored during each stress session...
  66. ncbi Contrasting effects of ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin on the lumbo-sacral defecation center and regulation of colorectal motility in rats
    H Hirayama
    Laboratory of Physiology, Department of Basic Veterinary Science, The United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Yanagido, Gifu, Japan
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 22:1124-31. 2010
    ..penetrant ghrelin receptor agonist enhances colorectal motility, through activation of the lumbo-sacral defecation center (L6-S1 region of the spinal cord) in rats...
  67. ncbi New insight into rectal function in pediatric defecation disorders: disturbed rectal compliance is an essential mechanism in pediatric constipation
    Wieger P Voskuijl
    Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Emma Children s Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Pediatr 148:62-7. 2006
    ..To evaluate rectal sensitivity in patients with pediatric constipation (PC) and nonretentive fecal soiling (FNRFS) using pressure-controlled distention (barostat)...
  68. ncbi The physiology of human defecation
    Somnath Palit
    Academic Surgical Unit GI Physiology Unit, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University, London, UK
    Dig Dis Sci 57:1445-64. 2012
    Human defecation involves integrated and coordinated sensorimotor functions, orchestrated by central, spinal, peripheral (somatic and visceral), and enteric neural activities, acting on a morphologically intact gastrointestinal tract (..
  69. ncbi Stimulation of defecation in spinal cord-injured rats by a centrally acting ghrelin receptor agonist
    D M Ferens
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Spinal Cord 49:1036-41. 2011
    ..Animal proof of principle study...
  70. ncbi Investigation of the utility of colorectal function tests and Rome II criteria in dyssynergic defecation (Anismus)
    S S C Rao
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Research Center, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 16:589-96. 2004
    ..A total of 100 patients with difficult defecation were prospectively evaluated with anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion, colonic transit and defecography...
  71. ncbi Inhibitory effects of ramosetron, a potent and selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, on conditioned fear stress-induced abnormal defecation and normal defecation in rats: comparative studies with antidiarrheal and spasmolytic agents
    Takuya Hirata
    Applied Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Drug Discovery Research, Astellas Pharma, Inc, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    J Pharmacol Sci 106:264-70. 2008
    ..antagonist for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, on conditioned fear stress (CFS)-induced defecation and normal (non-stressed) defecation in rats and compared ramosetron with the antidiarrheal agent loperamide and ..
  72. ncbi The effect of mosapride citrate on constipation in patients with diabetes
    Naohiko Ueno
    Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe Seaside Hospital, Hyogo, Japan
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 87:27-32. 2010
    ..Since the receptors of 5-HT4 have been recently found in the lower intestine including the rectum in humans, we tested if mosapride improves constipation in diabetic patients...
  73. pmc Rhythmic changes in colonic motility are regulated by period genes
    Willemijntje A Hoogerwerf
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, 2215 Fuller Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 298:G143-50. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that rhythms in colonic motility are regulated by both clock genes and a nNOS-mediated inhibitory process and suggest a connection between these two mechanisms...
  74. ncbi [Clinical study on acupuncture for treatment of chronic functional constipation]
    Xun Jin
    The First Clinical Medical College, Nanjing University of TCM, Nanjing 210029, China
    Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 30:97-101. 2010
    ..To discuss the effect of acupuncture for treatment of chronic functional constipation (CFC)...
  75. ncbi Parasympathetic extrinsic reflex: role in defecation mechanism
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    World J Surg 26:737-40; discussion 741. 2002
    ..the rectoanal inhibitory reflex, which acts through the ENP and is considered the main mechanism responsible for defecation. However, the role of the parasympathetic innervation compared to the role of the intrinsic mechanism of the ..
  76. ncbi Disappointing long-term outcomes after stapled transanal rectal resection for obstructed defecation
    Khaled M Madbouly
    Department of Surgery, University of Alexandria, El Raml Station, Alexandria, Egypt
    World J Surg 34:2191-6. 2010
    The aim of this study was to assess both short and long-term functional outcomes and the quality of life of patients treated with stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) for obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS).
  77. pmc Predictive capability of anorectal physiologic tests for unfavorable outcomes following biofeedback therapy in dyssynergic defecation
    Jae Kook Shin
    Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    J Korean Med Sci 25:1060-5. 2010
    ..tests for unfavorable outcomes prior to the initiation of biofeedback therapy in patients with dyssynergic defecation. We analyzed a total of 80 consecutive patients who received biofeedback therapy for chronic idiopathic ..
  78. ncbi Fox defecation behaviour in relation to spatial distribution of voles in an urbanised area: An increasing risk of transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis?
    E Robardet
    French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety Anses, Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, Technopole Agricole et Vétérinaire, BP 40009, 54220 Malzéville cedex, France
    Int J Parasitol 41:145-54. 2011
    ..found in urban wastelands and the well known predominance of Microtus spp. in the red fox diet in the region suggest that Microtus spp. may play a key role in urban transmission of the parasite in the study area...
  79. ncbi Small volume isosmotic polyethylene glycol electrolyte balanced solution (PMF-100) in treatment of chronic nonorganic constipation
    E Corazziari
    Cattedra di Gastroenterologia I Universitá La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
    Dig Dis Sci 41:1636-42. 1996
    ..8 +/- 2.3 vs placebo: 2.8 +/- 1.6; P < 0.002) and a significant decrease in straining at defecation (P < 0.01), stool consistency (P < 0.02), and use of laxatives (P < 0.03)...
  80. ncbi The use of probiotics in healthy volunteers with evacuation disorders and hard stools: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study
    Mario Del Piano
    Gastroenterology Independent Operating Unit, Maggiore della Carita Hospital, Rome, Italy
    J Clin Gastroenterol 44:S30-4. 2010
    ..Dietary supplementation with probiotic microorganisms may be useful in reducing the disorder...
  81. ncbi Medium-term results of stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) for obstructed defecation and symptomatic rectal-anal intussusception
    A C Goede
    Department of Colorectal Surgery, Frenchay Hospital, Bristol, UK
    Colorectal Dis 13:1052-7. 2011
    ..The aim of this study is to evaluate the medium to long-term outcomes of STARR for ODS...
  82. pmc IRI-1, a LIN-15B homologue, interacts with inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptors and regulates gonadogenesis, defecation, and pharyngeal pumping in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Denise S Walker
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Cell 15:3073-82. 2004
    ..Signaling through IP(3) and IP(3)Rs is important in ovulation, control of the defecation cycle, modulation of pharyngeal pumping rate, and embryogenesis...
  83. ncbi Patient satisfaction and symptomatic outcomes following stapled transanal rectal resection for obstructed defecation syndrome
    Chirag B Patel
    Division of Minimally Invasive Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77054, USA
    J Surg Res 165:e15-21. 2011
    Obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) is recognized as a functional (e.g., anismus) and anatomic (e.g., rectocele and rectal intussusception) defecatory disorder of the pelvic floor...
  84. ncbi Revalidation of description of constipation in terms of recall bias and visual scale analog questionnaire
    Omer Nuri Pamuk
    Department of Internal Medicine, Trakya University Medical School, Edirne, Turkey
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18:1417-22. 2003
    ..In addition, the importance of recall bias when evaluating constipation was investigated by repeating the questionnaire and ensuring the subjects maintained diaries...
  85. ncbi Efficacy of tegaserod in chronic constipation in men
    Michael Fried
    University Hospital Zurich, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Zurich, Switzerland
    Am J Gastroenterol 102:362-70. 2007
    ..This multicenter study evaluated the efficacy and safety of tegaserod, a selective 5-HT(4) agonist and promotility agent, in men with chronic constipation...
  86. ncbi A multicentre study of the management of disorders of defecation in patients with spina bifida
    J L Lemelle
    Service de Chirurgie Infantile, Hôpital d Enfants, CHU de Nancy, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 18:123-8. 2006
    ..This study provides information on a multicentre experience in bowel management in SB patients. Whatever the technique used, ACE has improved faecal status compared with conventional therapy...
  87. ncbi The impact of stapled transanal rectal resection on anorectal function in patients with obstructed defecation syndrome
    Giuliano Reboa
    U O General Surgery, Colo Rectal Unit, A O U San Martino, Genoa, Italy
    Dis Colon Rectum 52:1598-604. 2009
    ..of patients was performed in order to identify those eligible for stapled transanal rectal resection to correct obstructed defecation syndrome. The aim was to assess the consequences of surgery on anorectal function and patient outcomes.
  88. ncbi Stapled transanal rectal resection for obstructed defecation syndrome: one-year results of the European STARR Registry
    D G Jayne
    Academic Unit of Medicine, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, United Kingdom
    Dis Colon Rectum 52:1205-12; discussion 1212-4. 2009
    Stapled transanal rectal resection is advocated for the treatment of obstructed defecation syndrome. Supporting evidence for its safety and effectiveness has been lacking...
  89. ncbi Increase of colonic mast cells in obstructed defecation and their relationship with enteric glia
    Gabrio Bassotti
    Gastroenterology and Hepatology Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
    Dig Dis Sci 57:65-71. 2012
    ..Mast cells are involved in visceral hypersensitivity and motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract. However, there is almost no information concerning mast cells in constipated patients...
  90. ncbi Self-perceived normality in defecation habits
    M Bellini
    Gastroenterology Section, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Italy
    Dig Liver Dis 38:103-8. 2006
    ..Available information on normal bowel habits was mainly gathered by means of telephone interviews or mailed questionnaires...
  91. pmc Feeding and defecation behavior of Triatoma rubida (Uhler, 1894) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under laboratory conditions, and its potential role as a vector of Chagas disease in Arizona, USA
    Carolina E Reisenman
    Department of Neuroscience, College of Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, 85721 0077, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:648-56. 2011
    ..We thus studied the feeding and defecation behaviors of the prevalent species in southern Arizona, Triatoma rubida...
  92. pmc Giant vesical diverticulum: a rare cause of defecation disturbance
    Sami Akbulut
    Department of Surgery, Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, 21400, Turkey
    World J Gastroenterol 15:3957-9. 2009
    ..We performed a diverticulectomy and primary closure. Twelve months postoperatively, the patient had no difficulty with voiding or defecation.
  93. pmc Factor analysis identifies subgroups of constipation
    Philip G Dinning
    Department of Gastroenterology, St George Hospital, University of New South Wales, Kogarah, NSW 2217, Australia
    World J Gastroenterol 17:1468-74. 2011
    ..To determine whether distinct symptom groupings exist in a constipated population and whether such grouping might correlate with quantifiable pathophysiological measures of colonic dysfunction...
  94. ncbi Do stool form and frequency correlate with whole-gut and colonic transit? Results from a multicenter study in constipated individuals and healthy controls
    Richard J Saad
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Am J Gastroenterol 105:403-11. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between stool characteristics (form and frequency) and gut transit in constipated and healthy adults...
  95. ncbi Actions of prostanoids to induce emesis and defecation in the ferret
    Kelvin K W Kan
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N T, SAR, Hong Kong, China
    Eur J Pharmacol 453:299-308. 2002
    Several prostanoids were investigated for their ability to induce emesis and/or defecation and tenesmus in the ferret...
  96. ncbi Colorectal motility and defecation after spinal cord injury in humans
    A C Lynch
    Colorectal Unit, Department of Surgery, Christchurch Hospital and Burwood Spinal Unit, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Prog Brain Res 152:335-43. 2006
    ..The underlying physiology of colorectal motility and defecation is reviewed, and consequences of spinal cord injury on defecation are reported...
  97. ncbi Functional defecation disorder as a clinical subgroup of chronic constipation: analysis of symptoms and physiological parameters
    Mark T Eltringham
    Wansbeck General Hospital, Ashington, Northumberland, UK
    Scand J Gastroenterol 43:262-9. 2008
    ..constipation can be classified according to symptoms and physiological parameters as either having a disorder of defecation or having normal defecation...
  98. ncbi Therapeutic effect of Novalac-IT in infants with constipation
    Hsun Chin Chao
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Children s Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taoyuan, Taiwan
    Nutrition 23:469-73. 2007
    ..Infant constipation is a frequent condition in formula-fed infants...
  99. ncbi Pregabalin inhibits accelerated defecation and decreased colonic nociceptive threshold in sensitized rats
    Katsuyo Ohashi-Doi
    Discovery Research, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Nagoya Laboratories, Aichi, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 643:107-12. 2010
    ..Moreover, pregabalin was more potent in reducing disturbed defecation compared with reduction in nociceptive threshold to distension in TNBS-sensitized rats...
  100. ncbi Imaging of obstructed defecation
    A Ganeshan
    Radiology Department, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Clin Radiol 63:18-26. 2008
    ..problem in the western world, which occurs as a consequence of impaired colonic transit and/or due to obstructed defecation. Imaging plays an important role in distinguishing structural from functional causes of constipation...
  101. ncbi Inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 4 decreases stress-induced defecation in rats and mice
    Frank C Barone
    Discovery Research, High Throughput Biology, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA
    Pharmacology 81:11-7. 2008
    ..In this study, the effects of PDE4 inhibition were assessed in a model of stress-induced defecation previously demonstrated to be due to increased colonic transit/evacuation.

Research Grants62

  1. Intranasal CNS delivery of drugs against organophosphorous threat agents
    ARYAN MANGALAM NAMBOODIRI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and neuromuscular junctions leading to symptoms of acute CTA poisoning including salivation, lacrimation, defecation, muscular twitching, seizures/status epilepticus and ultimately rapid death due to respiratory failure...
  2. Effects of spinal cord injury on vagal afferents from the rat bladder and colon.
    April N Herrity; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Equally important in chronic SCI is a loss of conscious control of defecation. Patients develop a neurogenic bowel that includes constipation, fecal impaction and incontinence, and increased ..
  3. Protocol- vs Patient-Oriented TCM Practices: A RCT for IBS Symptom Management
    Joyce K Anastasi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..has been defined as abdominal pain/discomfort in the mid or lower gastrointestinal (Gl) tract, associated with defecation or a change in bowel patterns with features of disordered defecation...
  4. Control of motility in the internal anal sphincter
    Kathleen D Keef; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Relaxation of contraction is an essential feature of defecation, and this is regulated by input from inhibitory nerves...
  5. Producing micturition by combined afferent and effernet electrical stimulation
    Kenneth J Gustafson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Other effects of the rhizotomy (loss of remaining sensation, reflex sexual function and reflex defecation) limit the clinical acceptance of this procedure...
  6. Device to Improve Treatment of Colorectal Cancer Using O2 Dependent Phosphorescen
    JASON MATTHEW ZAND; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..local abscess formation - requiring procedural drainage, tumor recurrence, debilitating pain, dysfunctional defecation, and overwhelming bacterial sepsis resulting in death...
  7. Bladder and Sphincter Control after Spinal Cord Injury
    Changfeng Tai; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Dorsal rhizotomy is destructive and irreversible, and results in the loss of reflex sexual function and reflex defecation. Our new approach will utilize the remaining and newly emerged spinal reflexes after SCI to restore the lost ..
  8. Symptom management for irritable bowel syndrome constipation (IBS-C)
    Joyce K Anastasi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..IBS is defined as abdominal pain/discomfort in the mid or lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract, associated with defecation or a change in bowel patterns with features of disordered defecation...
  9. Architectural Design of the Pelvic Floor Skeletal Muscles
    Marianna Alperin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..complex dual role: provide support to the pelvic viscera and aid in continence, as well as facilitate urination, defecation, and parturition...
  10. Investigation of calcium signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Kenneth Norman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These rhythmic behaviors include pharyngeal pumping, ovulation and fertilization, and defecation. To understand the mechanism(s) VAV-1 utilizes to regulate calcium oscillations and these rhythmic behaviors, we ..
  11. Novel Treatment Strategies for Constipation and Role of Brain-Gut axis
    SATISH SC RAO; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Through the previous application, we showed that biofeedback improved dyssynergic defecation and led to superior patient satisfaction...
  12. Device to Improve Treatment of Colorectal CA using O2 Dependent Phosphorescence
    JASON MATTHEW ZAND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The sequela of anastomotic leak can include local abscess formation, debilitating pain, dysfunctional defecation, overwhelming bacterial sepsis, and death...
  13. Pudendal Nerve Block Neural Prosthesis
    Kenneth J Gustafson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Other effects of the rhizotomy (loss of remaining sensation, reflex sexual function and reflex defecation) limit the clinical acceptance of this procedure...
  14. Serotonin Transporter Gene Re-Sequencing in Patients with Irritable Bowel Sundrom
    Ruth Kohen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..GI) disorder characterized by symptoms of abdominal pain or discomfort associated with disturbed defecation. Patients with IBS suffer from a high degree of psychiatric comorbidity, in particular depression, anxiety, and ..
  15. A Device to Reduce Anastomotic Failure in the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer
    JASON ZAND; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..local abscess formation - requiring procedural drainage, tumor recurrence, debilitating pain, dysfunctional defecation, and overwhelming bacterial sepsis resulting in death...
  16. Anxiolytic Property of Atypical Antipsychotics
    Ming Li; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..g., body temperature, defecation, urination, ultrasonic vocalization), which enable evaluation of the anxiolytic properties of various ..
  17. PHYSIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF DIETARY FIBER IN HUMANS
    JUDITH MARLETT; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..concentrations, composition and solubility; microbial mass; fiber digestibility; stool weight; transit time; defecation frequency; fecal pH and redox potential...
  18. MALE UROGENITAL FUNCTION AND CHRONIC SPINAL CORD INJURY
    Charles Hubscher; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Deficits in ejaculation, urination, and defecation are among of the most devastating outcomes of spinal cord injury (SCI), severely affecting quality of life...
  19. IDENTIFICATION & ANALYSES OF THE UROFACIAL SYNDROME GENE
    Jin Xiong She; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..is believed that the lesion may reside in the brain regions that coordinate muscle actions, such as micturition, defecation and facial muscle movement...
  20. Drug-Induced Lipid Accumulation in C. elegans
    Donard Dwyer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Analysis of several simple behaviors, including pharyngeal pumping, locomotion, feeding, and defecation, will rule out non-specific effects of the drugs...
  21. SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF LARGE VOLUME ENEMA SOLUTIONS
    Marilee Schmelzer; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Following defecation, subjects will undergo proctoscopy for macroscopic examination and biopsy...
  22. IMPLANTABLE STIMULATOR TO RESTORE MICTURITION
    TIMOTHY CRISH; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The most immediate application of the device is to effect control of micturition and defecation in individuals with spinal cord injuries...
  23. Oscillatory Ca2 signaling in the C. elegans intestine
    Kevin Strange; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Posterior body wall muscle contraction (pBoc) in C. elegans drives defecation behavior and occurs in rhythmic fashion every 45-50 sec...
  24. FECAL-INCONTINENCE MONITOR
    David Putnam; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..placed in an individual's undergarment, which will act, like a "sniffer" and respond to odor associated with defecation. Specific aims and the research of Phase II encompass the following: Wearable fecal monitoring systems with ..
  25. Characterization of the Na+/Cl--dependent Neurotransmitter Transporter (SNF-3)
    Aude Ada Nguema; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..pathways converge to regulate [Ca2"], homeostasis (oscillation) required for a nematode ultradian behavior, its defecation cycle...
  26. FECAL-INCONTINENCE MONITOR
    David Putnam; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..placed in an individual's undergarment, which will act like a "sniffer" and respond to gas associated with defecation. To confirm feasibility, Phase I of this project will involve analyses of fresh fecal samples from convalescent ..
  27. QTL ANALYSIS OF FEAR-RELATED BEHAVIOR IN RODENTS
    John DeFries; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The H-L strains also differ in open-field defecation (L more H). F2 hybrids will be developed from L1 - H1 crosses and L2-H2 crosses...
  28. Epidemiology and Mechanisms of Fecal Incontinence
    Adil Bharucha; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Our novel "fluoroscopic" single-shot fast spin-echo MRI techniques visualize pelvic floor descent during defecation in real-time...
  29. ANORECTAL MANIFESTATIONS OF FEMALE PELVIC FLOOR DISORDER
    Adil Bharucha; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..include two under recognized, yet potentially devastating manifestations, fecal incontinence (FI) and obstructed defecation (OD)...
  30. EXTRINSIC NEURAL CONTROL OF COLONIC MOTILITY/DEFECATION
    WILLIAM SPIELMAN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..muscle of the colon and internal anal sphincter and the striated muscle of the external anal sphincter during defecation and during continence...
  31. NEURAL CONTROL OF A MOTOR PROGRAM
    James Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..elegans. We have identified over 30 genes that regulate excitation of defecation, egg-laying, and body-wall muscles, and we have molecularly cloned five of these genes...
  32. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF NEMATODE EGG LAYING
    H Horvitz; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..system responds to information in the environment to control not only egg laying but also feeding behavior, defecation and locomotion, all of which are coordinately regulated with egg laying...
  33. Cannabinoid Mechanisms in Human Gastrointestinal Motor and Sensory Functions
    MICHAEL L CAMILLERI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These actions may be relevant to develop new treatments for IBS. The studies will also provide further understanding of the potential of medications like medical marijuana on stomach function that may be relevant to appetite control. ..
  34. ALPHA 2 ADRENERGIC CONTROL IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME
    Michael Camilleri; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Significance: This project will characterize pharmacogenetic mechanisms determining the response to clonidine through studies of candidate genes that control alpha2-adrenoreceptor function and norepinephrine transport in IBS. ..
  35. ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC CONTROL OF COLONIC FUNCTION IN IBS
    Michael Camilleri; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Advancing the Treatment of Fecal & Urinary Incontinence
    William Whitehead; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The conference is scheduled to take place November 3-5, 2002, in Milwaukee, and half of the invitees have accepted invitations to speak. ..
  37. Gastrointestinal Biopsychosocial Research Center
    William Whitehead; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The proposed Center is university wide and includes investigators from psychology, psychiatry, surgery (gynecology division), neuroradiology, dentistry, and the school of public health. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. CRF2 Receptor Modulation of Colonic Response to Stress
    MILLION MULUGETA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. EXOGENOUS/ENDOGENOUS CANNABINOIDS--CHEMISTRY & BEHAVIOR
    TORBJORN JARBE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  40. Research Symposium on Functional Abdoninal Pain in Children
    Samuel Nurko; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..7. To educate the NASPGHAN membership on the state of the art of functional abdominal pain and IBS in children. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  41. PLACEBO CONTROLLED STUDY OF BACLOFEN FOR GERD IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY
    Samuel Nurko; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This study will serve as a basis to test the medication in otherwise healthy children with GERD. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  42. BRADYKININ IN ENTERIC NEUROIMMUNE COMMUNICATION
    JACKIE WOOD; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The overall goal of the study is to better understand the role of bradykinin in motility disturbances, diarrhea, abdominal pain and inflammation. ..
  43. PURINERGIC NEUROGENIC MUCOSAL SECRETION
    JACKIE WOOD; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..of new drugs for treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and other disorders of defecation by targeting the P2Y1 receptor or ATP metabolic pathways in the pool of enteric neurons that control intestinal ..
  44. Women's Health Complementary and Alternative Therapies
    Margaret Heitkemper; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. Integrating CAM: Nursing Emphasis
    Margaret Heitkemper; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  46. Abdominal Symptom Phenotypes: Pathways to New Biomarkers
    Robert Shulman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..New biomarkers (video capsule endoscopy, lymphocyte activation/cytokine diffuse noxious inhibitory control testing) will be used with newly recruited IBS and control subjects. ..
  47. ALCOHOL EXPOSURE EFFECTS: GENETIC BASIC
    David Blizard; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Overall, these studies will establish a mouse model for the study of genetic factors and sex as they influence individual differences in response to ethanol exposure during adolescence and early adult life. ..
  48. A Genetic Screening Policy Model for Colorectal Cancer
    Scott Ramsey; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The model will incorporate QOL information from Aim 2, along with family history, clinical, and screening information from the Seattle CFR. ..
  49. Biomarkers of COX-2 inhibitors in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)
    Christian Schmidt; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  50. MULTICENTER TRIAL OF FUNCTIONAL BOWEL DISORDERS
    Douglas Drossman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  51. COST EFFECTIVENESS OF GENETIC SCREENING FOR COLON CANCER
    Scott Ramsey; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  52. Molecular Basis of K+ Current During Secretion
    Keith Nehrke; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Finally, we will look at compensatory changes that occur in the expression of functionally-related ion transport proteins in the transgenic strain. ..
  53. Providing Choice to Nursing Home Residents: A Quality of Life Intervention
    John F Schnelle; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Such observations-and the data they generate-are essential for effective staff training and management. ..
  54. Na Channels in Afferents after Bladder Obstruction
    William Steers; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Insight into these cellular processes could be exploited to develop afferent based treatments for OAB employing pharmacologic, molecular or gene based strategies. ..
  55. Na+/H+ exchange in the nematode intestine
    Keith Nehrke; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This multidisciplinary approach will help to define the biological role of individual Na+/H+ exchangers in the nematode intestine. ..
  56. Culture of differentiated C elegans embryonic cells
    Kevin Strange; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The speed and economy with which this can be done in C. elegans cannot be duplicated in other metazoan animals. ..